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Design & Detailing of Steel Shelters


By Abir Mallick
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Introduction Introduction
This This presentation presentation is is
developed developed as as to to provide provide aa
basic basic guideline guideline of of Oil Oil & &
Gas Gas Plant Plant Shelters Shelters. .
Its Its objective objective is is to to provide provide
technical technical knowledge knowledge and and
information information for for design design of of
Steel Steel Shelters/ Shelters/ Buildings Buildings. .
The The information information provided provided
is is based based on on common common design design
and and construction construction practices practices
for for steel steel structures structures. .
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What Will You Gain From This What Will You Gain From This
Presentation? Presentation?
Basic Basic idea idea of of different different types types of of shelters shelters normally normally encountered encountered
in in oil oil & & Gas Gas Plants Plants
An An understanding understanding of of different different types types of of structural structural steel steel frames frames
used used in in shelters shelters
Different Different types types of of loading loading for for which which the the structure structure has has to to be be
designed designed
Basic Basic idea idea of of analysis analysis of of Portal Portal frame frame
Understanding Understanding of of detailing detailing work work of of steel steel Portal Portal frames frames and and
other other necessary necessary elements elements of of shelters shelters
Different Different types types of of foundation foundation used used for for shelters shelters
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Different types of Shelters Different types of Shelters
Almost Almost all all Oil Oil & & Gas Gas Plants Plants will will have have Shelters Shelters to to cater cater to to the the
need need of of equipment, equipment, personnel personnel or or as as an an enclosure enclosure for for
production, production, storage storage. .
Shelters Shelters can can be be open/ open/ partially partially closed closed or or fully fully closed closed. . Choice Choice
of of whether whether to to provide provide closed closed or or open open shelter shelter depends depends upon upon
requirement requirement of of equipment, equipment, outside outside environment, environment, personnel personnel
and and client client requirements requirements. . Closed Closed shelters shelters are are also also termed termed as as
Building Building. .
Shelters Shelters can can be be made made of of Steel Steel Structures Structures or or Concrete Concrete
Structures Structures or or even even composite composite structures structures as as well well. .
From From operation operation point point of of view, view, Shelters Shelters can can be be categorised categorised
into into two two::
Plant Plant Shelters Shelters related related to to direct direct operation operation of of plant plant equipment equipment
ee. .gg. . Compressor Compressor House, House, Substation Substation etc etc. .
Utility Utility buildings buildings like like Workshop, Workshop, Warehouse, Warehouse, Admin Admin Building, Building,
Guard Guard house house etc etc. .
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Different Types of Steel Shelters Different Types of Steel Shelters
Open Shelter: Open Shelter:
Only roofing, no side cladding. Only roofing, no side cladding.
Partially closed Shelters Partially closed Shelters
Roofing and partially closed side Roofing and partially closed side
cladding cladding
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Different Types of Steel Shelters Different Types of Steel Shelters
Fully closed Shelters/ Buildings Fully closed Shelters/ Buildings
Roofing Roofing and and full full side side cladding cladding to to provide provide controlled controlled environment environment inside inside the the
Shelter Shelter. . Normally Normally proper proper HVAC HVAC systems systems are are installed installed to to provide provide controlled controlled
environment environment. . Claddings Claddings are are also also made made insulated insulated to to keep keep HVAC HVAC system system effective effective. .
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Different Types of Steel Shelters Different Types of Steel Shelters
Truss type shelter Truss type shelter
-- This This type type of of structures structures are are used used
when when width width of of the the shelter shelter is is quite quite
high high and and at at roof roof level, level, space space for for
HVAC HVAC ducting, ducting, Electrical/ Electrical/
Instrumentation Instrumentation equipments equipments
installation installation are are not not required required. . Truss Truss
type type sometimes sometimes found found out out to to be be
quite quite economical economical if if designed designed
properly properly
Portal Portal frame frame type type shelters shelters
-- Because Because of of their their clean clean lines, lines, good good
overhead overhead clearance clearance and and relatively relatively
low low cost, cost, portal portal-- frame frame shelters shelters
have have become become very very popular popular and and
widely widely used used in in oil oil & & Gas Gas Plants Plants. .
They They make make up up aa large large percentage percentage
of of the the small small to to medium medium size size single single--
storey storey industrial industrial buildings buildings in in
current current use use
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Portal Frame Shelters Portal Frame Shelters
Depending Depending upon upon the the requirements, requirements, Portal Portal framed framed shelters shelters
can can be be varied varied in in shapes, shapes, sizes, sizes, arrangements arrangements etc etc. .
Shelters with mono pitch roof Shelters with mono pitch roof
Shelters with duo pitch roof Shelters with duo pitch roof
Shelters with multi pitch roof Shelters with multi pitch roof
Shelters with flat roof Shelters with flat roof
Shelters with Multi bays Shelters with Multi bays
Shelters with Multi story Shelters with Multi story
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Portal frame Shelters Portal frame Shelters
Portal Portal framed framed steel steel clad clad structures structures
are are the the most most common common types types of of
industrial industrial Buildings Buildings. .
Major Major components components of of aa portal portal frame frame
building building are are aa series series of of parallel parallel
portal portal shaped shaped frames frames as as the the major major
framing framing elements elements. . Each Each frame frame is is
rigid, rigid, and and resists resists horizontal horizontal wind wind
forces forces and and gravity gravity loads loads in in the the plane plane
of of the the frame frame by by flexural flexural action action. .
Longitudinal Longitudinal wind wind forces forces that that are are
perpendicular perpendicular to to the the frames frames are are
resisted resisted by by triangulated triangulated bracing bracing
systems systems (in (in braced braced bays) bays) in in the the roof roof
and and walls walls which which prevent prevent the the frames frames
from from failing failing over over. .
Depending Depending upon upon the the length length of of the the
structure, structure, one one or or more more braced braced bays bays
can can be be provided provided in in aa shelter shelter. .
