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1

What is the terminal velocity of a spherical steel particle, 0.40 mm in diameter, settling in an oil

of density 820 kg/m

3

and viscosity 10 mN s/m

2

? The density of steel is 7870 kg/m

3

.

Solution

For a sphere:

R

0

u

2

0

Re

2

0

=

2d

3

(

s

)g

3

2

(equation 3.35)

=

2 0.0004

3

820(7870 820)9.81

3(10 10

3

)

2

= 24.2

log

10

24.2 = 1.384

From Table 3.4: log

10

Re

0

= 0.222

Thus: Re

0

= 1.667

and: u

0

=

1.667 10 10

3

820 0.0004

= 0.051 m/s or 51 mm/s

Example 3.2

A nely ground mixture of galena and limestone in the proportion of 1 to 4 by mass is subjected to

elutriation by an upward-owing stream of water owing at a velocity of 5 mm/s. Assuming that

the size distribution for each material is the same, and is as shown in the following table, estimate

the percentage of galena in the material carried away and in the material left behind. The viscosity

of water is 1 mN s/m

2

and Stokes equation (3.1) may be used.

Diameter (m) 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 100

Undersize (per cent by mass) 15 28 48 54 64 72 78 88

The densities of galena and limestone are 7500 and 2700 kg/m

3

, respectively.

Solution

The rst step is to determine the size of a particle which has a settling velocity equal to that of the

upward ow of uid, that is 5 mm/s.

Taking the largest particle, d = (100 10

6

) = 0.0001 m

and: Re

= (5 10

3

0.0001 1000)/(1 10

3

) = 0.5

Thus, for the bulk of particles, the ow will be within region (a) in Figure 3.4 and the settling

velocity is given by Stokes equation:

u

0

= (d

2

g/18)(

s

) (equation 3.24)

For a particle of galena settling in water at 5 mm/s:

(5 10

3

) = ((d

2

9.81)/(18 10

3

))(7500 1000) = 3.54 10

6

d

2

and: d = 3.76 10

5

m or 37.6 m

For a particle of limestone settling at 5 nmm/s:

(5 10

3

) = ((d

2

9.81)/(18 10

3

))(2700 1000) = 9.27 10

5

d

2

and: d = 7.35 10

5

m or 73.5 m

Thus particles of galena of less than 37.6 m and particles of limestone of less than 73.5 m

will be removed in the water stream.

Interpolation of the data given shows that 43 per cent of the galena and 74 per cent of the

limestone will be removed in this way.

In 100 kg feed, there is 20 kg galena and 80 kg limestone.

Therefore galena removed = (20 0.43) = 8.6 kg, leaving 11.4 kg, and limestone removed =

(80 0.74) = 59.2 kg, leaving 20.8 kg.

Hence in the material removed:

concentration of galena = (8.6 100)/(8.6 +59.2) = 12.7 per cent by mass

and in the material remaining:

concentration of galena = (11.4 100)/(11.4 +20.8) = 35.4 per cent by mass

As an alternative, the data used for the generation of equation 3.13 for the relation

between drag coefcient and particle Reynolds number may be expressed as an explicit

relation between Re

0

(the value of Re

and the Galileo number Ga. The equation takes the form

(10)

:

Re

0

= (2.33Ga

0.018

1.53Ga

0.016

)

13.3

(3.40)

The Galileo number is readily calculated from the properties of the particle and the uid,

and the corresponding value of Re

0

, from which u

0

can be found, is evaluated from

equation 3.40.

A similar difculty is encountered in calculating the size of a sphere having a given

terminal falling velocity, since Re

0

and R

0

/u

2

are both functions of the diameter d of

the particle. This calculation is similarly facilitated by the use of another combination,

(R

0

/u

2

0

)Re

1

0

, which is independent of diameter. This is given by:

R

0

u

2

0

Re

1

0

=

2g

3

2

u

3

0

(

s

) (3.41)

Log Re

/u

2

)Re

1

] in Table 3.5 and the functions are

plotted in Figure 3.6. The diameter of a sphere of known terminal falling velocity may

be calculated by evaluating (R

0

/u

2

0

)Re

1

0

, and then nding the corresponding value of

Re

0

, from which the diameter may be calculated.

