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UNIT -I

COMPLEX ANALYSIS

LESSON-1 INTRODUCTION TO THE CONCEPT OF ANALYTIC FUNCTIONS

CONTENTS
1.0 Aim and Objectives
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Limits and continuity
1.3 Analytic Functions
1.4 Polynomials
1.5 Rational Functions
1.6 Let us Sum up
1.7 Lesson-end Activities.
1.8 References

1.0 AIM AND OBJECTIVES

The terms such as limits and continuity, differentiability and analyticity of
functions of complex variables at a point are introduced.
After going through this lesson, you will be able to
(i) define limit and continuity of a complex function.
(ii) define differentiability and analyticity of a complex function.

1.1 INTRODUCTION
A complex – valued function f(z) in a domain D is said to be analytic at a point z = a in
D , if there exists a neighbourhood d < - | | a z , for 0 > "d , at all points of which the
function is differentiable. That is f ) ( ' z exists. If f(z) is differentiable at every point of a
domain then the function is said to be analytic in the domain D .
The points at which f(z) is not differentiable are called singular points of the function.

1.2 LIMITS AND CONTINUITY
Definition: Let w = f(z) be a function defined in some region containing a point
0
z
except perhaps at the point
0
z . As z approaches to
0
z , the value f(z) of the function is
arbitrarily close to a complex number l .Then we say that the limit of the function f(z) as
z approaches to
0
z is l .
Definition: A function ) (z f w = is said to have the limit l as z tends to
0
z , if given
, 0 > e there exists e d < - > | ) ( | 0 , l z f suchthat a , whenever 0< | z -
0
z | <d . We
denote this by writing . ) (
0
l z f Lim
z z
=
®

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2
(i.e)
0
z z
Lim
®
l = ) (z f exists, if for every , 0 , 0 > $> d e a such that the image of all points } | | / { 0 d < - Î z z c z lie inside e < - | | l w where ). (z f w = The reader should remember the following points, (1) If l z f z z Lim = ® ) ( 0 exists, then it is unique. (2) If l z f z z Lim = ® ) ( 0 and , ) ( 0 m z g Lim z z = ® then we have following properties, (a) ). ( ) ( )] ( ) ( [ 0 0 0 z g Lim z f Lim m l z g z f Lim z z z z z z ® ® ® + = + = + (b) )] ( ) ( [ 0 z g z f Lim z z - ® ). ( ) ( 0 0 z g Lim z f Lim m l z z z z ® ® - = - = (c) ). ( ). ( )] ( ). ( [ 0 0 0 z g Lim z f Lim lm z g z f Lim z z z z z z ® ® ® = = (d) 0 z z Lim ® ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( 0 0 z g Lim z f Lim m l z g z f z z z z ® ® = = , provided . 0 ¹ m (e) ), ( ) ( 0 0 z f Lim c cl z f Lim z z z z ® ® = = here c is a complex constant. (f) l z f Lim z z = ® ) ( 0 (g) 0 z z Lim ® Re f(z) = Re( l ). (h) ). ( ) ( 0 l lm z lmf Lim z z = ® Definition: Let f (z) be a complex valued function defined in a region D of the complex plane and let . 0 D z Î We say that f(z) is continuous at ). ( ) ( 0 0 0 z f z f Lim if z z z = ® That is f is continuous at 0 z if, given 0 , 0 >$ > d e a such that,
e < - | ) ( ) ( |
0
z f z f wherever . | |
0
d < - z z f is said to be continuous in D, if it is continuous
at every point of D. A continuous function is one which is continuous at all points where it
is defined. If f(z) and g(z) are continuous at
0
z , then ), ( ) ( ) ( ), ( ) ( ) ( z g z f ii z g z f i - +
), ( ). ( ) ( z g z f iii ), ( ) ( |, ) ( | ) ( z cf v z f iv z vii z vi Im ) ( , Re ) ( are also continuous at
0
z
(viii)
) (
) (
z g
z f
is continuous at
0
z if g(
0
z ) . 0 ¹

Definition: A function f(z) is said to be uniformly continuous in a domain D if given
0 < e , > $d a 0 (depending only on e ), such that e < - | ) ( ) ( | 2 1 z f z f , whenever 2 1 2 1 , , | | 0 z z where z z d < - < being any two points of the domain D. The function f(z) which is uniformly continuous on D is continuous on D. But the converse need not be true. This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 3 Definition: Let f be a complex valued function defined in a region D and let z ÎD. Then f is said to be differentiable at z, if z z f z z f Lim O z D - D + ® D ) ( ) ( exists uniquely and is finite and it is denoted by ). ( ' z f Examples (1) The function 2 z is differentiable everywhere. (2) The function z is no where differentiable. If f(z) is differentiable at a point z, then it is continuous at that point. But the converse is not true. If f(z) and g(z) are differentiable at a point z, then (i) f(z) + g(z), (ii) f(z)- g(z), (iii) f(z).g(z), (iv) cf(z) are all differentiable at z , (v) ) ( ) ( z g z f is differentiable at z provided g(z) 0. Note that 2 ' )) ( ( ) ( ' ). ( ) ( ' ). ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ' ) ( ' ) ( ) ( )' . ( z g z g z f z f z g z g f and z g z f z g z f z g f - = ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ + = 1.3 ANALYTIC FUNCTIONS Definition: A function f defined in a region D of the complex plane is said to be analytic at a point D z Î if it is differentiable at every point of some unspecified neighbourhood of z = a. A function f is said to be analytic in D if it is analytic at every point of D. If the function f(z) is analytic for all finite z, then it is called an entire function. A polynomial, z e , sinz, cosz are examples of entire function. If a function is analytic at a point ‘a’, then it is differentiable at ‘a’. But the converse is not true. For example, f(z) = 2 | | z is differentiable at z = 0, but it is not analytic there. The sum, difference and product of two analytic functions f(z) and g(z) are also analytic. The quotient ) ( ) ( z g z f is analytic if g(z) 0. Necessary Condition The definition of limit can be rewritten in the form ) ( ' z f = h z f h z f h Lim ) ( ) ( 0 - + ® . This is the same, irrespective of the path of approach to zero. If we choose real values for h, then y is kept constant. Then ) ( ' z f = x v i x u x f + = . This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 4 If h = ik, then ) ( ' z f = 0 ® h Lim ik z f ik z f ) ( ) ( - + = - y f i y v y u i + - = , , x v y u y v x u y f i x f - = = Þ - = \ which are the Cauchy – Riemann equations which are necessary for a function f(z) to be analytic. If u possesses continuous partial derivatives and if 0 2 2 2 2 = + y u x u (Laplace Equation), then u is said to be harmonic. The real and imaginary parts of f(z) = u + iv are both harmonic. v is said to be harmonic conjugate of u and vice versa. Sufficient condition The function f(z) = u + iv, where u and v are functions of x and y, is analytic in a domain D if (i) u and v are differentiable in D and x y y x v u v u - = = , . (ii) The partial derivatives y x u u , , x v and y v are all continuous in D. 1.4. POLYNOMIALS Every constant is an analytic function with the derivative 0. The simplest non- constant analytic function is z whose derivative is 1. The polynomial p(z) = n n z a z a z a a + + + + ... 2 2 1 0 is an analytic function where 1 2 1 ... 2 ) ( ' - + + + = n n z na z a a z p . For n > 0, the equation p(z) = 0 has at least one root. If ) ( 1 a p = 0, then p(z) = ) ( ) ( 1 1 z p z a - ; where ) z ( p 1 is a polynomial of degree 1 - n . Thus ) )...( ( ) ( ) ( 2 1 0 n z z z a z p a a a - - - = . Suppose that a is a zero of order h, then . ) ( ), ( ) ( ) ( o p where z p z z p h h h ¹ - = a a Lucas’s Theorem: If all zeros of a polynomial p(z) lie in a half plane, then all zeros of ) ( ' z p lie in the same half plane . We have . 1 .... 1 1 ) ( ) ( ' 2 1 n z z z z p z p a a a - + + - + - = Suppose the half plane H is defined by . 0 ) ( Im < - b a z If k a is in the half plane H and zÏ H, then we have . 0 ) ( Im ) ( Im ) ( Im > - - - = - b b z b z k k a a a a But the imaginary parts of reciprocal numbers have opposite sign, therefore 0 ) ( Im 1 < - - k z b a . If this is true for every k, then , 0 . ) ( ) ( ' Im 1 < - = å = k m h k z b I z p z bp a consequently 0 ) ( ' ¹ z p . This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 5 1.5 RATIONAL FUNCTIONS The rational function R(z) = P(z) / Q(z) is the quotient of two polynomials. The zeros of Q(z) are called the poles of R(z), and the order of a pole is equal to the order of the corresponding zero of Q(z). The derivative ' R (z) = 2 ) ( ) ( ) ( ' ) ( ) ( ' z Q z P z Q z Q z P - exists only when Q(z) ¹ 0. ' R (z) has same poles as ) z ( R , the order of each pole is increased by one. A rational function ) z ( R of order p has p zeros and p poles and every equation ) z ( R =a has exactly p roots. A rational function of order 1 is a linearization . o c b d a , d cz b az ) z ( S ¹ - + + = Every rational function has a representation by partial fractions. 1.6 LET US SUM UP 1. The concept of limits, continuity, differentiability and analyticity of a function of complex variable. 2. Necessary condition for a function w = f(z) to be analytic. 1.7 LESSON-END ACTIVITIES. 1. Verify the C – R equations of the functions w = sin z, w = z e 2. Assuming the existence of continuous first order partial derivatives of u and v, prove the existence of ) ( ' z f , for f(z) to be analytic. 1.8 REFERENCES 1. Complex analysis by L.V. Alphors, McGraw Hill, New York, 1972. 2. Foundations of Complex Analysis by Dr. S. Ponnusamy. This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 6 LESSON - 2 CONFORMALITY CONTENTS 2.0 Aim and Objectives 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Arcs and Closed Curves 2.3 Analytic Function in a Region 2.4 Conformal Mapping 2.5 Length and Area 2.6 Let us Sum up 2.7 Lesson end activities 2.8 References 2.0 AIM AND OBJECTIVES In this lesson we are going to discuss · The geometric properties of functions whose derivatives exist · To prove that if an analytic function f has a non-zero derivative at a point 0 z both in magnitude and direction. After going through this lesson, you will be able to: (i) define arcs and closed curves (ii) analytic functions in a region (iii) conformal mapping (iv) length and area 2.1 INTRODUCTION The existence of the complex valued derivative ' f imposes restrictions of f. It will be shown that infinitesimally close to 0 z where 0 ) ( ' 0 ¹ z f , f is a rotation by arg ) ( ' 0 z f and a magnification by | ) ( ' 0 z f |. Further, when 0 ) ( ' 0 ¹ z f , then the mapping w = f(z) preserves the angle between two curves 1 c and 2 c both in magnitude and direction at 0 z . To study these geometrical properties, the necessary definitions and points are given below. 2.2 ARCS AND CLOSED CURVES The equations of an arcg in the z-plane in the parametric form are x = O/ (t), y= y (t) where b £ £ a t and (t), and y (t) are continuous functions. The complex form is z = f (t) +i y (t). An arc is the continuous image of a closed finite interval and hence it is compact and connected. ) ( ' ) ( ' ) ( ' t i t t z y f + = exists and is not equal to zero, then a tangent to g exists whose slope is obtained from arg ) ( ' t z .The arc is differentiable if ) ( ' t z exists and is continuous .If ) ( ' t z exists, continuous and , 0 ¹ then g is said to be regular. An arc is piecewise differentiable if ) ( ' t z exists and is continuous except for a finite number of values of t. But at these points z(t) will be continuous and left and right derivatives will be equal to left and right limits of ) ( ' t z . This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 7 An arc is called simple or Jordan arc if ). t ( z ) t ( z t t 2 1 2 1 ¹ Þ ¹ i.e., if z is 1 – 1. An arc is closed if the end points are coincident. The opposite arc of b £ £ a = t ), t ( z z , is the arc a - £ £ b - - = t ), t ( z z . Opposite arcs are denoted by g and - g . The equation of a circle whose radius is r and centre ‘a’ is |z-a| = r is the complex form. Any point on this circle is given by p 2 0 0 , £ £ + = o i re a z . Example: The equation given by z(t) = cos t + i sin t, where p £ £ 2 t 0 represents a unit circle C, |z| = 1, described in the anticlockwise direction which is considered as positive direction. Here z(0) = 1 = z ( p 2 ). That is the end points are the same. The negative orientation of this is –C and is given by z(t) = cos ( p 2 - t) + i sin ( p 2 - t). This is a simple closed curve. But the curve z(t) = cost + i sint where p £ £ 4 t 0 is closed but not simple, because ÷ ø ö ç è æ p = ÷ ø ö ç è æ p 2 5 z 2 z . The curve z(t) = cost + i sint, p £ £ t 0 is a semi circle arc above the real axis. This is not closed since ) ( ) 0 ( p z z ¹ . 2.3 ANALYTIC FUNCTIONS IN A REGION If the derivative h z f h z f h Lim z f ) ( ) ( 0 ) ( ' - + ® = exists in an interior of some set A in which f(z) is differentiable, then we say that f(z) is analytic or holomorphic at z. Hence we discuss about the analyticity we exclude the boundary to A; Definition: A complex-valued function f(z), defined on an open set Wis said to be analytic in W,if its derivative exists at each point of W. Therefore, in this context, we say that a function f(z) is analytic at a point 0 z , if f(z) is defined and has a derivative in some unspecified open neighbourhood of . 0 z Definition: Let f be defined and continuous in a region W. Let C be a given curve by the equation ), (t z z = where b t a £ £ lying in W.then the function ) (z f = w defines another curve ' c in thew -plane and ' c is called the image of c under f. 2.4 CONFORMAL MAPPING Analyticity of conformal mapping Let us now prove that if w =f(z) is conformal, then f(z) is an analytic function. Let ds and dz be the line elements in z – plane and w – plane respectively. 2 2 2 dy dx ds + = and 2 2 2 dv du d + = s But dy y u dx x u du + = and dy y v dx x v dv + = 2 2 2 dy y v dx x v dy y u dx x u d ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ + + ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ + = s \ + ú ú û ù ê ê ë é ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ + ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ + ú ú û ù ê ê ë é ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ ÷ ø ö ç è æ + ÷ ø ö ç è æ = 2 2 2 2 2 2 dy y v y u dx x v x u dxdy y v x v y u x u ú û ù ê ë é + . 2 Since the transformation is conformal 2 ds = 2 ds is independent of direction. This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 8 Therefore comparing the above with 2 2 2 dy dx ds + = , we have 0 1 1 2 2 2 2 y v x v y u x u y v y u x v x u + = ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ + ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ = ÷ ø ö ç è æ + ÷ ø ö ç è æ ) 1 ______( 2 2 2 2 ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ + ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ = ÷ ø ö ç è æ + ÷ ø ö ç è æ Þ y v y u x v x u and 0 . . = + y v x v y u x u _____(2) l = ¶ - = Þ y u x v y u x u (say) y u x v and y u x u - = = \ l l _____(3) Put (3) in (1), we get ( ) 0 y v x u 1 2 2 2 = ú ú û ù ê ê ë é ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ + ÷ ø ö ç è æ - l 0 1 2 = - l \ Hence 1 ± = l . If x v y u and y v x u ¶ - - = = + = , 1 l ________(4) If x v y u and y v x u = ¶ - - - = , 1 l ______(5) Equation (4) is Cauchy – Riemann equation and hence f(z) is an analytic function. Equation (5) are reduced to (4) by writing –v in place of v, i.e., by taking as image figure obtained by the reflection in the real axis of w – plane. Definition: Let f be a continuous function defined in a regionW. Let W Î o z .Let 1 c and 2 c be two regular curves passing though 0 z , lying inW.Let ' 2 ' 1 c and c be the images of 1 c and 2 c is respectively under f. If the angle between 1 c and 2 c is equal to the angle between ' 2 ' 1 c and c both in magnitude and orientation, then f is said to be conformal at 0 z . Thus a conformal mapping preserves angle both in magnitude and direction. If the angle is preserved only in magnitude and the orientation is reserved, then the mapping is said to be isogonal. Theorem: Let f be an analytic function defined in a region D. Let . D Z o Î if ' f ( 0 z ) 0, then f is conformal at o Z . Proof: Let G be a regular curve lying in W and passing through o Z Î W . Let the equation of G be b t a where ), t ( z z £ £ = . Let o z = z( 0 t ), for some 0 t Î[a, b ]. The equation of the image curve g of G in the wplane under f is given by w(t) = f(z(t)). Therefore ). ( ' )) ( ( ' ) ( ' t z t z f t = w ) ( ' )) ( ( ' ) ( ' 0 0 0 t z t z f t = Þw ) ( ' ) ( ' 0 0 t z z = w = ) ( ' ) ( ' 0 0 t z z f = . This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 9 Since G is regular 0 ) ( ' 0 ¹ t z and by hypothesis 0 ) ( ' 0 ¹ z f .Therefore 0 ) ( ' 0 ¹ t w and = ) ( ' 0 t w arg ) ( ' 0 z f + arg ). ( ' 0 t z ; a + l = b Þ where b = arg ) ( ' 0 t w . a = arg ). ( ' 0 t z and l = arg ) ( ' 0 z f . a is the angle made by the tangent to the curve G at o z with the positive direction of x-axis is the z-plane. b is the angle made by the tangent to the image curve g at ) ( ' 0 z f with the positive direction of u-axis in the w -plane. \The transformations w = f(z) rotates the tangent at o z through an angle l .Let 1 G and 2 G be two regular curves passing through o z Î W lying wholly in W .Let 1 g and 2 g be their images in the w-plane under w =f(z). Let 1 a and 2 a be the angle made by the tangents to 1 G and 2 G at o z with the positive directions of x-axis. Let 1 b and 2 b be the angle made by the tangents to 1 g and 2 g at f( o z ) with the positive direction of u-axis .Hence we have 1 b =l + 1 a and 2 b =l + 2 a Þ 2 b - 1 b = 2 a - 1 a . Hence f is conformal 2.5 LENGTH AND AREA The important of consequence of conformality is discussed here. If G is an arc whose parametric equation is z = z(t), b t a £ £ ,then the length of d is L( G ) = ò + b a dt t y t x 2 ' 2 ' ) ( ) ( = ò c a dt t z ) ( ' . The length of image curve g of G determined by w = w(t) = f (z(t)) is ( ) ( ) dt t z t z f L b a ò = ) ( ) ( ' ' g \ L ( G ) = ò g dz and L ( g ) = dt z ò g g ) ( ' If E is a point set in the plane whose area A(E) = dy dx E òò and if f(z) = u (x,y) + iv (x,y) is a bijective differentiable mapping, the area of the image ' E = f(E) is given by ( ) dy dx v u v u E A x y y x E ò ò - = ' . Since f(z) is conformal in an open set containing E, using Cauchy – Riemann Equations we get ( ) ( ) dy dx z f E A E òò = 2 ' ' . 2.6 LET US SUM UP 1. Definitions of different arcs. 2. Definitions of conformality and isogonality. 3. Consequences of the derivative vanishing at a point. 4. Consequences of conformality. This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 10 2.7 LESSON END ACTIVITIES 1. If w = 2 z find the angle of rotation and scale factor at z = 2 + i. 2. Test the conformality of the following (a) w = n z , (n is a true integer). (b) w = z + z 1 . (c) w = sinz. (d) w = z 1 . (e) w = az + b (f) w = coshz. 2.8 REFERENCES 1. Complex analysis by L.V. Alphors. 2. Complex Analysis by A.R. Vashishtha. This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 11 LESSON - 3 LINEAR TRANSFORMATIONS CONTENTS 3.0 Aim and Objectives 3.1 Introduction 3.2 The Linear Group 3.3 The Cross-Ratio 3.4 Elementary Riemann Surfaces 3.5 Let us Sum up 3.6 Lesson end activities 3.7 References 3.0 AIM AND OBJECTIVES In this lesson we are going to discuss about a special type of conformal mapping namely linear fractional transformation, otherwise called mobius transformation or bilinear transformation, and some of the properties of linear fractional transformations such as preservations of cross-ratio, reflection points etc. After going through this lesson, you will be able to: (i) define linear group (ii) cross ratio (iii) elementary Riemann surfaces 3.1 INTRODUCTION A transformation of the form w = d cz b az + + , with ad-bc ¹ 0 ….. (1) is called a linear fractional transformation. It is sometimes referred to as bilinear transformation, since it is linear both in w and z. When ad – bc = 1, then (1) is said to be normalized. In the beginning of this lesson we discuss, in detail, some of the features of a linear fractional transformation. 3.2 THE LINEAR GROUP The linear fractional transformation w = S(z) = 0 , ¹ - + + bc ad where d cz b az has an inverse a cw b dw w S z + - - = = - ) ( 1 . If we write 2 1 z / z z = , 2 1 w / w w = , Then w = S(z) if 2 1 1 bz az w + = , 2 1 2 dz cz w + = or . z z d c b a w w 2 1 2 1 ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ = ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ Hence ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ + + + + = ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ = 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 d d b c c d a c d b b a c b a a d c b a d c b a S S All linear transformations form a group. In particular ( 2 1 S S ) 3 S = 1 S ( 3 2 S S ). The identity w = z is a linear transformation, and the inverse of a linear transformation is linear. The simplest linear transformation belong to matrix of the form ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ o o o o k o a 1 1 , 1 , 1 1 .The first one w = z +a is called a This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 12 parallel transformation. The second w = kz is rotation, if k = 1, and a homothetic transformation if k > o. The third transformation z 1 w = is called an inversion. If o c ¹ , we can write ( ) c a c d z c ad bc d cz b az + + - = + + / 2 ,this decomposition shows, that the most general linear transformation is composed by a translation, an inversion, a rotation, and a homothetic transformation followed by another translation. 3.3 THE CROSS – RATIO Let 2 Z , 3 Z , 4 Z be any three distinct points. Then there exists a transformation which map these points into 1, 0, ¥ respectively. If no point is ¥ , then the translation is ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 3 2 4 4 2 3 ) ( z z z z z z z z z S - - - - = ………….(1) If 2 z = ¥ , then the transformation is S(z) = 4 3 z z z z - - If 3 z = ¥ , then the transformation is S(z) = 4 4 2 z z z z - - If 4 z = ¥ , then the transformation is S(z) = 3 2 3 z z z z - - If T is another linear transformation which map 2 z , 3 z , 4 z into 1, 0, ¥ , are invariant points under 1 ST - . But this is true only for identify transformation. Hence 1 ST - =1 \S = T. Hence S is unique. Definition: The cross-ratio of four points ( 1 z , 2 z , 3 z , 4 z ) is the image of z, under the linear transformation which maps 2 z , 3 z , 4 z into 1, 0, ¥ respectively. \( 1 z , 2 z , 3 z , 4 z ) = ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 3 2 4 1 4 2 3 1 z z z z z z z z - - - - Theorem: The cross ratio of four points is invariant under linear transformation. Proof: .... 4 , 3 , 2 , 1 , 1 = = i Tz i w , ) ( 1 1 i T z w - = , 1 1 - ¹ ST z carries 4 3 2 , , Tz Tz Tz into ¥ , 0 , 1 Here S(z) is the linear transformation that carries 4 3 2 , , z z z into ¥ , 0 , 1 and Tz is any linear transformation, by the definition of cross-ratio. ( ) 4 3 2 1 , , , Tz Tz Tz Tz \ = ) ( 1 1 Tz ST - , = ) z ( S 1 , = ( 1 z , 2 z , 3 z , 4 z ). Hence the theorem. Note: The linear transformation which maps the given points 1 z , 2 z , 3 z into 3 2 1 , , w w w is given by ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 2 1 3 3 1 2 2 1 3 3 1 2 z z z z z z z z w w w w w w w w - - - - = - - - - Theorem: The cross ratio ( 1 z , 2 z , 3 z , 4 z ) is real if and only if the four points lie on a circle or on a straight line. Proof: Let 1 z , 2 z , 3 z , 4 z be concyclic or collinear points. Then ( 1 z , 2 z , 3 z , 4 z )= ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 3 2 4 1 4 2 3 1 z z z z z z z z - - - - . Hence arg ( 1 z , 2 z , 3 z , 4 z ) = arg 4 2 3 2 4 1 3 1 z z z z arg z z z z - - - - - This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 13 If ( 1 z , 2 z , 3 z , 4 z ) lie on a circle then this difference of arguments is either 0 or p depending on their relative positions of the four points. Similarly, if 1 z , 2 z , 3 z , 4 z are collinear, then also the difference is either 0 or p depending on their relative positions. In either case arg ( 1 z , 2 z , 3 z , 4 z ) = 0 or ± p . Hence ( 1 z , 2 z , 3 z , 4 z ) is real. Conversely, let ( 1 z , 2 z , 3 z , 4 z ) be real. We have to show that they are either concyclic or collinear. Now, z T = ( 1 z , 2 z , 3 z , 4 z ) is real on image of the real axis under 1 T - and nowhere else. \w = 1 - z T for real z satisfy Tw = Tw Hence d w c b w a d cw b aw + + = + + by cross multiplying, we get ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 0 | | | | 2 = - + - + - + - b d d b w a d c b w b c d a w a c c a . If a c c a - = 0, then this represents a straight line. { } 0 , 0 ¹ - = - \ b c d a a c c a when . If 0 ¹ - a c c a ,then the equation becomes a c c a bc ad a c c a b c d a - - = - - + w and hence it represents a circle. 3.4 ELEMENTARY RIEMANN SURFACES The Simplest Riemann surface is connected with the mapping by w = n z , where n >1, an integer. There is a one to one correspondence between each angle n / 2 | k z arg ) n / 2 ( ) 1 k ( p < < p - , k = 1, 2, …. n, and the whole w-plane except for the positive real axis. The Riemann surface corresponding to w = z e maps each parallel strip p < < p - 2 . k y n / 2 ) 1 k ( onto a sheet with a cut along the positive axis. 3.5 LET US SUM-UP The existence of inverse of the linear fractional transformation. All linear transformations form a group. A linear transformation is composed of a translation, inversion, rotation. Cross-ratio is invariant under linear transformation. Cross-ratio is real if and only if the four points lie on a circle or on a straight line. Elementary Riemann Surfaces. 3.6 LESSON END ACTIVITIES (1) If z T 1 = 3 2 + + z z , 1 2 + = z z z T , find z T T 2 1 , z T T 1 2 and z T T 2 1 1 - . (2) Find the linear transformation which carries 0, i, - i into 1, -1, 0. 3.7 REFERENCES 1. Complex analysis by L.V. Alphors. 2. Complex Analysis by A.R. Vashishtha. This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 14 UNIT-2 LESSON – 4 COMPLEX INTEGRATION CONTENTS 4.0 Aim and Objectives 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Line Integrals 4.3 Rectifiable arcs 4.4 Line Integrals as Function of arcs 4.5 Cauchy’s Theorem for a rectangle 4.6 Cauchy’s Theorem in a circular disc 4.7 Let us Sum up 4.8 Lesson end activities 4.9 References 4.0 AIM AND OBJECTIVES The aim of this lesson is to study line integrals, rectifiable arcs and the line integral of an analytic function over a rectifiable arc. After going through this lesson, you will be able to (i) define line integrals, rectifiable arcs, line integrals as function of arcs (ii) Cauchy’s theorem for a rectangle and a circular disk. 4.1 INTRODUCTION As in the case of real variables, the indefinite integral of a function of complex variable is the reverse process of differentiation. But in real variable, the definite integral depends only on limit points, since the only path of integration is the real axis. In the case of complex variables, the definite integrals are taken over differentiable or piecewise differentiable arcs and they are confined to analytic functions. As such, the definite integrals of complex functions generally depends on the curve joining the end points. 4.2 LINE INTEGRALS If f (t) = ) t ( i ) t ( y + f is continuous in (a,b), then ò ò ò f + f = b a b a b a dt ) t ( i dt ) t ( dt ) t ( f If b + a = i c , then ò ò = b a b a dt ) t ( f c dt ) t ( cf = ( ) ( ) ò ò - + - b a b a dt i dt bf ay by af We shall now show that if f(t) is any complex function, then ( ) ( )dt t f dt t f b a b a ò ò £ Let 0 i e c - = ,where 0is real. Then ( ) ( ) ú û ù ê ë é = ú û ù ê ë é ò ò - - b a i b a i dt t f e dt t f e 0 0 Re Re = ( ) ò - b a 0 i dt t f e Re ( ) ò - £ b a i dt t f e 0 = ( ) ò b a dt t f This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 15 {Q real part of a complex number is less than or equal to its modulus}. ( ) ú ú û ù ê ê ë é ò - b a 0 i dt t f e Re ( ) ò £ b a dt t f ……… (1) Let arg ( ) , 0 ò = b a dt t f then ( ) ( ) 0 i b a b a e dt t f dt t f - ò ò = (1) Þ ( ) ú ú û ù ê ê ë é ò - 0 i b a 0 i e dt t f e Re ( ) ò £ b a dt t f Þ ( ) ( ) ò ò £ b a b a dt t f dt t f Suppose g is a smooth arc given by z = z(t), b t a £ £ and f(z) is continuous on g . Then f(z(t)) is continuous at ‘t’ and we define ( ) ( )dt t z t z f dz z f b a r ò ò = ' ) ( ) ( . If g is piecewise differentiable or if ) ( ' t z is piecewise continuous, the interval can be subdivided in the obvious manner. The integral is invariant under a change of parameter. A change of parameter is defined by an increasing function t = t ( t ) which maps an intervals b £ t £ a and b t a £ £ . We assume that t( t )is piecewise differentiable. By change of variables; ( ) ( ) t t t t d t t z t z f dt t z t z f b a b a ) ( ' ) ( ' )) ( ( ) ( ' )) ( ( ò ò = But ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) t = t t t z dt d ) ( ' t t ' z . Therefore ( ) ( ) t t t t b a d t z d d t z f dt t z t z f b a ) ( ' )) ( ( ) ( ' )) ( ( ò ò = . The integral has the same value whether g is represented by z = z(t) or by z = z(t( t )). Definition: If g is the arc defined by z = z (t), b t a £ £ then g - is defined by z = z (-t), a t b - £ £ - . ( ) ( ) ò ò - - - - - - = \ g a b dt t z t z f dz z f )) ( ' ( ) ( = ( ) ( ) ò - - - a b du ) u ( ' z u z f , substituting u = -t = ò - g dz z f ) ( . Further, if g = 1 g + 2 g +…. ' n g then ( ) ò ò ò ò g g g g + + + = dz z f .... dz ) z ( f dz ) z ( f dz ) z ( f 1 2 This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 16 Integration with respect to arc lengths: ò ò = b a dt t z z f dz z f ) ( ' ) ( ) ( g = ò b a dt t z t z f ) ( ' )) ( ( Þ ò ò = g b a dt ) t ( ' z )) t ( z ( f dz f ( ) ò = £ b a dt ) t ( ' z ) t ( z f dz z f ò g | ) ( | Therefore if f = 1, ò ò g g £ dz dz = length of g . 4.3 RECTIFIABLE ARCS If z = z(t) is an arc defined in [a,b] and if a = b t ... t t n 1 0 = < < < ,then the least upper bound of all sums, ) ( ) ( ... ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( 1 1 2 0 1 - - + + - + - n n t z t z t z t z t z t z is equal to length of the arc. If this least upper bound is finite, then the arc is called rectifiable arc. If g is a rectifiable arc and f(z) is continuous on g , then ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ò å g = - - ¥ ® = dz t z t z u z n Lt ) z ( f n 1 k 1 k k k , where z( k u ) is any point on the arc joining ( ) 1 k t z - and ( ) k t z . Let us now study the class of integrals of the form ò g + qdy pdx which depend only on end points of g . In this case if 1 g and 2 g have same initial and end points, then ò ò g g + = + 2 1 qdy pdx qdy pdx Theorem The line integral ò g + qdy pdx defined inW depends only on the end points of g if and only if there exists a function u (x,y) Î W with the partial derivatives q y u p x u = = , . Proof: Necessary part Let the integral ò g + qdy pdx depend only on the end points of g . Choose a fixed point ( ) W Î 0 0 y , x and join (x,y) by a polygon g contained in W with sides parellel to axes. Since the integral depends on end points, let ( ) ò + = g qdy pdx y x u , . ) , ( 0 0 y x ) , ( y x g This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 17 If we choose the segment of g horizontal we can keep y constant. \ dy = 0. Suppose that x varies without changing the other segments. Choosing x as a parameter on the last segment, we obtain ( ) ( ) ò + = x dx y , x p y , x u constant …………………..(1) { } 0 dy = Q We do not specify the lower limit since it is immaterial for our purpose. From (1), we get p x u = . Similarly if we choose the last segment vertical, then it can be shown that q y u = . This proves the necessary part. Sufficiency Part Suppose there exists a function u (x,y) inW such that, q y u p x u = = , \If a, b are the end points of g , we have ò ò + = + g g dy y u dx x u qdy pdx dt dt dy y u dt dx x u b a ò þ ý ü î í ì + = dt . dt du b a ò = ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { } b a t y , t x u y , x u = = )) a ( y ), a ( x ( u )) b ( y ), b ( x ( u - = Thus the integral depends only on the end points, hence the theorem. Note: Now dy y u dx x u du + = qdy pdx+ = .i.e. pdx+qdy is an exact differential. Thus an integral depends only on the end points, iff the integrand is an exact differential. Note: When is f(z)dz = f(z)dx + i f(z)dy an exact differential? By definition of an exact differential, there must exist a function F(z) in W such that ) ( ) ( z f z F x = and ) ( ) ( z f i z F y = . y f i x f - = \ which is C-R equation. Further f(z) is by assumption continuous {otherwise ò g ) z ( f would not be defined}. Hence f(z) is analytic. Therefore, we have the fact that the This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 18 integral dz ) z ( f ò g with continuous function f(z) depends only on the end points of g if and only if f(z) is the derivative of an analytic function in W . Note The integral dz ) z ( f ò g depends only on the end points of g if and only if the integral of f(z) over any closed curve is zero. Definition: f(z) is analytic on the arc g if and only if it is defined and analytic in W that contain g . Note: By the results stated above ( ) ò g = - 0 dz a z n for all closed curves. curve g , since ( ) n a z- is the derivative of ( ) " + - + , 1 n a z 1 n integral n except n = -1. If n = -1, the above result does not hold. If c is a circle with centre ‘a’ and radius r , then , 0 i e a z r + = where . 2 0 0 p < £ Then ò ò p p = = - 2 0 c i 2 0 d i a z dz Example 1: Compute dz x ò g ,where g is the directed line segment from 0 to 1 + i. Answer: The parametric representation of the line is iy x z , t y , t x 1 t y t x + = = = Þ = = it t + = t ) i 1 ( + = , t varies from o to 1. Now dz = (1+ i) dt. \ ( ) ( ) ò + = ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ + = + l 0 1 0 2 2 i 1 2 t i 1 dt i 1 t Example 2: Compute dz z z ò = - 1 1 Answer: Let C be the circle be |z| = 1. on C, z = 1 e 1 x e 0 i 0 i - = - Þ ( ) 0 sin i 1 0 cos + - = Therefore ), 0 cos 1 ( 2 1 , 0 0 - = - = z id e dz i . 0 d | 0 d | | dz | = = On c, 0 varies from o to p 2 . 4.4 LINE INTEGRALS AS FUNCTION OF ARCS Line integrals of the form ò g + qdy pdx are studied as functions of the arc g , where p and q are defined and continuous in a region W and that g is free to vary in W . If 1 g and 2 g have the same initial point and the same end point, then ò g + 1 qdy pdx = This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 19 ò g + 2 qdy pdx .If g is a closed curve, then g and g - have the same end points, and if the integral depends only on the end points, we obtain ò ò ò - = = - g g g and consequently . 0 ò = g Conversely if 1 g and 2 g have the same end points, then 1 g - 2 g is a closed curve, and if the integral over any closed curve vanishes, it follows that ò ò = 2 1 g g 4.5 CAUCHY’S THEOREM FOR A RECTANGLE There are different forms of Cauchy’s Theorem which differ in their topological content. We begin with one form of Cauchy’s Theorem for which the contour of integration is the closed rectangle R defined by , , d y c b x a £ £ £ £ the order of the vertices being (a,c), (b,c), (b,d), (a,d). Statement: If the function f(z) is analytic on a rectangle R, then ò = R dz z f . 0 ) ( Proof: Subdivide the rectangle R into congruent rectangles ) 4 ( ) 3 ( ) 2 ( ) 1 ( R , R , R , R denote the boundaries of these rectangle by ) 4 ( ) 3 ( ) 2 ( ) 1 ( R , R , R , R ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ . Now dR = , dR dR dR dR ) 4 ( ) 3 ( ) 2 ( ) 1 ( + + + since the common sides each other. \ ) 1 .....( .......... dz ) z ( f dz ) z ( f dz ) z ( f dz ) z ( f dz ) z ( f ) 4 ( ) 3 ( ) 2 ( ) 1 ( R R R R R ò ò ò ò ò ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ + + + = Denote dz ) z ( f ) k ( R ò b y )) k ( R ( h . Clearly, for at least one ) k ( R (k = 1,2,3,4), we have ( ) ( ) ) 2 .....( .......... .......... ) ( 4 1 R R k h h ³ For, otherwise, ( ) ( ) å = h = h 4 1 k ) k ( R R £ ( ) å = 4 1 ) ( k k R h , (Triangle inequality) ( ) R h < . This is impossible \(2) is true for at least one K. Let R, denote one of the rectangles ) (k R for which (2) holds. Repeating the process, we obtain a sequence of nested rectangles. This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 20 n R R R R É É É É .... 2 1 with the property that ( ) ( ) 1 4 1 - ³ n n R R h h ( ) ( ) 3 3 2 2 4 1 4 1 - - ³ ³ n n R R h h and hence ( ) ( ) R R n n h h 4 1 ³ ……….(3) There exists a point 0 Z common to all the closed rectangles of the above sequence . Since f(z) is analytic on R, for a given 0 > e ,we can choose a 0 > d such that e < - - - Þ d < - ) z ( ' f z z ) z ( f ) z ( f z z 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 z z ) z ( ' f ) z z ( ) z ( f ) z ( f - e < - - - Þ ………… (4) Let d N ) z ( 0 be the set of points z for which d < - 0 z z . For sufficiently large n, we have n R ( d N ) z ( 0 ). Thus (4) holds good for all zÎ n R . Note that ò d = n R 0 dz and ò d = n R 0 zdz {Q The integrals 1 and 2 are the derivatives of the analytic functions z and 2 z 2 respectively & n R is closed}. = ò dz z f n R ) ( ò - - - n R o o o dz z f z z z f z f )] ( ' ) ( ) ( ) ( [ ò ò ¶ ¶ - £ - - - £ \ n n R R o o o o n dz z z dz z f z z z f z f R e h ) ( ' ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( , using (4) Let n d denote the length of the diagonal of n R . Then n 0 n d z z R z £ - Þ Î …….(5) ( ) dz z ' f ) z z ( z ) z ( f ) z ( f dz ) z ( f n n R 0 0 0 R ò ò ¶ ¶ - - - £ dz z z 0 R n - e £ ò d by (4) dz d n R n ò d e £ by (5) n n L d e £ ……….(1) Where n L denotes arc length of n R ¶ . Let d and L denote the length of the diagonal and the perimeter of the rectangle R. Then n d = d n - 2 and n L = L n - 2 . Now (3) Þ n n n R n R L d dz z f dz z f n e 4 ) ( 4 ) ( £ £ ò ò ¶ ¶ = L d n n n 2 1 2 1 4 e , = L d e . Since e is arbitrary, ò = R dz z f 0 ) ( This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 21 Theorem: Let ) (z f be analytic on the set ' R obtained from a rectangle R by omitting a finite number of interior points i e where 0 ) ( ) ( = - ® z f e z e z Lim i ij . Then ò = R dz z f 0 ) ( . Proof: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . It is enough to consider the case of a single rectangle. For R can be subdivided into smaller rectangles so that each rectangle has almost one i e in its interior. In fact, we can subdivide further, if necessary, and assume that j e is the center of the square to which it belongs. Since ò ¶R dz z f ) ( = å finite ò j R dz z f ) ( , it is enough to consider a single square o R with centre at e, and . 0 ) ( ) ( 1 1 = - ® z f e z e z Lt \ we get ò ¶R dz z f ) ( = ò n R dz z f ) ( after cancellations. Since , 0 ) ( ) ( 1 1 = - ® z f e z e z Lt given , 0 > e$ a 0 > d such that
, ) ( ) (
1
e < - z f e z whenever d < -
1
e z choose
o
R so small it is contained in the disk
d < -
1
e z . Therefore < ) (z f
1
e z -
e
on
o
R d .
Now
ò ò
¶ ¶
£
o o
R R
dz z f dz z f ) ( ) ( dz
e z
o
R
ò

