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Semi-active hydro-pneumatic spring and damper system

The basic concept of land vehicle transportation has not changed much in the last
few decades,although much progress was made in improving and optimising vehicle
design and technology. Spring and damper characteristics determine to a large extent the
ride quality and handling of a vehicle. Since the requirements for good handling and good
ride are conflicting, adjustable suspension elements are developed. In this study a two-
state semi-active hydro-pneumatic spring, in conjuction with a two-state semi-active
hydraulic damper is investigated.
Two types of tests were performed on a prototype spring-damper unit, namely
characterisation tests and single degree of freedom tests. The characterisation tests
included characterising the hydro-pneumatic spring, while for the single degree of
freedom tests, the step response were determined.
ood correlation was obtained between measured and simulated data for the
characterisation, as well as the single degree of freedom tests. The spring !damper model
can be incorporated into a full "-# vehicle model in order to predict the ride and handling
of a vehicle fitted with such a system.

Semi-active hydro-pneumatic spring and damper system
Literture nd !i"toric# o$er$ie%
*eed of semi-active hydro-pneumatic suspension
+istorical overview
E&'eri(ent# %or)
,xperimental spring and damper unit
,xperimental test setup
+ydro-pneumatic spring characteri-ation
Single degree of freedom testing
.ide height adjustment
*et trn"+er e++ect" on !,dro-'neu(tic
Semi-active hydro-pneumatic spring and damper system
"u"'en"ion ","te("
#etermination of spring characteristics
,xperimental verification
2odes of heat transfer
,ffect of damper heat build-up
Semi-active hydro-pneumatic spring and damper system
%.$ Swiss 2owag )iranha
".$ ,xperimental semi-active spring and damper unit
".% 4haracteri-ation test setup
"." Single degree of freedom test setup
".& 5loating piston accumulator
".' Semi-active spring characteristics 63.3$m7s8
".( Two state damper characteristics
".0 Step response for different combinations of spring and damper
"./ .ide height adjustment
&.$ ,xperimental spring unit
&.% 2easured and predicted spring characteristics
&." ,ffect of excitation frequency
&.& 4omparision between adiabatic, isothermal and predicted spring characteristics
&.' ,ffects of change in gas temperature
Semi-active hydro-pneumatic spring and damper system
1.1 Pre(0#e
The basic concept of land vehicle transportation has not changed much in the last
few decades,although much progress was made in improving and optimising vehicle
design and technology. The quest to always go faster,further and more comfortably,has
lead in recent years to the development of advanced suspension system. 9n improved
suspension system allows a vehicle to achieve higher speeds over rougher terrain,and
results in better handling,as well as improved ride comfort.
)assive suspension systems6suspension without controllable elements8,always
represent a compramise between ride comfort and handling,since a stiff suspension is
required for good handling,while a more compliant suspension is needed for good ride
comfort. Implimenting a controllable suspension 6adaptive,slow-active,fully-active8 is
therefore an attempt to narrow the gap between the opposing requirements for optimal
ride comfort and handling.
In armoured fighting vehicles and other heavy off-road vehicles it is important to
have a soft suspension 6low spring rate8 allowing big wheel travel when negotiating
rough terrain. 9 soft suspension however compromises good handling and straight line
stability at high speed on good roads.
It is :nown that semi-active dampers can dramatically enhance ride cofort and
handling over rough terrain, still ma:ing the choice of spring rate a compromise between
ride comfort and handling. It is now possible to choose between two spring rates- one that
favours good ride comfort and another favouring good handling.
These suspension systems are mainly developed for heavy off-road vehicles li:e
truc:s, military vehicles or passenger vehicles. ;y introducing a semi-active hydro-
pneumatic spring and damper system two very important suspension elements can be
Semi-active hydro-pneumatic spring and damper system
changed to suit specific driving conditions. <hen driving on good roads the hard spring
and damper settings can be used to improve vehicle stability and handling. ;y being able
to switch between a soft and a hard suspension good off-road capabilities as well as good
handling and stability can be achieved.
This study focuses on a semi-active suspension system,consisting of a two-state
switchable hydraulic damper,as well as a two-state switchable hydro-pneumatic spring.
The different elements of the spring7damper system are characterised to predict the
system performance.
Semi-active hydro-pneumatic spring and damper system
Semi-active hydro-pneumatic spring and damper system
5ig $.$ 9rmoured )ersonnel 4arrier 5itted <ith Semi-active #amper
2.1 Pre(0#e
In this chapter, an overview is given of semi-active dampers and hydro-
pneumatic springs.It also focusses on literature concerned with large off-road vehicles,
but in cases where the applicable technology has not yet been demonstrated on heavy
vehicles, reference is made to commercial and passenger vehicles.