As an alternative to this procedure, the data used for the generation of equation 3.13

may be expressed to give Re

0

as an explicit function of {(R

/u

2

0

)Re

1

0

}, which from

Table 3.5. Values of log Re

as a function of log{(R

/u

2

)Re

1

} for spherical particles

log{(R

/u

2

)Re

1

} 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

5 3.401

4 3.316 3.231 3.148 3.065 2.984 2.903 2.824 2.745 2.668 2.591

3 2.517 2.443 2.372 2.300 2.231 2.162 2.095 2.027 1.961 1.894

2 1.829 1.763 1.699 1.634 1.571 1.508 1.496 1.383 1.322 1.260

1 1.200 1.140 1.081 1.022 0.963 0.904 0.846 0.788 0.730 0.672

0 0.616 0.560 0.505 0.449 0.394 0.339 0.286 0.232 0.178 0.125

1 0.072 0.019

1.969

1.919

1.865

1.811

1.760

1.708

1.656

1.605

2

1.554

1.503

1.452

1.401

1.350

1.299

1.249

1.198

1.148

1.097

3

1.047

2.996

2.946

2.895

2.845

2.794

2.744

2.694

2.644

2.594

4

2.544

2.493

2.443

2.393

2.343

2.292

equation 3.40 is equal to 2/3[(g/

2

u

3

0

)(

s

)]. Then writing

K

D

= (g/

2

u

3

0

)(

s

)], Re

0

may be obtained from:

Re

0

= (1.47 K

0.14

D

+ 0.11 K

0.4

D

)

3.56

(3.42)

d may then be evaluated since it is the only unknown quantity involved in the Reynolds

number.

PROBLEMS

3.1. A nely ground mixture of galena and limestone in the proportion of 1 to 4 by mass, is subjected to

elutriation by an upwardly owing stream of water owing at a velocity of 5 mm/s. Assuming that the size

distribution for each material is the same, and is as shown in the following table, estimate the percentage of

galena in the material carried away and in the material left behind. The viscosity of water is 1 mN s/m

2

and

Stokes equation may be used.

Diameter (m) 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 100

Undersize (per cent mass) 15 28 48 54 64 72 78 88

The densities of galena and limestone are 7500 kg/m

3

and 2700 kg/m

3

, respectively.

3.2. Calculate the terminal velocity of a steel ball, 2 mm diameter and of density 7870 kg/m

3

in an oil of

density 900 kg/m

3

and viscosity 50 mN s/m

2

.

3.3. What is the terminal settling velocity of a spherical steel particle of 0.40 mm diameter, in an oil of density

820 kg/m

3

and viscosity 10 mN s/m

2

? The density of steel is 7870 kg/m

3

.

3.4. What will be the terminal velocities of mica plates, 1 mm thick and ranging in area from 6 to 600 mm

2

,

settling in an oil of density 820 kg/m

3

and viscosity 10 mN s/m

2

? The density of mica is 3000 kg/m

3

.

3.5. A material of density 2500 kg/m

3

is fed to a size separation plant where the separating uid is water

which rises with a velocity of 1.2 m/s. The upward vertical component of the velocity of the particles is 6 m/s.

How far will an approximately spherical particle, 6 mm diameter, rise relative to the walls of the plant before

it comes to rest in the uid?

3.6. A spherical glass particle is allowed to settle freely in water. If the particle starts initially from rest and

if the value of the Reynolds number with respect to the particle is 0.1 when it has attained its terminal falling

velocity, calculate:

(a) the distance travelled before the particle reaches 90 per cent of its terminal falling velocity,

(b) the time elapsed when the acceleration of the particle is one hundredth of its initial value.

3.7. In a hydraulic jig, a mixture of two solids is separated into its components by subjecting an aqueous slurry

of the material to a pulsating motion, and allowing the particles to settle for a series of short time intervals

such that their terminal falling velocities are not attained. Materials of densities 1800 and 2500 kg/m

3

whose

particle size ranges from 0.3 mm to 3 mm diameter are to be separated. It may be assumed that the particles are

approximately spherical and that Stokes Law is applicable. Calculate the approximate maximum time interval

for which the particles may be allowed to settle so that no particle of the less dense material falls a greater

distance than any particle of the denser material. The viscosity of water is 1 mN s/m

2

.

3.8. Two spheres of equal terminal falling velocities settle in water starting from rest starting at the same

horizontal level. How far apart vertically will the particles be when they have both reached their terminal falling

velocities? It may be assumed that Stokes law is valid and this assumption should be checked.

The diameter of one sphere is 40 m and its density is 1500 kg/m

3

and the density of the second sphere is

3000 kg/m

3

. The density and viscosity of water are 1000 kg/m

3

and 1 mN s/m

2

respectively.

3.9. The size distribution of a powder is measured by sedimentation in a vessel having the sampling point

180 mm below the liquid surface. If the viscosity of the liquid is 1.2 mN s/m

2

, and the densities of the powder

and liquid are 2650 and 1000 kg/m

3

respectively, determine the time which must elapse before any sample

will exclude particles larger than 20 m.