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Major parts of Portal framed Shelter Major parts of Portal framed Shelter
Main Main frame frame (column (column & & Rafter) Rafter)::
carry carry bending, bending, compression, compression, tension tension
and and transverse transverse shear shear forces forces
Longitudinal Longitudinal Tie Tie Beams Beams :: carry carry
axial axial loads loads
Vertical Vertical Bracings Bracings at at Braced Braced
Bays Bays:: carry carry longitudinal longitudinal horizontal horizontal
forces forces and and provide provide overall overall stability stability
Horizontal Horizontal Bracings Bracings:: carry carry
horizontal horizontal forces forces and and provide provide lateral lateral
stability stability
Purlin, Purlin, Horizontal Horizontal Girts Girts:: beam beam
members members carrying carrying roof roof and and wall wall
cladding cladding respectively respectively
Crane/ Crane/ Monorail Monorail Supports Supports:: carry carry
vertical, vertical, transverse transverse and and longitudinal longitudinal
forces forces due due to to movement movement of of crane crane and and
monorail monorail
Cladding Cladding :: provide provide proper proper enclosure enclosure
to to shelter shelter from from adverse adverse environmental environmental
condition condition
Sag Sag Rods Rods :: provide provide lateral lateral stability stability
to to purlins purlins
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Structural elements of a shelter Structural elements of a shelter
Portal Portal Framed Framed Shelter Shelter with with all all the the
major major elements elements
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Portal frame Structural Elements Portal frame Structural Elements
Large Large clear clear spans spans of of abut abut
40 40mm can can be be achieved achieved
economically economically using using I I
sections sections column column and and Beam Beam
Rafters Rafters. . The The columns columns are are
generally generally larger larger than than the the
rafter rafter because because the the
rafters rafters are are haunched haunched near near
the the columns columns to to cater cater for for
the the peak peak bending bending moments moments
at at the the columns columns. .
Length Length wise wise building building can can
vary vary 30 30mm to to 100 100mm or or
more more. .
Sometimes Sometimes expansion expansion
joints joints in in building building becomes becomes
necessary necessary if if building building
length length is is more more to to avoid avoid
undue undue temperature temperature stress stress. .
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Design of Portal Frame Shelters Design of Portal Frame Shelters
Building Building design design nowadays nowadays usually usually carried carried out out by by aa multi multi--
discipline discipline design design team team. . An An architect architect draws draws up up plans plans for for aa
building building to to meet meet the the clients clients requirements requirements. . The The structural structural
engineer engineer examines examines various various alternative alternative framing framing
arrangements arrangements and and may may carry carry out out preliminary preliminary designs designs to to
determine determine which which is is the the most most economical economical. . This This is is termed termed the the
conceptual conceptual design design stage stage. . For For aa given given framing framing arrangement, arrangement,
the the problem problem in in structural structural design design consists consists of of::
a) a) Estimation Estimation of of loading loading;;
b) b) Analysis Analysis of of main main frames, frames, trusses trusses or or lattice lattice girders, girders, floor floor
systems, systems, bracing bracing and and connections connections to to determine determine axial axial loads, loads,
shears shears and and moments moments at at critical critical points points in in all all members members;;
c) c) Design Design of of the the elements elements and and connections connections using using design design data data
from from step step (b) (b);;
d) d) Production Production of of arrangement arrangement and and detail detail drawings drawings from from the the
designers designers sketches sketches. .
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Structural Framing Scheme Structural Framing Scheme
Size Size of of the the Shelter Shelter depends depends on on several several aspects aspects like like space space required required for for
equipment, equipment, lay lay--down down area, area, space space for for maintenance, maintenance, requirement requirement for for
different different utility/ utility/ service service rooms, rooms, control control area, area, crane crane excess excess etc etc. .
Generally Generally size size requirement requirement comes comes from from other other disciplines disciplines with with close close co co--
ordination ordination with with structural structural engineers engineers. .
After After finalization finalization of of size, size, spacing spacing of of frames frames (position (position of of columns) columns) are are
decided decided keeping keeping all all the the above above requirements requirements in in mind mind. . Keeping Keeping spacing spacing
around around 7 7. .5 5mm found found out out to to be be aa good good industrial industrial practice practice. .
Slope Slope of of the the roof roof also also depends depends upon upon various various aspects aspects like like roof roof access, access,
protection protection against against extreme extreme weathers weathers etc etc. . The The standard standard practice practice is is to to
keep keep slope slope around around 6 6 to to 15 15 degree degree (depending (depending upon upon the the cladding cladding type) type). .
This This cambering cambering also also helps helps the the Portal Portal frame frame to to counter counter deflection deflection
against against vertical vertical loads loads. .
Depending Depending upon upon length length of of the the building, building, number number of of braced braced bays bays are are
chosen chosen. . Up Up to to 50 50--60 60mm length length one one braced braced bay bay found found out out to to be be sufficient sufficient. .
The The positioning positioning of of braced braced bay bay should should be be such such aa way way to to avoid avoid any any undue undue
deflection deflection and and stress stress concentration concentration. .
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Different types of Loads on Shelters Different types of Loads on Shelters
The The loading loading of of aa building building structure structure can can take take on on aa wide wide variety variety of of forms forms. . In In many many
cases cases the the exact exact loading loading will will not not fit fit neatly neatly into into aa specific specific category category. . Yet, Yet, loads loads can can
usually usually be be considered considered to to be be::
1 1. . Primary Primary Loads Loads Main Main loads loads which which are are normally normally used used for for design design like like
Dead Dead Load Load
Live Live Load Load
Snow/ Snow/ Sand Sand Load Load
Wind Wind load load
Seismic Seismic Load Load
Crane Crane load load etc etc. .
2 2. . Secondary Secondary Loads Loads -- Loads Loads are are those those due due to to
Temperature Temperature load load
Test Test load load
Construction Construction Eccentricities Eccentricities
Shrinkage Shrinkage of of structural structural materials materials
Settlement Settlement of of foundation foundation etc etc. .
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Dead Load on Shelters Dead Load on Shelters
Dead Dead Load Load::
Dead Dead Loads Loads are are those those loads loads which which are are considered considered to to act act permanently permanently;; they they
are are "dead," "dead," stationary, stationary, and and unable unable to to be be removed removed. . The The dead dead loads loads acting acting on on aa
portal portal--framed framed industrial industrial building building arise arise from from the the following following items items::
Self Self Weight Weight
Fireproofing Fireproofing
Masonry Masonry Walls Walls (Brick (Brick and and Block Block Walls) Walls)
Concrete Concrete Walls Walls and and Floor Floor
Wall Wall Cladding Cladding
Roof Roof Cladding Cladding
Finishing Finishing
Other Other permanent permanent loads loads (Equipment (Equipment and and Piping Piping Empty Empty Weight, Weight, Cable Cable Tray Tray load, load,
etc) etc)
These These loads loads should should be be estimated estimated as as per per unit unit weight weight of of materials materials used used in in the the
construction construction. . Weight Weight of of equipment, equipment, piping piping and and cables cables should should be be furnished furnished by by
respective respective disciplines disciplines. .
