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You are on page 1of 1

Knill

curl: curl(M, N, P) = (P

y

− N

z

, M

z

− P

x

, N

x

− M

y

).

gradient: grad(f) = (f

x

, f

y

, f

z

).

Fundamental theorem of line integrals

curve r(t) : [a, b] → C with boundary {r(a), r(b)}.

b

a

grad(f)(r(t)) · r

(t) dt = f(r(b)) − f(r(a))

Stokes theorem:

surface r(u, v) : R → S with boundary r(t) : [a, b] → C

R

curl(F)(r(u, v)) · (r

u

× r

v

)dudv =

b

a

F(r(t)) · r

(t) dt

REMINDERS:

CURL: curl(F) = ∇ × F

GRAD: grad(f) = ∇f

FTL:

C

grad(f) · dr = f(B) − f(A)

STOKES:

S

curl(F) · dS =

C

F · dr

CURL(GRAD)=0: ∇ × ∇f =

0

CONSERVATIVE FIELDS. F is conservative if is a gradient ﬁeld F = ∇f. The fundamental theorem of line

integral implies that the line integral along closed curves is zero and that line integrals are path independent.

We have also seen that F = grad(f) implies that F has zero curl. If we know that F is conservative, how do we

compute f? If F = (M, N, P) = (f

x

, f

y

, f

z

), we got f by integration. There is an other method which you do

in the homework in two dimensions: to get the potential value f, ﬁnd a path C

P

from the origin to the point

P = (x, y, z) and compute

C

F · dr. Because line integrals are path independent, the fundamental theorem of

line integrals gives

C

F · dr = f(P).

CONNECTED. A region is called connected if one can connect any two points in the region with a path.

SIMPLY CONNECTED. A region is called simply connected if it is connected and every path in the region

can be deformed to a point within the region.

EXAMPLES 2D:

Simply connected. Not simply connected. Simply connected. Not simply connected.

EXAMPLES 3D:

A solid ball is simply con-

nected.

A solid torus is not simply

connected.

The complement of a solid

ball is simply connected.

The complement of a solid

torus is not simply con-

nected.

THEOREM.

In a simply connected region D, a vector ﬁeld F is conservative if

and only if curl(F) =

0 everywhere inside D.

Proof. We already know that F = ∇f implies curl(F) =

0. To

show the converse, we verify that the line integral along any closed

curve C in D is zero. This is equivalent to the path independence

and allows the construction of the potential f with F = ∇f.

By assumption, we can deform the curve to a point: if r

0

(t) is

the original curve and r

1

(t) is the curve r

1

(t) = P which stays at

one point, deﬁne a parametrized surface S by r(t, s) = r

s

(t). By

assumption, curl(F) =

**0 and therefore the ﬂux of curl(F) through
**

S is zero. By Stokes theorem, the line integral along the boundary

C of the surface S is zero too.

THE NASH PROBLEM. Nash challenged his multivariable class in the movie ”A beautiful mind” with a

problem, where the region is not simply connected.

Find a region X of R

3

with the property that if V is the set of

vector ﬁelds F on R

3

\ X which satisfy curl(F) = 0 and W is the

set of vector ﬁelds F which are conservative: F = ∇f. Then, the

space V/W should be 8 dimensional.

You solve this problem as an inclass exercise (ICE). The problem

is to ﬁnd a region D in space, in which one can ﬁnd 8 diﬀerent

closed paths C

i

so that for every choice of constants (c

1

, ..., c

8

),

one can ﬁnd a vector ﬁeld F which has zero curl in D and for

which one has

C1

F dr = c

1

, ...,

C8

F dr = c

8

.

One of the many solutions is cut out 8 tori from space. For each

torus, there is a vector ﬁeld F

i

(a vortex ring), which has its

vorticity located inside the ring and such that the line integral of

a path which winds once around the ring is 1. The vector ﬁeld

F = c

1

F

1

+... +c

8

F

8

has the required properties.

CLOSED SURFACES. Surfaces with no boundaries are called closed surfaces. For example, the surface of a

donought, or the surface of a sphere are closed surfaces. A half sphere is not closed, its boundary is a circle.

Half a doughnut is not closed. Its boundary consists of two circles.

THE ONE MILLION DOLLAR QUESTION. One of the Millenium problems is to determine whether any three

dimensional space which is simply connected is deformable to a sphere. This is called the Poincare conjecture.

LINEINTEGRAL IN HIGHER DIMENSIONS. Line integrals are deﬁned in the same way in higher dimensions.

C

F · dr, where · is the dot product in d dimensions and dr = r

(t)dt.

CURL IN HIGHER DIMENSIONS. In d-dimensions, the curl is the ﬁeld curl(F)

ij

= ∂

xj

F

i

−∂

xi

F

j

with

d

2

**components. In 4 dimensions, it has 6 components. In 2 dimensions it has 1 component, in 3 dimensions, it
**

has 3 components.

SURFACE INTEGRAL IN HIGHER DIMENSIONS. In d dimensions, a surface element in the ij-plane is

written as dS

ij

. The ﬂux integral of the curl of F through S is deﬁned as

curl(F) · dS, where the dot

product is

i<j

curl(F)

ij

dS

ij

. If S is given by a map X from a domain R in the 2-plane to R

d

, U = ∂

u

X and

V = ∂

v

X are tangent vectors to that plane and dS

ij

(u, v) = (U

i

V

j

− U

j

V

i

) dudv.

STOKES THEOREM IN HIGHER DIMENSIONS. If S is a two dimensional surface in d-dimensional space

and C is its boundary, then

S

curl(F) · dS =

C

F · ds.

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