2.2 Need O+ Se(i-cti$e *,dro-'neu(tic Su"'en"ion S,"te("
The suspension systems which are used for normal cars do not suit the large off-
road vehicles, since the weight of such vehicles is much more than the normal cars. 9lso
even if we use such suspension systems, a large stress results on them eventually ma:ing
them of no use. So to overcome this difficulty semi-active hydro-pneumatic suspension
systems using spring and damper were invented.
Semi-active dampers were conceptuali-ed in the $103=s and numerous
configurations and control strategies were simulated and tested since then. Semi-active
suspension systems greatly influence the vehicle dynamics 6ride comfort and handling8.
This is also the reason for developing semi-active suspension systems, namely to improve
ride comfort without compromising handling and stability, by switching between hard
and soft spring7damper characteristics.
2.3 *i"toric# O$er$ie%
Semi-active hydro-pneumatic spring and damper system
+ydro-pneumatic suspensions have been introduced on battle tan:s in the $1'3=s.
The first hydro-pneumatic struts were fitted to a prototype trac:ed vehicle, as result of
research done by two erman companies, 5riese:e and +opfner from ,rlangen and
;orgwald from ;ermen into the use of compressible fluids in suspension systems
6+ilmes $1/%8. Since then, several other military vehicles were fitted with hydro-
pneumatic suspensions, but most of them did not go into production due to reliability
problems and short life span of the mechanical components. Initially, confidence in this
type of suspension was low, due to sealing and design problems.
;ut since the introduction of more reliable sealing techniques, hydro-pneumatic
springs and dampers have become more popular and are occasionally used in passenger
cars and large off-road vehicles. This type of suspension system is popular due to its non-
linear characteristics and versatility.
Semi-active hydro-pneumatic spring and damper system
+ydro-pneumatic suspensions are not commonly used on commercial vehicles
due to high capital cost involved.
The first production trac:ed vehicle fitted with a hydro-pneumatic suspension was
the Swiss Strv-$3" 2ain ;attle Tan: 62;T8. This vehicle was fitted with a rigidly
mounted weapon and the height adjustable hydro-pneumatic suspension was used to tilt
the vehicle upward or downward 6+ilmes $1/%8.
5ig %.$ Swiss 2owag )iranha
Semi-active hydro-pneumatic spring and damper system
3.1 Pre(0#e
In this chapter, the experimental wor: is presented. The experimental wor: can be
divided into two stages, namely characteri-ation tests and single degree of freedom tests.
The set up, test equipment and characteri-ation procedures for both these stages are
discussed in this chapter. <here deemed necessary, some bac:ground information is
supplied, in order to elucidate the characteri-ation process. The test results are presented
in graphical and tabular format.
In the following paragraphs, firstly the test set up is discussed, with reference to
the hardware, software and test equipment. Secondly, the characteri-ation of the spring
and damper are discussed. 9fter that, the single degree of freedom tests are discussed and
finally some closing remar:s are made.
3.2 E&'eri(ent# S'rin4 nd D('er /nit
The high and low characteristics for both spring and damper are made possible by
channeling hydraulic fluid with solenoid valves 65ig. ".$8. The spring and damper units
consists of hydraulic strut 6$8, two gas filled accumulators 6% and "8, a hydraulic damper
6&8 and two solenoid valves 6' and (8.
The low spring rate is achieved by compressing a large volume of gas in two
separate chambers 6% and "8. ;y sealing off one of the chambers 6%8, a smaller gas
volume 6"8 is compressed and a higher spring rate is achieved. Spring rates can be
Semi-active hydro-pneumatic spring and damper system
individually tailored by changing the two gas volumes. 5or low damping the hydraulic
damper 6&8 is short circuited by opening a by-pass valve 6'8. 5or high damping this valve
is closed and the hydraulic fluid is forced through the damper resulting in a high damping
5ig. ".$ ,xperimental semi-active spring and damper unit
3.3 E&'eri(ent# Te"t Setu'
Two experimental setups were used, one for the component characterisations
6springs, dampers and valves8 and another for the single degree of freedom tests. In both
the cases, a $(3 :* Schenc: hydraulic actuator was used to supply the desired input.
5ig. ".% shows schematically the characteri-ation setup.