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Live Load on Shelters Live Load on Shelters
Live Live Load Load::
Live Live Loads Loads are are not not permanent permanent and and can can change change in in magnitude magnitude. . They They include include items items
found found within within aa shelter shelter such such as as human human weight, weight, machinery, machinery, or or stored stored materials materials. .
Different Different types types of of live live load load normally normally considered considered in in Shelter Shelter are are::
Floor Live Load Floor Live Load
Roof Live Load Roof Live Load
Operating Load (Product , Content of Pipe , etc) Operating Load (Product , Content of Pipe , etc)
Maintenance Load Maintenance Load
Storage Load Storage Load
Other Temporary Loads Other Temporary Loads
These These loads loads should should be be estimated estimated as as per per human human occupancy occupancy loads, loads, Operating Operating weight weight of of
equipment, equipment, piping piping and and cables cables tray tray loads loads which which should should be be furnished furnished by by respective respective
disciplines disciplines. .
Following Following codes codes are are usually usually used used to to estimate estimate common common dead/ dead/ live live loads loads::
1 1--UBC UBC 1997 1997 Chapter Chapter 16 16
2 2--IBC IBC 2006 2006 Chapter Chapter 16 16
3 3--ASCE ASCE 7 7--05 05 Chapters Chapters 3 3,,4 4 and and CC3 3,C ,C4 4
4 4--BS BS 6399 6399 Part Part 1 1 & & 3 3
Note Note that that civil/structural civil/structural specification specification of of client client is is the the main main reference reference for for calculation calculation of of
dead/ dead/ live live load load along along with with above above mentioned mentioned codes codes and and standards standards. .
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Snow/ Sand Load on Shelters Snow/ Sand Load on Shelters
Snow/ Snow/ Sand Sand Load Load::
Snow Snow load load in in nature nature is is aa live live load load but but because because of of great great importance importance of of this this
load load which which is is responsible responsible for for collapse collapse of of roofs roofs of of industrial industrial buildings buildings in in
cold cold areas, areas, its its effect effect is is taken taken separately separately. .
Similarly Similarly in in desert desert areas areas accumulated accumulated weight weight of of sand sand on on roof roof can can cause cause
same same problem problem as as that that due due to to snow snow load load. .
Snow Snow load load on on the the roof roof of of industrial industrial buildings buildings depends depends on on geometry geometry of of
roof roof and and location location of of buildings buildings. . All All international international codes codes define define this this load load
based based on on these these two two parameters parameters. .
Following codes are frequently used to Following codes are frequently used to
estimate snow loads: estimate snow loads:
1 1--ASCE 7 ASCE 7--05 Chapters 7 and C7 05 Chapters 7 and C7
2 2--UBC 1997 Chapter 16 UBC 1997 Chapter 16
3 3--IBC 2006 Chapter 16 IBC 2006 Chapter 16
4 4--BS 6399 Part 3 BS 6399 Part 3
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Snow/ Sand Load on Shelters Snow/ Sand Load on Shelters
This This sketch sketch shows shows how how Snow Snow
load load is is taken taken for for calculation calculation
purpose purpose on on gable gable roofs roofs as as per per
ASCE ASCE 7 7--05 05. .
Note Note that that civil/structural civil/structural
specification specification of of client client is is the the
main main reference reference for for minimum minimum
snow snow load load in in the the location location of of
project project as as per per available available
meteorological meteorological data data and and local local
codes codes. .
It It is is also also advisable advisable to to check check the the
chance chance of of snow snow accumulation accumulation on on
one one side side of of roof roof because because of of wind wind
effect effect which which can can result result to to
unbalanced unbalanced loading loading on on roof roof. . Both Both
ASCE ASCE 7 7 and and BS BS 6399 6399 are are
addressing addressing this this matter matter. .
Ice Ice load load in in very very cold cold areas areas is is also also aa concern concern and and should should be be calculated calculated as as per per
requirements requirements of of codes codes (e (e. .gg. . ASCE ASCE 7 7--05 05 Chapters Chapters 10 10 and and CC10 10) ). .
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Crane Load on Shelters Crane Load on Shelters
Crane/ Crane/ Monorail Monorail Load Load::
Cranes, Cranes, including including runway runway beams, beams, brackets, brackets, bracing, bracing, and and connections, connections, shall shall be be
designed designed to to support support the the maximum maximum wheel wheel load load of of the the crane crane and and the the vertical vertical
impact, impact, lateral, lateral, and and longitudinal longitudinal forces forces induced induced by by the the moving moving crane crane. . Also, Also, the the
runway runway beams beams shall shall be be designed designed for for crane crane stop stop forces forces. . The The methods methods for for
determining determining these these loads loads vary vary depending depending on on the the type type of of crane crane system system and and
support support. .
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Crane Load on Shelters Crane Load on Shelters
Crane loads on industrial Crane loads on industrial
Buildings falls in to three Buildings falls in to three
categories: categories:
1. 1. Vertical load plus impact Vertical load plus impact
(Static + Dynamic Effect): (Static + Dynamic Effect):
Vertical Vertical Dynamic Dynamic effect effect of of
crane crane in in most most of of building building codes codes
has has been been defined defined as as an an
increasing increasing factor factor to to static static
load load of of wheels wheels called called impact impact
factor factor. . Normally Normally for for
Electrically Electrically operated operated Cranes Cranes
(EOT) (EOT) this this factor factor is is taken taken as as
25 25% %. . For For manually manually operated operated
monorail monorail this this factor factor is is taken taken
as as 10 10% %. .
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Crane Load on Shelters Crane Load on Shelters
2. 2. Lateral Lateral Force Force (Surge (Surge load) load):: This This is is
due due to to lateral lateral movement movement of of crane crane wheels wheels. .
The The lateral lateral force force shall shall be be assumed assumed to to act act
horizontally horizontally at at the the traction traction surface surface of of aa
runway runway beam, beam, in in either either direction direction
perpendicular perpendicular to to the the beam beam. . Normally Normally the the
force force is is calculated calculated as as 10 10% % of of the the sum sum of of
rated rated capacity capacity of of the the crane crane and and the the
weight weight of of the the hoist hoist and and trolley trolley. .
3. 3. Longitudinal Longitudinal Load Load (Braking (Braking load) load)::
This This is is due due to to movement movement of of crane crane along along
the the length length of of building building. . Longitudinal Longitudinal forces forces
shall shall be be assumed assumed to to act act horizontally horizontally at at
the the top top of of the the rails rails and and in in each each direction direction
parallel parallel to to each each runway runway beam beam. . Normally Normally
this this force force is is taken taken as as 5 5% % of of maximum maximum
wheel wheel load load excluding excluding impact impact. .
