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Revision Notes

November 2012

Core Maths C2

Algebra ................................................................................................................................ 3

Polynomials:

+, , , . ................................................................................................. 3

Factorising ........................................................................................................................................................... 3

Long division ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

Factor theorem ......................................................................................................................... 4

Choosing a suitable factor ................................................................................................................................... 5

Cubic equations........................................................................................................................ 6

2

Trigonometry ...................................................................................................................... 6

Radians..................................................................................................................................... 6

Connection between radians and degrees ........................................................................................................... 6

Arc length , area of a sector and area of a segment ............................................................................................ 6

Basic results ......................................................................................................................................................... 6

Exact values for 30o, 45o and 60o ........................................................................................................................ 7

Graphs of y = sin nx, y = sin(x), y = sin(x + n) etc. ........................................................................................ 7

Identities ................................................................................................................................... 8

Trigonometric equations .......................................................................................................... 9

3

Mid point ................................................................................................................................ 10

Circle ...................................................................................................................................... 10

Centre at the origin ............................................................................................................................................ 10

General equation ................................................................................................................................................ 10

Equation of tangent ............................................................................................................................................ 11

Geometric series .................................................................................................................... 12

Finite geometric series ....................................................................................................................................... 12

Infinite geometric series .................................................................................................................................... 12

Proof of the formula for the sum of a geometric series .................................................................................... 13

Pascals triangle ................................................................................................................................................. 14

Factorials ............................................................................................................................................................ 14

r

Graphs of exponentials and logarithms ................................................................................. 15

Rules of logarithms ................................................................................................................ 15

Changing the base of a logarithm .......................................................................................... 16

Equations of the form ax = b ................................................................................................ 17

C2 14/04/2013 SDB

Differentiation .................................................................................................................. 17

Increasing and decreasing functions ..................................................................................... 17

Stationary points and local maxima and minima (turning points). ....................................... 18

Using second derivative .................................................................................................................................... 18

Using gradients before and after ....................................................................................................................... 19

Integration ........................................................................................................................ 21

Definite integrals.................................................................................................................... 21

Area under curve .................................................................................................................... 21

Numerical integration: the trapezium rule ............................................................................ 22

Index .......................................................................................................................................... 23

C2 14/04/2013 SDB

Algebra

+, , , .

Polynomials:

anxn + an 1 xn 1 + . . . a2x2 + a1x + a 0

+, , of polynomials are easy, must be done by long division.

Factorising

General examples of factorising:

2ab + 6ac2 = 2a(b + 3c2)

x2 5x + 6 = (x 2)(x 3)

x2 6x = x(x 6)

Standard results:

x2 y2 = (x y)(x + y),

2

(x + y) = x + 2xy + y ,

(x y)2 = x2 2xy + y2

Long division

See examples in book

Remainder theorem

If 627 is divided by 6 the quotient is 104 and the remainder is 3.

This can be written as 627 = 6 104 + 3.

In the same way, if a polynomial

P(x) = a0 + a1x + a2x2 + ... anxn is divided by (cx + d) to give a quotient, Q(x) with a remainder

r, then r will be a constant (since the divisor is of degree one) and we can write

P(x) = (cx + d) Q(x) + r

then we have P (d c ) = 0 Q(x) + r

P (d c ) = r.

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Theorem:

If we substitute x = d/c in the polynomial we obtain the remainder that we

would have after dividing the polynomial by (cx + d).

Example:

The remainder when P(x) = 4x3 - 2x2 + ax - 4 is divided by (2x - 3) is 7.

Find a.

Solution:

27

a=

a ( 32) - 4 = 7

5 + a ( 3 2) = 7

=7

You may be given a polynomial with two unknown letters, a and b. You will also be given two

pieces of information to let you form two simultaneous equations in a and b.

Factor theorem

Theorem:

P (d c ) = 0

Example:

A quadratic equation has solutions (roots) x = 1/2 and x = 3. Find the

quadratic equation in the form ax2 + bx + c = 0

Solution:

2x2 5x 3 = 0.

Example:

Show that (x 2) is a factor of P(x) = 6x3 19x2 + 11x + 6 and hence factorise

the expression completely.

Solution:

remainder = P(2) = 6 8 19 4 + 11 2 + 6 = 48 76 + 22 + 6 = 0

We have a cubic and so we can see that the other factor must be a quadratic of the form

(6x2 + ax 3) and we can write

6x3 19x2 + 11x + 6 = (x 2) (6x2 + ax 3)

Multiplying out we see that the 6x3 and +6 terms are correct.

The x term is 11x

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must come to 11x

a = 7.

