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MARKING GUIDE FOR NDI MASS COMMUNICATION MAC 113

SECTION A (OBJECTIVES)
1. B ---------1MK
2. A ---------2MKS
3. A ---------2MKS
4. A ---------1MK
5. A ---------2MKS
6. A ---------1MK
7. A --------- 1MK
8. D ---------2MKS
9. A --------- 2MKS
10. A ---------1MK TOTAL MARKS = 15MKS
SECTION B (THEORY) – ANSWER ANY THREE QUESTIONS
1 (a) INPUT DEVICES - Keyboard, Mouse, Scanner, Digital Camera, Joystick, Microphone, Touch
Screen, Track ball, Voice Recognition Software, Light pen, Barcode Reader, Web Camera.
(Any Correct 4 x ½ mark each = 2mks)
OUTPUT DEVICES – Monitor, Printer, Speakers, Plotters, Projector Screen
(Any Correct 4 x ½ mark each = 2mks)
(b) Components of Computer Hardware – Monitor, Keyboard, Hard disk, Mouse, Printers, CPU,
Motherboard, System Unit etc. (Any Correct 6 x 1 mark each = 6mks)
(c) 1KB = 1024 Bytes
1MB = 1024Bytes ------ 1MK
1GB = 1024Megabytes ------- 2MKS
1TB = 1024 Gigabytes -------- 2MKS TOTAL = 15MKS

2 (a) Examples of Application Software – Enterprise Software, Accounting Software e:g Peachtree,
Excel, Quickbooks etc., Office Suites e.g. Microsoft Word, Microsoft PowerPoint etc., Graphics
Software e.g. CorelDraw, Microsoft Paint etc., Media Players e.g. Windows Media Player, VLC
media Player etc., Internet Browsers e.g. Opera, Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer.
(Any Correct 5 x 1 mark each = 5mks)
(b) Examples of System Software – Device Drivers, Operating Systems, Servers, Utilities, Windows
Systems and some fundamental utilities such as disk formatters, File Managers, Display Mangers,
text editors, user authentication (login) and management tools, and networking and device
control software. (Any Correct 2x 1 mark each = 2mks)
(c)(i) 128 bits = 128÷8 bytes = 16bytes
(ii) 32 bits = 32÷8 bytes = 4bytes
(iii) 16 bits = 16÷8 bytes = 2bytes
(iv) 1024 bits = 1024÷8 bytes = 128bytes (Correct 4x 2 mark each = 8mks)
TOTAL MARKS = 15MKS

3 (a) Storage Capacity = Available Free Space + Used Disk Space = 6.35TB + 4.1 TB = 10.45TB -------- 3MKS
(b) Modes of Electronic Data Processing – Online Processing, Real Time Processing, Multiprogramming,
Multiprocessing, Batch Processing, Time Sharing, Distributed Data Processing128bytes
( Any Correct 5x 2 mark each = 10mks)
(c) Disk partitioning is process of dividing the storage space of a hard disk drive into separate data areas.
These separate data areas are known as partitions. (2mks) TOTAL MARKS = 15 MKS

4 (a) Examples of Real-Time Processing - Traffic lights, Heart rate monitoring, Aircraft control, Computer
games, Controlling robots, Anti-missile defense systems, Airplane landing control system, Flight simulation
systems, Electronic fund transfer systems, Tickets reservation systems ( Any Correct 4x 2 mark each = 8mks)
(b) Storage Capacity of the System = 115GB + 104GB + 85GB + 13GB = 317GB ------------------ 2MKS
The separate data areas are called PARTITIONS --------------------------------------------------------- 1MK
(c) Examples of Batch Data Processing -
- A stock control program may store records of every item sold in a shop that day. Then, at the end of
each day it calculates what needs to be ordered.
- An online competition stores all the entries until it is time to find the winner.
- Electricity, gas and telephone bills are usually calculated on a monthly basis.
- Producing monthly bank statements to send out to customers
- Payroll runs which may be weekly or monthly ( Any Correct 2x 1mark each = 2mks) TOTAL = 15MKS
5(a) In computing, booting (booting up) is a bootstrapping process that starts operating systems when
the user turns on a computer system. Booting your computer is the process of powering it on and
starting the operating system. Booting is restarting a computer or its operating system software. When
we start our Computer then there is an operation which is performed automatically by the Computer
which is also called as Booting. (Any Correct definition = 3MKS)
(b)Types of Booting – Cold (Hard) and Warm (Soft) Booting.
Cold booting: when the computer is started after having been switched off.
Warm booting: when the operating system alone is restarted (without being switched off) after a
system crash or 'freeze.' (2mk each x 2 = 4mks)
(c) STEPS IN BOOTING A SYSTEM
Step 1
Prior to powering up the computer system, make sure that the power cord is firmly connected to the back
panel of the system unit and is plugged into the wall socket.
Step 2
Check if the VGA (Video Graphics Array) cable is firmly screwed to the port of the video card with the other
end connected to the back panel of the monitor.
Step 3
Make sure that both the keyboard and mouse pointing device are securely plugged to the back panel. Also,
check if they are connected to the correct port by checking on the markings.
Step 4
When all connections are secure, start up the machine by pressing the power button normally located in the
front panel of the system unit and also press the power button on the monitor.
Step 5
Depending on the configuration of the machine, a username and password may be requested; otherwise, the
Operating System may be loaded directly to display the desktop to the user. (8MKS)
TOTAL MARKS = 15MKS