In In case case of of monorail monorail,, because because of of
unidirectional unidirectional nature nature of of movement, movement,
horizontal horizontal force force will will be be only only along along one one
direction direction. .
Typical Typical Crane Crane Girder Girder Section Section
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Crane Load on Shelters Crane Load on Shelters
At At each each end end of of gantry gantry girder girder crane crane stop stop is is
provided provided to to stop stop the the movement movement of of crane crane
and and avoid avoid any any damage damage to to the the building building
structure structure due due to to impact impact
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Wind Load on Shelters Wind Load on Shelters
Wind Load: Wind Load:
Wind Wind load load generally generally is is the the major major
influence influence in in the the design design of of Industrial Industrial
structure structure. .
As As per per aerodynamics, aerodynamics, wind wind tunnel tunnel test test
and and other other experiments, experiments, all all
international international codes codes furnish furnish similar similar
methods methods to to calculate calculate wind wind load load on on low low--
rise rise and and rectangular rectangular shaped shaped buildings buildings. .
All All these these methods methods can can be be summarized summarized
as as below below::
Get Get Basic Basic Wind Wind Speed Speed at at site site as as
per per meteorological meteorological data data. .
Basic Basic Wind Wind Pressure Pressure calculated calculated
from from Wind Wind Basic Basic Speed Speed and and type type
of of terrain terrain. .
Calculate Calculate Wind Wind Pressure Pressure at at the the
required required height height. . Calculate Calculate effect effect
of of Geometry Geometry of of Structure Structure defined defined
as as shape shape factors factors. . This This effect effect can can
be be pressure pressure or or suction suction. .
Wind flow around a low Wind flow around a low--rise building rise building
Instantaneous external pressure distributions on the frame Instantaneous external pressure distributions on the frame
of a low of a low--rise building and simplified code distributions rise building and simplified code distributions
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Wind Load on Shelters Wind Load on Shelters
Following Following International International codes codes are are usually usually used used to to estimate estimate common common wind wind
loads loads::
1 1--UBC UBC 1997 1997 Chapter Chapter 16 16
2 2--IBC IBC 2006 2006 Chapter Chapter 16 16
3 3--ASCE ASCE 7 7--05 05 Chapters Chapters 6 6 and and CC6 6
4 4--BS BS 6399 6399 Part Part 2 2
Two Two basic basic types types of of forces forces due due to to wind wind
External Pressure (Cpe) External Pressure (Cpe)
Internal Pressure (Cpi) Internal Pressure (Cpi)
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Wind Load on Shelters Wind Load on Shelters
Wind loads are well codified, Wind loads are well codified,
and are function of local climate and are function of local climate
condition, building height, condition, building height,
building geometry and exposure building geometry and exposure
as determined by the as determined by the
surrounding environment & surrounding environment &
terrain. terrain.
Depending upon the direction Depending upon the direction
of wind and severity of of wind and severity of
magnitude, total building magnitude, total building
structure is divided into structure is divided into
different zones ( A, B, C, D, E different zones ( A, B, C, D, E
etc) and accordingly pressures etc) and accordingly pressures
are found out. are found out.
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Wind Load on Shelters Wind Load on Shelters
Both Both sketches sketches shows shows how how wind wind in in
Transverse Transverse direction direction is is taken taken in in
roof roof and and wall wall of of Building Building. . Forces Forces
due due to to transverse transverse wind wind are are
Transverse Transverse pressure pressure force force
Longitudinal Longitudinal suction suction force force
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Wind Load on Shelters Wind Load on Shelters
Wind in Longitudinal direction Wind in Longitudinal direction
Longitudinal pressure force Longitudinal pressure force
Transverse suction Transverse suction
Wind Longitudinal drag force Wind Longitudinal drag force
Suction due to Longitudinal wind Suction due to Longitudinal wind
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Seismic Load on Shelters Seismic Load on Shelters
Seismic/ Earthquake Loads: Seismic/ Earthquake Loads:
The The main main cause cause of of damage damage to to structures structures during during an an earthquake earthquake is is their their response response to to
ground ground motions motions which which are are input input at at the the base base. . In In order order to to evaluate evaluate the the behavior behavior of of
the the structure structure under under this this type type of of loading loading condition, condition, the the principles principles of of structural structural
dynamics dynamics must must be be applied applied to to determine determine the the stresses stresses and and deflections, deflections, which which are are
developed developed in in the the structure structure. .
When When considering considering the the analysis analysis of of structures structures for for dynamic dynamic motions, motions, the the term term
dynamic dynamic simply simply means means time time--varying varying. . Hence Hence the the loading loading and and all all aspects aspects of of the the
response response vary vary with with time time. .
Seismic Seismic loads loads are are established established by by building building codes codes and and are are based based on on::
Degree Degree of of seismic seismic risks risks
The The degree degree of of potential potential damage damage
The The possibility possibility of of total total collapse collapse
The The feasibility feasibility of of meeting meeting aa given given level level of of protection protection
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Seismic Load on Shelters Seismic Load on Shelters
Seismic Seismic loads loads are are generally generally aa function function of of::
Geographic Geographic and and geological geological location location of of building building
The The use use of of the the building building
The The nature nature of of the the building building structural structural system system
The The dynamic dynamic property property of of the the site site
The The weight weight of of the the building building and and the the distribution distribution of of the the weight weight
Following Following International International codes codes are are commonly commonly usually usually used used to to estimate estimate
seismic seismic loads loads::
1 1--UBC UBC 1997 1997 Chapter Chapter 16 16
2 2--IBC IBC 2006 2006 Chapter Chapter 16 16
3 3--ASCE ASCE 7 7--05 05 Chapters Chapters 11 11 to to 23 23 and and CC11 11 to to CC23 23
There There are are two two commonly commonly used used procedures procedures for for specifying specifying seismic seismic design design
forces forces::
Equivalent Equivalent Static Static Force Force
Dynamic Dynamic Analysis Analysis
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Seismic Load on Shelters Seismic Load on Shelters
In In the the equivalent equivalent static static force force procedure procedure,, the the inertial inertial forces forces are are
specified specified as as static static forces forces using using empirical empirical formulas formulas. . The The empirical empirical
formulas formulas do do not not explicitly explicitly account account for for the the "dynamic "dynamic characteristics" characteristics" of of
the the particular particular structure structure being being designed designed or or analyzed analyzed. . The The formulas formulas were, were,
however, however, developed developed to to adequately adequately represent represent the the dynamic dynamic behavior behavior of of
what what are are called called "regular" "regular" structures, structures, which which have have aa reasonably reasonably uniform uniform
distribution distribution of of mass mass and and stiffness stiffness. . For For such such structures, structures, the the equivalent equivalent
static static force force procedure procedure is is most most often often adequate adequate. .