Multiplying out with a = 7

the x2 term is x (7x) + (2) 6x2 = 7 x2 12 x2 = 19 x2 ,

which works!.

= (x 2)(6x2 7x 3)

= (x 2)(2x 3)(3x + 1)

Choosing a suitable factor

To choose a suitable factor we look at the coefficient of the highest power of x and the

constant (the term without an x).

Example:

Solution:

so the possible linear factors of

(x 1),

(x 2),

(x 3),

(x 6)

(2x 1),

(2x 2),

(2x 3),

(2x 6)

But

new factors.

(2x 2) = 2(x 1)

and

We now test the possible factors using the factor theorem until we find one that

works.

giving 2 13 + 12 13 1 + 6 0

Test (x 1),

put x = 1

Test (x + 1),

Test (x 2),

0

put x = 2

giving 2 23 + 22 13 2 + 6 = 16 + 4 26 + 6 =

We now divide in, as in the previous example, to give

2x3 + x2 13x + 6

= (x 2)(2x2 + 5x 3)

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Cubic equations

Factorise using the factor theorem then solve.

N.B. The quadratic factor might not factorise in which case you will need to use the

formula for this part.

x3 x2 3x + 2 = 0.

Example:

Solution:

Put x = 1 we have 13 12 31 + 2 = 1 0

(x 1) is not a factor

Putting x = 2 we have

(x 2) is a factor

x3 x2 3x + 2 = (x 2)(x2 + x 1) = 0

x = 2 or

23 22 32 + 2 = 8 4 6 + 2 = 0

x2 + x 1 = 0

x = 2 or

x=

( 1) 2 4 1 1

21

= 0.618 or 1.31

Trigonometry

Radians

A radian is the angle subtended at the centre of a circle by an arc of length equal to the radius.

Connection between radians and degrees

180o = c

Degrees

Radians

30

45

60

90

120

135

150

/6

/4

/3

/2

/3

/4

/6

180

270

360

/2

Area of segment = area sector area of triangle = r2 r2sin.

Trig functions

Basic results

sin A

;

tan A=

cos A

sin(A) = sin A;

cos(A) = cos A;

tan(A) = tan A;

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30o

sin 60o =

sin 300 =

/2

cos 60o =

cos 30o =

tan 60o = 3

/2

60o

1

we can read off

sin 450 = 1/2

45o

tan 45o = 1

1

y

1

y

1

90

180

270

-1

360

x

90

180

270

360

-1

y = sin x

90

180

270

360

-1

y = cos x

y = tan x

You should know the shapes of these graphs

y = sin 3x is like y = sin x but repeats itself 3 times between 0o and 360o

y = sin(x) = sin x and y = tan(x) = tan x are the graphs of y = sin x and y = tan x

reflected in the x-axis.

y = cos(x) = cos x is just the graph of y = cos x.

30

.

y = sin(x + 30) is the graph of y = sin x translated through

0

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a

b

c

: be careful the sine rule always gives you two answers for each

=

=

sin A sin B sin C

angle so if possible do not use the sine rule to find the largest angle as

it might be obtuse;

or you might want both answers if it is possible to draw two different

triangles from the information given.

a2 = b2 + c2 2bc cosA etc. Unique answers here!

Area of a triangle =

ab sin C =

1

2

1

2

bc sin A =

1

2

ac sin B .

Identities

tan A =

sin A

cos A

Example:

Solution:

sin x

=4

cos x

x = 53.1o, or 233.1o.

3 tan x = 4

tan x = 4/3

sin2A + cos2A = 1

Example:

Given that cos A = 5/13 and that 270o < A < 360o, find sin A and tan A.

Solution:

sin2A = 1 cos2A

sin2A = 1 (5/13)2

sin A = 12/13.

But 270o < A < 360o

sin A is negative

sin A = 12/13.

Also

tan A =

tan A =

90

180

270

360

-1

sin A

cos A

12

5

y

1

13

= 12/5 = 2.4.

13

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Example:

Solution:

cos2x = 1 sin2x

3 sin2x + sin x 2 = 0

(3 sin x 2)(sin x + 1) = 0

sin x = 2/3 or 1

N.B. If asked to give answers in radians, you are allowed to work in degrees as above and then

convert to radians by multiplying by /180

So answers in radians would be

x = 41.8103 /180 = 0.730, or 138.1897 /180 = 2.41, or 270 /180 =

/2.

Trigonometric equations

Example:

Solve sin (x /4) = 0.5 for 0c x 2c , giving your answers in radians in

terms of .

Solution:

x /4 = /3 or /3 =

Example:

Solve

degree.