The top of the strut was fixed to the rigid test frame with a locating pin, while the
bottom mounting was fixed to the hydraulic actuator. Spherical rod ends were used, in
order to eliminate any bending moments on the strut. In this setup, the required relative
strut displacement is generated by vertical actuator motion.
Semi-active hydro-pneumatic spring and damper system
5ig.".% 4haracteri-ation Test Setup
5or the single degree of freedom tests, a separate test frame was build. 5ig. "."
shows test setup.
9 lead mass of approximately " tons was used to simulate the sprung mass of a
vehicle, since a static wheel load of between %.' and " tons are common for military off-
road vehicles. The test frame was equipped with a set of linear bearings, guiding the
sprung mass, which was supported by lower mounting of Schenc: actuator. *itrogen
cylinder is used to fill the accumulators. The accumulators, dampers and valves were
secured on top of the lead mass. The test frame was securely fixed to the test floor, to
ensure that the S#>5 setup does not fall over.
Semi-active hydro-pneumatic spring and damper system
5ig. "." Single #egree >f 5reedom Test Setup
3.3 *,dro-'neu(tic S'rin4 C!rcteri5tion
3.3.1 P!,"ic# Attri0ute"
There are many different types of hydro-pneumatic springs, but the basic difference lies
in the way the gas and oil is separated. Some hydro-pneumatic springs have a rubber
bladder separating the gas and the wor:ing fluid, while others have a floating piston.
;oth the hydro-pneumatic springs considered here are of floating piston type.
Semi-active hydro-pneumatic spring and damper system
5ig. ".& 5loating )iston 9ccumulator
The static volumes of the two accumulators are 3."l and 3.0l respectively. <hen
the valve is open the combined volume of the two accumulators is $.3l and when the
valve is closed only the 3."l accumulator is connected with the single acting cylinder.
*itrogen gas was used as springing medium.
3.3.2 C!rcteri5tion Procedure
5or the hydro-pneumatic spring characteri-ation, two stages of semi-active hydro-
pneumatic spring were characteri-ed by subjecting the strut to a sinusoidal displacement,
of varying frequency. The excitation speed is defined as the piston speed when moving
through the static position. The excitation speed is therefore a function of excitation
frequency and excitation amplitude. The amplitude of signal was approximately $33mm.
5ig &.' two spring characteristics for an excitation speed of 3.3$m7s. It can be seen that
two very different spring characteristics were achieved.
Semi-active hydro-pneumatic spring and damper system
5ig. ".' Semi-active Spring 4haracteristics 63.3$m7s8
3.4 *,dru#ic D('er C!rcteri5tion
3.4.1 P!,"ic# Attri0ute"
The damper pac: used has non-linear damping characteristic, which is achieved
by a system of orifices, a sealing washer and ;elville springs. This damper was mounted
statically between the strut and the hydro-pneumatic springs 6fig &.$8. The damping force
is therefore supplied by resistance to fluid flow through damper pac:.
3.4.2 C!rcteri5tion Procedure
The damper characteristics of the two-state damper were characteri-ed by
subjecting the strut to a sinusoidal displacement input. The actuator force was recorded
when the strut travels through the static position, where the velocity is almost constant
and a maximum. 5ig. &.( shows the damper characteristics for both ?on@ and ?off@ states.
It can be seen that ?off@ characteristic for velocities above 3.%'m7s is approximately half
that of the ?on@ state, in the compression direction 6negative velocity8. The damper force,
in the rebound direction, shows an almost constant damping force at high velocities. This
is because during rebound motion the driving force behind the hydraulic fluid is the
accumulator=s pressure and in the compression direction, the simple acting strut cylinder.
Semi-active hydro-pneumatic spring and damper system
.ebound damping can therefore not be made too high, since cavitation may occur at high
5ig ".( Two State #amper 4haracteristics
3.6 Sin4#e De4ree O+ .reedo( Te"tin4
Several single degree of freedom tests were performed to evaluate the
characteristics and performance of the semi-active spring7damper system. Step response
and ride height adjustment feature were evaluated.
Ste' Re"'on"e In'ut
The tests were done by subjecting the system to a step displacement input of
&"mm. The sprung mass displacement, for different spring and damper combinations, are
shown below. It can be seen that for spring ?on@ condition an effective natural frequency
of approximately $.' +- is achieved. 5or the spring ?off@ state, the natural frequency is in
the region of $ +-. The response for the two cases where the damper is in the ?off@ state
indicates that the system is under damped. 5or the damper ?on@ state, the motion is
damped out within one cycle.