A A dynamic dynamic analysis analysis can can take take aa number number of of forms, forms, but but should should account account for for
the the irregularities irregularities of of the the structure structure by by modeling modeling its its "dynamic "dynamic
characteristics" characteristics" including including natural natural frequencies, frequencies, mode mode shapes shapes and and
damping damping. .
Two Two method method commonly commonly used used for for dynamic dynamic analysis analysis::
Time Time History History Method Method
Response Response Spectrum Spectrum Method Method
Unless specified by Client, equivalent static method is normally followed Unless specified by Client, equivalent static method is normally followed
to calculate seismic loading on single storey portal framed shelters. to calculate seismic loading on single storey portal framed shelters.
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Other Loads for Shelters Other Loads for Shelters
There are other types of load also which sometimes required to be There are other types of load also which sometimes required to be
calculated while designing the Shelter structures: calculated while designing the Shelter structures:
Blast Blast Load Load ::For For ballast ballast and and effects effects of of blast blast overpressure overpressure refer refer to to
(ASCE (ASCE Document Document:: Design Design of of Blast Blast Resistant Resistant Buildings Buildings in in Petrochemical Petrochemical
Facilities) Facilities). .
Note Note that that the the concept concept of of design design of of buildings buildings against against blast blast in in general general is is to to
reduce reduce damages damages and and losses losses as as per per project project specification specification and and ASCE ASCE
document document. .
Soil/Hydrostatic Soil/Hydrostatic Load Load
Erection Erection Load Load
Test Test Load Load
Temperature Temperature // Thermal Thermal Load Load:: Only Only thermal thermal loads loads resulted resulted from from
expansion expansion or or contraction contraction of of structure structure should should be be considered considered under under this this
load load. .
Thermal loads magnitude in structural elements basically depends on the Thermal loads magnitude in structural elements basically depends on the
rigidity of structure. rigidity of structure.
To reduce the effect of load, avoid using more than one braced bay in To reduce the effect of load, avoid using more than one braced bay in
structure and as a good practice of engineering, in every 45 structure and as a good practice of engineering, in every 45--60 m 60 m
consider an expansion joint in the structure. consider an expansion joint in the structure.
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Temperature Load Temperature Load
The The best best bracing bracing system system for for structures structures under under severe severe temperature temperature variation variation is is
Chevron Chevron (inverted (inverted V), V), KK and and VV bracings bracings. . The The outcome outcome of of using using XX bracing bracing will will be be aa
severe severe axial axial load load in in the the braced braced bay bay elements elements. . Braced Braced bays bays are are also also kept kept approx approx. . at at the the
middle middle of of the the structure structure to to avoid avoid excessive excessive deflection deflection and and tie tie force force at at the the longitudinal longitudinal
beams beams. .
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Load combinations Load combinations
Load Load combinations combinations are are formed formed by by adding adding the the effects effects of of loads loads from from each each of of the the
load load sources sources cited cited above above. .
Codes Codes or or industry industry standards standards often often give give specific specific load load combinations combinations which which must must be be
satisfied satisfied. . It It is is not not always always necessary necessary to to consider consider all all the the loads loads at at full full intensity intensity. . Also, Also,
certain certain loads loads are are not not required required to to be be combined combined at at all all. .
Fr Fr example example :: Wind Wind load load is is not not considered considered acting acting simultaneously simultaneously with with Seismic Seismic load load. .
In In some some cases cases only only aa portion portion of of aa load load must must be be combined combined with with other other loads loads. .
When When aa combination combination does does not not include include loads loads at at full full intensity, intensity, it it represents represents aa
judgment judgment as as to to the the probability probability of of simultaneous simultaneous occurrence occurrence with with regard regard to to the the time time
and and intensity intensity. .
Following Following International International codes codes are are usually usually used used to to estimate estimate combinations combinations of of
different different loads loads::
1 1--UBC UBC 1997 1997
2 2--IBC IBC 2006 2006
3 3--ASCE ASCE 7 7--05 05 Chapters Chapters 3 3 and and CC3 3
Dead Dead + + Live Live load, load, which which is is usually usually the the load load combination combination that that dictates dictates the the choice choice of of
column column and and rafter rafter sizes sizes from from aa strength strength point point of of view view. .
Dead Dead + + Wind Wind load, load, however, however, is is often often the the combination combination that that governs governs from from aa
deflection deflection point point of of view view
35 35
Load Combination Load Combination
A A typical typical strength strength design design load load
combination combination is is given given as as per per UBC UBC
97 97. .
36 36
Design Methods Design Methods
Analysis and Design of Building is based on three design theories: Analysis and Design of Building is based on three design theories:
(1) Elastic design; (1) Elastic design;
(2) Plastic design; (2) Plastic design;
(3) Limit state design. (3) Limit state design.
The The aim aim of of structural structural design design is is to to produce produce aa safe safe and and economical economical
structure structure that that fulfills fulfills its its required required purpose purpose. .
Elastic design Elastic design is the traditional method and is still commonly used. is the traditional method and is still commonly used.
Steel is almost perfectly elastic up to the yield point and elastic Steel is almost perfectly elastic up to the yield point and elastic
theory follows this methodology. Structures are analyzed by elastic theory follows this methodology. Structures are analyzed by elastic
theory and sections are sized so that the permissible stresses are theory and sections are sized so that the permissible stresses are
not exceed. not exceed.
Plastic Plastic theory theory developed developed to to take take account account of of behaviour behaviour past past the the yield yield
point point is is based based on on finding finding the the load load that that causes causes the the structure structure to to
collapse collapse and and formation formation of of plastic plastic hinges hinges at at different different portions portions of of the the
member member. .
Finally, Finally, limit limit state state design design has has been been developed developed to to take take account account of of all all
conditions conditions that that can can make make the the structure structure become become unfit unfit for for use use. . The The
design design is is based based on on the the actual actual behaviour behaviour of of materials materials and and structures structures
in in use use. .
37 37
Design Methods Design Methods
Normally Normally elastic elastic analysis analysis is is carried carried out out
for for building building structures structures followed followed by by limit limit
state state design design. . However, However, plastic plastic analysis analysis
may may in in some some cases cases lead lead to to more more
economical economical structures structures. .