-
<
1
e
.
If the square
o
R is of side 2a, then
1
e z - ³ a z e .
o
R ¶
\
a e z
1 1
1
£
-
,
ò

o
R
dz = length of = ¶
o
R 8a,
\
ò

o
R
dz z f ) (
a
1
e < .8a = e 8
ò

= Þ
o
R
dz z f 0 ) ( .

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22

4.6 CAUCHY’S THEOREM IN A CIRCULAR DISK
Statement: If f(z) is analytic in an open disk D , then
ò
=
g
, 0 ) ( dz z f for any closed curve
g in D .
Proof:
) , (
o o
y x

Define F(z) by F(z) =
ò
s
) 1 ( ... .......... ) ( dz z f .
Where s consists of the horizontal line segment form the centre ) , ( ) , (
0 0 0
y x to y x and
the vertical line segment from ) , (
0
y x to ) , ( y x
i.e., F(z) =
ò
=
OAP
dz z f ) (
ò
+
OA
dz z f ) ( ) 2 ( .......... ) (
ò
AP
dz z f .
The parametric representation of OA is z = t + i
0
y , \dz = dt, t varies from
0
x to x.
The parametric representation of AP is z = x + it, therefore dz = idt, t varies from
0
y to y.
\(2)
ò ò
+ + + = Þ
y
y
x
x
dt it x f i dt iy t f z F
0 0
) ( ) ( ) (
0
…….(3).
Since integral of F(z) along any closed rectangle is equal to zero,
ò
=
OAPBO
dz z f 0 ) (
+ Þ
ò
dz z f
OAP
) (
ò
=
PBO
dz z f 0 ) (
ò ò
= = Þ
OBP OAP
z F dz z f dz z f ). ( ) ( ) (
The parametric equation of OB is Z =
o
x + it, therefore idt dz = , t varies from
o
y to y.
The parametric equation of BP is , iy t z + = therefore dt dz = t varies from
o
x to x.
Therefore
ò ò ò
+ = =
BP OB OBP
dz z f dz z f dz z f z F ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
=
ò ò
+ + +
x
x
y
y
o
o o
dt iy t f dt it x f i ) ( ) ( ………..(4)
Differentiating (3) partially w.r.t. y, =

y
F
i f ) ( iy x + = i f (z),
Differentiating (4) partially w.r.t.x, =

y
F
f ) ( iy x + = f (z),
\ +

y
F
i =

y
F
f (z) + i
2
f(z) = f(z) - f(z) = 0.......... (5)
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23

If F = u + iv, then, , &
y y x x
iv u
y
F
iv u
x
F
+ =

+ =

(5) 0 ) ( ) ( = + + + Þ
y y x x
iv u i iv u , 0 ) ( ) ( = + + -
y x y x
u v i v u . &
x y y x
v u v u - = = Þ
\ The C-R equations are satisfied. Further ), (z f
x
F
=

=

y
F
i f (z) is continuous
y x y x
v v u u , , , Þ are all continuous. Hence F(z) is analytic on D . Also F(z) = f(z).
Hence by the previous theorem , 0 ) (
ò
=
y
dz z f for every closed curve g in D .
Theorem: Let f(z) be analytic in the domain
'
D obtained by omitting a finite no of
points
i
e from an open disk D . If f(z) satisfies the condition i z f z
e z
Lim
ii
i
" = -
®
, 0 ) ( ) ( r ,
then
ò
=
y
dz z f 0 ) ( for all closed g in
'
D .
Proof:

) , (
o o
y x
0
P(x,y)

If ) , (
0 0
y x itself is an exceptional point we can start with some other fixed point. Further
we cannot let s pass through the exceptional points. Suppose that
ii
r lies on the lines
o
x x = and .
o
y y = Then we can avoid the exceptional points by letting s consist of 3
segments. Applying previous theorem, we get that F(z) is independent of the choice of
the middle segment and the last segment can be either vertical or horizontal. As before
F(z) is an indefinite integral of f(z) and the theorem follows.

4.7 LET US SUM-UP
1. The necessary and sufficient condition that
ò
+
g
qdy pdx depends on the end points
only.
2. Deduction of the results (1)
3. Integral of an analytic function over a rectangle or a circle vanishes.

4.8 LESSON END ACTIVITIES
(1) Compute
ò
-
g
1
2
z
dz
where c is |z| = 2, +ve sense.
(2) Calculate
ò
g
xdz , where c is |z| = 1, +ve sense.
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24

4.9 REFERENCES
1. Complex analysis by L.V. Alphors.
2. Complex Analysis by A.R. Vashitha.
3. Foundations of Complex Analysis by Dr. S. Ponnusamy.

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25

LESSON – 5 CAUCHY’S INTEGRAL FORMULA

CONTENTS
5.0 Aim and Objectives
5.1 Introduction
5.2 The Index of a point with respect to a closed curve
5.3 Cauchy’s Integral Formula
5.4 Higher Derivatives
5.5 Let us Sum up
5.6 Lesson end activities
5.7 References

5.0 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
The main objective of this lesson is to know the formula for finding the
value of function at any point of the domain of analyticity. From this, the formula for
finding higher derivatives of an analytic function is derived.
After going through this lesson you will able to:
(i) define index of a point
(ii) to state Cauchy’s integral formula
(iii) to find Higher derivatives of an analytic function
(iv) to state Morera’s theorem
(v) to state Liouville’s Theorem

5.1 INTRODUCTION
Before going on to derive Cauchy’s Integral formula, let us define the notion
which indicates the number of times a closed curve winds around a fixed point not lying
on the curve. To explain this, consider the following lemma.

5.1 THE INDEX OF A POINT WITH RESPECT TO A CLOSED CURVE
Lemma: If the piecewise smooth closed curveg does not pass through a point ‘a’, then
the value of the integral
ò
-
g
a z
dz
is a multiple of i p 2 .
Proof: Let g be defined by z = z (t), . b a £ £t Consider h(t) =
ò
-
t
dt
a t z
t z
a
.
) (
) ( '

This is defined and continuous on ] , [ b a . \
a t z
t z
t h
-
=
) (
) ( '
) ( ' except possibly a finite
number of points where ) ( ' t z does not exist.
Now, { } [ ] = -
-
a t z e
dt
d
t h
) (
) (
0, except perhaps at a finite number of points.
Since this function is continuous,
) (t h
e
-
) ) ( ( a t z - = a constant c.
) ) ( (
) (
a z e
t h
- Þ
-
a = c, a z - Þ ) (a = { } 0 ) ( = a h e Q .
\ . ) ( ) ) ( (
) (
a z a t z e
t h
- = -
-
a
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26

Put t =b , . ) ( ) ) ( (
) (
a z a z e
h
- = -
-
a b
b

\
) ( b h
e
-
= { ), ( ) (
) (
) (
a b
b
a
z z
a z
a z
= =
-
-
Q since the curve is } closed ,
i n h e
h
p b
b
2 ) ( , 1
) (
= Þ = Þ (n is an integer),

ò
-
b
a
a z
dt t z ) ( '
= a multiple of i p 2 ,
ò
-
g
a z
dz
= a multiple of i p 2 .
Definition: The index of a point w.r.t g (the winding number of g w.r.t.a) is defined by
n( g ,a) =
ò
-
g
p a z
dz
i 2
1
.
Example: We know that i
a z
dz
c
p 2 =
-
ò
where c is a circle c with center a.
\ n(c,a) = 1. i.e, c winds around a only once.

Remark 1 n(- g ,a) = n( g ,a). i.e, winding number of g w.r.t.a is unaltered if the
orientation is changed.

Remark 2 n( g ,a) = 0 for all closed curvesg in a disc and for all points outside the disk.
Now,
a z -
1
is analytic inside the disk {Q a lies outside the disc}
Since " =
-
ò
, 0
1
g
a z
, closed curveg in the disk. {by Cauchy’s theorem for a circular disk}
\ n( g ,a) =
ò
-
g
p a z
dz
i 2
1
= 0.

Remark 3 n( g ,a) = n( g ,b) if a and b belong to the same region determined byg and
n( g ,a) = 0 if a belongs to the unbounded region determined by g .

Proof: Join a and b by a line segment not intersecting g .
Outside the line segment log
a z
b z
-
-
is analytic. Whose derivative
a z -
1
- .
1
b z -

\ , 0
1 1
=
þ
ý
ü
î
í
ì
-
-
-
ò
g
dz
b z a z
,
1 1
dz
b z
dz
a z
ò ò
-
=
-
Þ
g g
.
2
1
2
1
ò ò
-
=
-
Þ
g g
p p b z
dz
i a z
dz
i

Remark 4 As a point set, g is closed and bounded. Its complement is open and can be
represented as a union of disjoint regions, the components of the complement.

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27

5.3 CAUCHY’S INTEGRAL FORMULA

Theorem:
Let f(z) be analytic in an open disc D and let g be a closed curve in D .
For any point ‘a’ not ong , n( g ,a) f(a) = .
) (
2
1
ò
-
g
p a z
dz z f
i
Where n( g ,a) is the index of
‘a’ w.r.t g .
Proof: Consider F(z) =
a z
a f z f
-
- ) ( ) (
. F(z) is analytic at all points except at z = a.
But ( ) ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( a f z f
a z
Lim
z f a z
a z
Lim
-
®
= -
®
= 0 {Q f(z) is analytic}.
Hence by the previous theorem,
0
) ( ) (
=
-
-
ò
dz
a z
a f z f
g

ò ò
-
=
-
Þ
g g
a z
dz
a f dz
a z
z f
) (
) (
dz
a z
z f
i a z
dz
i
a f
ò ò
-
=
-
Þ
g g
p p
) (
2
1
2
1
) (
dz
a z
z f
i
a n a f
ò
-
= Þ
g
p
g
) (
2
1
) , ( ) ( …….. (1), hence the theorem.
Remark 1 If a D Ï , then n( g ,a) = 0, Since
a z -
1
is analytic in D , 0
) (
=
-
ò
dz
a z
z f
g
{by
Cauchy’s theorem for a circular disc}. \L.H.S = 0 = R.H.S of (1). Hence (1) is true for
all a D Ï .

Remark 2 In the special case n( g ,a) = 1, We have f(a) =
ò
-
g
p
dz
a z
z f
i
) (
2
1
and this gives
representation formula to compute f(a) as soon as the value of f(z) ong is given, together
with the fact, f(z) is analytic in D . This is called Cauchy’s Representation formula. By
change of notation, we write f(z) =
ò
-
g
r
r
r
p
.
) (
2
1
d
z
f
i
This is referred to as Cauchy’s
Integral formula.

Example:
(1) Compute dz
z
e
z
z
ò
=1 | |

. 2
1 | |
i dz
z
e
z
z
p =
ò
=
f(0) where f (z) =
z
e = . 2 i p
(2) Compute
ò
=
+
2 | |
2
1
z
z
dz
by decomposition of the integral into partial fractions.
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28

ú
û
ù
ê
ë
é
+
-
-
=
- +
=
+ i z i z i i z i z z
1 1
2
1
) )( (
1
1
1
2
therefore
ú
ú
û
ù
ê
ê
ë
é
+
-
-
=
+
ò ò ò
= = =
dz
i z
dz
i z i
dz
z
z z z
1 1
2
1
1
1
2 | | 2 | |
2
2 | |
= [ ] ) ( 2 ) ( 2
2
1
2 1
i f i i f i
i
- - p p ,
where
1
f (z) = 1 &
2
f (z) = 1, = p [1-1] = 0.

5.4 HIGHER DERIVATIVES
The Cauchy’s representation formula helps us to discuss the local properties of
analytic function. In particular we can prove that an analytic function has higher derivates
of all orders, which are also analytic. To do this, we require the following lemma.

Lemma:
Suppose that ) (r f is continuous on the arcg . Then the function
ò
-
=
g
r
r r f
n n
z
d
z f
) (
) (
) ( is analytic in each of the regions determined byg and its derivative is
). ( ) (
1
z nF z f
n n +
=
Proof: We shall prove this lemma by the method of induction. Let g Ï
o
z .
Step 1: We first prove that ) (
1
z F is continuous at g Ï
o
z , g is compact and ) (r f is
continuous ong . M < \ | || | r f for all g r Î .
Since g is closed, the complement of g is open.
\ $a d - neighbourhood of o z (which is in the complement of g ) not intersecting g . \ In the neighbourhood , 2 | | 0 þ ý ü î í ì < - d z z we find that 2 | | d r > - z for all g r Î and . | | d r > - o z Now, ) ( ) ( 0 1 1 z F z F - = r r r r f g d z z o ú û ù ê ë é - - - ò 1 1 ) ( = r r r r f g d z z z z ò - - - ) )( ( ) ( ) ( 0 0 r r r r f g d z z z z z F z F ò - - - < - Þ ) )( ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( 0 0 0 1 1 r r r r f g d z z z z ò - - - < | | | | ) ( ) ( 0 0 ò - < g r d | | 4 ) ( 2 0 d M z z } { M < | ) ( | r f Q and d r d r 1 | | 1 < - Þ > - z z L M z z 2 0 2 | | d - < \ e d d d ML ML L M z F z F o = = < - 1 2 2 | ) ( ) ( | 2 1 1 where L is the length of g , d 1 =e ) ( 1 z F \ is continuous at 0 z . This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 29 Step 2: ( ) 0 2 1 ) ( z F z F = . Apply step 1 to the function 0 ) ( z - r r f which is also continuous ong . This implies that r r r r f g d z z ò - - ) ( ) /( ) ( 0 is also continuous at 0 z ò - - Þ g r r r r f ) )( ( ) ( o z z d is also continuous at 0 z . Hence r r r r f g d z z z z z F z F ò - - = - - ) )( ( ) ( ) ( ) ( 0 0 0 1 1 tends to the limit ) ( 2 o z F as o z z ® Therefore r r r r f g d z z z z Lim z z z F z F z z Lim ò - - ® = - - ® ) )( ( ) ( ) ( ) ( 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 = r r r f g d z ò - 2 0 ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( 0 2 0 1 z F z F = Þ This is true for every 0 z not on g ). ( ) ( 0 ' 2 0 ' 1 z F z F = \ Hence the result is true for n = 1. Step 3: Assuming ), ( ) 1 ( ) ( 1 z F n z F n n - = - we have to prove that ). ( ) ( 1 z F n z F n n + = ) ( ) ( 0 z F z F n n - = r r r f r r r f g g d z d z n n ò ò - - - ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( 0 r r r r r r f g d z z z z n ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( 0 0 1 - - - - = ò - r r r f g d z n ò - - ) ( ) ( 0 r r r r f g d z z n ò - - = - ) ( ) ( ) ( 0 1 0 r r r d z z z z þ ý ü î í ì - - + - 0 r r r f g d z n ò - - ) ( ) ( 0 r r r r f g d z z n ò - - = - ) ( ) ( ) ( 0 1 r r d z z z þ ý ü î í ì - - + 0 1 r r r f g d z n ò - - ) ( ) ( 0 ò - - = - g r r r r f ) ( ) ( ) ( 0 1 z z d n r r r f g d z n ò - - ) ( ) ( 0 + ) ( 0 z z - ò - - g r r r r f ) ( ) ( ) ( 0 z z d n . Since ) ( 0 1 1 z F n- exists, ) ( 1 z F n- is continuous at 0 z . Similarly r r r r f g d z z n ò - - - ) ( ) ( ) ( 0 1 is also continuous at 0 z . Hence . 0 ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( 0 0 1 0 = ú ú û ù ê ê ë é - - - - ® ò ò - r r r f r r r r f g g d z d z z z z Lim n n Since, L M z z d n z z n 1 2 ) ( 0 0 ) ( ) ( ) ( + - < - - ò d r r r r f g the last term also ®0 as o z z ® . ® - \ ) ( ) ( 0 z F z F n n 0 as o z z ® ) (z F n \ is continuous at o z where r r r f g d z z F n n ò - = ) ( ) ( ) ( This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 30 Similarly ò - - g r r r r f ) ( ) ( ) ( 0 z z d n is continuous at 0 z . ò ò + - = - - ® g g r r r f r r r r f 1 0 0 0 ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( n n z d z z d z z Lim = ) ( 1 o n z F + Set ( ) ò - - - - = g r r r r f y d z z z n n 1 0 0 1 ) )( ( ) ( ( ) z n 1 - y is continuous at 0 z . ( ) ( ) ( ) 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 ' z z z z z z z Lim n n n - - - = - - ® y y y = (n-1) ( ) 0 z n y (by induction) = (n-1) ò + - g r r r f 1 0 ) ( ) ( n z d = (n-1) ) ( 0 1 z F n+ ) ( ) 1 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 z F n z d z z d z z z z Lim n n n + + - = ú ú û ù ê ê ë é - - - - - ® Þ ò ò g g r r r f r r r r f ò + + - + - = - - ® Þ g r r r f 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 ( ) ( ) ( n n n n z d z F n z z z F z F z z Lim ). ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 ( ) ( 0 1 0 1 0 1 ' z F n z F z F n z F n n n n + + + = + - = Since this is true for an arbitrary 0 z . ). ( ) ( 1 ' z F n z F n n + = Theorem: An analytic function defined in a region W has derivates of all orders and these are analytic onW. Proof: Let a W Î and f(z) be analytic inW. Consider a d - neighbourhood D about a in D , we take a circle c. For all z inside c, n(c,z) = n(c,a) = 1. Hence by Cauchy’s formula, F(z) = r r r d z f m c ò - ) ( ) ( 2 1 By the above lemma, the integral on the R.H.S. is an analytic function whose derivative is ò - c z d f 2 ) ( ) ( r r r . Therefore by the same lemma, the integral on the R.H.S is an analytic function. Therefore whenever f(z) is analytic inW, ) ( ' z f is also analytic inW. Thus ) ( ' z f = . ) ( ) ( 2 1 2 r r r p d z f i c ò - Similarly ) ( " z f = . ) ( ) ( 2 ! 2 3 r r r p d z f i c ò - By induction ) ( ) ( z f n = ò + - c n z d f i n 1 ) ( ) ( 2 ! r r r p are all analytic functions. This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 31 Morera’s Theorem Statement: If f(z) is defined and continuous in a regionW and if ò = g 0 ) ( dz z f for all closed curve g inW, then f(z) is analytic in W. Proof: ò = g 0 ) ( dz z f for all closed curveg implies f(z) dz is an exact differential which implies f(z) is analytic inW, such that ) ( ' z F = f(z) Þ f(z), being the derivative of an analytic function, itself is analytic inW by the above theorem. Cauchy’s Inequality Let f(z) be analytic inW. Consider a circle c, with centre a and radius ‘ g ’ contained inW. Hence, by Cauchy’s Representation Formula, ò + - = c n a n a z dz z f i n f 1 ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( 2 ! , p , ò + - = c n n a z dz z f i n a f 1 ) ( ) ( ) ( 2 ! ) ( p ò + - £ c n a z dz z f i n 1 ) ( ) ( 2 ! p ò + £ c n dz M n 1 2 ! g p where M = c z Î max |f(z)| g p g p 2 2 ! 1 + £ n M n = n r n M ! . Liouville’s Theorem Statement: A function which is analytic and bounded in the whole plane must reduced to a constant (i.e. bounded entire functions are constant). Proof: Let a be any point of the plane and C, a circle of radius r, centre ‘a’. f(z) is bounded ) (z f Þ £ m for all z, on C. \By Cauchy’s Inequality, V V V p d a f i a f c ò - = 2 ) ( ) ( 2 1 ) ( ' \ r M r M a f £ £ p p 2 2 1 | ) ( ' | . This is true for any circle with centre ‘a’. Let ¥ ® r , 0 ® r M \ ) ( ' a f = 0, "a C Î i.e. ) ( ' z f = 0. \ f(z) is a constant. Fundamental Theorem Statement: Every polynomial in z of degree n, n ³ 1 with real or complex co-efficient, then the equation p(z) = 0 has atleast one root. Proof: Let p(z) = . 0 , ..... 1 0 ¹ + + + n n n a z a z a a This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 32 If p(z) were not zero, then ) ( 1 z P would be analytic in the whole plane {since it is an entire function}. Let Q(z) = ) ( 1 z P . If Q(z) is not bounded, then P(z) = . 0 ) ( 1 ® z Q This is a contradiction \ Q(z) is bounded. Hence by Lioville’s Theorem, Q(z) reduces to a constant. This means that p(z) is a constant. This is, again, a contradiction. Hence the theorem. 5.5 LET US SUM-UP (1) Statement of Cauchy’s Integral formula (2) Statement of Morera’s Theorem (3) Statement of Liouville’s Theorem (4) Statement of Fundamental Theorem. 5.6 LESSON END ACTIVITIES (1) Find ò - 2 | | | | a z dz with the condition |a| ¹ 1. (2) Evaluate dz z z z ò = - 2 | | ) 1 ( sin (3) Evaluate . 1 2 3 | | 2 2 dz z z z z ò = + - 5.7 REFERENCES 1. Complex Analysis by L.V. Alphors.. 2. Complex Analysis by A.R. Vashistha. This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 33 LESSON – 6 LOCAL PROPERTIES OF ANALYTIC FUNCTIONS CONTENTS 6.0 Aim and Objectives 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Removable Singularity 6.3 Zeros and Poles 6.4 Local Mapping Theorem 6.5 The Maximum Principle 6.6 Chains and Cycles 6.7 Let us Sum up 6.8 Lesson end activities 6.9 References 6.0 AIM AND OBJECTIVES In this lesson we are going to study the local properties of analytic functions. We are also going to study the classification of isolated singularities and their properties. We are also going see the behavior of an analytic function f(z) at (z) = ¥ . After going through this lesson you will be able to (i) define Removable Singularity, Essential Singularity, Isolated Singularity, Meromorphic function. (ii) state Taylor’s Theorem, Weierstrass’s Theorem, Local Mapping Theorem, Open Mapping Theorem, Maximum Principle. 6.1 INTRODUCTION In the earlier lesson we have seen that derivative of an analytic function is also analytic. And that an analytic function has derivatives of all orders. Based on these results, we are going to study the local properties of an analytic function, the different types of isolated and non-isolated singularities etc. The proof of Taylor’s theorem is given using different ideas. 6.2 REMOVABLE SINGULARITY Let f(z) be an analytic function in the region W except at z = a and ( ) a z a z Lim - ® f(z) = 0 then z = a is said to be removable singularity of f(z). That is we say that a singularity of an analytic function which can be made to disappear by redefining the function suitably is called a removable singularity. As such it is an artificial singularity of less significance Example Prove that z = a is a removable singularity for ) ( ) sin( ) ( a z a z z f - - = Proof We first observe that z = a is a singularity of f(z). This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 34 Let us now expand f(z) about z = a. ( ) ( ) ( ) ú û ù ê ë é - - + - - - - = ... ! 5 ! 3 1 ) ( 5 3 a z a z a z a z z F ( ) ( ) ¥ - - + - - = ... ! 5 ! 3 1 4 2 a z a z Let us now redefine f(z) so that the singularity z = a is removed. ( ) a z if a z if a z a z z F ¹ ï ï î ï ï í ì = - - = , , 1 ) ( sin ) ( Hence z = a is called a Removable Singularity of f(z) Example: If 0 , sin ) ( 3 = - = z z z z z f is a Removable Singularity Example: If 0 , 1 ) ( = - = z z e z f z is a Removable Singularity Theorem: Suppose that f(z) is analytic in the region ' W obtained by omitting a point a from the region W . Then a necessary and sufficient condition that there exists a unique analytic function in W which is the same as f(z) in ' W is that ( ) 0 ) ( = - ® z f a z a z Lim . The extended function is uniquely determined. Proof: Necessary Part: Suppose that there exists an analytic function f(z) in W satisfying the conditions of the theorem. i.e. F(z) = f(z), ' W Î "z and F(z) is analytic. Since F(z) is analytic in W ,it is analytic at z = a and is also continuous at z = a. i.e. a z Lim ® F(z) = F(a) exists. Equivalently, given 0 > e ,there exists 0 > d a such that e < - ) ( ) ( a F z f .This means that ) ( ) ( a F z f a z Lim = ® 0 ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( = ® - ® = - ® z f a z Lim a z a z Lim z f a z a z Lim \ z = a is a Removable singularity of f(z). Sufficiency Part: Suppose that 0 ) ( ) ( = - ® z f a z a z Lim . ' W Î "z i.e; z = a is a Removable singularity of f(z). We now show that$ an analytic function F(z) W Î such that F(z) = f(z) in ' W .
Since ‘a’ is a removable singularity and since W Î a and since W is an open set, we can
find a circle c about ‘a’ such that c and its interior lie inW .
By Cauchy’s integral formula
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35