Semi-active hydro-pneumatic spring and damper system
5ig ".0 Step .esponse for #ifferent 4ombinations of Spring and #amper
3.7 Ride *ei4!t Ad8u"t(ent
The ride height of vehicles fitted with hydro-pneumatic suspensions can be easily
adjusted by adding or removing hydraulic fluid from the system. 9 lower ride height
results in reduced body roll, lower center of gravity, a more stable firing platform and a
lower silhouette. The ride height can also be increased when a greater ground clearance is
.ide height adjustments are usually achieved by ma:ing use of an external power
source, such as an engine driven hydraulic pump. 9 control system then regulates the
amount of hydraulic fluid in the system with a networ: of pipes and valves. The Swiss
2owag )iranah III is an example of a vehicle fitted with such a system. The semi-active
hydro-pneumatic spring7damper system investigated in this study has the added
advantage of being able to adjust the ride height without using an external pump. The ride
height adjustment wor:s as followsA
<hen valve 6(8 is closed, the hydraulic fluid in the accumulator 6%8 is effectively
removed from the system. ;y opening and closing the valve at the right moment an
Semi-active hydro-pneumatic spring and damper system
amount of hydraulic fluid can be stored in accumulator 6%8, thus varying the ride height.
To decrease ride height, valve 6(8 is :ept closed and only opened when the pressure in
accumulator 6"8 is higher than in accumulator 6%8. This is done until the pressure in
accumulator 6%8 reaches a predetermined value corresponding to a specific reduction in
ride height. To increase the ride height, valve 6(8 is only opened when the pressure in
accumulator 6%8 is higher than in accumulator 6"8.
5ig. "./ .ide +eight 9djustment
Semi-active hydro-pneumatic spring and damper system
4.1 Pre(0#e
Biterature on hydro-pneumatic suspension systems invariably describes the spring
force of the hydro-pneumatic spring by polytropic processes, assuming ideal gas
behaviour. This assumption is a simplification of the real situation as heat transfer effects
between the gas and its surroundings cannot be ignored. The nitrogen gas used as spring
medium cannot be treated as an ideal gas under the pressures and temperatures found in
hydro-pneumatic suspension systems. 2ost hydro-pneumatic suspension systems
incorporate the spring and damper into one unit for reasons of cost and pac:aging. This
results in undesirable temperature effects, i.e. variations in ride height and spring rate.
4.2 Deter(intion o+ t!e "'rin4 c!rcteri"tic
4.2.1 C#""ic# ''roc! +or deter(inin4 t!e "'rin4 c!rcteri"tic
The classical approach for determining the spring characteristic is to assume ideal
gas behaviour and polytropic gas compression processes. Isothermal and adiabatic
characteristics are then calculated. In typical hydro-pneumatic suspension units, the
average gas temperature can vary between -%3 and C%33 degree 4elsius, while gas
pressure varies between % and $$3 2)a. Dnder these conditions, especially at pressures
higher than "3 2)a, gas compressibility can result in large errors rendering the ideal gas
assumption invalid.
4.2.2. Ne% ''roc! +or deter(inin4 t!e "'rin4 c!rcteri"tic" u"in4 re# 4"
0e!$iour nd !et trn"+er (ode#"
To circumvent the errors introduced by the ideal gas assumption, the ;enedict-
<ebb-.ubin equation of state, is used to give a more accurate relationship between gas
Semi-active hydro-pneumatic spring and damper system
pressure, volume and temperature. >ther similar equations of state can be used depending
on the operating range of the suspension unit.
If a gas in a closed container is compressed, the volume decreases while pressure
and temperature increase, storing energy in the process. 9s the gas is allowed to expand,
this stored energy is released. ,nergy is however lost during this process because of heat
transfer between the gas and its surroundings. <hen the gas is compressed, the
temperature and pressure increase and heat is transferred from the gas to the
surroundings. <hen the gas is expanded, the gas temperature drops and heat is
transferred from the surroundings to the gas.
9t very low compression speeds, enough time is available for heat transfer and
the gas temperature stays constant, giving the isothermal characteristic. 9t high speeds,
very little time is available for heat transfer and the gas temperature varies, resulting in
the adiabatic characteristic. 9t speeds between these two extremes, the spring
characteristic forms a hysteresis loop representing the energy loss in the cycle. This effect
has been noted in many publications but is usually attributed to friction and fluid losses in
the spring system. 2any attempts were made to describe this effect by adopting speed or
frequency dependant polytropic exponents which can be as high as $.0. This approach is
often used in hydraulic accumulator calculations.
iven below is a differential equation which describes the heat transfer between
the gas and the environment. ,q. 6$8 is solved using a fourth order .unge-Eutta method.