SECTION A (OBJECTIVES) – 15MKS
SECTION B (THEORY) - 15MKS each x 3 = 45 MKS



GRAND TOTAL MARKS = 60MARKS















MARKING GUIDE FOR EEC 117 – COMPUTER HARDWARE
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTONICS ENGINEERING, MECHATRONICS & AUTOTRONICS
SECTION A (OBJECTIVES)
1. A ---------1MK
2. C ---------1MK
3. A ---------1MK
4. A ---------1MK
5. A ---------1MK
6. A ---------1MK
7. A --------- 1MK
8. A ---------1MK
9. B --------- 1MK
10. A ---------1MK
11. A ---------1MK
12. A ---------1MK
13. A ---------1MK
14. A ---------1MK
15. C ---------1MK TOTAL MARKS = 15MKS
SECTION B – ANSWER ANY THREE QUESTIONS
1(a) Factors to Consider in Choosing a Monitor
-- Monitor Size – Contrast Ratio – Connection Options (whether VGA, DVI, or HDMI Ports)
-- Resolution and Response Time -- Speakers (whether it has in-built speakers)
(Any Correct 4 x 1 mark each = 4mks)
(b) MAJOR COMPONENTS ON A MOTHERBOARD
-- Ports e.g. USB, Firewire, Serial, Parallel, PS/2, LAN etc. --- CPU Sockets/ CPU
-- Adapter Cards e.g. Sound Card, Video Card etc. --- PCI Slots
-- Adapter Cards Plug --- RAM/RAM Slots
(Any Correct 6 x 1 mark each = 6mks)
(c) A CD-R compact disk format allows users to record audio or other digital data in such a way that the
recording is permanent (non-erasable) and may be read indefinitely while a CD-RW is a compact disk format
that allows audio or other digital data to be written, read, erased and rewritten. CD-R’s are write once and it’s
done while CD-RW’s are rewritable and erasable. (5mks ) TOTAL MARKS = 15MKS
2 (a) STORED PROGRAM CONCEPT - This is the concept that allows the computer programas well as data, to
be stored in the computer’s memory. One key advantage of this technique is that the computer can easily go
back to a previous instruction and repeat it. (3MKS).
(b) ADVANTAGES OF USB PORTS OVER SERIAL PORTS
(i) The data transfer rate of a USB is faster than serial ports
(ii) You must reboot the computer every time you change a device on the serial port. USB devices are hot-
swappable, meaning you can change them out with the computer on, without having to reboot since the
system will automatically detect when a device is plugged in.
(iii) You can connect several devices to a single USB port through a port hub while it isn’t possible with a serial
interface.
(iv) USB ports is easy to connect and has higher bandwidth
(v) USB ports has a smaller plug/port compared to serial ports (Any correct 2 x 2mks = 4mks)
2(c). 4 TYPES OF DATA RECEIVED BY A PRINTER
• A string of characters
• A bitmapped image (Correct 4 x 2mks = 8mks)
• A vector image
• A computer program written in a page description language, such as PostScript TOTAL = 15MKS
3 (a) COMPONENTS OF A TYPICAL LASERJET PRINTER -- Photosensitive drum, Transfer Corona, System
Board, Erase Lamp, Fuser, Primary Corona, Laser, Toner, Fuser Assembly, Power Supply, Turning Gears, Ozone
Filter, Sensors and Switches (Any correct 10 x 1mks = 10mks)
(b) The aspect ratio of the monitor is 16:9 means the ratio of the horizontal length of the monitor to its
vertical length is 16:9 (2.5 mks )
(c) The screen resolution of the monitor is 2560 x 1600 means the total number of pixels that can be displayed
in the horizontal dimension is 2560 and the total number of pixels that can be displayed in the vertical
dimension is 1600. So the total number of pixels the monitor can display is 4096000pixels. (2.5 mks )
TOTAL MARKS = 15MKS
4 (a) Laserjet printers are higher-priced faster printers, based on lasers (hence the name). They do not need
refills much, but it costs a lot when they do. They print very quickly, but cost more in general. They make use
of toners like photocopy machines while Inkjet Printers are ink-based printers that need refilling more often
but cost less per catridge than laser. They prints slower than laser, but are cheaper in general. Deskjet is a
brandname inkjet printer manufactured by HP.
Inkjet Printers are the most common type of printers and they work by spraying tiny droplets of ink onto the
paper. Inkjet printers is for home and office use (personal use). LaserJet printers are for commercial and bulk
printing. Inkjet Printer is majorly for colour printing. LaserJet printers prints white and black majorly. The type
of printer you get depends on the use to which you want to put it. (5MKS) TOTAL MARKS = 15MKS
4 (b) (i) HDMI Motherboard - An HDMI motherboard is a motherboard that is equipped with a High-
Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI) port. HDMI is a standard that can allow high-definition video
and high-quality audio to be transmitted via the same cable. This can allow a computer with such a
motherboard to be connected to a variety of monitors and televisions without requiring a secondary
audio cable. HDMI motherboards can be found in both desktop and laptop computers, and many
monitors and televisions come equipped with one or more HDMI ports. (2mks)
(ii) USB PORTS – USB is an acronym for Universal Serial Bus. It is an external bus standard that supports
data transfer rates of 12Mbps. USB is the preferred connection method for electronics and has
effectively replaced a variety of earlier interfaces such as serial and parallel ports. A USB ports is a
connection point on computers and many other types of consumer electronics. (2mks)
(iii) FIREWIRE PORTS – A firewire ports (connection) lets you send data to and from high-bandwidth
digital devices such as digital camcorders, and it’s faster than USB. Firewire is very similar to USB ports
but faster than USB ports.