W Î "
-
=
ò
z
z t
dt t f
i
z f
c
,
) (
2
1
) (
p
and for all c a z Î ¹ . Since c is contained in ' W and f(t) is
analytic on c.
ò
-
c
z t
dt ) t ( f
is also analytic at every point that does not lie on c. In particular it is analytic at z
= a Now, let us define.
( )
ï
î
ï
í
ì
=
-
W Î "
=
ò
c
a z if
z t
dt t f
i
z z f
z F
,
) (
2
1
' ,
) (
p

This F(z) is the require function which is analytic in W .It follows that
ò
=
c
dz z f
i
z F ) (
2
1
) (
p
i.e. F(z) = f(z).
Let us now prove the Uniqueness

Let F(z), G(z) be two functions satisfying the conditions of the theorem.
\F(z) - G(z) = 0, ' z W e " and f(z) = G(z) is continuous at z = a. Therefore
) ( ) ( z G
a z
Lim
z F
a z
Lim
®
=
®

) a ( G ) a ( F = Þ . Since a is arbitrary, ) ( ) ( z G z F = , Z zÎ " . Hence f(z) is unique

Taylor’s Theorem
If f(z) is analytic in a region W containing ‘a’ then f(z) can be possibly written as
) ( ) (
)! 1 (
) ( ) (
) ( "
! 2
) (
) ( '
! 1
) (
) ( ) (
1 1 2
z f a z
n
a f a z
a f
a z
a f
a z
a f z f
n
n
n n
- +
-
-
+
-
+
-
+ =
- -

where ) z ( f
n
is analytic in W and dt
a t z t
t f
i
z f
c
n
ò
- -
=
) )( (
) (
2
1
) (
p
,where c is a circle around
‘a’ whose interior lies in W .

Proof: Consider the function F(z) =
( ) ( )
a z
a f z f
-
-
which is analytic inW except at z = a
) z ( F \ is analytic in ' W =W - {a}.
Here ( ) ( ) ( )
a z
a f z f
a z
a z
Lim
z f a z
a z
Lim
-
-
-
®
= -
®
) ( ) (
.
. ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( o a f a f a f z f
a z
Lim
= - = -
®
=
) z ( F \ is analytic in ' W and ‘a’ is a Removable singularity for f(z). By a pervious theorem,
we can find a unique function ), z ( f ) z ( f
1
= ' W Î "z
( ) ( )
a z
a f z f
) z ( f
1
-
-
= \
……………(1)
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36

Now ) z ( f
1
is analytic as f(z) is analytic except at z = a because at z = a,
( ) ( ) .
1
o z f a z
a z
Lim
= -
®
=
\z = o is removable singularity of ) z ( f
1
. $\ an analytic function ) z ( f 2 , W Î "z . Such that ) z ( f 2 ( ) ( ) a z a z a f z f ¹ " - - = , 1 1 ------ (2) From (1), f(z) = f(a) + (z-a) ) z ( f 1 . From (2) ( ) z f 2 = ( ) a f 2 + (z-a) , z f 3 extending this idea………………. We get ) z ( f ) a z ( ) a ( f ) z ( f n 1 n 1 n - + = - - Where n f (z) is analytic in W from the above equations, we get ) 3 ( )......... ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ... ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( 1 1 2 2 1 z f a z a f a z a f a z a f a z a f z f n n n n - + - + + - + - + = - - Differentiating (3) with respect to z, successively. .... ) ( ) ( 4 ) ( ) ( 3 ) ( ) ( 2 ) ( ) ( 4 3 3 2 2 1 ' + - + - + - + = a f a z a f a z a f a z a f z f .... ) ( ) ( 4 . 3 ) ( ) ( 3 . 2 ) ( 2 ) ( 4 2 3 2 ' ' + - + - + = a f a z a f a z a f z f .... ) ( ) ( 4 . 3 . 2 ) ( 3 . 2 . 1 ) ( 4 3 ' ' ' + - + = a f a z a f z f ………………………………… ) ( ) ( ! ) ( )! 1 ( ) ( 1 ) 1 ( a f a z n a f n z f n n n - + - = - - Putting z = a, we get ) ( ! 3 ) ( ) ( ! 2 ) ( ) ( ! 1 ) ( ) ( 4 3 2 1 a f a f a f a f a f a f a f ¢ ¢ ¢ = ¢ ¢ = ¢ = …………. )! 1 ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 ( 1 - = + - - n a f a f n n Using these values in (3), we get )! 1 ( ) ( ) ( .... ) ( ' ' ! 2 ) ( ! 1 ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 ( 1 2 - - + + - + ¢ - + = - - n a f a z a f a z a f a z a f z f n n Where f(z)is analytic in W To get the representation for n f (z) Consider a circle around ‘a’ whose interior lies in W . By cauchy’s integral formula for ) z ( f n , we have n f (z) = ) 1 .......( dt z t ) t ( f i 2 1 ) z ( fn c n ò - p = ( ) þ ý ü î í ì - - + + - ¢ ¢ + - ¢ - - - = - - 1 ) 1 ( 2 ) ( )! 1 ( ) ( ... ! 2 ) ( ) ( ! 1 ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( 1 ) ( n n n n a t n a f a t a f a t a f a f t f a t t f (1) Þ ò ò þ ý ü î í ì - - + + - ¢ - - - = - - c n n c n n a t n a f a t a f a f t f a t i z f 1 ) 1 ( ) ( )! 1 ( ) ( ... ! 1 ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( 1 2 1 ) ( p ò ò ò ò - - - - - - - - - - = c c n c n n c n a t z t dt a f i z t a t dt a f i z t dt a t t f a t t f i 1 ) )( ( ) ( 2 1 ) ( ) ( ) ( 2 1 ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( 2 1 p p p ) 2 ( ........ ) )( ( )! 1 ( ) ( 2 1 ..... ! 2 1 ) )( ( ) ( 2 1 2 ò ò - - - - - - ¢ ¢ = - c c n a t z t n dt a f i a t z t dt a f i p p Let ) (z F r = ò - - c r a t z t dt ) )( ( r = 1,2, …… n. This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 37 In particular if r = 1, ) ( 1 z f = ò - - c a t z t dt ) )( ( , using partial fractions ) )( ( 1 a t z t - - = , a t B z t A - + - we see that A = -B = a z - 1 \ ) ( 1 z f = a z - 1 ú û ù ê ë é - - - ò ò c c a t dt z t dt = a z - 1 [ ] ) , ( 2 ) , ( . 2 a c n i z c n i p p - ……. (3) But since n (c, a) = n(c, z), ) ( 1 a F = 0 from a Lemma, we have ) ( ' z f n = n ) ( 1 z F n+ \ ) ( ' 1 z F = 1. ), ( 2 z F ) ( " 1 z F = ) ( 2 ) ( 3 ' 2 z F z F = ) ( ' ! 3 ) ( ! 2 ) ( 4 ' 3 ' ' ' 1 z F z F z F = = …………………………….. ) ( ! ) ( 1 ) ( 1 z F r z F r r + = ………(4) \ ! ) ( ) ( ) ( 1 1 r z F z F r r = + . But ) ( 1 a F = 0 \ 0 ! 1 ) ( ) ( ' 1 2 = = a F a F . Similarly ) ( 3 a F = 0. In general ) (a f r = 0, r = 1,2, ….. n, using these results in (2), we get ò - - = c n n a t z t dt t f i z f ) )( ( ) ( 2 1 ) ( p Hence the theorem. 6.3 ZEROS AND POLES Theorem: Suppose that f(z) is analytic in a region W containing a point ‘a’ and f(a) = 0, ) (a f r = 0, r = 1,2, … then f(z) = 0 on W. Proof Consider a circle with centre at z = a and radius R and contained in W. Let m be the maximum of |f(z)|. i.e., |f(z)| < m on c \ f(z) can have Taylor’s expansion. i.e., f(z) = f(a) + ) ( ) ( )! 1 ( ) ( ) ( ..... ) ( ' ! 1 1 1 z f a z n a f a z a f a z n n n n - + - - + + - - - …… (1) Where ò - - = c n n a t z t dt t f i z f ) )( ( ) ( 2 1 ) ( p ………….(2) on c, |t-a| = R \ t-z = t-a + a – z Þ | | | | | | a z a t z t - - - ³ - | | 1 | | 1 a z R z t - - £ - \ This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 38 \ ò - - = c n n a t z t dt t f i z f ) )( ( ) ( 2 1 | ) ( | p ò - - £ c n a t z t dt t f | ) ( | | ) ( | | | | ) ( | 2 1 p ( ) ( ) | | 2 2 1 ) ( 1 a Z R R M a z R R R M z f n n n - - = - - £ \ - p p ………..(3) Now f(a) and all successive derivatives vanish at z = a ie; n f (a) = 0 for n³ o o a f a f a f = = = Þ )... ( ' ' ) ( ) ( ' \(1) ) ( ) ( ) ( 1 z f a z z f n n - = Þ n n a z z f z f ) ( ) ( ) ( - = Þ \ n n a z z f z f ) ( ) ( ) ( - = ……. (4) using (3) & 4, we get ( ) ) ( ) ( ) ( 1 a z R R M a z z f n n - - - £ - ¥ ® ® n as 0 { } R a z < - | | Q ie; f(z) is zero inside c. Let us now show that f(z) is identically zero in the whole of W. Let 1 E denote the set of points where f(z) and all its derivatives vanish and , 2 E the set of points where the function or one of its derivatives is different from zero. Evidently 1 E is open. For if a 1 E Î , then there exists a circle about a of radius R such that f(z) and all its derivatives vanish inside c. i.e. c is contained in 1 E . Hence 1 E is open. Also 2 E is open. For if z 2 R Î , we can find a neighborhood of z through out which f(z) or one of its derivatives is different from zero. Hence 2 E is open. From the definition of 1 E and 2 E , 1 E È 2 E = W and 1 E Ç 2 E = f . Since W is connected, either 1 E or 2 E must be empty. Since a 1 E Î , 1 E is non – empty. \ 2 E is empty. Hence 1 E = W, since W Î "z , f(z) = 0. i.e. f(z) is identically zero inW. Note: Suppose f(z) ¹ 0 on W ie; f(z) is not identically zero. If f(a) = 0; then there exists an analytic function n f (z) such that ) (a f n ¹ 0 so that f(z) = n a z ) ( - n f (z) where f(a) = ) ( ' a f = … = ) ( 1 a f n- = 0. Now since ) (z f n is continuous and ) (a f n ¹ 0 in a neighborhood of z = a, z = a is the only zero of f(z) of order n in this neighborhood. That is, zeros of an analytic function which is not identically zero are isolated. Theorem: (i) If f(z) is analytic in a region W then its zeros are isolated (ii) If f(z), g(z) are two functions analytic in a region W and if f(z) = g(z) on a set which has an accumulation point on W, then f(z) º g(z). Proof (i) Suppose that z = a is a zero of order n for f(z). Then f(z) = n a z ) ( - ) (z f n . In particular ) (z f n is analytic at z = a and hence is continuous at that point. This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 39 \0 < e < | ) ( | a f n and$ad > 0 such that | ) ( ) ( | a f z f
n n
- < e for all zÎNd (a)
in W. Now | ) ( ) ( ) ( | | ) ( | a f a f z f z f
n n n n
+ - = ³ . ) ( | ) ( | e - ³ a f z f
n n

Hence | ) ( | z f
n
>0. ) (z f
n
has no zero in Nd (a) inW.
This means that f(z) has no zero in Nd (a). \ a is an isolated zero (ie) zeros of an
analytic function are isolated.
(ii) consider h(z) = f(z) – g(z). Since f(z) = g(z), " zÎS, n(z) = 0, "zÎS.
If a is an accumulation point of then by the continuity of h(z) at z = a, we get h(a) = 0.
\ h(z) is an analytic function onW having an accumulation point aÎ W at its zero.
\ h(z) º0, "zÎ W. i.e. f(z) – g(z) º0 Þ f(z) º g(z), "z on W.

Isolated Singularities
A singularity a of an analytic function f(z) is said to be an isolated singularity of
f(z) if $a d >0 such that the neighborhood 0<|z-a| <d has no other singularity of f(z). An isolated singularity ‘a’ of f(z) is called pole of f(z) if a z Lim ® f (z) = ¥ i.e. f (a) = 0. Note: The poles of an analytic function are isolated. Let f(z) have a pole at z = a. Then we can find a d >0 such that f(z) has no singularity in 0 < |z-a| < d and a z Lim ® f(z) = ¥. Since f(z) is continuous, there exists ' d £ d , such that f(z) ¹ 0 in 0<|z-a| < ' d . Consider g(z) = ) ( 1 z f in 0<|z-a|< 1 d . Then a z Lim ® g(z) = g(a) = a z Lim ® ) ( 1 z f = 0 \z = a is a zero of g(z). Let h be the order of this zero. Then we can write g(z) = h a z ) ( - h g (z) where h g (z) is analytic and non-null at z = a. i.e. ) ( 1 z f = h a z ) ( - ) (z g h \ f(z) ) ( ) ( z g a z h n - . \ f(z) has a pole of order h at z = a so that we can write f(z) = n a z ) ( - f (z) where f (z) is analytic and non- null at z = 0. Also f (z) does not tend to zero as z ®a. \ There is no pole of f(z) in the neighborhood of z = a. Hence z = a is isolated pole. \ Every pole is isolated. Meromorphic Function An analytic function whose only singularities are its poles is called a Meromorphic function. That is, f(z) is called Meromorphic if it is analytic except for its poles. Example f(z) = ) 3 ( 1 2 - z z , f(z) is Meromorphic because its only singularities are its poles z = 0,3. Note If f(z), g(z) are two Meromorphic functions defined in a region W , then This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 40 f(z) + g(z), f(z). g(z), ) ( ) ( z g z f are also Mermorphic. If f(z) and g(z) are analytic function in W , then ) ( ) ( z g z f is a meromorphic function in W if g(z) is not identically zero. The poles of ) ( ) ( z g z f are the zeros of g(z). The common zeros of f(z) and g(z) can be a removable singularity. Essential Singularity Let f(z) be analytic in the neighborhood of a except perhaps at z = a. Consider the following conditions. (a) a z Lim ® |z-a| a |f(z)| = 0. (b) a z Lim ® |z-a| a |f(z)| = ¥, where a is real. Now, there arise three possibilities. (1) If condition (a) holds for all a , then the function f(z) is identically zero. (2) There exists an integer h such that (a) holds for all a >h and (b) holds for all a <h. (3) Neither (a) nor (b) holds for nay real value of a . In the third possibility z = a is called an Essential singularity of f(z). Remark: In the case of a pole of order h at z = a, we can write f(z) = h a z ) ( - f(z) = ) (z f n can be expanded as a Taylor’s series about z = a as follows. h a z ) ( - f(z) = . ) )( ( ) ( ... ) ( 1 1 1 h h h h a z z a z B a z B B - + - + + - + - - f Where f (z) is analytic at z = a. \ f(z) = a z B a z B a z B h h h h - + - + - - - 1 1 1 ) ( ) ( + f (z), F(z) - f (z) = a z B a z B h h - + + - 1 ..... ) ( \ The singular part of f(z) at the pole z = a is the function r (z) = f(z) - f (z) Þ f (z) = f(z) – p(z) is analytic at z = a. Weierstrass’s Theorem on essential singularity Statement: An analytic function comes arbitrarily close to any given complex number in every neighborhood of an essential singularity. This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 41 Proof: Let z = a be an essential singularity of f(z). Let us assume that the essential were not true. There exists an analytic function which is not arbitrarily chosen to any complex value, say A. i.e. There exists ad >0 such that |f(z) – A| >d in the neighborhood of ‘a’ except for z = a. \ For any a <0, a z Lim ® |z - a| a |f(z)-A| = ¥. This means that z = a is not an essential singularity of (f(z) – A). We can find a real number B>0, such that a z Lim ® |z - a| b |f(z)-A| = 0 ……. (1) and (1) is true for every b >0. Assuming f(z) is not identically zero, ie; f(z) º/ 0. We have a z Lim ® |z - a| b |A| = 0 ……. (2) Hence |z - a| b |f(z)| = |z - a| b |f(z)-A+A| { } | | | ) ( | | | A A z f a z + - - £ b | | | | | ) ( | | | A a z A z f a z b b - + - - £ \ | | | | | ) ( | | | | ) ( | | | A a z a z Lim A z f a z a z Lim z f a z a z Lim b b b - ® + - - ® £ - ® = 0 using (1) & (2) \ | ) ( | | | z f a z a z Lim b - ® = 0. Hence z = a is not an essential singularity of f(z). This is a contradiction. Hence our assumption is wrong. \ An analytic function comes arbitrarily close to a given complex value in the neighborhood of an essential singularity. Definition Suppose f(z) is an analytic function and g(z) = f(1/z). If g(z) has a zero at z = 0. Then f(z) is said to have a zero at z = ¥. If g(z) has a pole at z = 0, then f(z) is said to have a pole at z = ¥. If g(z) has a removable singularity at z = 0, then f(z) is said to have a removable singularity at z = ¥. If g(z) has an essential singularity at z = 0, then f(z) is said to be an essential singularity at z = ¥. Theorem An entire function having a non-essential singularity at z = ¥ reduces to a polynomial. Proof Suppose f(z) is an entire function having a non-essential singularity at z = ¥so that we can write F(z) = f(z) = f(0) + ¥ + + + + .... ) 0 ( ! ..... ! 2 ) 0 ( " ! 1 ) 0 ( ' 2 n n f n z f z zf . If we assume g(z) = f(1/z), then g(z) has non-essential singularity at z = 0. This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 42 If h is the algebraic order at z at z = 0, then ) ( 0 z g z h Lim h ® is neither zero nor infinity. \$ a constant k>0 such that |f(z)
h
z - A| < 1, " |z| > k
i.e. for |z| > k, |f(z)
h
z | = |f(z)
h
z -A + A| £ |f(z)
h
z - A| + |A| £1 + |A|
i.e., for |z| > k, |f(z)
h
z | < B, B = 1 |A|
i.e., for |z| > k, | f(z) | < B |z|
h
…… (1)
Let R> k and c be a circle |z| = R.
Then by Cauchy’s estimate we have
n
h
R
Mn
f
!
) 0 (
) (
£ where M = Max |f(g)| on c…… (2)
But |z| = R Þ |z| > k, Þ |f(z)| < B |z|
h
= B
h
R , therefore M<B
h
R .
\
h n n
h
h
R
Bn
R
n BR
f
-
= <
! !
) 0 (
) (
. Allowing ¥ ® R , we get ) 0 (
) (n
f £ 0 if n>h.
Hence ) 0 (
n
f = 0, " n > h. Hence F(z) = f(0) + ) 0 (
!
..... ) 0 ( '
! 1
n
n
f
n
z
f
z
+ + which is a
polynomial.

Problem: Show that f(z) =
a z
e
- / 1
has an essential singularity at z = a.
Let f(z) =
a z
e
- / 1
, f(z) is analytic for all z except at z = a.
Hence f(z) is analytic in the annulus 0 < |z-a| < R < ¥
\ f(z) can be expanded as a Laurent’s series as
a z
e
- / 1
= 1 +
[ ] [ ]
¥ +
-
+ +
-
+
-
....
1
!
1
....
1
! 2
1
] [
1
! 1
1
2 n
a z
n
a z
a z

Here the principal part of the Laurent’s expansion has infinite number of terms. \z = a
is an essential singularity.
Problem: Show that for f(z) =
z
e , z = ¥ is an essential singularity.
To know the behavior of f(z) at z = ¥, it is enough to consider the behavior of
f(1/z) at z = 0.
Now, f(1/z) =
z
e
/ 1
which is analytic in the annulus 0 < |z| < R < ¥.
\ Its Laurent’s expansion about z = 0 is ¥ + + + + + = ÷
ø
ö
ç
è
æ
....
1
!
1
....
1
! 2
1 1
! 1
1
1
1
2 n
z n z z z
f .
There are infinite numbers of terms in the principle part.
\ f(1/z) has an essential singularity at z = 0.
\ f(z) =
z
e has an essential singularity at z = ¥.

Theorem
Let f(z) be an analytic function having no singularities except the poles in the
extended complex plane. Then f(z) is a rational function.

Proof
A rational function is the quotient of two polynomials.
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43

Given that f(z) is meromerphic Let f(z) have pole at z = a, b, c,…k of orders p,q,r,…. ¥
respectively.
Then
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
s r q p
k z c z b z a z
Z
z f
- - - -
=
.....
) (
f
----------- (1)
Where ) (z f is analytic for all finite z. ( ) ( ) ( ) ) ( ... ) ( z f k z b z a z z
s q p
- - - = \f

Hence by Taylor’s Theorem, ) (z f can be expanded as

å
¥
=
0
.. .......... ) (
n
n
z a z f (1) Put
u
z
1
=
å
¥
÷
ø
ö
ç
è
æ
= ÷
ø
ö
ç
è
æ
0
1 1
n n
u
a
u
f …………..(2)
The behaviors of ) (z f at z = ¥ is same as the behavior of
÷
ø
ö
ç
è
æ
u
f
1
at z = 0.
Since u = o is a pole of ) / 1 ( u f , the principal part of ) / 1 ( u f should have only finite
number of terms
\ (2) must have only a finite number of terms.
Hence (1) also must have only a finite number of terms.
\ ) (z f is a polynomial and therefore
( )
( ) ( )
s p
k z a z
Z
z f
- -
=
.....
) (
f
is expressed as a quotient
of two polynomials. Hence f(z) is a rational function.

6.4 LOCAL MAPPING THEOREM
Statement: Let
j
z be the zeros of a function f(z) which is analytic in a disc D and f(z)
does not vanish identically and each zero being counted as many times as its order
indicates. Then for every closed curveg not passing through a zero,
( ) [ ]
( )
( )
dz
z f
z f
i
z n
j
ò
å
¢
=
g
p
g
2
1
, where the solution has only a finite number of terms ¹ o.
Proof
Let f(z) be a function which is analytic in the open circular disc D and f(z) º o.
Let g be a closed curve in D .Such that f(z) ¹ o on g .
Now assume that f(z) has only a finite number of zeros in D .
i.e.,
1
z ,
2
z ,….
n
z where each zero is replaces as many time as its order indicates.
Since
1
z ,…..
n
z are the zeros of f(z) and f(z) is analytic, we can write
) ( ) )....( ( ) (
1
z g z z z z z f
n
- - = where g(z) ¹ o and analytic
log f(z) = log (z-
1
z ) +....+ log (z-
n
z ) + log g(z)
( )
( )
( )
( ) z g
z g
z z z z z f
z f
n
¢
+
-
+ +
-
=
¢
\
1
.......
1
1
( )
( )
( )
( )
dz
z g
z g
i z z
dz
i z z
dz
i
dz
z f
z f
i
n
ò ò ò ò
¢
+
-
+ +
-
=
¢
Þ
g g g g
p p p p 2
1
2
1
.....
2
1
2
1
1
………(1)
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44

Since g(z) is analytic
1
g (z) is also analytic and hence
( )
( ) z g
z g¢
is analytic as g(z) ¹ o.