Solution:

/3

x=

/12 or

11

/12 .

y

1

90

180

270

360

-1

First put X = 2x and find all solutions of sin X = 0.471 for 0o X 720o

X =

28.1,

i.e.

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Coordinate Geometry

Mid point

The mid point of the line joining P (a1, b1) and Q (a2, b2) is

1

2

(a1 + a2 ), 21 (b1 + b2 )) .

Circle

Centre at the origin

Take any point, P, on a circle centre the origin

and radius 5.

y

P (x, y)

Using Pythagoras Theorem we have

2

x +y =5

x + y = 25

circle centre (0, 0) and radius r is

x2 + y2 = r2.

General equation

y

radius is r.

P (x, y)

CQ = x a and PQ = y b

r

CQ + PQ = r

2

2

2

C (a, b)

yb

xa

(x a) + (y b) = r ,

x

Example:

2

2

x + y 4x + 6y 12 = 0.

Solution:

x 4x + 4 + y2 + 6y + 9 = 12 + 4 + 9 = 25

(x 2)2 + (y + 3)2 = 52

10

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Example:

Find the equation of the circle on the line joining A, (3, 5), and

B, (8, 7), as diameter.

Solution:

( 12 (3 + 8),

1

2

(5 7) ) = (5, 1)

(8 3) 2 + (7 5) 2 = 6.5

Equation of tangent

Example:

which passes through the point of the circle (6, 14).

Solution:

2

(x + 1) + (y 2)2 = 169.

Next find the gradient of the radius from the centre (1, 2) to the point ( 6, 14)

which is 12/5

perpendicular to the radius and product of gradients of perpendicular

lines is 1

12y 5x = 198.

5

(x + 6)

12

Example:

Solution:

x2 + 4x2 + 16x + 16 = 5

5x2 + 16x + 11 = 0

(5x + 11)(x + 1) = 0

x = 2.2

or 1

y = 0.4

or

If the two points of intersection are the same point then the line is a tangent.

Note. You should know that the angle in a semi-circle is a right angle and that the

perpendicular from the centre to a chord bisects the chord (cuts it exactly in half) .

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11

Geometric series

Finite geometric series

A geometric series is a series in which each term is a constant amount times the previous term:

this constant amount is called the common ratio.

Examples:

positive or negative.

Sn = a + ar + ar2 + ar3 + ar4 + . . . . up to n terms

The nth term is un = arn 1.

The sum of the first n terms of the above geometric series is

rn 1

1 rn

Sn = a

.

= a

r 1

1 r

Example:

Find the nth term and the sum of the first 11 terms of the geometric series whose

rd

3 term is 2 and whose 6th term is 16.

Solution:

x6 = x3 r3

16 = 2 r3

r = 2

Now

x3 = x1 r2

x1 =

r3 = 8

x1 = x3 r2 = 2 (2)2

2049

1 (2)11 1

=

2 2 1

6

S11 =

S11 = 341

When the common ratio is between 1 and +1 the series converges to a limit.

and

Sn = a

1 rn

.

1 r

Sn S =

12

a

1 r

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Example:

Show that the following geometric series converges to a limit and find its sum

to infinity. S = 16 + 12 + 9 + 6 +

Solution:

Firstly the common ratio is

the sum converges to a limit.

12

a

16

=

1 r 1 3 4

S = 64

Sn = a + ar + ar2 + ar3 + arn 2 + arn 1,

r Sn =

ar + ar + ar + ar

n2

Sn r Sn = a + 0 + 0 + 0 + 0

Sn = a

+ ar

+

n1

multiply through by r

n

+ ar

subtract

arn

1 r n

r n 1

= a

.

1 r

r 1

Sn S =

a

.

1 r

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13

Pascals triangle

When using Pascals triangle we think of the top row as row 0.

1

row 0

1

row 1

1

row 2

1

row 4

1

row 5

row 6

row 3

3

4

10

15

10

20

1

5

15

1

6

To expand (a + b)6 we first write out all the terms of degree 6 in order of

decreasing powers of a to give

a6 +

a5b +

a4b2 +

a3b3 +

a2b4 +

ab5 +

b6

and then fill in the coefficients using row 6 of the triangle to give

a6 + 6a5b + 15a4b2 + 20a3b3 + 15a2b4 + 6ab5 +

b6

Factorials

Factorial n, written as n! = n (n 1) (n 2) . . . 3 2 1.

So 5! = 5 4 3 2 1 = 120

n

Binomial coefficients or nCr or

r

If we think of row 6 starting with the 0th term we use the following notation

1st term

2nd term

3rd term

4th term

5th term

0th term

1

6

C0

6

0

15

20

15

C1

6

1

C2

6

2

C3

6

3

C4

6

4

6th term

6

6

C5

6

5

1

6

C6

6

6

n

where the binomial coefficients nCr or are defined by

r

14

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n

n!