Semi-active hydro-pneumatic spring and damper system
It can be seen from the definition of the thermal time constant that it varies during
the cycle as the wall area 69w8 varies due to piston motion. The convection coefficient
6h8 also varies due to the change in speed of the gas over the inside surface of the
cylinder. +owever, a constant value of the time constant fits experimental data very well
and the analysis is fairly insensitive to its value.

4.2.3. Deter(intion o+ t!e t!er(# ti(e con"tnt
The thermal time constant can be determined experimentally, or calculated from
heat transfer models based on empirical data. The average thermal time constant is
determined experimentally by subjecting the spring to a step displacement input while
monitoring gas temperature, gas pressure or spring force. The thermal time constant is
defined as the time needed for the pressure, temperature or force to decrease by ("F of
the difference between the pea: and final values. Temperature data is more appropriate to
use but difficult to measure. In the region where the ideal gas assumption is valid, the
same result will be obtained from pressure, force or temperature measurements. ;ecause
the analysis is fairly insensitive to the value of the time constant, pressure measurements
Semi-active hydro-pneumatic spring and damper system
are used to determine the thermal time constant. ood correlation is achieved between
measured and predicted values for the time constant as indicated in Table $.
4.3 E&'eri(ent# $eri+iction
4.3.1 L0ortor, te"t" on e&'eri(ent# "'rin4 unit
9n experimental hydro-pneumatic spring unit was designed and manufactured to
verify predicted results. The unit was designed for a static wheel load of "333 :g and a
stro:e of %'3 mm. The basic design of the experimental spring unit is shown in 5ig. $.
The unit was fitted with thermocouples to measure gas and oil temperatures, and pressure
transducers to measure gas and oil pressure.
Schenc: hydropuls equipment was used to excite the spring with sinusoidal
displacement inputs of various amplitudes and frequencies. Spring force, displacement,
gas and oil pressures and temperatures were recorded.
5ig. &.$ ,xperimental Spring Dnit
Semi-active hydro-pneumatic spring and damper system
4.3.2. Co('ri"on o+ e&'eri(ent# nd 'redicted re"u#t":
The isothermal spring characteristic was determined by compressing the spring
slowly in discrete increments, leaving enough time for the temperature and pressure to
stabili-e at each displacement interval. 4orrelations between measured and predicted
values are excellent.
5ig. % shows the measured and predicted spring characteristics for a sinusoidal
excitation with a frequency of 3.$ +- and amplitude of /3 mm. It can be seen that the use
of ,q. 6$8 to predict the dynamic spring force is in close correlation with measured data.
5ig. " shows the effect of different excitation frequencies on the spring characteristic. It
can be seen that the lower the excitation frequency, the smaller the hysteresis loop
becomes. This means that the energy loss and thus the damping in the cycle becomes
less. Isothermal compression is approximated as there is more time available for heat
transfer between the gas and its surroundings. 9t higher excitation frequencies, the
hysteresis loop also becomes smaller as adiabatic compression is approximated and less
time for heat transfer is available.
The hysteresis loop means that hydro-pneumatic suspensions have an amount of
inherent damping which is dependent on the excitation frequency 6or speed8 just li:e
hydraulic dampers. The amount of damping however decreases as the excitation
frequency increases and adiabatic conditions are reached. This is another advantage of
hydro-pneumatic suspensions which may be worthwhile to utili-e.
,.g. trying to manipulate the thermal time constant to get the maximum damping
at the resonant frequency of the suspension system as this damping generates no heat
because the net heat flux is -ero.
5ig. & shows the adiabatic and isothermal spring characteristics compared to the
predicted dynamic spring characteristic. It is clear that assuming isothermal or adiabatic
behaviour can result in large errors. The presence of inherent damping may seem
insignificant, but becomes an important factor when performing accurate dynamic
simulation of vehicles to improve ride comfort or noise, vibration and harshness levels. It
must also be ta:en into account when developing semi-active damper systems because
Semi-active hydro-pneumatic spring and damper system
the inherent damping will limit the minimum value of the off characteristic which usually
needs to be as low as possible.