\By Cauchy’s Theorem,
( )
( )
0 =
¢
ò
dz
z g
z g
g

\(1) reduce to
( )
( )
) , ( ...... ) , (
2
1
1 n
z n z n
z f
dz z f
i
g g
p
g
+ + =
¢
ò

{by the definition of index of a point w.r.t a closed are g } ( )
å
=
=
n
j
j
z n
1
, g
Thus we have proved the theorem if f(z) has a finite number of zeros in D .
If f(z) has infinitely many zeros in D , then for any closed curve g in A, we can find a
smaller disk
1
D such that A A Ì Í ' g .
Now there are only a finite number of zeros of f(z) in ' A .
Otherwise, if there are infinitely many zeros of f(z) in ' A , then closure of ' A will have an
accumulation point which is impossible.
That is we can find a sequence {
n
z } of zeros of f(z) such that
n
z tends to an
accumulation point
0
z as n ¥ ® , ( ) 0 ) (
0
=
¥ ®
=
þ
ý
ü
î
í
ì
¥ ®
=
n n
z f
n
Lim
Z
n
Lim
f z f
Hence
0
z is also a zero of f(z).Thus the zero
0
z of the analytic function f(z) is not
isolated. This is a contradiction. Applying first part of the proof through the disk ' D , we
get
å
ò
=
j
j
z n dz
z f
z f
i
) , (
) (
) ( '
2
1
g
p
g
……. (2)
Even if
j
z is a zero of f(z), then ) , (
j
z n g = 0 and therefore the contribution of such zeros
to the R.H. S is zero without affecting the result (2).

Deduction
(1) If w = f(z) and G is the image of g under f(z),
then
ò
g
p
dz
z f
z f
i ) (
) ( '
2
1
=
ò
-
g
w
w
p
.
0 2
1 d
i

From the previous theorem, ) 0 , ( ) , ( G =
å
n z n
j
j
g
(2) If g is a circle, then ) , ( ¥ g n = 1 or 0 according as a lies inside (or) outside D .
This means that
å
j
j
z n ) , (g gives the number of zeros of f(z) in g . Thus if g is a
circle, then n( G ,0) gives the number of zeros of f(z) in g .

(3) If a is any arbitrary complex number, applying the theorem to g(z) = f(z) – a,
we get
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45

ò
å
=
g
p
g dz
z g
z g
i
a z n
j
j
) (
) ( '
2
1
))) ( , ( (
and ) (a z
j
are zeros of f(z).
i.e.,
ò
å
-
=
g
p
g dz
a z f
z f
i
a z n
j
) (
) ( '
2
1
)) ( , (
\
ò
G =
-
g
w
w
p
) , (
2
1
a n
a
d
i

Again if g is a circle the terms of the above summation are each equal to 1(or) 0
according as ) (a z
j
lies inside or outside g .
\g is a circle then the number of roots of f(z) = a inside g is given by ). , ( a n G
(4) If a, b are in the same region determined by G , then ) , ( a n G = ). , ( b n G
i.e., number of roots of f(z) = a inside g is the same as the number of roots of f(z)
= b inside g . Thus if g is a circle, number of roots of f(z) = a is the same as the
number of roots of f(z) = b.

Theorem on Local Correspondence
Statement: Suppose that f(z) is analytic at
0
z , f(
0
z ) and f(z) -
0
w has a zero of order n at
0
z . If e >0 is sufficiently small, then there exists a d >0 such that for all a with |a-
0
w |
<d the equation f(z) = a has exactly n roots in the disc |z-
0
z | <e .

Proof
Choose
n
a >0, so that f(z) is defined and analytic in |z-
0
z | < 0 so that
0
z is the
only zero of f(z) in the disk.
Let g be the circle, |z-
0
z | <e andG , its image under the mapping w = f(z).
i.e. G is a closed curve. Since
0
z Îg Þf(
0
z ) =
0
w Ï G . Hence
0
w is in the complement
of
0
w Ï G .
Hence
0
z belongs to an open set and so there exists a neighborhood |w-
0
w | <d and for
every aÎ|w-
0
w | <d all the values of a are taken same number of times insideg .
But since f(z) =
0
w has exactly n coinciding roots inside g , f(z) = a also has exactly n
roots and every value of a is taken n times.

Open Mapping Theorem analytic
Statement: A non- constant function maps open sets onto open sets.
Proof: Let f(z) be a non-constant analytic function. Let W be an open set and let
0
z W Î . Let
0
w = f(
0
z ) and
0
w belong to the image of W we shall now prove that the
image of W is also open.
i.e. there exists neighborhood of
0
w contained in the image of W.
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46

By the theorem on local correspondence, $a neighborhood of 0 w contained in the image of W and$ a neighborhood | |
0
w w - <d of
0
w for every neighborhood | |
0
z z - < e ,
such that each value in | |
0
w w - <d is taken ‘n’ times by f(z) in | |
0
z z - < e contained
in W.
\n is the order of the zero
0
z of the function f(z)-
0
w .
This implies that the image of W contains the neighborhood |w-
0
w | <d .
Since
0
w is arbitrary it is true for every
0
w which is in the image of W. This means that
the image of W is open.
Corollary
If f(z) is analytic at
0
z with ' f (
0
z ) ¹ 0 it maps a neighborhood of
0
z
conformally and topologically onto a region.

Proof
Taking n = 1, in the local Mapping Theorem, the function f(z) -
0
w has a zero of
order 1 at
0
z for every point in |w-
0
w |< d , f(z) assumes the values only once in
| |
0
z z - <e . By the open Mapping theorem, a non – constant analytic function maps open
sets onto open sets.
Hence there is a 1-1 correspondence between the disc |w-
0
w |<d and the open disc
| |
0
z z - <e .
Since open set of z- plane correspond to open set of w-plane, the inverse function
1 -
f is
continuous and the mapping is topological.
As the inverse function is continuous, and analytic, the mapping is conformal.
Conversely, if the local mapping is 1-1, the theorem on local correspondence holds only
if n =1. i.e, the order of zero
0
z of the function is 1. f(
0
z ) = 0and ' f (
0
z ) ¹ 0. The
necessary and sufficient condition for the local mapping is that the mapping is 1-1 and
' f (
0
z ) ¹ 0.

6.5 THE MAXIMUM PRINCIPLE

Statement: If f(z) is a non constant function defined and continuous on a closed
bounded set E and analytic in the interior of E, then the maximum of |f(z)| on E is
assumed on the boundary of E.

Proof: Since E is closed and bounded, it is compact. Assume that |f(z)| has a maximum
value on E, say at
0
z of E (interior point of E).
Since f(z) is non – constant and analytic, i.e |f(z) - f(
0
z ) | < e if |z-
0
z | <d .
i.e. |f(z) - f(
0
z )| |< | f(z) – f(
0
z )| < d Þ |f(z)| is continuous.
If
0
z is an interior point, then | f(
0
z )| is the maximum of |f(z)| in |z-
0
z | <d contained in
E. But it is impossible unless f(z) is a constant in the complement of the interior of E
containing
0
z . By continuity, |f(z)| has its maximum on the whole boundary of that
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47

complement and this boundary is non – empty and is contained in the boundary of E.
Thus the maximum of |f(z)| is always only on the boundary of E.

Analytical Proof of Maximum Modulus Principle
Let f(z) be a non constant analytic function defined and continuous on a region W
then |f(z)| has its maximum only on the boundary of W.

Proof
Assume that |f(z)|, has its maximum at a point
0
z Î W (
0
z is an interior point of
W). Then we can find a neighborhood around
0
z which lies entirely in W. Let g be a
circle contained in this neighborhood of radius r so that its equation is of the form (t) =
0
z +
it
re , 0 £ t £ 2p . By Cauchy’s Integral formula.
dt re z f
i
d
z
f
i
z f
it
ò ò
+ =
-
=
p
g
p
x
x
x
p
2
0
0
0
0
) (
2
1 ) (
2
1
) (
This shows that the value of an analytic function at the centre of a circle is equal
to the arbitrary mean of its value on the circle only if the circle lies entirely in the region
of analyticity of f(z).
Therefore |f(z)| = dt re z f
i
it
ò
+
p
p
2
0
0
) (
2
1
| | ) (
2
1
2
0
dt re z
o
it
ò
+ £
p
p
.
Since |f(
0
z )| = maximum |f(z)| in W, we get ) (
0
it
re z f + £|f(
0
z )|
If the strict inequality holds at a single point for a single t, then by continuity of f(z), it
holds on the whole of g , ) (
0
it
re z f + < |f(
0
z )| which implies |f(
0
z )| < |f(
0
z )| which is
absurd. Therefore |f(z)| must be a constant and is equal to |f(
0
z )| for all sufficiently
small circles |z-
0
z | = r and hence in the neighborhood of
0
z .
\ It follows easily that f(z) must reduce to a constant. This is contrary to the hypothesis.
Hence our assumption that |f(z)| has its maximum at an interior point is wrong.
Hence |f(
0
z )| is maximum only on the boundary of W.

Schwarz Lemma
If f(z) is analytic for |z| < 1 such that |f(z)| < 1, f(0) = 0, then |f(z)| < |z| and | ' f (0)| £ 1.
If |f(z)| = |z| for some z ¹ 0 or if | ' f (0)| =1, then f(z) = cz, c is a constant and |c| = 1.
Proof: Define
ï
î
ï
í
ì
=
¹
=
0 ), 0 ( '
0 ,
) (
) (
1
z f
z
z
z f
z f for any z in |z| < |.
Here f(z) is analytic everywhere. If c is a circle |z| £ r < 1, then any z ,
r
c Î as |z| < r is
closed and bounded, f(z) is analytic and |f(z)| £ 1for |z| £ r.
Þ |f(z)| attains its maximum value on the boundary of |z| = r by the maximum modulus
principle.
\
| |
) (
) (
1
z
z f
z f =
r
1
£ As r ® 1, ) (
1
z f = £ 1, for z ¹ 0
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48

Þ 1
) (
£
z
z f
Þ|f(z)| £|z| and ) 0 (
1
f = ) 0 (
1
f <1. If |f(z)| = |z| for some z ¹ 0 or if
) 0 (
1
f = 1, then again using maximum modulus principle, we see that there exists a
constant c such that
z
z f ) (
= 1.
\ Letting C =
z
z f ) (
, |c| = 1, f(z) = cz, where |z| = 1. Hence the lemma.

Corollary
If f(z) is analytic in |z| < R, |f(z)| £ 1 in |z| < R and f(0) = 0, then |f(z)| <
R
z | |
.
From the given conditions, we see that f(Rz) is analytic in |z| < 1 and also
|f(Rz)| £ 1 and f(0) = 0 in |z| < 1.
Applying Schwarz Lemma for f(Rz), we get |f(Rz)| < |z| Changing z to
R
Z
,
we get |f(z)| £
R
z | |
.

Corollary
If f(z) is analytic in |z| < R and |f(z)| < m, f(0) = 0, then |f(z)| £
R
z M
.
Applying Schwarz lemma for ,
) (
M
R f
z
we get
M
R f
z
) (
< |z| Þ |f(Rz)| £M|z|
Changing z to z/R, we get |f(z)| <
R
z M
Hence the case.

6.6 CHAINS AND CYCLES

Definition: Let W be a region and
n
g g g ,..., ,
2 1
be a collection of arcs in W. The sum
g g g g = + + +
n
...
2 1
is called a chain. Here n is any arbitrary number.
We can write this chain g in the form g =
p p
a g a g a g + + + ...
2 2 1 1
where
1
g ,…,
p
g are the distinct arcs in W and no two of them are negative to each other and
p
a a a ,..., ,
2 1
are all integers.

Definition: A chain g is said to be a cycle if the curve in the formal sum (1) are all
closed curves. That is, each
1
g is a closed curve.
If g is a cycle in a region, we define the index of any point ‘a’ with respect to g
as n( g ,a) = n(
1
g ,a) + n(
2
g ,a) + … + n(
p
g ,a).

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49

Definition: A cycle r in a region W is said to be homologous to zero if n( g ,a) = 0,
"a W Ï . That is, if for all a in the complement of W, n( g ,a) = 0. We denote this fact by
g     0 (mod W) and read g is homologous to zero mod W. If
2 1
, g g are two cycles in a
region W, they are said to be equivalent.
If ) (
2 1
g g - ~ (mod W) i.e., n(
2 1
g g - ,a) = 0, "a W Ï i.e., n( ,
1
g a) = n( ,
2
g a),
"a W Ï . It is clear that all the results we have proved for closed curves are in fact valid
for arbitrary cycles in a region. Therefore the integral of an exact differential over any
cycle is zero.

6.7 LET US SUM UP

(1) Principle of maximum modulus
(2) Schwarz lemma
(3) Definition of chains and cycles, types of singularities, definition of removable
singularity and essential singularity.
(4) Behaviour of a function at z =¥.

6.8 LESSON END ACTIVITIES
(1) Show that |f(z)| < |f(
z
R )| implies the inequality
2 2
1
1
) ( 1
) ( '
z z f
z f
-
£
-
.
(2) Show that an isolated singularity of f(z) cannot be a pole of
z
e .
(3) Show that
z
e
/ 1
has an essential singularity at z = 0.
(4) Show that z = ¥ is an essential singularity of sin z and cos z.

6.9 REFERENCES
1. Complex Analysis by L.V. Alphors..
2. Foundation of Complex Analysis by Dr. S. Ponnusamy.
3. Complex Analysis by A.R. Vasistha

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UNIT-3
LESSON 7 THE CALCULUS OF RESIDUES

CONTENTS
7.0 Aim and Objectives
7.1 Introduction
7.2 The Residue Theorem
7.3 Argument Principle
7.4 Evaluation of definite integrals
7.5 Let us Sum up
7.6 Lesson end activities
7.7 References

7.0 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
In this lesson we define residue with respect to poles of an analytic function. This
helps us to evaluate contour integrals and definite integrals. We also study about the
number of zeros and poles, a meromorphic function, can have inside a closed curve.
After going through this lesson you will be able to:
(i) define residues and argument principle
(ii) state Residue theorem and Rouche’s theorem

7.1 INTRODUCTION
The results of the preceding section show that the determination of line integrals
of analytic function over closed curves can be reduced to the determination of periods.
Sometimes, finding periods may be difficult. Therefore, in this lesson we suggest a
method which helps us to evaluate integrals over closed curves without much calculation.
This is of great value in the further development of the theory. The calculus of residues
deals with this method of evaluating definite and contour integrals.

7.2 THE RESIDUE THEOREM

Definition 1 Let f(z) be analytic in a region W except at ‘a’ which is an isolated
singularity of f(z), we can find a d > 0 such that f(z) is analytic in the annulus region
0 < |z-a| <d . Then the residue of f(z) at z = a is a unique complex number R such that
f(z) =
a z
R
-
is the derivative of a single valued analytic function in the said annulus.
Theorem: If f(z) is analytic in ' W = W - {a} where ‘a’ is an isolated singularity. Then
there exists a unique complex number R, such that f(z) =
a z
R
-
is the derivative of an
analytic function.
Proof: Since f(z) has an isolated singularity at z = a, we can find a d > 0 such that f(z)
is analytic in the annulus 0 < |z-a| <d .
Let c be a circle, |z-a| = r where r <d write R =
ò
c
dz z f
i
) (
2
1
p
……. (1)
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Now, we consider
ò
þ
ý
ü
î
í
ì
-
-
c
dz
a z
R
z f ) ( =
ò ò
-
-
c c
a z
Rdz
dz z f ) (
=
ò
-
c
iR dz z f p 2 ) (
ò
c
dz z f ) (
ò
-
c
dz z f ) (
a z
R
z f
-
- Þ ) ( is derivative of an analytic function in the annulus
0 < |z-a| <d .
d
1
c
2
c

To prove the uniqueness of R, it is enough to show that
ò ò
=
2 1
) ( ) (
c c
dz z f dz z f , where
1
c
and
2
c are two circles 0 < |z-a| <
i
r , i = 1,2.
Since every closed curve G in this region is given by o dz z f =
ò
G
) ( (by Cauchy’s
Theorem). Choosing the points p,q on
1
c and
2
c . Consider the closed curve composed of
1
c from p to q in the anticlockwise direction. So the line pq, -
2
c and the straight line qp .
Then =
ò
G
dz z f ) (
ò ò ò ò
+ + +
- qp c pq c
dz z f dz z f dz z f dz z f ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2 1

0 =
ò
1
) (
c
dz z f =
ò ò
+
pq c
dz z f dz z f ) ( ) (
2

\
ò
1
) (
c
dz z f =
ò
2
) (
c
dz z f i.e.
ò
c
dz z f ) ( is independent of the radius of the circle c.
\ R is uniquely determined complex number.

Cauchy’s Residue Theorem: Let f(z) be analytic except at isolated singularity
in the region W. Then for and cycleg in W, which is homologous to zero and doesn’t
not pass through any of the points aj, then
å
ò
=
j
aj n dz z f
i
) , ( ) (
2
1
g
p
g
Residue of
f(z) at z =
j
a .
Proof In W, let
1
a , … , an be the isolated singularities of f(z), for each aj we can find
j
d such that f(z) is analytic in 0< |z-
j
a | <d j.
Let
j
c be the circle of radius <
j
d in the regionW.
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51
Let g be a cycle inW. Where ' W = W - {
1
a } – {
2
a } - … - {
n
a } which is homologous to
zero with respect to ' W .
Theng W =
å
W
j
j
c aj n ) (mod ) , (g , i.e., g =
å
W W ) ' (mod 0 ) , ( cj aj n g ,
i.e., g and
å
j
j
c aj n ) , (g are homologous to each other, i.e., by virtue of homologous we
have
ò
g
dz z f ) ( =
ò
dz z f ) ( =
ò
j
aj n ) , (g
å
ò
j
j
cj
c aj n dz z f ) , ( ) ( g =
å
j
j
p aj n , ) , (g (where
j j
R i p p 2 = )
=
å
j
j
iR aj n p g 2 ) , (
å
ò
= Þ
j
j
R aj n dz z f
i
) , ( ) (
2
1
g
p
g
=
å
j
aj n ) , (g Residue f(z)
at z =
j
a . Hence the theorem.

7.3 ARGUMENT PRINCIPLE
If f(z) is meromorphic in W with zeros
j
a and the poles
k
b , then for
every cycle g which is homologous to zero and not passing through any of the zeros or
poles, then
å å
ò
- =
k j
bk n aj n dz
z f
z f
i
) , ( ) , (
) (
) (
2
1
g g
p
g

Proof By Residue Theorem
) (
) ( '
Re ) , (
) (
) ( '
2
1
z f
z f
s aj n dz
z f
z f
i
j
å
ò
= g
p
g
at z = cj.
Where cj are the singularities of
) (
) ( '
z f
z f
. Since f(z) is memomorphic, f(z) is also
meromorphic.
) (
) ( '
z f
z f
is also meromorphic and the only singularities of
) (
) ( '
z f
z f
are zeros
and poles of f(z), every cj is either a aj or bk.
If aj is a zero of order h for f(z), then f(z) = ) 2 ( ) ( ) ( - - z f aj z
n
h

where ) (z f
n
is analytic and non-null at aj z - . Taking logarithm on both sides and
differentiating,
) (
) ( '
z f
z f
=
j
a z
h
-
+
) (
) ( '
z f
z f
h
h
Þ
) (
) ( '
z f
z f
=
j
a z
h
-
+
) (
) ( '
z f
z f
h
h
.
Since
) (
) ( '
z f
z f
h
h
is analytic . 0
) (
) ( '
2
1
=
ò
g
p
dz
z f
z f
i
h
h

\ . 0
) (
) ( '
2
1
=
ï
þ
ï
ý
ü
ï
î
ï
í
ì
-
-
ò
g
p
dz
a z
h
z f
z f
i
j h
h

Hence by definition of residue, we have
aj z
s
=
Re
) (
) ( '
z f
z f
= h.

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Note If G is the image of g , index w = f(z) then from the above theorem,
ò ò
G
G = = ) 0 , (
2
1
) (
) ( '
2
1
n
w
dw
i
dz
z f
z f
i p p
g
.
If G is in a circular disk which does not contain the origin, then n( G , 0) = 0.

Rouche’s Theorem Let g be a cycle homologous to zero in the region W and n( g , z)
is either 0 or 1 for any zÏg . Suppose that f (z), g (z) are analytic in W satisfying the
inequality |f (z) – g (z)| < |f (z)|, g Î "z . Therefore f (z) and g (z) will have the same
number of zeros in g .
Proof: Given that |f (z) – g (z)| < |f (z)|, g Î "z ….....(1).
Both f (z) and g (z) have no zeros on g . For, if f (z) has a zero on g , then |g (z)| < 0
from (1), which is false. Similarly if g (z) has a zero on g , then (1) Þ |f (z)| < |f (z)|
which is absurd. \ Both f (z), g (z) have no zeros ong .
From (1), we have 1
) (
) (
-
z f
z g
< 1, g Î "z …… (2)
Let F (z) =
) (
) (
z f
z g
on g \ The zeroes of f (z) are the zeros of g (z) and the poles of f (z)
are the zeros of f (z). Similarly if
k
b is the pole of order r for the function f(z), then we
can write f(z) =
r
bk z
-
- ) (
r
f (z) where
r
f (z) is analytic and non- null at z =
k
b . Taking
Logarithmic differentiation, we get
) (
) (
) (
) (
'
z f
z f
b z
r
z f
z f
r
r
k
+
-
- =
¢
) (
) (
) (
) (
z f
z f
b z
r
z f
z f
r
r
k
¢
=
þ
ý
ü
î
í
ì
-
-
- =
¢
\
Since the R.H.S is the derivative of an analytic function by Cauchy’s Theorem,
0
) (
) ( '
2
1
=
þ
ý
ü
î
í
ì
÷
÷
ø
ö
ç
ç
è
æ
-
-
- \
ò
dz
b z
r
z f
z f
i
k r
r
g
p

By the definition of residues, Res r
z f
z f
- =
¢
) (
) (
……(3)
(1) Þ ( )
) (
) ( '
,
) (
) ( '
2
1
Re
z f
z f
aj n dz
z f
z f
i
s
aj z
j
= å
ò
= g
p
g
( )
) z ( f
) z ( f
bk , n
k
si Re
bk z
¢
g +
å =
( ) ( )
å å
- +
j k
j
r bk n h a n , , g g
Where h and r are order of zeros aj and the poles
k
b ( ) ( )
å å
ò
- =
j k
j j
bk n h a n dz
z f
z f
i
, ,
) (
) ( '
2
1
g g
p
g
=
å å
-
k
k
j
j
b n a n ) , ( ) , ( g g the summation
of zeros
j
a and poles
k
b are done according to their degree of multiplication.

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7.4 EVALUATION OF DEFINITE INTEGRALS
The evaluation of proper and improper definite is somewhat difficult. Using
Cauchy’s Residue Theorem some of the definite integrals are solved in this lesson.
Integrals of types
ò
p 2
0
f(cos 0, Sin0 )d0,
ò
¥
¥ -
f(x) dx are solved. Number of zeros of an
entire function in a given region is found using Rouche’s Theorem
Unit Circle Problems
To solve problems of types
ò
p 2
0
f(cos 0sin 0)d0
Evaluate 0 | b | a ,
0 cos b a
0 d
2
0
> >
+
ò
p

Let l =
ò
p
+
2
0
0 cos b a
0 d
Let c be the unit circle |z| = 1.
On c, z =
0 i
e = cos 0+ sin0, 1/z =
0 i
e
-
= cos 0 - i sin 0

\cos 0 =
2
1
÷
ø
ö
ç
è
æ
+
z
z
1
and sin0 =
i 2
1
÷
ø
ö
ç
è
æ
-
z
z
1

dz =
0 i
e . id0 = zid0

\
zi
dz
0 d = on c, 0varies from 0 to p 2
ò
÷
ø
ö
ç
è
æ
+ +
=
c
2
1
z
2
b
a
zi / dz
I
ò
+ +
=
c
2
b az 2 bz
dz
i
2
ò
+ +
=
c
b
az
z
dz
bi
1
2
2
2
i x
bi
p 2
2
= x (sum of the resides)

x
b
4p
= (sum of the resides) …………….(1)
The poles of f(z) =
1
b
az 2
z
1
2
+ +
are given by
0 1 z
b
a 2
z
2
= + + i.e.
2
4
4 2
2
2
- ±
-
=
b
a
b
a
z
2
2 2
b
b a
b
a -
±
-
=
Let
b
b a a
2 2
- + -
= a &
b
b a a
2 2
- - -
= b
1 | | = ab & = b| | 1
| b |
b a a
2 2
>
- - -
1
| |
1
| | < = \
b
a
Hence a lies inside c and b lies outside c. Let us find residue at a
Residue at ( )
( )( ) b a
a a
a
- -
- =
®
z z
z
Lim
z
1
2 2
b a 2
b 1
-
=
b - a
=
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54
(1)
2 2
b a 2
b
x
b
4
l
-
p
= Þ
2 2
b a
2
-
p
=
Evaluate 1 a ,
0 cos a
0 d
0
>
+
ò
p

ò
p
+
0
0 cos a
0 d
. Let c be the unit circle |z| = 1 on c,
0 i
e z = and
0
1
i
e
z
-
=
\ cos 0
÷
ø
ö
ç
è
æ
+ =
z
z
1
2
1
and sin
÷
ø
ö
ç
è
æ
- =
z
z
i
1
2
1
0 , dz =
0 i
e id0 0 zid = . Therefore d0=
iz
dz
.
On c, 0 varies from 0 to p 2
\I
ò
÷
ø
ö
ç
è
æ
+ +
=
c
z
z a
zi dz
1
2
1
/
ò
+ +
=
c
2
1 az 2 z
zi / dz
i
2

i 2 x
i
2
p = (Sum of the residues) = p 4 x (Sum of the residues)
The poles of
1 az 2 z
1
) z ( f
2
+ +
= are given by
1 2
2
+ + az z = 0,
2
4 4 2
2
- ± -
=
a a
z 1 a a
2
- ± - =
Let 1 a a
2
- + - = a and 1
2
- - - = a a b

1 | | = ab and = b| | 1 1 a a
2
> - + . Therefore 1
| |
1
| | < =
b
a
Hence a lies inside c and b lies outside C
\Residue at ( )
( )( ) b a
a a
a
- -
- =
®
z z
z
Lim
z
1
1 2
1 1
2
-
=
-
=
a
b a

\(1) Þ I
1 2
1
4
2
-
=
a
x p
1 a
2
2
-
p
=
1 a
2
cos a
d
2
2
0
-
p
=
q +
q
ò
p
i.e.
1 a
2
cos a
d
2
2
2
0
-
p
=
q +
q
ò
p
i.e.
1 a
cos 1
d
2
2
0
-
p
=
q +
q
ò
p
.
By contour integration, show that
, e ) ma 1 (
a 4 ) a x (
mx cos
ma
3 2 2 2
-
¥
¥ -
+
p
=
+
ò
m < 0 and a < 0.
Let f(z) =
2 2 2
) ( a z
e
imz
+
Let G be the closed curve consisting of
(i) Positively oriented semicircular are c, sin (z) ³ 0, |z| = R.
(ii) The real axis from (-R, 0) to (R, 0).
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By Cauchy’s Residue Theorem, dz
) a z (
e
2 2 2
imz
ò
G
+
= i 2p x (Sum of the residues)
i 2 dx
) a z (
e
dz
) a z (
e
R
R
2 2 2
imz
c
2 2 2
imz
p =
+
+
+
ò ò
-
x (Sum of the residues).
The poles of f(z) =
2 2 2
imz
) a z (
e
+
are given by
2 2 2
) a z ( + = 0 Þ ) a z (
2 2
+ = 0 Þz = ± ai, each
is a pole of order 2. If z = ai, lies inside G . Then the Residue at ai =
! 1
) ( '
i
a f

where f (z) =
2
) ( ai z - .
2 2
) ( ) ( ai z ai z
e
imz
+ -
=
2
) ( ai z
e
imz
+

4
2
) (
) ( 2 ) (
) ( '
ai z
ai z e ime ai z
z
imz imz
+
+ - +
= f
3
) (
2 ) (
) ( '
ai z
e ime ai z
z
imz imz
+
- +
= f
Therefore ' f (ai)
i a
am e
am
3
4
) 1 ( +
=
-

(1) Þ
ò ò
-
+
+
+
R
R
imz
c
imz
dz
a x
e
dz
a z
e
2 2 2 2 2 2
) ( ) (
=
i a 4
) am 1 ( e x i 2
3
am
+ p
-
= ) am 1 ( e
a 2
ma
3
+
p
-
……. (2)
Now,
2 2
a z + ³ |z|
2
-
2
a =
2 2
a R - on c.
2 2 2
2 2
) a R (
1
a z
1
-
£
+
® 0 as R ® ¥ .
By a result,
¥ ® R
Lim
0 dz
) a z (
e
c
2 2 2
imz
=
+
ò
. Taking limits on both sides of (2), we get
ò
¥
¥ -
+
+
dx
) a z (
x sin i mx cos
2 2 2
) 1 (
2
3
am e
a
am
+ =
-
p

Equating real parts,
ò
¥
¥ -
+
dx
) a x (
mx cos
2 2 2
) am 1 ( e
a 2
am
3
+
p
=
-

ò
¥
¥ -
+
dx
) a x (
mx cos
2 2 2
) am 1 ( e
a 4
am
3
+
p
=
-
.