C r = =

(n r )! r!

r

This is particularly useful for calculating the numbers further down in Pascals triangle

e.g.

15

15

15!

15! 15 14 13 12

C4 =

=

=

= 15 7 13 = 1365

(15 4)! 4! 11! 4!

4 3 2 1

4

Example:

Solution:

The term in x3 is

y=2

y = 2x is an exponential function

2

y = log2x.

Remember that the graph of an inverse

function is the reflection of the original

graph in y = x.

-4

-2

y = log2x

-2

Rules of logarithms

log a x = y

x = ay

log a xn = n log a x

log a 1 = 0

log a a = 1

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15

Example:

Solution:

Write log 3 81 = y

81 = 3y

y = 4

log 3 81 = 4.

To solve log equations we can either use the rules of logarithms to end with

log a = log a
=

or

log a = = a

Example:

Solve

Solution:

log a 8 = log a x3

2

log 5 x

Example:

Solve

Solution:

log 5 x2 = 3 + log 5 x

x = 2.

= 3 + log 5 x .

2 log 5 x log 5 x = 3

1.5 log 5 x = 3

x3 = 8

log 5 x = 2

x = 5 = 25.

log a b =

log c b

log c a

Example:

Solution:

log 4 29 =

log 10 29

1.4624

=

= 2.43 .

log 10 4

0.6021

A particular case

log a b =

log b b

1

=

log b a

log b a

Example:

Solve

Solution:

16

log 4 x 6 log x 4 = 1

log 4 x

6

= 1

log 4 x

log 4 x = 3 or 2

x = 43 or 42

x = 64 or 1/16.

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Example:

Solve 5x = 13

Solution:

x =

log 10 13

1.1139

=

= 1.59.

log 10 5

0.6990

Differentiation

dy

> 0;

dx

dy

y is an increasing function if its gradient is negative,

<0

dx

y is an increasing function if its gradient is positive,

Example:

y = x3 x2 x + 7

dy

= 3x2 2x 1

dx

For an increasing function we want values of x for which 3x2 2x 1 > 0

Solution:

(3x + 1)(x 1) = 0

x = -1/3 or 1

so graph of 3x2 2x 1 meets x-axis at

and is above x-axis for

x < -1/3 or x > 1

y

4

-1

/3 and 1

-2

-1

-2

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17

Any point where the gradient is zero is called a stationary point.

minimum

maximum

Turning points

The gradient at a local maximum or minimum is 0.

Therefore to find max and min

firstly differentiate and find the values of x which give gradient,

secondly find second derivative

dy

, equal to zero:

dx

d 2y

and substitute value of x found above

dx 2

second derivative negative

minimum, and

maximum:

d2y

= 0, it does not help! In this case you will need to find the gradient

dx 2

just before and just after the value of x. Be careful: you might have a stationary

point of inflection

N.B. If

thirdly substitute x to find the value of y and give both coordinates in your answer.

Using second derivative

Example:

Find the local maxima and minima of the curve with equation y = x4 + 4x3 8x2 7.

Solution:

y = x4 + 4x3 8x2 7.

First find

dy

= 4x3 +12x2 16x.

dx

dy

=0

dx

x3 + 3x2 4x = 0

18

x(x2 + 3x 4) = 0

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x(x + 4)(x 1) = 0

Second find

x = 4, 0 or 1.

d2y

= 12x2 +24x 16

dx 2

When x = 4,

d 2y

= 12 16 24 4 16 = 80, positive min at x = 4

dx 2

When x = 0,

d2y

dx 2

When x = 1,

d2y

dx 2

= 12 + 24 16 = 20,

positive, min at x = 1.

d2y

= 0, it does not help! You can have any of max, min or stationary

dx 2

point of inflection.

N.B. If

Example:

Find the stationary points of y = 3x4 8x3 + 6x2 + 7.

Solution:

dy

= 12x3 24x2 + 12x = 0 for stationary points

dx

x(x2 2x + 1) = 0

x(x 1)2 = 0

x = 0 or 1.

d2y

= 36x2 48x + 12

2

dx

which is 12 (positive) when x = 0 minimum at (0, 7)

and which is 0 when x = 1, so we must look at gradients before and after.

0.9

1.1

dy

dx

+0.108

+0.132

N.B. We could have max, min or stationary point of inflection when the second derivative is

zero, so we must look at gradients before and after.