If Stokes law does not apply when the Reynolds number is greater than 0.2, what is the approximate

maximum size of particle to which Stokes Law may be applied under these conditions?

3.10. Calculate the distance a spherical particle of lead shot of diameter 0.1 mm settles in a glycerol/water

mixture before it reaches 99 per cent of its terminal falling velocity.

The density of lead is 11 400 kg/m

3

and the density of liquid is 1000 kg/m

3

. The viscosity of liquid is

10 mN s/m

2

.

It may be assumed that the resistance force may be calculated from Stokes Law and is equal to 3du,

where u is the velocity of the particle relative to the liquid.

3.11. What is the mass of a sphere of material of density 7500 kg/m

3

which falls with a steady velocity of

0.6 m/s in a large deep tank of water?

3.12. Two ores, of densities 3700 and 9800 kg/m

3

are to be separated in water by a hydraulic classication

method. If the particles are all of approximately the same shape and each is sufciently large for the drag force

to be proportional to the square of its velocity in the uid, calculate the maximum ratio of sizes which can

be separated if the particles attain their terminal falling velocities. Explain why a wider range of sizes can be

separated if the time of settling is so small that the particles do not reach their terminal velocities.

An explicit expression should be obtained for the distance through which a particle will settle in a given time

if it starts from rest and if the resistance force is proportional to the square of the velocity. The acceleration

period should be taken into account.

3.13. Salt, of density 2350 kg/m

3

, is charged to the top of a reactor containing a 3 m depth of aqueous liquid

of density 1100 kg/m

3

and viscosity 2 mN s/m

2

, and the crystals must dissolve completely before reaching the

bottom. If the rate of dissolution of the crystals is given by:

dd

dt

= 3 10

6

+2 10

4

u

where d is the size of the crystal (m) at time t (s) and u is its velocity in the uid (m/s), calculate the maximum

size of crystal which should be charged. The inertia of the particles may be neglected and the resistance force

may be taken as that given by Stokes Law (3du) where d is taken as the equivalent spherical diameter of

the particle.

3.14. A balloon of mass 7 g is charged with hydrogen to a pressure of 104 kN/m

2

. The balloon is released

from ground level and, as it rises, hydrogen escapes in order to maintain a constant differential pressure of

2.7 kN/m

2

, under which condition the diameter of the balloon is 0.3 m. If conditions are assumed to remain

isothermal at 273 K as the balloon rises, what is the ultimate height reached and how long does it take to rise

through the rst 3000 m?

It may be assumed that the value of the Reynolds number with respect to the balloon exceeds 500 throughout

and that the resistance coefcient is constant at 0.22. The inertia of the balloon may be neglected and at any

moment, it may be assumed that it is rising at its equilibrium velocity.

3.15. A mixture of quartz and galena of densities 3700 and 9800 kg/m

3

respectively with a size range is 0.3

to 1 mm is to be separated by a sedimentation process. If Stokes Law is applicable, what is the minimum

density required for the liquid if the particles all settle at their terminal velocities?

A separating system using water as the liquid is considered in which the particles were to be allowed to

settle for a series of short time intervals so that the smallest particle of galena settled a larger distance than the

largest particle of quartz. What is the approximate maximum permissible settling period?

According to Stokes Law, the resistance force F acting on a particle of diameter d, settling at a velocity u

in a uid of viscosity is given by:

F = 3du

The viscosity of water is 1 mN s/m

2

.

3.16. A glass sphere, of diameter 6 mm and density 2600 kg/m

3

, falls through a layer of oil of density

900 kg/m

3

into water. If the oil layer is sufciently deep for the particle to have reached its free falling

velocity in the oil, how far will it have penetrated into the water before its velocity is only 1 per cent above

its free falling velocity in water? It may be assumed that the force on the particle is given by Newtons law

and that the particle drag coefcient, R

/u

2

= 0.22.

3.17. Two spherical particles, one of density 3000 kg/m

3

and diameter 20 m, and the other of density

2000 kg/m

3

and diameter 30 m, start settling from rest at the same horizontal level in a liquid of density

900 kg/m

3

and of viscosity 3 mN s/m

2

. After what period of settling will the particles be again at the same

horizontal level? It may be assumed that Stokes Law is applicable, and the effect of mass acceleration of the

liquid moved with each sphere may be ignored.

3.18. What will be the terminal velocity of a glass sphere 1 mm in diameter in water if the density of glass

is 2500 kg/m

3

?

3.19. What is the mass of a sphere of density 7500 kg/m

3

which has a terminal velocity of 0.7 m/s in a large

tank of water?

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