Problem
Show that
2
dx
x
mx sin p
=
ò
¥
¥ -
.
g
) 0 , ( R -
) 0 , (R
) 0 , ( r - ) 0 , (r

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56
Let f(z) =
z
e
imz
. f(z) is analytic for the values of z except at z = 0.
Hence origin is a Simple Pole of f(z) .
Let G be the closed curve consisting of
(i) the +vely oriented Semi Circular arc c, |z| = r , im(z) > 0
(ii) the real axis from (-R, 0) to (- r , 0)
(iii) the negatively oriented Semi Circular arc g , |z| = r , im(z) > 0
(iv) the real axis from ( r , 0) to (R, 0),
Now, f(z) is analytic within and on G .
Hence by Cauchy’s theorem,
0 dx
z
e
imz
=
ò
G
Þ
ò
c
imz
dz
z
e
+
ò
r -
-R
imz
dx
x
e
-
ò
g
dz
z
e
imz
+
ò
=
r
r
. 0 dx
x
e
imz
----- (1)
On c, |z| = R,
R
1
| z |
1
= ® 0 as R ® ¥ .
Hence
¥ ® R
Lim
0 dz
z
e
c
imz
=
ò
….. (2)
0 ® r
Lim
), ( ik dz
z
e
c
imz
a - b =
ò
k = .
0
z
z
Lim
®
z
e
imz
= 1 = i ( p -0)
Taking limits on both sides of 1.
¥ ® z
Lim
+
ò
c
imz
dz
z
e
ò
-
-
r
R
imz
dz
z
e
-
0 ® r
Lim
ò
g
dz
z
e
imz
+
ò
=
R imz
dz
x
e
r
. 0
0 +
ò
¥ -
0
dz
z
e
imz
- i p + 0
0
=
ò
¥
dz
z
e
imx
p i dx
x
mx i mx
=
+
ò
¥
¥ -
sin cos

Equating real and imaginary parts, 0 dx
x
mx cos
=
ò
¥
¥ -
and p =
ò
¥
¥ -
dx
x
mx sin
.
2
dx
x
mx sin p
= Þ
ò
¥
¥ -

Since the answer is independent of m, .
2
dx
x
x sin
0
p
=
ò
¥
-

7.5 LET US SUM UP
(1) Concept of residues
(2) Cauchy’s Residue Theorem
(3) Argument principle
(4) Statement of Rouches Theorem
(5) Methods of finding residues at poles.

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7.6 LESSON END ACTIVITIES
(1) Find the residues of
2 2
2
a z
z
+
at its poles.
(2) Find the residues of f(z) =
2 2 2
2
) a z (
z
+
at its poles.
(3) Find the residue of f(z) =
) 3 z )( 2 z ( ) 1 z (
z
4
3
- - -
at z = 1.

(4) Show that
3
2
cos 2
d
2
0
p
=
q +
q
ò
p

(5) Show that . | | | | ,
2
sin
1
2 2
2
0
b a
b a
d
b a
>
-
=
+
ò
p
q
q
p

7.7 REFERENCES
1. Complex Analysis by L.V. Alphors..
2. Foundation of Complex Analysis by Dr. S. Ponnusamy
3. Complex Analysis by A.R. Vashistha.

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58
LESSON – 8 HARMONIC FUNCTIONS

CONTENTS
8.0 Aim and Objectives
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Basic Properties
8.3 The mean value properties
8.4 Poisson’s Formula.
8.5 Schwarz Theorem
8.6 Let us Sum up
8.7 Lesson end activities
8.8 References

8.0 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
The objective of this lesson is to study about the harmonic functions.
If f(z) = u + iv is analytic, then both u and v are harmonic functions. We are going to
learn some of the basic properties of harmonic functions, such as mean value property,
the maximum principle for harmonic functions, Poisson formula etc.
After going through this lesson you will be able to:
(i) study about basic properties of harmonic functions
(ii) define homology
(ii) state the mean value property
(iv) state the maximum principle for harmonic functions
(v) state the Poisson’s formula and Schwarz Theorem

8.1 INTRODUCTION
If a real valued function u(x, y), defined and continuous together with its first and
second order partial derivatives satisfying the Laplace equation , 0
y
u
x
u
2
2
2
2
=

+

then u is
called harmonic function. The sum of two harmonic functions and a constant multiple of
a harmonic function are also harmonic. The Laplace equation in Polar form is
. 0
u
r
u
r
r
r
2
2
=
q ¶

+
þ
ý
ü
î
í
ì

8.2 BASIC PROPERTIES
(1) u = log r is harmonic.
(2) A harmonic function of r is of the form a log r + b.
(3) If u is harmonic in W , then f(z) =
y
u
i
x
u

-

is analytic.
(4) If f(z) =
y
u
i
x
u

-

= 0, then ' f (z) dz =
þ
ý
ü
î
í
ì

-

y
u
i
x
u
(dx + idy)
=
þ
ý
ü
î
í
ì

-

+
þ
ý
ü
î
í
ì

+

dx
y
u
dy
x
u
i dy
y
u
dx
x
u

' f (z) = du + idv … …… (1)
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59
If u has a conjugate harmonic function v, then dv = dy
y
v
dx
x
v

+

=
þ
ý
ü
î
í
ì

+

- dy
x
u
dx
y
u

(using C.R. equation) and if there is no single valued conjugate function.
Let it be du = dx
y
u
dy
x
u

-

and *du is called the conjugate differential of du.
i.e; *du = dv. Now (1) Þ f(z) dz = du + i *du.
If g is a cycle, which is homologous to zero in W then by Cauchy’s theorem.
ò
g
= 0 dz ) z ( f Þ
ò
g
= + 0 du * i du .

Theorem on Homology
If
2 1
u , u are harmonic in a region W then
ò
= -
g
0 * *
1 2 2 1
du u du u , for all cycle g
which is homologous to zero inW.

Proof Let
2 1
u , u be harmonic in W . Then
2 1
u , u have harmonic conjugate
i.e.;
2 1
du , du are harmonic conjugate differentials of
1
u and
2
u .
i.e.; *
1 1
dv du = and * .
2 2
dv du = \
1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1
* * dv u dv u du u du u - = -
= ) (
1 2 2 1 2 1
v u d u d v dv u - + ……. (1)

Where ) (
1 2
v u d is an exact differential and
2 1 2 1
u d v dv u + = Imaginary part of
) )( (
2 2 1 1
idv du iv u + + ……. (2)
If we put , ) ( , ) (
2 2 2 1 1 1
iv u z F iv u z F + = + = then
2 2
'
2
) ( idv du dz z F + =
\(1) & (2) Þ
ò ò ò
- = -
g g g
) ( ) ) ( ( Im * *
1 2 1 1 2 2 1
v u d dz z F I du u du u …(3)
Since )) ( ) ( Im(
1
2 1
Z F Z F is analytic, by Cauchy’s theorem ( ) ( ) ( ) 0 Im
1
2 1
=
ò
dz z F z F
g
.
Similarly ( ) 0
1 2
=
ò
g
v u d Hence 0 * *
1 2 2 1
= -
ò
du u du u
g

Note : If u u , 1 u
2 1
= = then we get
ò
g
= 0 du * .

8.3 THE MEAN VALUE PROPERTY
The Arithmetic mean of a harmonic function over concentric circles |z| = r is a
linear function of log r, a =
p
ò
=r | Z |
0 ud
2
1
log b + r and if u is harmonic in a disk, 0 = a and
arithmetic mean is a constant b . In that case b = u(0).
Proof Using the previous theorem with
1
u = log r,
2
u = u where u is harmonic in
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60
|z| < r (with origin removed). Choose W to be the punctured disc 0 <|z| <r and for g
take the cycle
2 1
c c - where
i
c , is the circle |z| = r <
i
r , described in the positive sense.
We know that *du | | dz
n
u

= .Where
n
u

is the directional derivative of u in the normal
direction.
But on the circle |z| = g is replaced by | dz |
n
u
du *
r
u

=

| dz |
r
u

= 0 d
r
u
r

=
ï
þ
ï
ý
ü
ï
î
ï
í
ì
=
=
=
0 rd | dz |
0 d ire dz
re z
0 i
0 i
Q

Putting u = log r, ) 1 ........( .......... 0 d 0 d ) r (log
r
r ) r (log d * du * =

= =
By the previous theorem, 0 du u du u
1 2 2 1
= + -
ò
l
0 du * u du * u
1 2 2 1
2 1
= - =
ò
Ï - Ï

Putting
1
u = logr , u u =
2
, we get 0 ) (log * * log
| |
= - =
ò
=
r d u du r
r z

( ) . 0 0 * log
| |
= -
ò
=r z
d u du r
In other words it implies that the value of the integral is the same.
i.e.. It is constant on different paths
2 1
, c c .Let it be ) ( b - .
\
ò
=r | Z |
(log r* du – u d0) = constant = b -
Þ ÷
ø
ö
ç
è
æ
p
+ b =
p
ò ò
=
du *
2
1
r log 0 ud
2
1
r | Z |
r log + b = ……(2)
If u is harmonic in a disk, then 0 = a .
By Cauchy’s integral formula,
) 0 ( u
0 z
dz ) Z ( u
i 2
1
r | Z |
=
- p
ò
=
Þ b
p
p
= =
ò
) 0 (
) (
2
1
0
0 2
0
u
re
e ir z u
i
i
i
(say)
\ If u is harmonic with 0 = a then b = =
p
ò
p
) 0 ( u 0 d ) z ( u
i 2
1
2
0

Note: By continuity and changing to a new origin, we have from
u(0) =
ò
p
p
2
0
0 d ) z ( u
i 2
1

( ) , 0
2
1
) (
2
0
0
0 0
ò
+ =
p
p
d re z u z u
i
because by Cauchy’s integral Formula,
ò
-
=
a z
dz z f
i
a f
) (
2
1
) (
p

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61
put
0
0
), ( ) (
i
re z z z u z f + = = and
0
z a = . ( )
ò
+ = \
p 2
0
0
0 0
0
2
1
) ( d re z u
i
z u
i
is the Mean
Value Property.

Maximum Principle for harmonic functions
If u(z) is a non constant harmonic function in the region W then u(z) has no
maximum value in W .
Proof
Let W e
0
z such that | ) ( |
0
z u has a Maximum in the neighborhood of
0
z .
Since u(z) is harmonic, by the Mean value Property, we have ( )
ò
+ =
p
p
2
0
0
0 0
0
2
1
) ( d re z u
i
z u
i

( )
ò
+ < Þ
p
p
2
0
0
0 0
| 0 || |
2
1
| ) ( | d re z u
i
z u
i

Since u(
0
z ) has a maximum value, ) ( ) (
0
0
0
z u re z u
i
£ +
Assume that the strict inequality holds for a single value of 0.
\By continuity, it will hold on the whole arc. This means that ) ( ) ( |
0
0
0
z u re z u
i
< +
) ( ) (
0 0
z u z u < Þ as 0 r ® .This is a contradiction.
Therefore | ) ( | z u is consistently equal to ) ( |
0
z u in the neighborhood of
0
z . (i.e) u (z) is a
constant.
Hence u(z) has no maximum value in W and maximum of |u(z)|is attained only on the
boundary of W .

8.4 POISSON’S FORMULA.

Suppose that u(z) is harmonic for |z| < R and continuous, then
0 ) (
| |
| |
2
1
) (
| |
2
2 2
d z u
a z
a R
a u
Z
ò
-
-
=
p
………(A)

0 ) ( Re
2
1
) (
| |
d z u
a z
a z
a u
Z
ò
÷
ø
ö
ç
è
æ
-
+
=
p
………(B)
If we replace
f i
re a =
0 i
Re z = ,we get
( ) ( )
( )
ò
+ - -
-
=
p
f
f p
2
0
2 2
0 2 2
0 cos 2
0 Re
2
1
) (
r Rr R
d u r R
re u
i
i
……(C)
Proof
Let u(z) be harmonic for z < R. Consider the linear transformation.
t a R
a Rt R
t s z
+
+
= =
) (
) ( Which maps |t| 1 £ onto |z| R £ So that
az R
a z R
t t
-
-
=
2
) (
…(1)
gives t = 0 when z = a. Since u(z) is harmonic, u(s(t)) is also harmonic in |z| |t| 1 £ . From
the Mean Value property
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62
ò
p
= 0 d ) z ( u
2
1
) o ( U ( ) ( ) ( )
ò
=
= Þ
1 | |
arg
2
1
)) ( (
t
t d t s u o s u
p

{As t = o corresponds to z = a, s(t) = z Þ s(o) = a}
( )
ò
=
p
=
R | Z |
t arg d ) z ( u
2
1
) a ( U . ------ (2)
From (1), we see that (1) maps |z| = R to |t| = 1 and the interior point ‘a’ onto the origin,
which is the centre of |t| = 1.
Putting t =
f i
e , we have log t = f i , f = id
t
dt
f = Þ d
t
dt
i ( ) t d arg = …….(3)
From (1), log t = log R + log (z-a) – log ( ) z a R
2
- dz
z a R
a
a z
1
0
t
dt
2 ÷
÷
ø
ö
ç
ç
è
æ
-
+
-
= \
dz
z a R
a
a z
1
i
t
dt
i
2 ÷
÷
ø
ö
ç
ç
è
æ
-
+
-
- = - Þ …….(4)
From (3) and (4), we get d (arg t) = - dz
z a R
a
a z
1
i
2 ÷
÷
ø
ö
ç
ç
è
æ
-
+
-
…….(5)
If we put z =
0 i
e , -idz = zd0…………(6)
using (6) in (5), d (arg t) = 0 d
z a R
z a
a z
z
2 ÷
÷
ø
ö
ç
ç
è
æ
-
+
-

d(arg t) 0 d
z a z z
z a
a z
z
÷
÷
ø
ö
ç
ç
è
æ
-
+
-
{ }
2
R z z = Q
0 d
a z
a
a z
z
÷
÷
ø
ö
ç
ç
è
æ
-
+
-
=
( )( )
0 d
a z a z
a a z a z a z z
÷
÷
ø
ö
ç
ç
è
æ
- -
- + -
=
d(arg t) =
( )
2
2 2
| a z |
0 d | a | R
-
-
using in (2)
we get
ò
-
-
p
=
| Z |
2
2 2
0 d ) z ( u
| a z |
| a | R
2
1
) a ( U …..(7). This is the Poisson’s formula
Again, we know that
÷
ø
ö
ç
è
æ
-
+
+
-
+
= ÷
ø
ö
ç
è
æ
-
+
a z
a z
a z
a z
a z
a z
2
1
Re
2
2 2
2
2 2
| a z |
| a | R
| a z |
| a | | z |
-
-
=
-
-
=
Using this in (A), we get
ò
=
÷
ø
ö
ç
è
æ
-
+
p
=
R | Z |
0 d ) z ( u
a z
a z
2
1
) a ( U ……..(B)
Now, put a =
f i
re and z =
0 i
Re . Then the Poisson’s formula in polar co-ordinates become
as follows.
We see that
2
2 2
| a z |
| a | R
-
-
=
( )( ) a z a z
r R
2 2
- -
-

( )( )
f f i i i i
re re
r R
- -
- -
-
=
0 0
2 2
Re Re

=
2 2
2 2
) cos( 2 r Rr R
r R
+ - -
-
f q
…………..(8)
Using this in (A), we get u(
f i
re ) =
( ) ( )
( )
2 2
0 2 2 2
0
0 cos 2
0 Re
2
1
r Rr R
d U r R
i
+ - -
-
ò
f p
p
……..(C)
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63
(A), (B), (C) are different forms of Poisson’s Formula.

Note: (1) In the theorem we have assumed that u is harmonic in |z| £ R.However the
result remains take under the weaker condition that u (z) is harmonic-in |z| < R and
continuous in |z| £ R. Indeed if o < r < 1 then u (rz) is harmonic in |z| < R.

\The above Poison formula becomes.
ò
=
-
-
=
R Z
d rz u
a z
a R
ra u
| |
2
2 2
0 ) (
| |
| |
2
1
) (
p
.
Since u(z) is uniformly continuous on |z| £ R and hence u(rz) ® u(z) uniformly on |z| = R
as 1 ® r .
We have
( )
( )
ò
=
÷
÷
ø
ö
ç
ç
è
æ
-
+
p
=
R | Z |
0 d ) z ( u
a z
a z
Re
2
1
) a ( U
This may be expressed as
( )
( ) ú
ú
û
ù
ê
ê
ë
é
÷
÷
ø
ö
ç
ç
è
æ
-
+
p
=
ò
=R | Z |
0 d ) z ( u
a z
a z
2
1
Re ) a ( U , since t =
0 i
e , id0 =
t
dt
,
Changing a into z and z into t we get
( )
( ) ú
ú
û
ù
ê
ê
ë
é
÷
÷
ø
ö
ç
ç
è
æ
-
+
p
=
ò
=R | Z |
t
dt
) t ( u
z t
z t
2
1
Re ) z ( u .
The expression inside the bracket is an analytic function in |t| < R and u(z) is the real part
of f(z), where
( )
( )
ic
t
dt
) t ( u
z t
z t
2
1
) z ( f
R | t |
+
÷
÷
ø
ö
ç
ç
è
æ
-
+
p
=
ò
=
, c is an arbitrary real constant. This is known
as Schwarz Formula.

Definition: If ) 0 ( U is harmonic in q £ 0 £ p 2 and piecewise continuous in
q £ 0 £ p 2 , then we define
u
P (z) = 0 ) 0 ( Re
2
1
2
0
0
0
d U
z e
z e
i
i
ò ÷
÷
ø
ö
ç
ç
è
æ
-
+
p
p
and this integral is called Poisson Integral of U.

Note: (i) ) z ( P
u
is not only a function of z but also of U.
(ii)
v u v u
P P P + =
+ ) (
and
c
P u = c
u
P .

8.5 SCHWARZ THEOREM
Statement: The function
u
P (z) is harmonic for |z| < | and ) 0 ( ) ( 0
0
U z P i
e z
Lim
u
=
®

only if u is continuous at
o
q .

Proof: From (1) we see that
u
P (z) is the real part of an analytic function.
) z ( P
u
= Re ic
t
dt
) t ( u
z e
z e
2
1
2
0
0 i
0 i
+
ú
ú
û
ù
ê
ê
ë
é
÷
÷
ø
ö
ç
ç
è
æ
-
+
p
ò
p
and therefore it is harmonic.
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64
Let
2 1
c , c be two complementary arcs of the unit circle. Let us denote
1
U the function
which coincides with U on
1
c and vanishes on
2
c , by
2
U the corresponding function for
2
c . Clearly
2 1 u u u
P P P + = ---- (1)
Let
2
, 0 ) ( c e z P
e z
Lim
i
u i
Î " =
®
q
q
…… (2)
By continuity, suppose u(
0
0 ) = U, given e > 0, we can find
2 1
c , c such that
0 i
e , is an
interior point of
2
c and P
2
u (z) < 2 / e for
0 i
e Î
2
c .
\
2 2
/ ) ( e q < U , for all 0.
) z ( Pu
2
=
t
dt
d U
z e
z e
i
i
q q
p
p
ò ÷
÷
ø
ö
ç
ç
è
æ
-
+
2
0
2
0
0
) ( Re
2
1