5ig. &.% 2easured and )redicted Spring 4haracteristics
5ig.&." ,ffect of excitation frequency
Semi-active hydro-pneumatic spring and damper system
4.4. *et trn"+er (ode"
The aim up to now was to predict and verify the nature of the spring characteristic
which only involved heat transfer between the gas and the environment. If a complete
hydro-pneumatic spring system is analy-ed, the effects of heat generation in the integral
damper should be included in the analysis.
+eat transfer ta:es place by means of conduction through the floating piston and cylinder
walls and convection between the gas, cylinder walls and the environment.
4.6 E++ect" o+ d('er !et 0ui#d-u'
The energy dissipated in the damper can be calculated by integrating the damper
force multiplied by the relative velocity across the damper.
The damper characteristic was measured for static gas pressures of (, / and
$32)a. 4hanging the gas pressure affects the maximum rebound damper force which
can be achieved because the damper starts to cavitate when the pressure difference across
Semi-active hydro-pneumatic spring and damper system
the damper is higher than the gas pressure. This will cause the oil to aerate which will
severely affect damper performance.
5ig. &.( shows the ambient, oil, gas and wall temperature histories for an
excitation frequency of 3.' +- at amplitude of (3 mm. It can be seen that due to heat
generation in the damper, the oil temperature rises until termination of the tests at $"3
degree 4elsius. The wall temperature follows the oil temperature trend but the gas
temperature rises to only 03 degree 4elsius. 9fter the test is terminated, the gas
temperature continues to rise indicating that heat transfer between the oil and gas is very
slow. 4onduction through the steel cylinder wall is much greater than the convection
coefficient between the wall and the surroundings, therefore the lumped capacitance
method is used to analy-e the heat transfer coefficients. 5itting curves to determine the
thermal time constant between the oil and the surroundings after termination of tests
6when heat input from the damper is -ero8 yields time constants of between "333 s at a
temperature difference of $33 degree 4elsius and ('33 s at a temperature difference of
less than %3 degree 4elsius. The effect of the rise in gas temperature 6from %" to (/
degree 4elsius8 on the combined spring and damper force can be seen in 5ig. &.'. The
spring rate increases by '/F while the static ride height would increase by $'F 6$/ mm8
after 0' min of testing.
Gehicle tests were performed over typical terrains at representative speeds. 9fter
&' min of continuous driving, the damper oil temperature stabili-ed at /' degree 4elsius.
The gas temperature showed no increase at all and the ride height variation was -ero. The
test trac: included sections of very smooth concrete road over which the heat generation
in the damper can be ignored. Thermal time constants of between $'3 and &'3 s were
measured on the smooth parts of the trac:. These are an order of magnitude lower than
that measured in the laboratory, indicating that heat generation in the damper is closely
related to terrain roughness and that heat transfer between the spring unit and its
surroundings is very much dependant on airflow over the suspension units.
The specific design of the test unit with good thermal separation between the gas
and damper oil, together with air flow across the unit, results in a hydro-pneumatic spring
Semi-active hydro-pneumatic spring and damper system
configuration which does not suffer from severe temperature effects as often encountered
on other systems.
5ig. &.' ,ffect of change in gas temperature
5ig. &.( Temperature +istories
Semi-active hydro-pneumatic spring and damper system
5ollowing conclusions can be made from the above reportA
It is possible to have a suspension with a high and a low spring rate, optimi-ed for
both ride comfort and handling.
*on-linear characteristics are very useful, eliminating the necessity for a bump
stop when the hard spring setting is selected.
9 method for easily altering the vehicle ride height without any additional costs
or further complicating the system was illustrated.
This study in short introduced a suspension element which can be altered
continuously to suit the terrain and driver input demands.
Semi-active hydro-pneumatic spring and damper system
7.1 ;ourn# P'er"
Semi-active hydro-pneumatic spring and damper system A ,ls. ).S. H
iliomee 4 B , $11/ Iournal of Terramechanics "', $31-$$0.
+eat transfer effects on hydro-pneumatic suspension systems A ,ls. ).S. H ;.
robbelar , $111 Iournal of Terramechanics "(, $10-%3'.
The ride comfort vs. handling compromise for off-road vehicles A ,ls. ).S.,
*.I.Theron , 2.I.Thoresson H ).,.Dys , %330 Iournal of Terramechanics &&, "3"-
7.2 Boo)"
9nalysis of a four state switchable hydro-pneumatic spring and damper system.
- 4hristiaan Bambert iliomee
#epartment of mechanical and aeronautical engineering
Dniversity of )retoria 6%33"8.
7.3 2e0 #in)"
Semi-active hydro-pneumatic spring and damper system