Sometimes Sometimes if if required, required, second second order order
analysis analysis (P (P--Delta Delta analysis) analysis) is is also also done done to to
cater cater the the additional additional forces forces induced induced in in the the
frame frame due due to to the the axial axial forces forces acting acting
eccentrically eccentrically to to the the assumed assumed member member
centroids centroids as as the the frame frame deflects deflects under under
load load. .
Two Two types types of of checks checks are are done done to to ensure ensure
the the stability stability of of structure structure::
Strength Strength check check:: this this takes takes care care the the most most
severe severe load load combinations combinations
Serviceability Serviceability check check :: It It is is to to make make sure sure
the the structures structures behave behave satisfactory satisfactory and and
can can perform perform its its intended intended function function at at
service service load load. . It It also also limit limit excessive excessive
deflection deflection of of structure structure and and some some cases cases
prevent prevent excessive excessive vibration vibration. .
Normally Normally Building Building specification specification will will
provide provide proper proper deflection deflection limits limits to to be be
considered considered for for each each elements elements of of the the
structure structure. .
Potential Potential problems problems to to excessive excessive deflection deflection are are::
Damage Damage in in cladding cladding
Objectionable Objectionable sag sag in in rafter rafter and and suspended suspended
ceiling ceiling etc etc. .
Damage Damage to to external/ external/ internal internal masonry masonry walls, walls,
mezzanine mezzanine floor floor concrete concrete slabs slabs and and other other
architectural architectural finishes finishes. .
Excessive Excessive deflection deflection of of column column at at crane crane gantry gantry
level level may may cause cause damage damage to to the the alignment alignment of of crane crane
bridge bridge. .
38 38
Structural Analysis & Design Structural Analysis & Design
Analysis Analysis and and Design Design can can be be done done as as per per any any of of the the following following widely widely
popular popular software software::
STAAD STAAD--Pro Pro
Sap Sap 2000 2000
GTSTRUDL GTSTRUDL
39 39
Analysis of Building Analysis of Building
Analysis Analysis of of shelter shelter is is done done by by modeling modeling the the structure structure in in 3 3DD space space frame frame with with
proper proper support support conditions, conditions, member member releases releases etc etc. .
Above Above sketch sketch shows shows one one 3 3DD Model Model of of closed closed Shelter Shelter generated generated in in Staadpro Staadpro
40 40
Bending Moment Patterns Bending Moment Patterns
Loading and BMD for Transverse Wind Loading and BMD for Transverse Wind
Loading Loading and and BMD BMD for for WL WL (Suction (Suction
force force due due to to long long. . wind) wind)
41 41
Bending Moment Patterns Bending Moment Patterns
Typical Output from Staadpro Analysis Typical Output from Staadpro Analysis
Loading and BMD for DL/LL/SL etc. Loading and BMD for DL/LL/SL etc. Loading and BMD for Crane Load Loading and BMD for Crane Load
42 42
Building Detailing Building Detailing
Roof Plan bracing Pattern Roof Plan bracing Pattern
Transverse Elevation Transverse Elevation
Longitudinal Elevation Longitudinal Elevation
Basic details of different sections/ plans which are normally used in shelters are
shown here
43 43
Base Plate & Gable Frame Base Plate & Gable Frame
Column Base: Column Base:
The The great great majority majority of of portal portal frames frames are are
designed designed with with nominally nominally pinned pinned bases bases. . This This
is is for for reasons reasons of of economy economy and and simple simple
design design. . Not Not only only are are fixed fixed bases bases more more
expensive expensive because because of of the the need need for for
thicker thicker and and larger larger base base plates plates and and the the
stiffening stiffening that that is is necessary, necessary, but but the the
foundations foundations require require to to be be much much larger larger to to
resist resist the the base base moments moments. .
Only Only in in cases cases of of large large lateral lateral deflection, deflection,
or or possibly possibly where where brick brick walls walls are are built built into into
the the columns, columns, is is it it necessary necessary to to resort resort to to
fixed fixed bases bases. . These These should should be be kept kept as as
simple simple as as possible possible
Gable Frame: Gable Frame:
Where Where buildings buildings are are not not designed designed
for for future future lengthwise lengthwise extension, extension,
there there is is no no need need for for portal portal frames frames
to to be be provided provided at at the the ends ends. . A A more more
economical economical alternative alternative is is to to supply supply aa
light light I I-- or or channel channel section section rafter rafter
spanning spanning across across the the tops tops of of the the
gable gable posts posts and and tied tied laterally laterally into into
the the rafter rafter bracing bracing system system. .
Both Both the the rafter rafter and and the the corner corner
columns columns can can be be much much lighter lighter than than
that that of of aa portal, portal, but but more more
importantly importantly the the high high cost cost of of the the
portal portal eaves eaves and and apex apex haunches haunches can can
be be saved saved. . It It is is necessary, necessary, though, though, to to
provide provide lateral lateral support support and and this this can can
be be done done by by means means of of aa simple simple bracing bracing
system system
44 44
Steel Connections Steel Connections
Holding Holding Down Down Bolts Bolts (Anchor (Anchor
Bolts) Bolts):: Anchorage Anchorage of of the the holding holding--
down down bolts bolts into into the the concrete concrete
foundation foundation should should be be sufficient sufficient to to
cater cater for for any any uplift uplift forces forces and and to to
provide provide for for any any shears shears applied applied to to the the
bolts bolts. . The The most most commonly commonly used used
anchor anchor bolts bolts are are of of grade grade 4 4. .6 6// 5 5. .6 6. .
Connection Connection Bolts Bolts:: The The most most
frequently frequently used used bolts bolts in in steel steel
connections connections are are non non preloaded preloaded bolts bolts
of of strength strength grade grade 4 4. .6 6 and and 8 8. .8 8 (high (high
strength) strength) used used in in 2 2mm mm clearance clearance
holes holes. . There There may may be be aa situation situation
where where engineer engineer may may encounter encounter large large
load load reversal reversal in in the the joint joint (in (in high high
seismic seismic zone, zone, supporting supporting vibrating vibrating
equipment), equipment), in in those those cases cases high high
strength strength friction friction grip grip bolts bolts are are used used
to to avoid avoid any any failure failure due due to to fatigue fatigue. .
45 45
Steel Connections Steel Connections
The The most most important important aspect aspect of of structural structural
steelwork steelwork for for buildings buildings is is the the design design of of
the the connections connections between between individual individual frame frame
components components. .
Basically Basically there there are are three three types types of of
connection, connection, each each defined defined by by its its structural structural
behaviour behaviour. .
Simple Simple connection connection-- It It transmit transmit negligible negligible
bending bending moment moment across across the the joint joint. . The The
connection connection is is detailed detailed to to allow allow the the beam beam
to to rotate rotate. . The The beam beam behaves behaves as as simply simply
supported supported beam beam. .