But . 1
| z e |
| z | 1
z e
z e
Re
2 0 i
2
0 i
0 i
<
-
-
÷
÷
ø
ö
ç
ç
è
æ
-
+
i.e. multiplying by the conjugate both Nr and Dr as |z| <|
( ) ( ) 0 0
2
1
) (
2
0
2 2
d u z Pu
ò
< \
p
p
( ) 0 d | 0 u |
2
1
2
0
2
ò
p
p
< ( ) | 0 u |
2
2 / | ) z ( pu |
2
e < Þ ………….(3)
Since
1
U is continuous and vanishes at
0 i
e ,
o a > $d such that 2 / | ) ( | 1 e < z Pu for d < - | | 0 o i e z …………..(4) | ) ( | | ) ( | | ) ( | 2 1 z P z P z P u u u + £ \ e = e + e < 2 / 2 / . This implies that 0 ) ( 0 0 = ® z Pu e z Lim i i.e., ) 0 ( ) ( 0 0 0 u z Pu e z Lim i = ® . Hence the proof. 8.6 LET US SUM UP 1) Definition of Harmonic function & its basic property 2) The mean value property 3) Poisson formula in various forms 4) Schwarz’s Theorem 8.7 LESSON END ACTIVITIES 1) Show that the mean value formula remains valid for u = | 1+ z |, z = o, r = 1 and use this fact to compute ò p 0 log sin 0d0 2) If f(z) is analytic in the whole plane and if 1 z - Re f(z) ® o when z ® o, show that f is a constant. 8.8 REFERENCES 1. Complex Analysis by L.V. Alphors.. 2. Foundations of Complex Analysis by Dr. S. Ponnusamy. This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 65 UNIT - 4 LESSON- 9 POWER SERIES EXPANSION CONTENTS 9.0 Aim and Objectives 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Weierstrass’s theorem 9.3 Taylor’s series 9.4 Laurent’s series 9.5 Let us Sum up 9.6 Lesson end activities 9.7 References 9.0 AIM AND OBJECTIVES In this lesson we are going to study about the existence of the limit of a uniformly convergent sequence of analytic functions which is also analytic. We are going to study about the expansion of an analytic function as an infinite series which is valid in a disk in which the function is analytic and the expansion of a function holomorphic in an annular region as an infinite series. After going through this lesson you will be able to: (i) state Weierstrass’s theorem, Hurwitz theorem and Laurent’ (ii) state Taylor’s series, Laurent’s series (iii) solve problems based on Laurent’s series 9.1 INTRODUCTION Until now the readers are vague as to how for an analytic function can be manipulated explicitly. In this lesson we are going to see that the analytic functions can take the form of infinite series, infinite products and other limiting forms. As a preliminary exercise, we establish the existence of the limit of a uniformly convergent sequence of analytic functions which is also analytic 9.2 WEIRSTRASS’S THEOREM Statement: Suppose that ) z ( f n is analytic in the region W and that the sequence { ) z ( f n } converges to a limit function ' f (z) uniformly on every compact subset of W .Then f(z) is analytic in W . Moreover ) z ( f n converges uniformly of ' f (z) on every compact subset of W . Proof Lt |z-a| < r be a closed disk contained in W n . The regions ¥ = W 1 n n } { form an open covering of |z-a|<r. Since the disk is compact it has a finite sub covering. This means that it is contained in a fixed 0 n W . If g is any closed curve lying in |z-a| < r, then by Cauchy’s Theorem ( ) 0 dz z f n = ò g . This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 66 Statement: suppose that fn(t) is analytic in the Region W n and the sequence {fn(t)} coverage’s to a limit function f(z) in a region W, uniformly on every compact subset of W. Then f(t) is analytic in W. Moreover f n 1 (z) converges uniformly to f 1 (t) on every compact subset of W. Since { n f } converges uniformly on g ( ) dz z f n Lim dz z f n Lim n n ) ( 0 ò ò ¥ ® = = ¥ ® g g = ( )dz z f ò g \ ( )dz z f ò g = ( ) 0 = ¥ ® ò dz z f n Lim n g . Hence by Morera’s theorem, f(z) is analytic in |z-a| < g . \ f(z) is analytic in the whole of W . We can prove this theorem using Cauchy’s integral formula. By Cauchy’s integral formula, du z u du u f i z f c n n ò - = ) ( 2 1 ) ( p where c is the circle |u-a| = r and |z-a| < r. Since } f { n converges uniformly, ò - ¥ ® = ¥ ® c n n z u du u f i n Lim z f n Lim ) ( 2 1 ) ( p = du z u u f n Lim i c ò - ¥ ® ) ( 2 1 p f(z) = du z u u f n Lim i c ò - ¥ ® ) ( 2 1 p this shows that f(z) is analytic in the disk. By Cauchy’s formula for derivatives, we have ò - = c n n z u du u f i z f 2 ' ) ( ) ( 2 1 ) ( p ). ( ' ) ( ) ( 2 1 ) ( ) ( 2 1 ) ( 2 2 ' z f du z u u f i z u du u f n Lim i z f n Lim c c n n = - = - ¥ ® = ¥ ® ò ò p p This convergence is uniform for |z-a| < r. Since every compact subset of W can be covered by a finite number of such closed discs, the convergence is uniform on every compact subset. If a series with analytic terms f(z) = ) z ( f 1 + ) z ( f 2 + ) z ( f 3 + … converges uniformly on every compact subset of a region, then the sum f(z) is analytic in W and the series can be differentiated term by term. Hurwitz Theorem Statement: If all functions n f (z) are analytic and not equal to zero in a region and if fn (z) converges to f(z) uniformly on every compact subset of W then f(z) is either identically zero or never equal to zero in W. Proof Suppose f(z) is not identically zero. By Weierstrass theorem f(z) is analytic. Its zeros are isolated. For any point 0 z = W , there is a real number r such that for |z- 0 z | < r, f(z) ¹ 0. |f(z)| has its minimum on the boundary of this circle. \ there exists m > 0 such that |f(z)| > m on the circle |z- 0 z | = r. This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 67 This is because as f(z) ¹ 0, ) x ( f 1 is analytic and hence its maximum is attained on the boundary. \ Minimum of f(z) is attained on the boundary, consequently ) x ( f 1 n ® ) z ( f 1 uniformly on c. Moreover by Weierstrass theorem, ) ( ' ) ( ' z f z f n ® uniformly on c. ) ( ) ( ' ) ( ) ( ' z f z f z f z f n n ® Þ uniformly on c dz z f z f i dz z f z f i n Lim c c n n ò ò = ¥ ® Þ ) ( ) ( 2 1 ) ( ) ( 2 1 1 1 p p . But for each n, i p 2 1 = ò dz z f z f c n n ) ( ) ( ' The number of zeros of ) (z f n enclosed by c. \ 0 dz ) z ( f ) z ( ' f i 2 1 c = p ò . Hence the number of zeros of f(z) in c is o, therefore f( 0 z ) ¹ 0. Since 0 z is arbitrary, f(z) ¹ 0 in W . Hence the theorem. 9.3 TAYLOR’S SERIES Statement: If f(z) is analytic in the region containing 0 z , then the representation f(z) = f( 0 z ) + ¥ + - + + - ... ) z z ( ! n ) z ( f ... ) z z ( ! 1 ) z ( ' f n 0 0 n 0 0 is valid in the largest open disk of centre 0 z contained in W . Proof: As f(z) is analytic in the region containing 0 z , we have f(z) = f( 0 z ) + ) ( )! 1 ( ) ( ... ) ( ' ! 1 ) ( 0 1 1 0 0 0 z f n z z z f z z n n - - - - + + - + 1 1 ) ( ) )( ( ! ) )( ( + + - + - n o n n o o n z z z f n z z z f . Where ) z ( f 1 n+ = du ) z u ( ) z u ( ) u ( f i 2 1 c 1 n 0 ò - - p + . Hence c is any circle |z- 0 z | = r such that |z- 0 z | £ r is contained in W . Now the theorem is proved if we prove that (z- 0 z ) 1 n+ ) z ( f 1 n+ ® 0 as n ® ¥ . Now, | ) z ( f 1 n+ | £ ò ò - - £ - - + + c n c n du z z du M du z u z u u f . | | ) | ( | | 2 | | ) ( ) ( ) ( 2 1 1 0 1 1 0 r r p p Here M is such that |f(u)| < M on c | ) z ( f 1 n+ 1 n 0 ) z z ( + - | £ M 2 1 p pr - - r r - + + 2 x |) z z | ( z z 0 1 n 1 n 0 This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 68 = |) z z | ( z z M 0 1 n 1 n 0 - - r r - + + £ 1 n 0 0 | z z | | z z | 1 M + ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ r - ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ r - - ® 0 as n ® ¥ . Problems (1) Expand f(z) = z e , stating the region of validity as a power series of z. Answer Let |z| = R be a circle c. Here R is arbitrary. Now z e is analytic within and on c. Hence by Taylor’s theorem, z e = f(0) + ) 0 ( ' ! 1 f z + ) 0 ( ' ' f ! 2 z 2 + …. + ) 0 ( ! ) (n n f n z + …. + ¥ . Hence f (0) = 0 e = 1. ) 0 ( f n = z e , " n \ ) 0 ( f n = 1, " n \ z e = 1+ ! 1 z + ! 2 z 2 + ! 3 3 z …. + ! n z n + …. ¥ . This is valid in the entire z-plane. (2) Expand f(z) = log (1-z) stating the region of validity Answer f(z) is analytic for all z except z = 1. Let c be |z| = r < 1. Now f(z) is analytic for all z within and on c. Hence by Taylor’s theorem Log (1- z) = f(0) + ) 0 ( ' ! 1 f z + ) 0 ( ! 2 ) ( 2 n f z + … + ) 0 ( ! ) (n n f n z + ... + ¥ . f(z) = log (1-z) f(0) = log 1 = 0, ) z ( f n = n n n z n ) 1 ( )! 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 ( 1 - - - - - ) 0 ( f n = - (n-1)! ¥ + - - - = \ .... 3 z 2 z z 0 ) z ( f 3 2 This is valid in |z| < | 9.4 LAURENT’S SERIES A series of the form + + + + + n n 2 2 1 0 z b .... z b z b b ……. (1) can be considered as an ordinary power series in the variable 1/z. It will therefore converge outside some circle |z| = e except in the extreme case R. The convergence is uniform in every region |z| > r > R. Hence the series represents an analytic function in the region |z| > R. If the series (1) is combined with an ordinary power series we get more general series of the form å ¥ -¥ = n n n z a ------- (2). It will be convergent if the parts consisting of non-negative powers are separately This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 69 convergent. Since the first part is convergent in a disc |z| < 2 R and the second series is convergent in a region | 1 z | > 1 R , there is a common region of convergent only if 1 R < 2 R and (2) represents an analytic function in the annulus 1 R < |z| < 2 R . Laurent’s Theorem Let f(z) be analytic in a region W containing an annulus 1 R < |z| < 2 R or more generally 1 R < | z-a | < 2 R . Then f(z) = å ¥ -¥ = - n n n ) a z ( A where du z u u f i A r a u n n ò = - + - = | | 1 ) ( ) ( 2 1 p where 1 R < r < 2 R Proof z 1 c 2 c 1 R 2 R Let z be any point in the annulus. We see that n( 1 2 c c - , z) = n( 2 c , z) – n( 1 c , z) = 1 -0 = 1. By Cauchy’s integral formula n( 1 2 c c - , z) f(z) = du z u ) u ( f i 2 1 1 2 c c ò - - p i.e., f(z) = du z u ) u ( f i 2 1 1 2 c c ò - - p = du z u ) u ( f i 2 1 2 c ò - p - du z u ) u ( f i 2 1 1 c ò - p = ) z ( f 1 + ) z ( f 2 Where ) z ( f 1 = du z u ) u ( f i 2 1 2 c ò - p and ) z ( f 2 = du z u u f i c ò - - 2 ) ( 2 1 p . Now ) z ( f 1 is an analytic function in |z-a|< 2 R . Hence it has a power series expansion in |z-a| < 2 R as ) z ( f 1 = å ¥ = - 0 n n n ) a z ( A , in |z-a| < r < 2 R . Where du a u u f i A r a u n n ò = - + - = | | 1 ) ( ) ( 2 1 p …….. (1) Now, let us get the development of ) z ( f 2 . In ) z ( f 2 , we make the transformation u = a + ' u 1 , z = a + ' 1 z This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 70 This transformation caries |u-a| = r into | ' u | = r 1 with negative orientation \ ' ' 1 ' ' 1 ' 1 ' 1 2 1 ' 1 2 1 '| | 2 du u u z u u a f i z a f r u ÷ ø ö ç è æ - ÷ ø ö ç è æ - ÷ ø ö ç è æ + = ÷ ø ö ç è æ + ò = p = ' du ) ' u ' z ( ' u 1 a f ' u ' z i 2 1 r 1 | ' u | ò = - ÷ ø ö ç è æ + p . ) z ( f 2 considered as a function of ' z has a power series expansion given by ÷ ø ö ç è æ + ! 2 1 a f = å ¥ =1 k ik k z B Where k B = ' du ' u ' u 1 a f i 2 1 r 1 | ' u | 1 k ò = + ÷ ø ö ç è æ + p = ( ) du a u u f i r u k ò = + - - '| | 1 ) ( 2 1 p Putting k = - n n B = ( ) n r | ' u | 1 n A du ) a u ( u f i 2 1 = - p ò = + Hence å ¥ =1 k k k z B becomes ) z ( f 2 = å ¥ = - 1 n n n ' z B \ f(z) = å ¥ = - 1 n n n ) a z ( A + å ¥ - = - 1 n n n ) a z ( A = å ¥ = - 1 n n n ) a z ( A . Here all the co-efficient An are determined by (1). Hence the theorem Problems Prove that the Laurent’s development is unique. Answer Let f(z) = å ¥ -¥ = - n n n ) a z ( A …… (1) Let us now prove that (1) is identical with the Laurent’s expansion f(z) = å ¥ -¥ = - n n n ) a z ( a ……. (2) Where n a = ( ) ò + - p 0 c 1 n ) a u ( u f i 2 1 The result will be proved if we prove that n n a A = . This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 71 The equation of the circle 0 c is |u-a| = r where 1 R < r < 2 R . \ u – a = q i re . Now, n a = ò å ¥ -¥ = + - - 0 1 ) ( ) ( 2 1 c m n m m a u du a u A i p = ò å ¥ -¥ = - - - p 0 c m 1 n m m du ) a u ( A i 2 1 = ò å ¥ - - - - ¥ -¥ = 0 ) 1 ( 1 2 1 q p q q d e ir e r A i i n m i n m m m = ò ò å - - ¥ -¥ = 0 2 0 ) ( 2 1 c n m i n m m m d e r A i q p p q If m ¹ n, q ò p q - d e 2 0 ) n m ( i = p q - ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ - 2 0 ) n m ( i ) n m ( i e = 0 . If m = n, q ò p q - d e 2 0 ) n m ( i = p = q ò p 2 d e 2 0 0 \ n a = n n n n A 2 r A 2 1 = p p - . Hence Laurent’s Development is unique. (2) If 0 < |z-1| < 2, then express, F(z) = ) 3 z )( 1 z ( z - - in a series of positive and negative powers of (z-1). Answer f(z) = ) 3 z )( 1 z ( z - - = 1 z A - + , 3 z B - using partial fractions we get A = 2 1 - , B = 2 3 \f(z) = 2 1 3 z 1 2 3 1 z 1 - + - = 2 1 2 ) 1 z ( 1 2 3 1 z 1 - - + - = 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 3 1 1 - - ÷ ø ö ç è æ - + - z z = 2 1 - 1 2 ) 1 z ( 1 4 3 1 z 1 - ÷ ø ö ç è æ - - - - = 2 1 - ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ ¥ + ÷ ø ö ç è æ - + ÷ ø ö ç è æ - + - + - - .... 2 1 z 2 1 z 2 1 z 1 4 3 1 z 1 3 2 is the Laurent’s Series. (3) Expand 2 z 3 z 1 2 + - in 1 < | z | < 2. Answer When 1 < | z | < 2, 1 2 , 1 | | 1 < < z z 2 z 3 z 1 2 + - = ) 2 z )( 1 z ( 1 - - = 1 z 1 2 z 1 - - - = 2 1 - ÷ ø ö ç è æ - - - 2 1 1 z 1 2 z 1 1 This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 72 = 2 1 - 1 1 2 1 1 z 1 2 z 1 - - ÷ ø ö ç è æ - - ÷ ø ö ç è æ - = 2 1 - ú û ù ê ë é + + + + .... 2 2 2 1 2 2 n n z z z - z 1 ú û ù ê ë é + + + + .... 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 3 2 is the Laurent’s series. 9.5 LET US SUM UP (1) The Statement of Weierstrass theorem (2) The statement of Hurwitz theorem (3) Technique of Expansion of analytic function in a simply connected region and in annular region . 9.6 LESSON END ACTIVITIES (1) Expand f(z) = z e about z = 1 (2) Expand f(z) = log (1 + z) and state region of convergence (3) Expand sin z as a Taylor’s series about z = 0. 9.7 REFERENCES 1. Complex Analysis by L.V. Alphors.. 2. Foundations of Complex Analysis by Dr. S. Ponnusamy. This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 73 LESSON – 10 PARTIAL FRACTIONS AND FACTORIZATION CONTENTS 10.0 Aim and Objectives 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Partial Fractions 10.3 Infinite Products 10.4 Canonical Products 10.5 Gamma Functions 10.6 Stirling’s Formula 10.7 Let us Sum up 10.8 Lesson-end Activities. 10.9 References 10.0 AIM AND OBJECTVES The main objective of this lesson is to learn the method of representing meromorphic functions with an infinite sequence { } ¥ =1 n n b with ¥ = ¥ ® n Lt n b .We also study about infinite products, and representation of entire function as an infinite product. We also gain knowledge about Gamma function which is meromorphic and non- vanishing After going through this lesson you will be able to: (i) define canonical product, canonical product – Genus, partial fractions and infinite products (ii) Gamma functions and its properties and Stirling’s formula 10.1 INTRODUCTION A complex function is meromorphic if it is analytic expcept for its poles. Corresponding to each pole bv,the function f(z) contains the negative power of z – bv in its Laurent development. If a function has finite number of poles, it is a rational function. The problem is somewhat difficult if the number of poles is infinite,. However it is true such functions can always find limit point. We also discuss about the finite products Õ ¥ 1 n P in this lesson. 10.2 PARTIAL FRACTIONS Mittag – Leffler’s Theorem: Let { } n b be a sequence of complex number with ¥ = ¥ ® n Lim n b and ) (z p n y be a polynomial with out constant term. Then there are functions which are meromorphic in the whole plane with its poles at the points n b and the corresponding singular parts n p ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ - n b z 1 Moreover, the general meromorphic function of this kind can be written in the form ) ( ) ( 1 ) ( z g z p b z p z f n n n n + ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ - ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ - = å , where n p (z) are suitably chosen polynomial and g(z) is analytic in the whole plane. This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 74 Proof: Since ¥ = ¥ ® n Lim n b , o b n ¹ after a certain stage \We may assume that no bn is zero. The function ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ - n n b z p 1 = s s s z a å ¥ =0 1 1 1 2 1 0 1 ... + + - + + + + + = - n n n n n n m m m m m m z k z a z a z a a Let n p (z) = s s s z a å ¥ =0 .The difference n P - n p can be expanded. Let n M = Max þ ý ü î í ì = ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ - | | 2 1 | | : 1 n n n b z b z p . Let | ) ( | | | 1 1 + + £ - n m n n n z z f p P ( ) ò = + + - ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ - = | | | | 1 1 2 1 . 1 2 1 n n n b m m n z d z b pn i x x x x x p | | | 2 1 | | | 2 1 2 1 1 1 z b b z M i n m n m n n n - ÷ ø ö ç è æ £ + + p ò = | | | | 2 1 | | n b dz x | | 4 1 | | 2 1 | | | 2 1 2 1 1 1 n n m n m n b b b z M i n n - ÷ ø ö ç è æ £ + + p þ ý ü î í ì £ | | 4 1 | | n b z Since = 2 1 | | | | 2 1 1 1 C + + + n n m m n m b z M n n 1 | | 2 2 + £ n m n n b z M 1 | | | 4 | 2 2 + ï þ ï ý ü ï î ï í ì £ n m n n n b z b M n n M n M n M M 2 2 2 1 = = + ------ (1) If we choose n M so large that n m n n M 2 2 £ ,we have n n n p P - £ - 2 | | As the absolute values of the terms of the series in (1) are less than the terms of a geometric series of common ratio 2 1 , the series converges absolutely, on |z| < 4 | | n b except at poles. As ¥ ® | | n b , the series converges uniformly in that disk provided, we omit the terms with R b n £ | | . By Weierstrass theorem, the remaining series is analytic in R z £ | | . If follows that the full series is meromorphic in the whole plane with singular parts ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ - n n b z P 1 . Let h (z) = þ ý ü î í ì - ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ - å ¥ = ) ( 1 1 z p b z p n n n n . If f(z) has the same poles and principal part as h (z), then the function defined by g (z) = f (z)- h (z) is analytic in the whole complex plane ie; f (z)= h (z) + g (z) where g (z) is an entire function. This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 75 Problem Using Mittag –Leffler’s Theorem, show that ( ) 2 2 2 1 sin n z z n - = å ¥ -¥ = p p Deduce that p cot z p = å ¥ = - + 1 2 2 2 1 n n z z z Proof Let f(z) = z p p 2 2 sin , f(z) is meromorphic in the whole plane with poles of order z at each integer n. By Laurent’s expansion, the principal part at z = 0 is 2 1 z . Since sin 2 p (z-n) = sin 2 p z, the principal part at z = n is 2 ) ( 1 n z - . Now å ¥ -¥ = - n n z 2 ) ( 1 is convergent for every z ¹ n. By limit comparison test, compare it with å ¥ 1 2 1 n moreover if K is any compact set then Kc {z/|z|} £R |z – n| = |n – 2| ³ n - |2| > n - R 2 2 ) ( 1 | | 1 R n n z - £ - . \ The series å ¥ - 1 2 ) ( 1 n z converges uniformly except at finite number of points. Hence å ¥ ¥ - - 2 ) ( 1 n z converges uniformly in K after omitting the terms which becomes infinity on the set. Thus å ¥ ¥ - - 2 ) ( 1 n z is an entire meromorphic function with poles at z = + n and the principal part at z = n is 2 ) ( 1 n z - . Hence by Mittag – Leffler’s Theorem, f(z) = z p p 2 2 sin = å ¥ ¥ - - 2 ) ( 1 n z + g(z) where g(z) is an entire function. Now we show that g(z) = 0. The function z p p 2 2 sin and å ¥ ¥ - - 2 ) ( 1 n z are both periodic function with period 1. The function g(z) is also periodic with period 1. Now, 2 2 sin sin z z p p = = 2 ) ( sin y i x + p = 2 sin cos cosh sin y h x i y x p p p p + = y h x y h x p p p p 2 2 2 2 sin cos cos sin + = ) 1 (cos cos cos ) cos 1 ( 2 2 2 2 - + - y h x y h x h p p p p This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 76 = x y x y x y p p p p p p 2 2 2 2 2 2 cos cosh cos cosh cosh cosh - + - = x y h p p 2 2 cos cos - \ z p p 2 2 sin 0 ® uniformly as |y| ¥ ® , since y p 2 cosh ¥ ® . Hence g(z) = f(z) – h(z) 0 ® uniformly as |y| ¥ ® Þ g(z) is bounded in a period strip 0 £ x £ 1. Since g(z) is periodic function with period 1, it is bounded in the whole plane. \ By Liouville’s Theorem, g(z) is a constant. Since ¥ ® | | y Lt g(x + i y) = 0, g (z) = 0. Hence z p p 2 2 sin = å ¥ ¥ - - 2 ) ( 1 n z . Now, z p p 2 2 sin = å ¥ ¥ - - 2 ) ( 1 n z …… (2) Where the prime to the summation indicates that we have omitted the term corresponding to n = 0 we see that the L.H.S is the derivative of z z p p cos 1 - . Let f(z) = z z p p cos 1 - . This has a removable singularity at z = 0. We define f (o) = 0. Since the R.H.S. of (2) is uniformly convergent on every compact subset, term by term integration of the series is allowed. Integrating along the path from o to w. F(w) – F(o) = å ¹ ÷ ø ö ç è æ - - - 0 1 1 n n n z Replacing w by z, z z p p cos 1 - = å ¹ ÷ ø ö ç è æ - - - 0 1 1 n n n z \ z cos p = + z 1 å ¹ - 0 1 n n z þ ý ü î í ì = å ¹ 0 1 0 n n Q = + z 1 å ¥ ÷ ø ö ç è æ + - - 1 1 1 n z n z = å ¥ - + 1 2 2 2 1 n z z z . 10.3 INFINITE PRODUCTS An infinite product å ¥ = = 1 2 1 ..... . n n n p p p p is said to converge, if the sequence } { n p of partial product n n p p p p ..... . 2 1 = converges. We say that the infinite product converges to p = n p n Lim ¥ ® , if this limit exists and is different from zero. We omit the value zero since any infinite product with one factor zero would converge. We follow this convention that the infinite product is said to converge if and only if atmost finite number of the factors are zero and if the partial products formed by the non vanishing factors tend to finite limit which is different from zero. This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 77 In a convergent series we have n p n Lim ¥ ® = 1 - ¥ ® n n p p n Lim = 1, the zero factors being omitted. Usually we write an infinite product in the form Õ ¥ = + 1 ) 1 ( n n a so that n a ®0 is a necessary condition for the convergence. Theorem 1 The infinite product Õ ¥ = + 1 ) 1 ( n n a with 1 + n a ¹ 0 converges simultaneously with the series å ¥ + 1 ) 1 log( n a whose terms represent the values of the principal branch of the logarithm. Proof Let us first prove the sufficiency part Let n P = ) 1 ( 1 a + ) 1 ( 2 a + … ) 1 ( n a + , n S = log ) 1 ( 1 a + + log ) 1 ( 2 a + + … + log ) 1 ( n a + = log ) 1 ( 1 a + ) 1 ( 2 a + … ) 1 ( n a + = log n P , \ n P = n s e . Assuming that å log ) 1 ( n a + is convergent, we have ¥ ® n Lim n S = S, a finite number \ n p n Lim ¥ ® = n s e n Lim ¥ ® = s e = a finite non – zero number. Hence Õ + ) 1 ( n a is convergent. Let us now prove the necessary part. Suppose Õ + ) 1 ( n a is convergent and converges to a non – zero finite number P. i.e., n p n Lim ¥ ® = p ¹ 0, then n P = ) 1 ( 1 a + ) 1 ( 2 a + … ) 1 ( n a + log n P = log ) 1 ( 1 a + + log ) 1 ( 2 a + + … + log ) 1 ( n a + + n i h p 2 i.e. log n P = n S + n i h p 2 , where n h is an integer for large n. We show that n h is a constant. Let n a be the imaginary part of log ) 1 ( n a + and n b be the imaginary part of log n P respectively. Equating imaginary parts on both sides. n b = 1 a + 2 a + … + n a + n h p 2 . Also 1 + n b = 1 a + 2 a + … + n a + 1 + n a + 1 2 + n h p ( 1 + n b - n b ) = 1 + n a + ) ( 2 1 n n h h - + p . Since p (1 + an) is convergent, ¥ ® n Lim ) 1 ( n a + = 1 i.e. ¥ ® n Lim log ) 1 ( n a + = log 1 = 0 Þ ¥ ® n Lim imaginary part of log ) 1 ( n a + = 0 \ ¥ ® n Lim n a = 0 = ¥ ® n Lim 1 + n a . This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 78 Let ¥ ® n Lim 1 + n b = b = ¥ ® n Lim n b = p 2 ¥ ® n Lim ) ( 1 n n h h - + . i.e. b - b = p 2 ¥ ® n Lim ) ( 1 n n h h - + = 0. As n h is an integer, n h = h = a constant for large n. \ ¥ ® n Lim n S = ¥ ® n Lim log n P - p 2 ih Þ å ¥ + 1 ) 1 ( n a = log P - p 2 ih, which is finiteÞ å ¥ + 1 ) 1 log( n a is convergent. Note: If an are non – negative real numbers, then Õ + ) 1 ( n a converges if and only if an converges. Theorem 2 A necessary and sufficient condition for the absolute convergence of the product å ¥ + 1 1 n a is the convergence of the series å ¥ 1 n a . Proof n a + 1 £ 1 + n a £ an e n a + 1 2 1 a + … n a + 1 £ n a a a e + + + ..... 2 1 Þ . | | ... | | | | | ) 1 log( | 1 2 1 n n n n k A S a a a a £ Þ + + + £ + å Also ( ) ( )( ) ( ) n S n n n e A a a a a a £ Þ + + + £ + + | | 1 .... | | 1 | | 1 | | ... | | 2 1 1 \ n s n n e A S £ £ . Thus Lim n A and Lim n S are finite or infinite together. Problem Prove that for |z| < z - = + + + + 1 1 )........ 2 1 )( 2 1 )( 2 1 )( 2 1 ( , 1 8 4 2 Answer n P = ( ) 1 2 4 2 1 )........ 1 )( 1 )( 1 ( - + + + + n z z z z = 1 2 ... 4 2 1 2 ... 1 - + + + + + + + n z z z = 1 2 2 ... 1 - + + + + n z z z = z - 1 1 as n ® ¥. Problem Prove that Õ ¥ - ÷ ø ö ç è æ + 1 1 n z e n z converge absolutely and uniformly on every compact set. This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 79 Answer n z e n z - ÷ ø ö ç è æ + 1 is an entire function n z e n z - ÷ ø ö ç è æ + 1 = ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ + - + - ÷ ø ö ç è æ + ... 6 2 1 1 3 3 2 2 n z n z n z n z = 1 - 3 3 2 2 3 2 n z n z + +….. = 1- 2 2 n z ÷ ø ö ç è æ + - ..... 3 2 1 n z = 1 - 2 2 n z g(z) = 1+ n a (z) where g(z) is an entire function. Let |z| £ R and M = R z £ | | max |g(z)|, and | n a (z)| £ 2 2 n MR We see that n a (z) converges absolutely Þ (1 + n a (z)) converges absolutely in |z| £ R. 10.4 CANONICAL PRODUCTS In this section we construct an entire function with zeros of prescribed orders at prescribed points. A function which is analytic in the whole plane is said to be entire or integral. The simplest entire functions which are not polynomials are z e , sinz and cosz. If g(z) – is an entire function, then f(z) = ) ( z g e is also entire and not equal to zero. Conversely, if f(z) is an entire function which is never zero, then f(z) must be of the form ) ( z g e . To prove this, we note that the function ) ( ) ( ' z f z f is analytic in the whole plane since f(z) ¹ 0. \ ) ( ) ( ' z f z f is the derivative of an entire function F(z). \ = ) (z f dz d ) ( ) ( ' z f z f Integrating between the limits 0 z to z, we get = - ) ( ) ( 0 z F z F log f(z) – log f ) ( 0 z log f(z) = F (z) – F( 0 z ) + log f ) ( 0 z f(z) = ) ( ) ( log ) ( ) ( 0 0 z g z f z F z F e e = + - . Since f(z) entire and F( 0 z ) and log f( 0 z ) are constants, it follows that F(z) – F( 0 z ) + log f( 0 z ) = g(z) is also entire. \ we have f(z) = ) ( z g e , g(z) is entire. Convergence producing factors Multiplication of infinite products by certain factors will help the product to converge Such factors are called convergence producing factors. Theorem on Canonical Product There exists an entire function with arbitrarily prescribed zeros n a provided that, in the case of infinitely many zeros, n a ¥ ® . Every entire function with these and no other zeros can be written in the form. This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 80 ( ) n m n n n n a z m a z a z n n z g m e a z e z z f ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ + + ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ + ¥ = Õ ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ - = 1 ... 2 1 1 2 1 ) ( Where the product is taken overall n a ¹ o, the n m are certain integers and g(z) is an entire function. Proof Assume that f(z) is an entire function having m zeros at the origin (m may be zero) and denote the other zeros at 1 a , 2 a , 3 a ,…. n a , multiple zeros being repeated. Then we can write Õ ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ - = N n z g m a z e z z f 1 ) ( 1 ) ( If there are infinitely many zeros we obtain a similar representation Õ ¥ ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ - = 1 ) ( 1 ) ( n z g m a z e z z f …….(1), provided that the infinite product converges uniformly on every compact set. If this is convergent the product represents an entire function with zero at the same points and with the same multiplies as f(z). It follows that the quotient can be written in the form ) ( z g m e z .The infinite products Õ ¥ ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ - 1 1 n a z converages absolutely if and only if å ¥ 1 | | n a z converges and in this case the convergence is also uniform in every closed disk |z| £ R. In this case the representation (1) holds, In the general case convergence producing factors must be introduced We consider an arbitrary sequence of complex numbers n a ¹ o wi th Lt n ¥ ® n a ¥ = and prove the existence of the polynomials n p (z) such that Õ ¥ ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ - 1 1 n a z ) ( z P n e converges to an entire function. The product converges if and only if the series ) (z r n = log ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ - n a z 1 + n P (z) converges. Here the branch of the logarithm shall be chosen so that the imaginary part of n r (z) lies between - p andp . For a given R, we consider only terms with | n a | > R. In the disk |z| £ R, the principal branch of log ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ - n a z 1 can be developed in a Taylor’s series. log ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ - n a z 1 = .... 3 1 2 1 3 2 ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ - ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ - - n n n a z a z a z we choose n p (z) as This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 81 n p (z) = n m n n n n n a z m a z a z a z ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ + ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ + ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ + 1 ... 3 1 2 1 3 2 Then, n r (z) = - ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ + - ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ + - + + 2 1 2 1 1 1 n n m n n m n n a z m a z m \| n r (z)| £ + ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ + + ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ + + + 2 1 2 1 1 1 n n m n n m n n a z m a z m £ ï þ ï ý ü ï î ï í ì + + + ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ + + ... | | | | 1 | | 1 1 2 2 1 n n m n n a z a z a z m n = 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 < ï þ ï ý ü ï î ï í ì - ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ + - + n n m n n a R as a R a R m n , as n a ® ¥. Now the series 1 1 1 1 + ¥ = å ú ú û ù ê ê ë é + n m n n n a R m can be made convergent by choosing n M = N. For, then as n a ® ¥ 2 1 < n a R can be made to hold good for are large n so that 1 1 1 + ú ú û ù ê ê ë é + n n a R n < 1 2 1 1 1 + ú û ù ê ë é + n n . Since the geometric series å +1 2 1 n is convergent. Thus the th n term converges and hence n r (z) ® 0 and hence n r (z) has an imaginary part between - p and p and as soon as n is sufficiently large. Be Weierstrass’s M – Test å ) (z r n converges absolutely and uniformly on |z| £ R. Thus m ) ( 1 1 z p n n e a z Õ ¥ ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ - is convergent and represents an analytic function in |z| £ R. It is for the sake of this reasoning we have excluded the values n a £ R. But the uniform convergence of f(z) is not affected when the corresponding factors are again taken in to account. If f(z) is an arbitrary entire function with prescribed zeros then ) ( 1 1 ) ( z p n m n e a z z z f Õ ¥ ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ - = g(z) an entire function. Thus we obtain f(z) = m z ) ( z g e n m n n n n a z m a z a z n e a z ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ + + ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ + ¥ Õ ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ - 1 ... 2 1 1 2 1 . This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 82 Corollary Every function which is meromorphic in the whole plane is the quotient of two entire functions. Proof Suppose F(z) is an entire meromorphic function. If f(z) has only a finite number of poles n a a a ..... , 2 1 (counted with multiplication), then F(z) = ) ( ) ( z Q z p + g(z), by subtracting the principal part at ( n a a a ..... , 2 1 ), where p and q are polynomials and g(z) is an entire function. Þ f(z) = ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( z Q z Q z g z p + quotient of 2 entire functions. If F(z) has an infinite number of poles n a a a ..... , 2 1 , then by Weierstrass’s theorem, there exists an entire function g(z) whose zeros are the poles of F(z) and hence F(z) g(z) is an entire function F(z). This implies that F(z) = ) ( ) ( z g z f . Canonical Product – Genus In the representation of an entire function as f(z) = n m n n n n a z m a z a z n z g m e a z e z ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ + + ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ + ¥ Õ ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ - 1 ... 2 1 1 ) ( 2 1 we put n m = h " n. The product h n n n a z h a z a z n e a z ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ + + ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ + ¥ Õ ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ - 1 ... 2 1 1 2 1 converges and represents an entire function provided that the series å ¥ = + + ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ 1 1 1 n h n h a R converges for all R. i.e. provided ¥ < å ¥ = + 1 1 1 n h n a . If h is the smallest integer for which the series converges then the expansion å ¥ = ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ + + ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ + ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ - 1 1 ... 2 1 2 1 n a z m a z a z n n m n n n n e a z is called the canonical product associated with the sequence { n a } and h is the genus of the canonical product. This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 83 Genus of an entire function f(z) If in the representation, f(z) = h n n n a z h a z a z n n m z g e a z z e ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ + + ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ + ¥ = Õ ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ - 1 ... 2 1 1 ) ( 2 1 . g(z) reduces to a polynomial, the function f(z) is said to be finite genus and the genus of the function f(z) is equal to the degree of this polynomial or the genus of the canonical product which ever is larger. For example, an entire function of genus 0 is of the form Õ ¥ ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ - 1 1 n m a z cz with £ n a 1 <¥. The canonical representation of an entire function of genus 1 is either of the form Õ ¥ ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ - 1 1 n a z n z m e a z e Cz a with å 2 1 n a < ¥, å 2 1 n a = ¥ or of the form Õ ¥ ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ - 1 1 n z m a z e Cz a with å n a 1 < ¥, a ¹ 0. Canonical Representation of Sin z The zeros of sin z are the integers of z = ± n since å n 1 diverges and å 2 1 n converges, we take h = 1. Hence we obtain a representation of the form. Sin p z = z n a z z g e n z n e ÷ ø ö ç è æ - ¹ Õ 1 0 ) ( . Let us now find g(z). Taking logarithms and differentiating, å ¹ ÷ ø ö ç è æ + - + + = 0 1 1 ) ( ' 1 sin cos n n n z z g z z z p p p Õcot z p = å ¹ ÷ ø ö ç è æ + - + + 0 1 1 ) ( ' 1 n n n z z g z But we have the result p cot z p = å ¹ ÷ ø ö ç è æ + - + 0 1 1 1 n n n z z . Hence we get ) ( ' z g = 0. \ g(z) is a constant. Also we get 0 ® z Lim z z p sin = 0 ® z Lim ) ( z g e = 0 ¹ Õ h ÷ ø ö ç è æ - n z 1 n z e , p = ) ( z g e , \ ) ( z g e = p . Thus sin z p = z p 0 ¹ Õ h ÷ ø ö ç è æ - n z 1 n z e , combining the factors ÷ ø ö ç è æ - n z 1 n z e and ÷ ø ö ç è æ + n z 1 n z e - , we get sin z p = z p Õ ¥ = ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ - 1 2 2 1 n n z . Remark We see that sin z is an entire function of genus 1. This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 84 10.5 GAMMA FUNCTIONS We have seen that the function sin z has all the integers as its zeros. The simplest function having the negative integers as its zeros is the canonical product G(z) = Õ ¥ - ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ + 1 1 n z n e a z . We see that G(-z) has the +ve integers for zeros. Now, G(z) G(- z) = Õ ¥ ÷ ø ö ç è æ - ÷ ø ö ç è æ + 1 1 1 n z n z = Õ ¥ ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ - 1 2 2 1 n z = z z p p sin Þ z G(z) G(-z) = p p z sin . The function G(z) = Õ ¥ ÷ ø ö ç è æ + 1 1 n z n z e - has for its zeros the negative integers together with zero i.e. G(z-1) has for its zeros the zeros of G(z) and the origin. Hence we can write G(z- 1) = z ) ( z e n G(z), where ) (z n is an entire function. Let us now find ) (z n . We have Õ ¥ ÷ ø ö ç è æ + 1 1 n z n z e - = z ) ( z e n Õ ¥ ÷ ø ö ç è æ + 1 1 n z n z e - . Taking logarithmic differentiation, å å ¥ = ¥ = ú û ù ê ë é - + + + = ú û ù ê ë é - - + 1 1 1 1 ) ( ' 1 1 1 1 n n n n z z z n n z n . But L.H.S = å ¥ = ú û ù ê ë é - - + 1 1 1 1 n n n z = å ¥ = ú û ù ê ë é + - + + ÷ ø ö ç è æ - 1 1 1 1 1 1 n n n z z = å ¥ = ú û ù ê ë é - + + - 1 1 1 1 1 n n n z z + å ¥ = ú û ù ê ë é + - 1 1 1 1 n n n = å ¥ = ú û ù ê ë é - + + 1 1 1 1 n n n z z i.e. ) ( ' z n = - 1 + å ¥ = ú û ù ê ë é + - 1 1 1 1 n n n = 1 + 1 = 0. i.e. ) (z n is a constant which we denote byn . Hence G(z – 1) = ) ( z e n G(z) and H (z – 1) = ) 1 ( - z e n G(z-1) The function G (z) defined by G (z) = ) ( 1 z zH is called Euler’s Gamma function. Where H(z) = ) ( z e n G(z). To find the Value of r (Euler’s Constant) Taking z = 1 in G(z – 1) = ) ( z e n G(z) G (0) = n e G(1). 1 = n e Õ ¥ ÷ ø ö ç è æ + 1 1 1 n h e 1 - = n - e = Õ ¥ ÷ ø ö ç è æ + 1 1 1 n h e 1 - . This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 85 Then th n partial product is Õ ¥ = - + 1 1 1 n e n n (n + 1) ú û ù ê ë é + + + - n e 1 ... 2 1 1 We get, n = ¥ ® n Lim ú û ù ê ë é - ÷ ø ö ç è æ + + + + ) log( 1 ... 3 1 2 1 1 n n = ¥ ® n Lim ú û ù ê ë é - ÷ ø ö ç è æ + + + + n n log 1 ... 3 1 2 1 1 . The constant n is called Euler’s constant. Its approximate value is 0.57722. Some Properties of Gamma Function G (z) = ) ( 1 z zH , G (z - 1) = ) 1 ( ) 1 ( 1 - - z H z = ) ( ) 1 ( 1 2 z H z - = ) 1 ( ) ( - G z z \ (z – 1) G ( z – 1) = G (z) Þ G (z) = ) ( 1 z zH = ) ( 1 1 z G e z z n = Õ ¥ - - ÷ ø ö ç è æ + 1 / 2 ) ( 1 1 n z e n z z e n = z e z) ( n - Õ ¥ - ÷ ø ö ç è æ + 1 / 2 1 n e n z . We observe that n (z) is a meromorphic function with poles at z = 0, -1, -2, … but without zeros. We have zG (z) G (-z) = p p z sin = ) ( ) ( 1 z G z zG - = z p p sin ) ( ) ( 1 z G e z G ze z z - g g = z p p sin ) ( ) ( 2 1 z H z H - = z p p sin G (z) (- z) G (-z) = z p p sin G (z) G (-z) = z p p sin . We have G (z) = z e z g - Õ ¥ - ÷ ø ö ç è æ + 1 / 1 1 n z e n z G (z) = 1 z e g - Õ ¥ - ÷ ø ö ç è æ + 1 / 1 1 1 n e n z = ú ú û ù ê ê ë é ÷ ø ö ç è æ + Õ ¥ - - 1 / 1 1 1 1 n e n ú ú û ù ê ê ë é ÷ ø ö ç è æ + Õ ¥ - 1 / 1 1 1 1 n e n \ G (2) = 1G (1) = 1 G (3) = 2 G (2) = 2.1 = 2.1=2. Similarly G (4) = 3! …… G (n) = (n – 1). This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 86 In G (z) G (1 – z) = z p p sin , if we put z = ½, we get { G 2 )} 2 / 1 ( = z p p sin = p \ G (1/2) = p . Problem Prove that p G (2z) = 22.1 G (2) G ÷ ø ö ç è æ + 2 1 2 Proof G (z) = z e z g - Õ ¥ - ÷ ø ö ç è æ + 1 / 1 1 n z e n z . Taking logarithmic differentiation. ) ( ) ( ' z z G G = å ¥ = ÷ ø ö ç è æ - + - - - 1 1 1 2 1 n n z n g . Again differentiating with respect to z, ) ( ) ( ' z z dz d G G = å ¥ = + + - 0 2 2 ) ( 1 1 n z n z = å ¥ = + 0 2 ) ( 1 n z n ÷ ø ö ç è æ + G ÷ ø ö ç è æ + G 2 1 2 1 ' z z dz d = å ¥ = ú ú ú ú û ù ê ê ê ê ë é + + 0 2 2 1 1 n z n i.e. ) ( ) ( ' z z dz d G G + ÷ ø ö ç è æ + G ÷ ø ö ç è æ + G 2 1 2 1 ' z z dz d = å ¥ = + 0 2 ) ( 1 n z n + 4 å ¥ = + + 0 2 ) 1 2 ( 1 n z zn = 4 å ¥ = ú û ù ê ë é + + 0 2 1 n z n + 4 å ¥ = + + 0 2 ) 1 2 ( 1 n z zn = 4 å ¥ = + 0 2 ) ( 1 n m zz = 4 ) 2 ( ) 2 ( ' z z dz d G G . Integrating, ) ( ) ( ' z z G G + ÷ ø ö ç è æ + G ÷ ø ö ç è æ + G 2 1 2 1 ' z z = 2 ) 2 ( ) 2 ( ' z z G G + a. Again integrating, log G (z) + log G (z + 1/2) = log G (2z) + az + b log G (z) (z + ½) = log G (2z) + az + b Þ G (z) G (z + ½) = log G (2z) az e + b Z = 1 Þ G (1) G (3/2) = G (2) b a e + 2 1 G ÷ ø ö ç è æ 2 1 = b a e + This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 87 b a e + = 2 p ……….. (1) Z = 2 1 Þ G ÷ ø ö ç è æ 2 1 G (1) = G (1) b a e + 2 p = b a e + 2 / ……….. (2) (1) Þ a + b = log 2 + ½ log p (2) Þ a/2 + b = ½ log p a/2 = - log 2 \ a = - 2 log 2 and b = log 2 + ½ log p . Hence (z) G (z + 1/2 ) = ) log 2 / 1 2 log ) 2 log 2 ( p + + - z e (2z) = z e 2 2 log - p 2 log e G (2z) = z 2 2 ) ( 2 p G G (2z) G p G (2z) = 1 2 2 - z G (z) G ÷ ø ö ç è æ + 2 1 z . 10.6 STIRLING’S FORMULA Consider the second derivative of log G (z) i.e. dz d ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ G G ) ( ) ( ' z z = å ¥ = + 0 2 ) ( 1 n n z = 2 1 z + 2 ) 1 ( 1 + z + … + 2 ) ( 1 n z + . Introduce the function ) (x f = 2 ) ( cot x px p + z , with residues 2 ) ( 1 n + z at the integral points v. Here x is the variable and z = x + iy; x > 0, a parameter. We apply the residue formula to the rectangle whose vertical sides lie on x = 0 and x = n + ½ and with horizontal sides h = ± y. Denote this contour by K, passes through the pole at 0. We obtain pr.n i p 2 1 ò k dx x f ) ( = å = + + - n v v z z 0 2 2 ) ( 1 2 1 . Since the factor 2 ) /( 1 x + z ® 0. The corresponding integrals have the limit zero, on each line x = n + ½, cot px is bounded and because of the periodicity the bound is independent of n. \ ò + = + 2 1 2 | | n z d x x h can be evaluated for on the line of integration x = 2n + 1 - x . We obtain by using residues 0 2 1 2 2 ) 1 2 )( ( 1 | | 1 2 ® + + = + - + + = + ò ò x n z n z d i z d i p x x x x x as ¥ ® n . Writing cot hph = 1 + 1 2 2 - ph e We obtain h h h p h h h ph ph d e z z e d z ò ò ¥ ¥ - - + - = - + 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 0 2 2 2 ) 1 1 log( ) ( 1 1 2 . Integrate with respect to z, and obtain This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 88 log G (z) = h h p ph d e z z z z cz c ò ¥ ÷ ø ö ç è æ - + + ÷ ø ö ç è æ - + + 0 2 2 2 1 1 log 1 log 2 1 ' We can find the constants c and ' c . Denote J(z) = h h p ph d e z z ò ¥ - + 0 2 2 2 1 1 log 1 J(z) ® 0 as z ¥ ® provided that ‘z’ keeps away from the imaginary axis. One can see that c = -1 and 1 c = 2 1 log p 2 . Thus log G (z) = 2 1 log p 2 - z + (z – ½ ) log z + J(z) or G (z) = p 2 2 / 1 - z z z e - ) ( z J e is the required Stirling’s formula. 10.7 LET US SUM UP 1. Techniques of expanding general meromorphic function using Mittag Lefflers theorem 2. Necessary and sufficient condition for the convergence of infinite products 3. Weierstars theorem on canonical products 4. Canonical product of an entire function and its genus 5. Gamma function and its properties 6. Stirling’s formula 10.8 LESSON END ACTIVITES 1. Prove that sin a p p a a p + - ¥ ¥ - Õ ÷ ø ö ç è æ + + = + n z z e z z e z 2 cot 1 ) ( 2. Show that 2 3 1 3 2 6 1 2 1 2 1 ÷ ø ö ç è æ G ÷ ø ö ç è æ = ÷ ø ö ç è æ G - p . 10.9 REFERENCES 1. Complex Analysis by L.V. Alphors.. This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 89 UNIT - 5 LESSON 11 RIEMANN MAPPING THEOREM CONTENTS 11.0 Aim and Objectives 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Riemann Mapping Theorem 11.3 Boundary Behaviour 11.4 Use of the Reflection Principle 11.5 Analytic Arcs 11.6 Let us Sum up 11.7 Lesson end activities 11.8 References 11.0 AIM AND OBJECTIVES The main objective of this lesson is to study Riemann mapping theorem which states how a simply connected region W is mapped onto a unit disk |w| < 1. We also study the use of the reflection principle. After going through this lesson you will be able to: (i) define connectedness and univalent function. (ii) Explain Boundary behaviour (iii) Use of the reflection theory 11.1 INTRODUCTION We know that in the theory of Analytic function the concept of conformal mapping with the geometrical aspect plays a significant and vital role. Analytic functions defined with geometric properties of the mapping function and in particular Riemann mapping. Theorem deals with the mapping of simply connected regions based on the theory of normal families and related geometric properties. We wish to define an equivalence relation between regions in D. It will be shown that all proper simply connected regions in C are equivalent to one another by showing that each simply connected region is equivalent to the open disk { } 1 | z :| z D < = 11.2 RIEMANN MAPPING THEOREM Definition: A region W is said to be connected if its complement relative to the extended complex plane is connected Definition: A one – to – one analytic function g(z) defined in a region W is called a univalent function if ) ( 1 z g = ) ( 2 z g 2 1 z z = Þ . Example: ( ) z z z g - = 1 ) ( is univalent. This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 90 Definition: A subset of a metric space is connected if it cannot be represented as the union of two disjoint relatively open sets none of which is empty. Riemann Mapping Theorem Statement: Let W be a simply connected region which is not the whole plane and let W . There exists a unique analytic function f on W having the following properties. a) 0 ) z ( f 0 = and 0 ) zo ( ' f < b) f is one – one c) f( W ) = {w : |wk|} Proof: Let us first prove the uniqueness of f. let 1 f , 2 f be two functions such that 1 f ( 0 z ) = 0, 0 ) ( , 0 ) ( , 0 ) ( ' 2 0 ' 1 0 2 > > = W - o z f z f z f , so that each of 1 f , 2 f maps W onto |w| < 1. This implies that the function ) W ( f f s 2 1 1 = maps the unit disk onto itself. Because, s W " , in the unit disk |W| < 1, 1 2 - f ( s W ) 1 2 1 , - W Î f f ( s W ) belong to the unit disk |w| < 1. Also, s (0) = 1 f . 1 2 - f (0) = ) f ( f 2 1 1 - (0) = 1 f ( 0 z ) = 0 [ ] 0 ' ) 0 ( 0 ) 0 ( ' 2 1 1 > = - f f s as both ' 1 f ( 0 z ) and 1 f ( 0 z ) are greater than zero. we also know that a function which maps a circle onto a circle is a linear fractional transformation and in particular if we suppose s (z) = 1 jz z e i - a - l it gives the family of transformations which transform the unit disk onto the unit disk. Since s (0) = 0, l i e 0 = a \ a = 0 Putting 0 = a we have s(z) = l - i e z………..(2) ' s Þ (z) = l - i e as ' s (z) > 0. The least possible value of l is p . Therefore s(z) = z. Hence s is the identity transformation i.e. ' 1 f 1 2 - f = l. Hence 1 f = 2 f i.e. the analytic function f is unique. Let us now prove the existence of such function f. Let 1 f be the family formed by the analytic function g(z) satisfying the following characteristics, i) g(z) is univalent in W ii) | g(z) | £ 1, W Î "z and iii) g ( 0 z ) = 0, g’ ( 0 z ) > 0 we shall complete the proof by showing (a) The family 1$ is non – empty
(b) $a function f 1$ Î with the maximal derivative i.e. ' f (
0
z ) is maximal
(c) The function f is analytic and univalent and f(
0
z ) = 0, ' f (
0
z )> 0