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19

Example:

A manufacturer of cans for baked beans wishes to use as little metal as possible in the

manufacture of these cans. The cans must have a volume of 500 cm3: how should he

design the cans?

Solution:

We need to find the radius and height needed to make cans

of volume 500 cm3 using the minimum possible amount of

metal.

h cm

The area of top and bottom together is 2 x2 cm2 and the

area of the curved surface is 2xh cm2

x cm

(I)

also of h.

But we know that the volume is 500 cm3 and that the volume can also be written as

x2h cm3

x2h = 500

h=

500

x 2

1000

x

500

x 2

A = 2x2 +

= 2x2 + 1000 x1

1000

dA

= 4 x 1000 x 2 = 4 x

.

dx

x2

1000

dA

= 0 4x =

dx

x2

4 x 3 = 1000

x = 4.30 to 3 S.F.

1000

= 79.57747155

4

500

h =

= 8.60

x2

x3 =

x = 4.301270069

stationary point of inflection

d 2A

2000

so we must find

= 4 + 2000 x 3 = 4 +

.

2

dx

x3

Clearly this is positive when x = 4.30 and thus this gives a minimum of A

20

when the radius is 4.30 cm and the height is 8.60 cm.

C2 14/04/2013 SDB

Integration

Definite integrals

When limits of integration are given.

Example:

Find

Solution:

3

1

3

1

6 x 2 8 x + 1 dx

6 x 2 8 x + 1 dx = 2 x 3 4 x 2 + x

= [2 33 4 32 + 3] [2 13 4 12 + 1]

3

1

put top limit in first

The integral is the area between the curve and the xaxis, but areas above the axis are positive

and areas below the axis are negative.

Example:

Solution:

2

0

x 2 4 x dx

y

2

x3

= 2x2 =

3

0

8

3

8]] [0 0]

2

16

which is negative since the area is

3

below the xaxis

Example:

required area is

-5

+ 16

3

Solution:

First sketch the curve to see which bits are above (positive) and which bits are

below (negative).

y = 3x x2

A1

= x(3 x)

A2

so graph is as shown.

Area A1, between 1 and 3, is above axis:

area A2, between 3 and 4, is below axis

so we must find these areas separately.

C2 14/04/2013 SDB

-5

21

A1 =

3

1

3 x x 2 dx

3

3x 2 x 3

= [4.5] [1 16 ]

=

2

3 1

and

4

3

3x x

3x 2 x 3

dx =

3

2

= 31/3 .

4

= [2 23 ] [4.5] = 1 56

3

so total area = A1 + A2 = 31/3 + 15/6 = 51/6.

4

Note that

4

1

3x x

3x 2 x 3

= [2 23 ] [1 16 ] = 1 12

dx

2

31

Many functions can not be antidifferentiated and the trapezium rule is a way of estimating

the area under the curve.

y

y = f (x)

each of width h.

Join the top of each strip with a straight line to

form a trapezium.

yn

sum of the areas of the trapezia

y0

h

y3

y2

y1

h

22

a

b

a

b

a

f ( x) dx

1

2

h ( y 0 + y1 ) + 12 h ( y1 + y 2 ) + 12 h ( y 2 + y 3 ) + ... + 12 h ( y n 1 + y n )

f ( x) dx

1

2

h ( y 0 + y1 + y1 + y 2 + y 2 + y 3 + ... + y n 1 + y n )

f ( x) dx

1

2

h ( y 0 + y n + 2( y1 + y 2 + y 3 + ... + y n 1 ))

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Index

Area of triangle, 8

Binomial series, 14

binomial coefficients, 14

n

Cr or n , 14

r

Circle

Centre at origin, 10

General equation, 10

Tangent equation, 11

Cosine rule, 8

Cubic equations, 6

Differentiation, 17

Equations

ax = b, 17

Exponential, 15

Factor theorem, 4

Factorials, 14

Factorising

examples, 3

Functions

decreasing, 17

increasing, 17

Integrals

area under curve, 21

definite, 21

Logarithm, 15

change of base, 16

rules of logs, 15

C2 14/04/2013 SDB

Mid point, 10

Pascals triangle, 14

Polynomials, 3

long division, 3

Radians

arc length, 6

area of sector, 6

area of segment, 6

connection between radians and degrees, 6

Remainder theorem, 3

Series

Geometric, finite, 12

Geometric, infinite, 12

Geometric, proof of sum, 13

Sine rule, 8

Stationary points

gradients before and after, 19

maxima and minima, 18

maximum and minimum problems, 20

second derivative, 18

Trapezium rule, 22

Trig equations, 9

Trig functions

basic results, 6

graphs, 7

identities, 8

Turning points, 18

23

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