Continuous Continuous connection connection-- The The connection connection is is
designed designed to to transmit transmit shear shear force force and and
bending bending moment moment across across the the joint joint. . This This
connection connection will will have have sufficient sufficient stiffness stiffness
to to take take moment moment. .
Semi Semi--continuous continuous connection connection-- It It is is in in
between between the the first first two two connections connections where where
it it can can take take some some amount amount of of moment moment along along
with with shear shear. .
46 46
Eaves & Ridge Connections Eaves & Ridge Connections
The The types types of of eaves eaves and and apex apex haunches haunches
shown shown in in Figure Figure are are the the ones ones almost almost
universally universally used used because because of of their their
relative relative simplicity simplicity and and the the ease ease with with
which which the the frame frame can can be be erected erected. . The The
critical critical design design condition condition is is usually usually
gravity gravity loading loading with with the the rafter rafter--to to--
column column connection connection having having to to sustain sustain aa
high high negative negative moment moment and and the the apex apex
connection connection aa smaller smaller positive positive moment moment. .
The The moment moment at at the the eaves eaves produces produces aa
high high tensile tensile force force in in the the upper upper flange flange of of
the the rafter rafter that that is is transmitted transmitted through through
the the upper upper tension tension bolts bolts and and the the end end
plate plate to to the the inner inner flange flange of of the the column column. .
The The compressive compressive force force in in the the lower lower
flange flange of of the the haunch haunch is is transferred transferred in in
bearing bearing through through the the end end plate plate onto onto the the
column column flange flange and and into into the the web web. .
The The transfer transfer of of moment moment at at the the apex apex is is
similar, similar, except except that that here here the the moment moment is is
positive positive so so the the forces forces are are reversed reversed. .
The The haunch haunch and and apex apex regions regions are are vitally vitally
important important parts parts of of the the frame frame and and must must
be be carefully carefully proportioned proportioned. .
47 47
Connection Details of Portal Frame Connection Details of Portal Frame
Another Another type type of of rafter rafter--to to--column column
connection connection (shown (shown in in this this Figure) Figure) is is
widely widely used used for for portal portal frames frames. . Here Here
normally normally the the rafter rafter and and column column have have
the the same same section section size size and and are are shop shop--
welded welded with with their their flanges flanges beveled beveled to to
receive receive complete complete penetration penetration groove groove
welds welds. . This This is is aa simple simple connection connection and and
is is supplemented supplemented by by aa site site--bolted bolted
splice splice some some way way up up the the rafter, rafter, at at aa
point point of of reduced reduced bending bending moment moment. . The The
location location of of the the splice splice should should be be such such
that that the the length length of of the the column column--rafter rafter
component, component, as as appropriate, appropriate, is is within within
transport transport limitations limitations. .
The The apex apex joint joint is is also also shop shop--welded welded. .
The The length length of of the the rafter rafter to to the the
opposite opposite splice splice should should meet meet transport transport
requirements requirements. .
In In these these type type of of connections, connections, proper proper
protection protection need need to to be be observed observed to to
avoid avoid drilling drilling holes holes at at the the location location of of
weld weld for for connection connection for for ridge/ ridge/ Eaves Eaves
beams beams. .
48 48
Bracing Details of Portal Frame Bracing Details of Portal Frame
Bracings Bracings:: These These structural structural system system
are are used used to to resist resist lateral lateral loads loads. .
These These can can be be continuous continuous or or wind wind--
moment moment frames frames or or braced braced-- bay bay or or
combinations combinations of of both both
Braced Braced Bay Bay:: These These are are positioned positioned in in
such such aa way way to to provide provide minimal minimal impact impact
in in upon upon planning planning of of the the building building. .
Braced Braced bay bay act act as as vertical vertical trusses trusses
which which resist resist the the wind wind loads loads by by
cantilever cantilever action action. .
The The bracing bracing member member can can be be
arranged arranged in in various various fashion fashion designed designed
to to carry carry solely solely tension tension or or
alternatively alternatively tension tension & & compression compression. .
X X is is the the most most common common form form of of
tension tension bracing bracing and and K K is is the the most most
common common type type of of compression compression
bracings bracings. .
49 49
Connections of different Connections of different
elements elements
Bracing connection for heavy compressive loading Bracing connection for heavy compressive loading
Beam splice connection Beam splice connection Beam to column simple shear connection Beam to column simple shear connection
50 50
Connections of different Connections of different
elements elements
Gable end middle column connection Gable end middle column connection
Sometimes sliding connection is Sometimes sliding connection is
provided to ensure that vertical load provided to ensure that vertical load
from gable rafter should not transfer from gable rafter should not transfer
to mid column. to mid column.
Crane Gantry bracket connection Crane Gantry bracket connection
51 51
Detailing of Crane Girder Detailing of Crane Girder
Side sway due to crane load Side sway due to crane load Different arrangements to absorb crane surge force Different arrangements to absorb crane surge force
Gantry Girder showing bumper location Gantry Girder showing bumper location Stiffeners to avoid local failure Stiffeners to avoid local failure
52 52
Purlins & Girts Purlins & Girts
Purlins Purlins & & Girts Girts are are immediate immediate
supporting supporting members members of of roof roof and and wall wall
sheeting sheeting respectively respectively. .
They They act act principally principally as as beams, beams, but but
also also performs performs as as struts struts and and as as
compression compression braces braces in in resisting resisting
rafters rafters and and columns columns laterally laterally against against
torsional torsional buckling buckling. .
In In some some buildings buildings purlins purlins and and girts girts
act act as as axial axial members members to to transfer transfer
end end wall wall wind wind loads loads to to the the braced braced
bays, bays, while while in in some some small small shelters shelters
they they may may even even act act as as the the struts struts of of
the the triangulated triangulated roof roof bracing bracing
system system. .
Depending Depending upon upon the the load load it it is is
carrying, carrying, purlins purlins and and girts girts can can be be hot hot
rolled rolled channel/ channel/ I I sections sections or or cold cold
rolled rolled Z Z or or CC section section. .
As As Purlins Purlins are are inclined inclined members, members,
these these are are designed designed to to withstand withstand bi bi--
axial axial forces forces. .
53 53
Purlins & Girts Purlins & Girts
Strength is not the only criteria when Strength is not the only criteria when
designing purlins. Purlin spacing must designing purlins. Purlin spacing must
be chosen to suit the type of roof be chosen to suit the type of roof
sheeting and ceiling system. sheeting and ceiling system.