(a) To prove the family
1
$is non - empty Since by hypothesis W is not the whole complex plane,$ at least one point
a ¥ ¹ which is not in W ) a ( W Î ¥ ¹ .
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91

Since W is simply connected, it is possible to define a mono valued branch of a z- is
W .As W Î ¥ ¹ a , z-a is a non vanishing analytic function in W .Which is simply
connected
\Z – a has an analytic square root, denoted
By h (z) = a z- . Consider ) z ( h | z | h
2 1
= a z a z
2 1
- = - Þ
2 1
z z - Û
Then let
1 2 1 1
) ( , ) ( w z h w z h = = i.e. ) z ( h ) z ( h
2 1
- = a z a z
2 1
- = - \
2 1
z z - Û

i.e., H(z) does not take the same value twice nor does it take opposite values as h(z) is
single valued.
This implies that h(z) is a non-constant function by open mapping theorem we know that
a non-analytic function maps open sets.
\ The images of W under h, i.e. h( W ) is an open set since ,
0
W Î z ) z ( h
0
) (z h Î .
Since h( W )is open $a real number f > 0 such that | ) z ( h w | 0 - < r contained in h( W ). Since opposite values are not taken by h in W ,there is no points W e z for which h(z) takes opposite values ) z ( h 0 - ) z ( h 0 . This implies that the disk | ) z ( h w | 0 - ³ r does not meet the disk | ) z ( h w | 0 + ³ r (i.e.) to say h(z) Îh( W ),we have the condition ) 1 .( .......... ) ( ) ( ( r ³ + zo h z h In particular, | r ³ + | ) ( ) ( zo h z h 2 / ) z ( h 0 r < Þ …..(2) Now consider the function defined by ú û ù ê ë é + - l = ) z ( h ) z ( h ) z ( h ) z ( h ) z ( g 0 0 where l is given by ) z ( ' h ) z ( h | ) z ( h | | ) z ( ' h | 4 0 0 2 0 0 r = l ……….(3) 0 g Þ (z) is a liner transformation of h(z) We will verify that o g (z) Î 1$ so the family
1
$is non-empty. Since h(z) is a single valued analytic function and h(z) ¹ -h(z), W Î "z an 0 g (z) is defined using h(z), 0 g ) z ( 0 is analytic W Î "z . Since h(z) is univalent so is 0 g (z) and 0 g ) z ( 0 = 0. To show 1 0 g ) z ( 0 > 0, consider 2 0 0 1 0 0 )) z ( h ) z ( h ( ) z ( h ) z ( ' h 2 ) z ( g ) z ( g dz d + l = = ) ( 2 ) ( ' ) ' ( 0 0 z h z h z g o l = \ Now using (3) ) z ( g 0 1 0 0 | ) z ( h | | ) z ( ' h | 8 | ) z ( h | | ) z ( ' h | 2 1 . 4 2 0 0 2 0 0 > r = r = We shall prove | 0 g (z)| < 1 in W ) z ( h ) z ( h ) z ( h 2 ) z ( h ) z ( h ) z ( h ) z ( h ) z ( h ) z ( h | | | ) z ( g | 0 0 0 0 0 0 + - + = + - = l ) z ( h ) z ( h 2 ) z ( h 1 ) z ( h | | | ) z ( g | 0 0 0 0 + - £ l ………..(4) Since r £ r ³ 2 | ) z ( h | 1 m 2 | ) z ( h | 0 0 ………… (5) r 2 ) ( ) ( 1 0 £ + Þ z h z h r 2 ) ( ) ( 2 0 £ + Þ z h z h ….. (6) This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 92 Using the results in (3), we have, ) z ( h ) z ( h 2 ) z ( h 1 | ) z ( h | | | | ) z ( g | 0 0 0 0 + + £ l £ ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ r + r 2 2 | ) z ( h | 0 r l 4 | ) ( | | | ) ( | 0 0 z h z g < r r < 4 ) z ( h ) z ( ' h ) z ( h ) z ( h ) z ( ' h 4 0 0 0 2 0 0 £ 1 in W . i.e., 0 g ) z ( 0 has all the properties of an univalent function. \ 0 G ) z ( 0 1$ is non-empty.

(b)To show that there exist a function f
1
$Î and ' f ( 0 z ) is maximum Now, 1$ Î "g and ) ( '
0
z g > 0, it follows that ) ( '
0
z g has a least upper bound say
B, where B is finite or infinite, $a sequence } g { n Î 1$ such that
W Î " =
¥ ® 0 0 0
) ( ) ( z z f z g
n
Lim
n
…….(7)

Since 1 ) z ( g £
1
$Î "g W Î "z , it follows that 1$ is a normal family.
Hence there exists a sub – sequence } g {
nk
of the sequence } g {
n
such that )} ( { z g
nk

converges to an analytic function f(z) uniformly on every compact subset of W.
\ ) ( ' ) ( '
0 0
z f z g
n
Lim
n
=
¥ ®
.But from (7), we have B z g
Lim
n
=
¥ ®
) (
0
.
Hence ) ( '
0
z f = B. This implies that B is finite. It is true that 1 ) z ( f £ , W e "z , ) z ( f
0
= 0 and
) z ( f
0
) B ( B ¥ < < .We will prove that f is univalent. We first observe that f is not a constant
as ) z ( ' f
0
0 B> = .
Choosing a point W e
1
z and defining ) z ( g ) z ( g ) z ( g
1 1
- =
1
g $e " .We see that )} z ( g { 1 are all non- zero functions in } z { 1 1 - W = W \By Hurwitz Theorem we know that the limit function of any sequence is either identically zero or never zero. But ) z ( f ) z ( f 1 - is a limit function of any sequence in the above family and it is not identically zero. \ 1 1 z z ) z ( f ) z ( f ) z ( f ¹ " ¹ , since 1 z is arbitrary, 1 1 z z ) z ( f ) z ( f ¹ " ¹ .This implies, that f(z) is a univalent function on W.Hence f(z) has the property of maximal derivative i.e. ' f ( 0 z ) is maximal. \G (z) is a member of$and ' G (
0
z ) > ' f (
0
z )
But we know
1
f (
0
z ) is only maximum. ) z ( f ) z ( G
0
1
0
1
> is a contradiction to the definition
of f(z).
Hence the unique univalent function f(z) assumes all values and maps W onto |w| <1 and
since 0 ) (
0
= z g , $Î "g . We get in particular 0 = k n g , " k = 1,2,3…..and 0 ) ( ) ( 0 0 = - ¥ ® z f z g k n Lim k . Corollary Between any two simply connected regions there is always a (1,1) onto analytic function This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com 93 Proof: Let 1 W , 2 W be two simply connected regions and neither of them is the plane. Consider 1 W , 2 z e 2 W . By Riemann mapping theorem,$ a(1,1) analytic function
1
W D ® and g:
2
W D ® such
that ) z ( f
1
= 0,
1
f (
1
z ) > 0.
) z ( g
2
= 0. g’ (
0
z ) > 0. This implies that
1
g
-
.f is a mapping from
1
W onto
2
W
1
g
-
of (
1
z ) =
1
z and so
1
g
-
is the required (1.1). Analytic function existing between
1
W and
2
W .

(c) To show that the univalent function f maps
0
W onto |w| < 1.
If possible assume that $a point o w with | o w | < 1 and f(z) ¹ o w . W e "z . Since W is simply connected, it is possible to define a single valued branch ) z ( f w 1 w ) z ( f ) z ( f o o - - = , which never vanishes in W . Since f(z) is univalent, naturally f(z) is defined. Using f(z) is also univalent on W and |f(z)| £ 1 normalize f(z), let us define a new functions. ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ - - = ) ( ) ( 1 ) ( ) ( ) ( ' ) ( ' ) ( 0 0 0 0 z f z f z F z f x z F z F z G Naturally 0 ) z ( ' G , 0 ) z ( G 0 0 > = . In particular ( ) ( ) 0 0 2 0 0 0 w q w 2 w 1 ) z ( ' f ) z ( ' G - - = ( ) 0 0 0 w 2 w 1 ) z ( ' f + as 1 4 1 w 0 < = B ) z ( ' f ) z ( ' G 0 0 = < Þ . Thus G(z) is analytic and univalent in W , and 1 ) z ( g £ . G(z) = o and 1 ) z ( ' G 0 > 11.3 BOUNDARY BEHAVIOUR Let W be a simply connected region. Consider a sequence | z | n of points in W (or) an arc ) (t z for 0£t<1. We say that the sequence } z { n or the arc z(t) in W is said to tend to the boundary of W if the points n z (or) the arc z(t)will ultimately stay away from any point of the region. That is, a sequence } z { n or an arc z(t) in W is said to tend to boundary of W if to each W e z ,$ an 0 > e and an integer
o
n or a real number
o
t Î{0,1} such that
³ " e ³ - n , z z
n o
n for all t <
o
t , such that e ³ - z ) t ( z .Therefore, the disk with centre z and
radius e form an open covering of W . Hence any compact subset of W can be covered by
a finite number of such disks.
Theorem A sequence of points or an arc in a simply connected region W tends to
the boundary of the region if and only if every compact set Í K W , there is a tail end of
the sequence or the arc which does not meet K.

Proof Consider the sequence } z {
n
of points on the arc z(t) inW such that it tends to the
boundary of W . Let K be any compact subset of W . Then for every zÎK and 0 > e
depending on z and a natural number
o
n =
o
n (z), or a real number
o
t =
o
t (z).
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94

Such that for all n >
o
n , z z
n
- < e and for all t <
o
t , e ³ - | ) ) ( | z t z .This implies that the
neighborhoods of the points of K will form an open covering for the compact set
. W Í K .
If N = Man { | ) z ( N )...... z ( N ), z ( N
2 o 2 o 1 o
or )} z ( t ), z ( )...., z ( t ), z ( t { Ma T
n 0 1 2 0 1 0
=
We say that for n >
o
N ,
0 n
z z e ³ - or T t ³
0
z z ) t ( z e ³ - . Where
0
e = Man
{
0
e (
1
z ),
0
e (
2
z )….
0
e (
n
z )} i.e. n > N or t > T. } {
n
z ÏK or z (t) ÏK. Thus we see that the
condition is necessary.
Conversely suppose that } z {
n
is a sequence or z(t) for 1 t 0 £ £ is an arc in W which has
tailed every form of compact set
0
z Î W .
Let
0
z Î W , then $a 0 > d . Such that |z- 0 z | <d lies entirely in W . If f<d then the disk |z- 0 z | <r lies entirely inW . Now the tail end of the sequence } z { 0 or the arc z(t) must be away from the compact set (z- 0 z ) <r i.e.$ a natural n > no, such that |
1
z -z| >r or for t >
o
t £ r < -
0
z ) t ( z .That is } z {
n
of z(t)
tends to the boundary of the region W .
Note: If W is a simply connected region having a line segment g , a straight line as a part
of its boundary, by rotating the region if necessary we can assume that g is a segment of
the real axis.

Definition: Let W be a simply connected region having a segment g of the real axis as a
part of its boundary. g is said to be a free boundary if to each point of g , $a neighborhood whose intersection with the boundary 2 S of W is the same as its intersection with g . i.e. g is a free boundary to each o n Î W there exists a neighborhood a of o n such that g Ç - D W A S n real diameter of the disk a along real axis. Theorem: Let f(z) be the topological mapping of the region W onto a region 1 W .If the sequence of points } f { n or an arc z(t) in W tends to the boundary of W then the sequence )} ( { n z f or f(z(t)) will tend to the boundary of 1 W . Proof: It is enough to show that the sequence )} ( { n z f of the disk {f(z(t)} stays away from every compact subset K of W .Let K be a compact subset of W . ' f (K) is compact in W . Since f is (1,1), 1 f - is continuous and as the sequence } z { n or the arc z(t) tends to the boundary, we get that the tail end of the sequence or of the arc does not meet 1 f - (K). i.e.$ an integer
o
n or a real number
o
t such that } {
0 o
z n n < " is not contained in
1
f
-
(K) or
for all t >
o
t , z(t) Ï
1
f
-
(K) \ ) z ( f
n
ÏK if
0
n n < or f(z(t)) ÏK for
o
t t > .This implies that
the set )} z ( f {
n
or the arc )} z ( f {
n
does not meet K ultimately. Let for t >
o
t e ³ - | z ) t ( z | .
' ) ( ) ( )) ( ( e = ³ - z f z f t z f
Þ )} z ( f {
n
or f(z(t)) tends to ' W W Î "z .
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95

Definition: A free boundary arc g of a region W is said to be an one sided free boundary
arc if to each W Î
0
g , there is a neighborhood D which has one half disk lying entirely in
W . If either of half disks are on W then the arc g is said to be a two sided boundary arc.

11.4 USE OF THE REFLECTION PRINCIPLE

The principle of reflection is based on the observation. That is if u(z) is harmonic
then u(z) is also likewise harmonic where z is the reflection of z on the real axis and if
f(z) is an analytic function then ) z ( f is also analytic ware precisely if u(z) is harmonic and
f(z) is analytic, then u( ) z is harmonic and ) E ( f is analytic in the region W obtained by
reflection of W on the real axis. i.e. W Î z if and only if W Î z .

Theorem: Suppose that the boundary of a simply connected region W contains a line
segment g as a one –sided free boundary arc. Then the function f(z) which maps W onto
the unit disk can be extended to be function which is analytic and (1,1) on g U W . The
image of g is an arc ' g on the unit circle.
Proof: Since W is a simply connected region which is not the whole plane, by Riemann
mapping theorem.
We can find a unique univalent function D ® W : f such that ) z ( f
0
= o and ) z ( f
0
>W for some
0
z Î W .
Since g is a free boundary arc, every point of g has a neighborhood whose intersection
with the whole boundary of W containing a segment g of a straight line is the same as its
intersection with g .
Consider the disk D around Î
o
n g which is so small that the half disk in the region W
will not contain the point
0
z with ) z ( f
0
= o.
That is, for every z in this disk f(z) ¹ o this implies that log f(z) has a single valued
branch in the said half disk D and its real part log f(z) ® o as z approaches the diameter.
Because as z tends to the boundary of g in g U W ,f(z) will tend to the boundary of D so
that {f(z)} ® 1. This implies log |f(z)| ® 0 as z ® diameter.
Hence by the reflection principle log f(z) can be extended analytically to the whole disk
as the function g(z) and g(z) is analytic in g WU and g(z) = log f(z), W e "z where we can
have G(z) =
) z ( g
e and is the analytic extension of f(z) in g U W and as f(z) is univalent and
(1,1). Moreover, since f(z) is analytic at
0
x , ' f (z) ¹ 0 on ' g , if at all ' f (
0
x ) = o. f(
0
x )
were a multiple value so that the two squares of g meeting at g Î
0
x would be mapped on
as arcs forming an angle 2 n ,
n
³
p
which is impossible.
0
x ' f (z) ¹ 0 is only true.
Hence considering the upper half discs lying in W we have g <

-

on 0 ) z ( f log
x
) z ( f log
y
.
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96

Hence by the reflection principle, f(z) moves constantly in the same direction. i.e. the
analytic continuation mapping is (1,1) on g and hence on g WU .Since the univalent
function f(z) maps W onto the unit disk, clearly the images of g under this analytic
extension is an arc
1
g contained in the unit disk. Hence the theorem.

11.5 ANALYTIC ARCS

A real or complex function j (t) of a real variable t, defined on an interval
a < t < b, is said to be real analytic, y for every
o
t in are interval, the Taylor development
2
0 0 0 0 0
) t t )( t ( '
2
1
) t t )( t ( ' ) t ( ) t ( - j + - j + j = j +….. converges in some interval ) , (
0 0
r r + - t t ,
r > 0. The function ) t ( j can be defined as an analytic function in a region D , symmetric
to the real axis, which contains the segments (a,b). We say that ) t ( j determines an
analytic arc. It is regular if ) t ( ' j ¹ 0, and it is a simple arc if ) t (
1
j = ) t (
2
j , only when
1
t =
2
t .

11.6 LET US SUM UP

1) Definition of simply connected region.
2) Definition of univalent function.
3) Riemann Mapping Theorem.
4) Use of the reflection principle in the following mapping theorem.

11.7 LESSON END ACTIVITIES

1) If
o
z is real and W is symmetric with respect to the real axis, prove by the
uniqueness that f satisfies the symmetry relation ) ( ) ( z f z f = .
11.8 REFERENCES
1. Complex Analysis by L.V. Alphors..

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97

LESSON – 12 CONFORMAL MAPPING OF POLYGONS

CONTENTS
12.0 Aim and Objectives
12.1 Introduction
12.2 The Behaviour at an angle
12.3 The Schwarz – Christoffel formula
12.4 Mapping on a Rectangle
12.5 Let us Sum up
12.6 Lesson end activities
12.7 References

12.0 AIM AND OBJECTIVES

Our aim in this lesson is to study Schwarz - Christoffel formula and learn the
mapping on a rectangle. We shall come to know that when W is a polygon the mapping
problem has an solution. We shall learn that the mapping function can be given through a
formula with parametric values that depend on the shape of the polygon.
After going through this lesson you will be able to:
(i) study about Schwarz – Christoffel formula
(ii) know about the mapping rectangle

12.1 INTRODUCTION

In this lesson we consider W as a bounded simply connected region which is
bounded by a closed polygon. If
1
z , …….. ,
n
z are the consecutive vertices in the positive
cyclic order with
1 + n
z =
1
z , the angle at
k
z is given by arg
k k
k k
z z
z z
-
-
+
-
1
1
which lies between 0
and 2p . We shall denote the interior angle at
k
z by , p a
k
where 0 <
k
a 2 < . The outer
angles
1
b + ….. +
n
b = 2. Since, sum of the interior angles of a polygon of n sides is
å å
- = - =
n
k
n
k
n n
1 1
) 2 ( , ) 2 ( a p p a . With these basic information’s let us move on to
study some important results such as Schwarz – Christoffel formula.

12.2 THE BEHAVIOUR AT AN ANGLE

Introduce the outer angles
k
b p = , ) 1 ( p a
k
- -1<
k
b <1. Observe that
1
b +
2
b +
… +
n
b = 2. The polygon is convex if and only if all
k
b > 0. Consider a circular sector
k
S which is the intersection of W with a sufficiently small disk about
k
z . A single –
valued branch of V =
k
k
z z
a / 1
) ( - maps
k
S onto a half disk '
k
S . A suitable branch of
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k
z +
k
a
V has its values in W and we may consider the function g(V ) = ) (
k
k
z f
a
V + in
'
k
S . It follows that | g(V )| ®1 as V approaches the diameter. The reflection principle
applies and we concluded that g(V ) has an analytic continuation to the whole disk.

12.3 THE SCHWARZ – CHRISTOFFEL FORMULA

Statement: The function z = F(w) which maps |w| < 1 conformally onto polygons with
angle p a
k
(k = 1,2,….n) are of the form F(w) = c
ò
Õ
=
-
+ -
w
n
k
k
c dw w w
k
0
1
' ) (
b

where
k
b = 1 -
k
a and the
k
w are points on the unit circle and c, ' c are complex
constants.

Proof: Let W be a bounded simply connected region whose boundary is a closed
polygonal line without self intersections. Let
1
z ,
2
z , … ,
n
z be the n consecutive vertices
The angle subtended at
k
z , by the sides joining (
k
z ,
1 - k
z and
k
z ,
1 + k
z ) is given by any
÷
÷
ø
ö
ç
ç
è
æ
-
-
+
-
k k
k k
z z
z z
1
1
and we know that, in any polygon, the interior angles are always less than
p 2 . If we let, p a
R
= arg
÷
÷
ø
ö
ç
ç
è
æ
-
-
+
-
k k
k k
z z
z z
1
1
Þ 0 <
k
a < 2
By the hypothesis,
k
b = ) 1 (
k
a - .
\ If the outer angles are a b k , then p
k
b = (1-
k
a ) p Þ
å
= p b
p
2
k

å
= 2
k
b p .
Since W is the bounded simply connected region, by Riemann Mapping Theorem, we
can find a unique univalent function f(z) and by the reflection principle, f(z) can be
analytically extended to any side of the polygon and that each side is mapped in an one-
to-one way into the arc of the unit circle.
Let
k
S be a small circular sector. Which is also the intersection of W with a small disc
k
z so that the single valued Brach t =
k
a
k
z z
/ 1
) ( - maps
k
S onto a half disk
'
k
S .
Hence a suitable branch of z =
k
t z
k
a
+ has its values in W so that the function g(t) =
f(
k
t z
k
a
+ ) is such that |g(t)| ® 1 and log |g| ® 0 by the reflection principle.
\ By the same reflection principle, g(t) has an analytic extension to the whole disk.
Since g(t) is analytic, g(t) can be represented in series using Taylor’s development given
by g(t) = f(
k
t z
k
a
+ ) =
k
w +
å
¥
=1 m
m
m
t a …… (1).
Where
1
a ¹ 0 because
'
k
S is not contained in the unit disk. The above series
representation can be inverted by assuming w = f(
k
z +
k
t
a
) …. (2).
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99

\ From (1) & (2) w =
k
w +
å
¥
=1 m
m
m
t a , t =
å
¥
=
-
1
) (
m
m
k m
w w b (say) b ¹ 0…. (3)
and this expression is valid in the neighborhood
k
w .
Since from (2), ) (
1
w f
-
=
k
t z
k
a
+ and putting ) (
1
w f
-
= F (w),
we have, F (w) –
k
z =
k
t
a
. Using (3) we get,
F (w) –
k
z =
k
m
m
k m
w w b
a
÷
ø
ö
ç
è
æ
-
å
¥
=1
) ( = ) ( ) ( w G w w
k k
k
a
- (say) …. (4).
Where
k
G is analytic and ¹ 0 in the neighborhood of
k
w , differentiating, we get
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( 0 ) ( '
'
1
w G w w w G w w w F
k
k
k k k k k
a
a a - + - = -
-

=
k
k
k k
k k
k
k
w w
w G w w
w w
w G
a
a
a
-
-
-
+
- -
1
'
) (
) ( ) (
1 ) (
) (
, since
k
b = 1-
k
a .
\ ) ( ' w F
k
k
w w
b
) ( - = ) (
k
w w- ) (
'
w G
k
+
k
a ) (w G
k
is analytic in the neighbourhood of
k
w and not equal to zero.
Now, put H(w) = ) ( ' w F
Õ
=
-
n
k
k
k
w w
1
) (
b
….. (5)
This implies that H(w) is also analytic and not equal to zero in the closed unit disk |w| £1.
We shall complete the proof by showing that H(w) is a constant.
Let us consider the argument of H(w) on |w| £1.
When w =
q i
e lies on the unit circle |w| £1, argument
k
w =
k
i
e
q
and
1 + k
w =
1 + k
i
e
q

Since ' F =
q d
df

arg ' F = arg df – arg dw …….. (6)
Where arg df denotes the angle of the tangent to the unit circle at w =
q i
e and Arg q d
indicates the angle of the tangent to its image f(w) = F(
q i
e ).
Since F is only straight line arg df is a constant and we can have arg dw = q +
2
p
.
Hence
k
w w- =
q i
e -
k
i
e
q
.
k
w w- =
2
) (
k
i
e
q q +

÷
÷
ø
ö
ç
ç
è
æ
-
- +
2
) (
2
) (
k k
i i
e e
q q q q
= 2i
2
) (
k
i
e
q q +
sin
÷
ø
ö
ç
è
æ -
2
) (
k
q q
.
This implies that arg (w-wk) is
2
q
+a constant
\ Adding the arguments of all factors on the R.H.S of (5), we find
arg h(w) = arg
1
F +
å
=
-
n
k
k
w w Br
1
) arg( using (6)
= arg df – arg dw + z + ÷
ø
ö
ç
è
æ
å
=
n
k
Bk
1
+
2
q
some constant
arg H(w) = constant. Since H(w) is continuous, arg H(w) is a constant in the whole unit
circle.

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100

\ By the Maximum modulus principle, arg H(w) =
m
J log H(w) = constant inside the
unit disk.
Þ itself is a constant (say c)
(5) Þ ) (
'
w f = c
Õ
=
-
-
n
k
k
k
w w
1
) (
b
. Integrating we get
F(w) = c
ò
Õ
=
-
+ -
w
n
k
k
c d w w
k
0
1
' ) ( q
b
Hence the theorem.

12.4 MAPPING ON A RECTANGLE

We know that from Schwarz – Christoffel formula,
z = F(w) c
ò
Õ
=
-
+ -
w
n
k
k
c dq w w
k
0
1
' ) (
b
….. (1)
and F(w) maps the unit disk |w| £ 1 conformal onto polygons with angles p a
k
(interior)
and
k
b = 1-
k
a (interior) and
k
w are points on the unit circle and c, ' c are complex
constants and W is a bounded simply connected region whose boundary is the above said
closed polygonal lines.
If w becomes a rectangle, then . 2 2
4 3 2
4
1
1
= + + + =
å
=
b b b pb p b
k
k

Since 2 /
4 3 2 1
p p b p b p b p b = = = = in a rectangle,
2 /
4 3 2 1
p b b b p b = = = =
Choosing the three vertices, as
1
w = 0,
2
w = 1,
3
w = r > 1, the above mapping function
from (1) gives for c = 0 and ' c = 0.
f(w) =
ò
- - -
- - -
w
d w w w
0
2
1
2
1
2
1
) ( ) 1 ( ) 0 ( q r =
ò
- -
w
w w w
dw
0
) )( 1 ( r
…… (2)
Where (2) is an elliptic integral. To avoid ambiguity, let w , 1 - w , r - w lie in the
1
st
Consider the mapping f(w) as w traces the real axis, since w is real each square root is
either positive or purely imaginary with positive imaginary part.
As 0 < w < 1, there are one real and two imaginary square roots.
This means f(w) decreases from 0 to a value –k where it can be proved that
K =
ò
- -
1
0 ) )( 1 ( t t t
dt
r
…… (3)
If it is assumed 1 < w < r , then there is only one square root and the integral
ò
- -
w
w w w
dw
1
) )( 1 ( r
is purely.
Imaginary with a negative imaginary part. Thus f(w) follows a vertical segment move
from –k to –k- i ' k where ' k is given by
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101

' K =
ò
- -
r
r
1
) )( 1 ( t t t
dt
\ For w > r
the integrand is +ve and f(w) traces a horizontal segment in the positive direction and it
terminate at - i ' k and the length of the segment is given by the integral
ò
¥
- -
r
r ) )( 1 ( t t t
dt
. Now let t =
u
u
-
-
1
r
Þ u =
t
t
-
-
1
r
and t = 1 +
u
u
-
-
1
r

dt = du
u
u t
2
) 1 (
) (
-
- r
and if t ® r , u®0, if t ® ¥, u® 1.
\
ò
¥
- -
r
r) )( 1 ( t t t
dt
=
ò
-
-
÷
ø
ö
ç
è
æ
-
-
÷
ø
ö
ç
è
æ
-
-
-
-
1
0
2
) 1 (
) 1 (
1
1
1
) 1 (
) 1 (
u
u
u u
u
u
du
r r r
r

=
ò
- -
1
0
) 1 )( ( u u u
du
r
=
ò
¥
- -
r
r ) )( 1 ( t t t
dt
= K by ….. (3)
By Cauchy’s Theorem, as
) )( 1 (
1
r - - t t t

is analytic within a semi circle with radius R and as R® ¥
ò
-
- -
R
R
t t t
dt
) )( 1 ( r
= . 0
) )( 1 (
®
- -
ò
¥
¥ -
r t t t
dt

This implies that k®0. i.e., the real part becomes zero so that we can claim that the
horizontal segments are equal.
Similarly when the imaginary part is zero, - ¥ < w < 0 is mapped onto the segment i ' k to
0 (as already k = 0).
\ -k means (-k, 0), -k -i ' k \$ (-k, - ' k )
and - i ' k means Þ (0, - ' k )
\ these parts form the rectangle OABD.

Note:
If we consider the vertices as ± 1, ± 1/k, 0 < k < 1, F(w) =
ò
- -
w
w k w
dw
0
2 2 2
) 1 )( 1 (

are +ve,
2
1 w - ,
2 2
1 k w - have the +ve real parts so that the vertices of the rectangle
become, -k/2, k/2, k/2 + i
1
k , -k/2, + i
1
k , where k =
ò
- - -
1
1
2 2 2
) 1 )( 1 ( t k t
dt
and
' K =
ò
- - -
1
1
2 2 2
) 1 )( 1 ( k t t
dt
k and the corresponding rectangle is given by ABCD.

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12.5 LET US SUM UP

(1) The sum of the interior angle of a polygon of n sides =
p
) 2 ( - n .
(2) The sum of the exterior angle of a polygon of n sides = . 2p
(3) Note that the sum of the exterior angles is independent of the number of sides of a
polygon.
(4) Schwarz – Christoffel formula.
(5) Mapping on a rectangle.

12.6 LESSON END ACTIVITIES
(1) Show that f(w) =
ò
-
-
w
n
n
w
0
2
) 1 ( dw maps |w| < 1 onto the interior of a regular
polygon with n sides.
(2) Determine a conformal mapping of the upper half plans on the region
W = { z = x + iy; x > 0, y > 0, min (x,y) < 1}.
(3) Show that the mappings of a disk onto a parallel strip or onto a half strip with two
right angles, can be obtained as special caps of the Schwarz – Christoffel formula.

12.7 REFERENCES
1. Complex Analysis by L.V. Alphors.

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103

LESSON 13 ELLIPTIC FUNCTIONS

CONTENTS
13.0 Aim and Objectives
13.1 Introduction
13.2 General Properties
13.3 Let us Sum up
13.4 Lesson end activities
13.5 References

13.0 AIM AND OBJECTIVES

Our main aim of this lesson is to learn about elliptic functions, period modulus,
canonical basis of the period module. We also study about some general properties of
elliptic functions.
After going through this lesson you will be able to:
(i) know about general properties of an elliptic function.
(ii) theorem an elliptic function.

13.1 INTRODUCTION

We say that
1
z is congruent to
2
z ,
1
z º
2
z (modm) if
1
z -
2
z Îm. i.e. if
2
z -
1
z
=
1
n ,
1
w +
2
n ,
2
w . The function f(z) takes identical values at congruent points. Therefore
f(z) may be regarded as a function on the congruent classes. Let
a
P denote the
parallogram with vertices at a, a +
1
w , a +
2
w , a +
1
w +
2
w . We can represent each
congruence class by exactly one point in
a
P . The point ‘a’ can be any point provided f(z)
has no poles on the boundary of
a
P .

13.2 GENERAL PROPERTIES

Theorem: An elliptic function without poles is a constant.

Proof: Since f(z) has no poles, it is an entire function. Since f(z) is entire, it is bounded
on the bounded region
a
P , including, its boundary. Hence it is bounded in the entire
plane. Therefore by Liouville’s theorem, f(z) reduces to a constant.

Theorem: The sum of the residues of an elliptic function is zero.

Proof: Let us choose the point ‘a’ such that none of the poles of f(z) lies on the boundary
of
a
P . By Cauchy’s Theorem,
ò

=
a
P
i dz z f p 2 ) ( x (sum of the residues) ….. (1)
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But
ò

=
a
P
dz z f ) (
ò
+
1
) (
w a
a
dz z f +
ò
+ +
+
+
2 1
1
) (
w w a
w a
dz z f
ò
+
+ +
2
2 1
) (
w a
w w a
dz z f +
ò
+
a
w a
dz z f
2
) ( …….. (2)
In
2
I , put z = u +
1
w , dz = du
When z = a +
1
w , u = a,
2
I = a +
1
w , u = a +
2
w
\
2
I =
ò
+
+
2
) (
1
w a
a
du w u f =
ò
+
2
) (
w a
a
du u f =
ò
+
2
) (
w a
a
dz z f {Q
1
w is a period}
Similarly
3
I =
ò
+
a
w a
dz z f
2
) ( .
Now (2) Þ
ò
a
Ip
a
dz z f ) ( =
ò
+
1
) (
w a
a
dz z f +
ò
+
2
) (
w a
a
dz z f +
ò
+
a
w a
dz z f
1
) ( +
ò
+
a
w a
dz z f
2
) ( = 0 ……. (3)
Using (3) in (1) we get
0 = i p 2 x (sum of the residues).
\ Sum of the residues at poles is
a
p ¶ = 0. Hence the theorem.

Note: From the above theorem it is clear that an elliptic function with a simple pole does
not exist.

Theorem: A non constant elliptic function has equally many poles as it has zeros.

Proof: We know that the zeros and poles of f(z) are simple poles of
) (
) ( '
z f
z f
, itself being
an elliptic function.
The multiplicities of zeros and poles of f(z) are the residues at simple poles of
) (
) ( '
z f
z f
.
The multiplicities are counted positive for zeros and negative for poles.
Since the sum of residues at poles of an elliptic function is zero and
) (
) ( '
z f
z f
is an elliptic
function
ò

=
a
p
dz
z f
z f
i
0
) (
) ( '
2
1
p
Þ N – P = 0 Þ N = P
Þ Number of zeros of f(z) = Number of poles of f(z).

Theorem: The zeros
1
a , ……
n
a and poles
1
b ,
2
b , ……
n
b of an elliptic function
satisfy
1
a + …… +
n
a º
1
b + …… +
n
b (modm).

Proof: We know that when g(z) is analytic in W, then
ò
=
g
p
dz
z f
z f
z g
i ) (
) ( '
) (
2
1
=
å
j
j j
a g a y n ) ( ) , ( -
å
k
k k
b g b y n ) ( ) , ( ……. (1)
Choose ‘a’ such that none of these zeros and poles lies on the boundary of
a
P .
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105

\
ò

=
a
p
dz
z f
z zf
i ) (
) ( '
2
1
p
(
1
a + …… +
n
a ) – (
1
b + …… +
n
b ) ……. (2)
{from (1), g(z) = z . \ g(
i
a ) =
i
a and g(
k
b ) =
k
b }
But,
ò

a
p
dz
z f
z zf
i ) (
) ( '
2
1
p

=
ê
ê
ë
é
+ +
ò ò
+ +
+
+
2 1
1 1
1
) (
) ( '
) (
) ( '
2
1
2
w w a
w a
w a
a
dz
z f
z zf
w dz
z f
z zf
i p
+
ú
ú
û
ù
+
ò ò
+
+
+ +
a
w a
w a
w w a
dz
z f
z zf
dz
z f
z zf
2 1
2
2 1
) (
) ( '
) (
) ( '

Now
1
I +
3
I =
ê
ê
ë
é
ú
ú
û
ù
+
ò ò
+
+ +
+
2
2 1
1
) (
) ( '
) (
) ( '
2
1
w a
w w a
w a
a
dz
z f
z zf
dz
z f
z zf
i p

=
ê
ê
ë
é
ú
ú
û
ù
+
+
+ -
ò ò
+ +
1 1
) (
) ( '
) (
) (
) ( '
2
1
2
2
2
w a
a
w a
a
du
w u f
w u f
w u dz
z f
z zf
i p

=
ê
ê
ë
é
ú
ú
û
ù
-
ò ò
+ +
1 1
) (
) ( '
) (
) ( '
2
1
w a
a
w a
a
dz
z f
z zf
dz
z f
z zf
i p

=
ê
ê
ë
é
ú
ú
û
ù
- -
ò ò ò
+ + +
1 1
1
1
) (
) ( '
) (
) (
) (
) ( '
2
1
2
w a
a
w a
a
w a
a
dz
z f
z zf
dz
z f
z f
w dz
z f
z zf
i p
{Q
2
w is a period}.
=
ò
+
-
1
.
) (
) ( '
2
2
w a
a
dz
z f
z f
i
w
p

But
ò
+
1
) (
) ( '
2
1
w a
a
dz
z f
z f
i p
represents the winding number around the origin of the closed
curve described by f(z) when z varies from a to a +
1
w and therefore it is an integer.
The same result applies for
2
I +
4
I .
\ L.H.S of (2) is of the form
1 1
w n +
2 2
w n .
(2) Þ (
1
a + …… +
n
a ) – (
1
b + …… +
n
b ) =
1 1
w n +
2 2
w n e M.
Hence
1
a + …… +
n
a º (
1
b + …… +
n
b ) (mod m). Hence the theorem.

13.3 LET US SUM UP

(1) Period Module
(2) Unimodular representation
(3) Canonical Basis
(4) Fundamental region
(5) Properties of elliptic functions.

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106

13.4 LESSON END ACTIVITIES

(1) Show that any elliptic function with periods
2 1
, w w can be written as

Õ
-
-
) (
) (
k
k
b z
a z
c
s
s
where c is a constant, using
) 2 / (
1
1 1
) ( ) (
w z
e z w z
+
- = +
h
s s and

) 2 / (
2
2 2
) ( ) (
w z
e z w z
+
- = +
h
s s in the above theorem.

13.5 REFERENCES
1. Complex Analysis by L.V. Alphors..
2. Theory of Functions by Konrad Knopp – Part - II.

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107

LESSON 14 THE WEIERSTRASS THEORY

CONTENTS
14.0 Aim and Objectives
14.1 Introduction
14.2 The Weierstrass P-function
14.3 The function x and s associated with P.
14.4 The differential equation for P(z)
14.5 Let us Sum up
14.6 Lesson end activities
14.7 References

14.0 AIM AND OBJECTIVES

In this lesson we learn about Weierstrass P- function, zeta function and sigma
function. we also obtain Lagender’s relation and differential equation of Weierstass
function.
After going through this lesson you will be able to:
(ii) the association between P-function and x and s functions.
(ii) the differential equation for P(z).

14.1 INTRODUCTION

The simplest elliptic functions are of order 2.Thesefunctions have either a double
pole with residue zero or two simple poles with residues which are equal in value but
opposite in sign. We now construct a function with one double pole. This double pole can
be assumed to be at the origin. We can assume that the singular part at the origin is
2
z
1
.There is no
z
1
term in the singular part as the sum of residues at poles of an elliptic
function is zero.

12.4THE WEIERSTRASS P-FUNCTION

Now f(z)- f(- z) will have no singular part but will be elliptic with the same
periods. So it should be a constant and by putting
2
w
z
1
= , we conclude that the constant
should be zero.
This is an even function. Since f is any constant is again elliptic and has the same periods
we can assume that the Laurent’s expansion for f near the origin is of the form
........
1
4
2
2
1
2
+ + + z a z a
z
{an even function cannot have odd power of z in its expansion}
Having this form in mind, we assert that
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108

P
( )
å
¹
ú
û
ù
ê
ë
é
-
-
+ =
0
2 2 2
1 1 1
) (
w
w w z z
z ,
2 2 1 1
w n w n w + = ………(1)
possesses the desired properties.
First, if
2
| w |
| z | < ,
( )
( )
( )
2 2 2 2
2 1 1
w z w
z w z
w w z -
-
= -
-
3
| |
| | 10
w
z
£ .
Hence the series on the R.H.S. converges uniformly on every compact subset
provided
å
¹
¥ <
0
3
| |
1
w
w
.
To verify note that
1
2
w
w
is not real so that there exists k > 0 with
2
2 2 1 1
| w n w n | + ) | n | | n (| k
2
1
2
1
+ ³ for all real pairs ) n , n (
1 1
.
If 0= arg
÷
÷
ø
ö
ç
ç
è
æ
1
2
w
w

2
2 2 1 1
| w n w n | + | n | w | n
2
2
2
1
2
1
+ = | w , w | n , n 2 | w
2 1 2 1
2
2
+ cos 0.
But
1
2
w
w
being in the upper half plane 0 < 0< n. So that
cos 0= 1 o , < m £ m ± Hence
2
2 2 1 1
| w n w n | + | w , w | n , n 2 | w | n | w | n |
2 1 2 1
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
m ± + =
2
2 2 1 1
2
2
2
1
1
2
| | | | ) ( | | ) 1 ( w n w n n w n ± + + - = m m
) | w | n | w | n )( 1 (
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
2
+ m - =
) n n ( k ) n n ( a ) 1 ( 2
2 2
1
2
2
2
1
2
+ = + m - ³
If a = min |) w | |, w (|
2 1
.Thus
( )
å å
¹ ¹ +
+ £
0 n
2
2
2
1
2
1
0 w
3
2
2
2
3
n n
1
n
k
1
| w |
1
and the latter double series
converges.
Thus the series representing P(z) converges uniformly on every compact subsets of
Ë } w n w , n {
2 2 1 1
+ , z n n Î
2 1
and therefore represents a meromorphic function with poles at
z n n , w n n w n w
2 1 2 2 1 1 1
e + = .
We next verify that P(z) is periodic with period
2 2 1 1
w n w n w + = .
i.e. P(z) is a doubly period i.e. function with a double pole at origin are at congruent
points. We have thus proved the existence of such a function and also that it can be
represented by the series (1)

14.3 THE FUNCTION x and s ASSOCIATED WITH P

P(z) is a meromorphic function with zero residue at its poles.
So it is the derivative of an analytic function except at the poles.
By uniform convergence over compact sets we can obtain this meromorphic function
denoted by - x (z) by integrating from o to z along any path not passing through the poles.
We have then
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109

å
¹
÷
ø
ö
ç
è
æ
+ +
-
+ =
0
2
1 1 1 1
) (
w
w w w z z
z x
This function x is different from the Riemann – zeta function.
From the form of x (z), it is clear that
1 1
) ( ) ( h x x + = + z w z and
2 2
) ( ) ( h x x + = + z w z .
Where
1
h , and
2
h do not depend on z but only on
2 1
, w w .
In any parallelogram
a
P only one w lies, so that
ò

=
a
P
dz z
i
1 ) (
2
1
x
p

But
ò

=
a
P
dz z
i
) (
2
1
x
p
dz z
i
a
w a
w a
w w a
w w a
w a
w a
a
) (
2
1
2
2
2 1
2 1
1
1
x
p
ú
ú
û
ù
ê
ê
ë
é
ò ò ò ò
+
+
+ +
+ +
+
+

=
ò ò ò ò
+
+
+ +
+ a
w a
w a
w a
a
w a
w a
a
dz z dz z dz z dz z
i
2
2
1 1
1
) ( ) ) ( ( ) ) ( ( ) (
2
1
1 2
x h x h x x
p

=
i p 2
1
[
1
n
2
w -
2
n
1
w ]
\
1
n
2
w -
2
n
1
w = i p 2 .
The above relation is known as Legendre’s relation. Integrating once again ) (z x as can
be done because of uniform convergence and exponentiating to get rid of function s
defined by s (z) = z
Õ
¹
÷
ø
ö
ç
è
æ
+
÷
ø
ö
ç
è
æ
-
0
2
1
2
1
w
w
z
w
z
e
w
z

The definition of s shows that from
1 1
1
1
) ( ) (
) (
) ( '
h x x
s
s
+ = + =
+
+
z w z
w z
w z
=
1
) (
) ( '
h
s
s
+
z
z
.
Integrating and exponentiating, we get
, ) ( ) ( '
,
1 1
z
e z c w z
h
s s = + where
1
c is a constant.
By its form ) (z s is an odd function. Putting z =
2
1
w -
, we get
2 / 1
1
1
1 1
2 2
w
e
w
c
w
h
s s
-
÷
ø
ö
ç
è
æ
- = = -
2 / 1
1
1 1
2
w
e
w
c
h
s
-
÷
ø
ö
ç
è
æ
. So that
1
c = -
2
1
1
w
e
m -
.
Hence ) (
1
w z + s = -
÷
ø
ö
ç
è
æ
+
2
1
1
) (
w
z
e z
h
s and analogously ) (
2
w z + s = -
÷
ø
ö
ç
è
æ
+
2
2
2
) (
w
z
e z
h
s .

14.4 THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION FOR P(Z)

We have ) (z V =
å
¹
÷
ø
ö
ç
è
æ
+ +
-
+
0
2
1 1 1
w
w
z
w w z z

The Laurent’s expansion of ) (z V around the origin can be obtained.
We have
2
1 1
w
z
w w z
+ +
-
=
2
1
1
1
1
w
z
w w
z
w
+ + ÷
ø
ö
ç
è
æ
- -
-

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110

=
ú
û
ù
ê
ë
é
+ + + + ... 1
1
3
3
2
2
w
z
w
z
w
z
w
+
2
1
w
z
w
+ = ¥ - +
-
...
4
3
3
2
w
z
w
z
.
Since ) (z z is an odd function by the definition of ) (z z , we have
) (z V =
å
¥
=
-
-
2
1 2
1
k
k
k
z G
z
where
k
G =
å
¥
¹0
2
w
k
w
q
.
Since P(z) = ) ( ' z V - , we obtain P(z) =
å
¥
=
-
- +
2
2 2
2
) 1 2 (
1
k
k
k
z G k
z
.
Omitting terms of higher degree, P(z) =
4
3
2
2 2
5 3
1
z G z G
z
+ + +….
P ) ( ' z =
3
3 2
3
20 6 / 2 z G z G z + + - + ….
P
2
) ( ' z =
3
2
2
6
80 / 024 / 4 G z G z - + ….
4P
3
) (z =
3
2
2
6
60 / 36 / 4 G z G z + + + ….
3
G 60
2
G P(z) =
2
2
60
z
G
+ …. Using multiplication power series.
\P 4 ) ( '
2
- z P
2
3
60 ) ( G z + P
3
140 ) ( G z - = + …..
But the L.H.S is a doubly periodic function which therefore does not have a pole because
of the expansion on the R.H.S. We therefore conclude that the function should be a
constant.
So, we have
P 4 ) ( '
2
- z P
2
3
60 ) ( G z + P
3
140 ) ( G z - =
P 4 ) ( '
2
= z P
2
3
60 ) ( G z - P
3
140 ) ( G z -
P 4 ) ( '
2
= z P
2
3
) ( G z - P
3
) ( G z -
2
G = 60
2
G and
3
G = 140
3
G is the Differential Equation satisfied by P(z).
This is a first order differential equation for w = P(z). It can be solved explicitly by the
formula,

ò
+
- -
=
3 2
3
4 g w g w
dw
z constant
Which shows that P(z) is the inverse of an elliptic integral . More accurately, this
connection is expressed by the identity.
z-
0
z =
ò
- -
) (
) (
3 2
2
0
4
z p
z p
g w g w
dw

where the path of the integration is the image of a path from
o
z to z, that avoids the zeros
and poles of P ) ( ' z , and where the sign of the square root must be chosen so that it
actually equals P ) ( ' z .

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111

14.5 LET US SUM UP

(1) Construction of Weierstrass P-function
(2) The functions s (z) and P(z)
(3) Legender’s Relation
(4) Differential Equation of P(z).

14.6 LESSON END ACTIVITIES

(1) Show that every even elliptic function with periods
2 1
, w w can be expressed in the
form.

Õ
=
-
-
n
k k
k
b P z P
a P z P
c
1
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
provided that o is neither a zero nor a pole.

(2) Show that any even elliptic function with periods
2 1
, w w can be written as
c
b z
a z
c
n
k k
k
Õ
=
-
-
1
) (
) (
s
s
c is constant.
14.7 REFERENCES
1. Complex Analysis by L.V. Alphors..
2. Theory of Functions Part - II. by Konrad Knopp.
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