Purlin deflection aspect also need to be Purlin deflection aspect also need to be
taken into consideration while deciding taken into consideration while deciding
the spacing. the spacing.
Purlin spacing can vary from 1.2m to Purlin spacing can vary from 1.2m to
2.5m. 2.5m.
Fly bracing Fly bracing helps to reduce purlin span and helps to reduce purlin span and
also it helps to provide lateral restraint to also it helps to provide lateral restraint to
compression flange of rafter compression flange of rafter
54 54
Sag Rods Sag Rods
Sag Sag rods rods are are generally generally provided provided to to give give
sufficient sufficient lateral lateral restraint restraint and and stability stability to to
Purlins Purlins. .
It It is is aa standard standard practice practice to to provide provide sag sag rods rods
at at roof roof--purlin purlin level level when when purlin purlin span span is is high high. .
Sag Sag rods rods are are designed designed for for axial axial tension tension force force
only only. .
For For duo duo--pitch pitch roof, roof, at at the the ridge ridge portion portion
sometimes sometimes plate/ plate/ angle angle (diaphragm (diaphragm plate) plate) is is
provided provided to to take take compression compression and and to to provide provide
proper proper stability stability to to roof roof sag sag rod rod system system. .
55 55
Architectural Details of Shelters Architectural Details of Shelters
Cladding Cladding:: Cladding Cladding is is required required to to be be
weather weather tight, tight, to to provide provide insulation, insulation, to to
have have penetration penetration for for daylight daylight and and access, access,
to to be be aesthetically aesthetically pleasing pleasing and and last last the the
maximum maximum time time with with aa minimum minimum
maintenance maintenance consistent consistent with with the the budget budget. .
Two Two types types of of cladding cladding are are broadly broadly used used
for for both both roofing roofing and and wall wall sheeting sheeting
purpose purpose. .
Single Single skin skin steel steel sheeting sheeting
Double Double skin skin insulated insulated sandwich sandwich steel steel
panels panels
56 56
Architectural Details of Shelters Architectural Details of Shelters
Roof/ Roof/ wall wall sheeting sheeting spanning spanning is is the the
most most important important data data to to have have before before
structural structural detailing detailing work work. .
Sheeting Sheeting can can span span horizontally horizontally as as well well
as as vertically vertically. .
Accordingly Accordingly purlin purlin spacing, spacing, requirement requirement
of of girts girts and and their their spacing spacing are are worked worked
out out. .
Generally Generally cladding cladding manufacturer manufacturer
provides provides data data for for minimum minimum roof roof pitch, pitch,
maximum maximum allowable allowable spanning, spanning, support support
requirements requirements etc etc. .
Other Other details details like like fixing fixing door, door, window, window,
gutter, gutter, rain rain water water down down--comer comer etc etc. . can can
be be finalized finalized and and details details as as per per
respective respective manufacturers manufacturers data data and and
catalogues catalogues. .
Accordingly Accordingly finish finish schedule, schedule, door door--
window window schedule, schedule, secondary secondary wall wall
(masonry) (masonry) detail detail drawings drawings need need to to be be
prepared prepared. .
57 57
Miscellaneous Structures inside Shelters Miscellaneous Structures inside Shelters
Maintenance Maintenance Platforms Platforms surrounding surrounding
Equipment Equipment Foundations Foundations (e (e. .gg. .
Compressor) Compressor)
Mezzanine Mezzanine floor floor supporting supporting
Equipments Equipments (e (e. .gg. . AHU) AHU)
Fan Fan supports supports outside outside building building
58 58
Miscellaneous Structures inside Shelters Miscellaneous Structures inside Shelters
HAVC HAVC ducts ducts hanging hanging from from Roof Roof
ties ties and and purlins purlins. .
Other Other equipment equipment supports supports and and
access access Platforms Platforms attached attached to to
Shelters Shelters
Pipes Pipes and and cable cable trays trays supported supported
from from Building Building structure structure. .
59 59
Shelter Foundation Shelter Foundation
Foundation Design: Foundation Design:
Depending Depending upon upon the the soil soil property property
shelter shelter foundations foundations can can be be
Shallow Shallow footings footings (isolated, (isolated,
combined, combined, strip strip etc etc. .) ) or or
Piled foundation Piled foundation
Different Different checks checks to to be be
performed performed for for shallow shallow
foundations foundations are are
Bearing pressure check Bearing pressure check
Sliding check Sliding check
Overturning check Overturning check
Buoyancy check Buoyancy check
For For pile pile foundation foundation design, design, normally normally
individual individual pile pile capacities capacities are are given given
by by Client/ Client/ Soil Soil investigation investigation reports reports
and and accordingly accordingly rigid rigid pile pile
foundations foundations are are designed designed as as per per
standard standard codal codal provisions provisions. .
Piled Foundation (3 & 5 piled Pile caps) Piled Foundation (3 & 5 piled Pile caps)
60 60
Shelter Foundation Shelter Foundation
Foundation Foundation layout layout drawing drawing
showing showing isolated isolated footings footings with with
tie tie beams beams
Plan Plan & & Sectional Sectional views views
of of isolated isolated footings footings
Plan & Sectional views Plan & Sectional views
of combined footings of combined footings
61 61
Shelter Foundation Shelter Foundation
Inside Inside shelter shelter grade grade slab slab model model and and 2 2DD
drawing drawing showing showing position position of of different different
equipments, equipments, supports, supports, trenches trenches etc etc. .
62 62
Shelter Foundation Shelter Foundation
Slab Slab on on Grade Grade-- Design Design of of grade grade slab slab is is an an important important aspect aspect of of Building Building design design as as the the actual actual
loading loading for for design design is is unknown unknown. . Normally Normally UDL UDL is is assumed assumed for for design design of of slab slab and and nominal nominal
reinforcement reinforcement is is provided provided for for crack crack control control as as bending bending moment moment will will not not develop develop due due to to UDL UDL. .
Sometimes, Sometimes, loads loads due due to to forklift forklift movement, movement, maintenance maintenance work, work, pipe pipe or or other other platform platform supports supports
need need to to be be considered considered for for slab slab design design as as those those are are non non--uniform uniform and and concentrated concentrated in in nature nature. .
Extra Extra precautions precautions need need to to taken taken to to cater cater those those concentrated concentrated loads loads on on slab slab. . Generally Generally local local
thickening thickening of of slab slab with with extra extra reinforcement reinforcement surrounding surrounding those those supports/ supports/ areas areas are are done done to to
avoid avoid punching punching failure failure. .
63 63
END END
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