4 (c) DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SERIAL AND PARALLEL PORT
-- Serial ports are usually DB-9 sockets, Parallel ports are with 25pin-outs
-- Parallel ports are easy to program and faster compared to the serial ports
-- Parallel ports need more number of transmission lines and because of this, they are not used in long
distance communications.
– Parallel port is only able to transfer information from the hard drive, while a serial port can transfer
information both to and from a hard drive (Any Correct 2 x 2mks each = 4 mks). TOTAL = 15MKS
TOTAL = 60MKS



---- CONVERSION RATE

GRAND TOTAL = 50MKS













MARKING GUIDE FOR COM 314-COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE HND1 COMPUTER SCIENCE
1a . Computer architecture deals with the functional behaviour of a computer system as viewed by a
programmer. This view includes aspects such as the sizes of data types (e.g. using 16 binary digits to
represent an integer), and the types of operations that are supported (like addition, subtraction, and
subroutine calls). Computer organization deals with structural relationships that are not visible to the
programmer, such as interfaces to peripheral devices, the clock frequency, and the technology used for
the memory.
Computer Architecture refers to those attributes of a system visible to a programmer or those attributes that
have a direct impact on the logical execution of a program. Computer Organisation refers to the operational
units and their interconnections that release the architectural specifications. (2 mks)
b. Moore’s law, which is attributed to Intel founder Gordon Moore, states that computing power doubles
every 18 months for the same price. (2 mks)
c. CPI
a
= =

MIPS
a
= Clock Rate = 200 ×10
6

CPI
a
× 10
6
2.44 ×10
6

CPU time
a
= Instruction count × CPI
a
= 18 ×10
6
× 2.44
Clock rate

200 ×10
6

CPI
b
= = 2

MIPS
b
= Clock Rate = 200 ×10
6

CPI
b
× 10
6
1.92 ×10
6

CPU time
b
= Instruction count × CPI
b
= 24 ×10
6
× 1.92
Clock rate

200 ×10
6
MIPS
b
> MIPS
a
and CPU
b
> CPU
a
This shows that although machine B has a higher MIPS compared to machine A, it requires
longer CPU time to execute the same set of benchmark programs. (8MKS)
TOTAL MARKS = 12MKS

2(a) The stored program is the most important aspect of the von Neumann model. A program is stored
in the computer’s memory along with the data to be processed. In the stored program computer the
program can be manipulated as if it is data. This gave rise to compilers and operating systems, and
makes possible the great versatility of the modern computer. One key advantage of this technique is
that the computer can easily go back to a previous instruction and repeat it. (2mks)
(ii)RISC DESIGN PRINCIPLES:
1. Simple movement of data (represented by assignment statements), rather than complex operations,
are substantial and should be optimized.
2. Conditional branches are predominant and therefore careful attention should be paid to the sequencing of
instructions. This is particularly true when it is known that pipelining is indispensable to use.
3. Procedure calls/return are the most time-consuming operations and therefore a mechanism should be
devised to make the communication of parameters among the calling and the called procedures cause the
least number of instructions to execute.
4. A prime candidate for optimization is the mechanism for storing and accessing Local scalar variables. This is
obviously a call for making the architecture simpler rather than complex. Remember that complex operations
such as long division represent only a small portion (less than 2%) of the operations performed during a typical
computation. (Correct 4 x 1mk each = 4mks)
2b. (2mks)
2c. Key reasons why today’s microprocessors have displaced widespread use of vector architectures include:
1. CMOS became a universal technology, while many vector supercomputers continued to use Bipolar where
the yield was poor on dense chips.
2. A processor could be implemented on a single chip in CMOS, while older vector machines involved multi-
chip implementations.
3. Several applications have very good performance on non-vector machines.
4. Caches exploited locality to improve memory system performance without performing the expensive
optimizations often found in vector machines. (Correct 4 x 1mk each = 4mks) TOTAL = 12MKS
3 (a) (i). – Sequential execution of Instructions – Instruction decoding and machine cycle encoding
-- Timing and Control (1 mk)
(a) (ii) The essence of the Control Unit is the timing and control module (1 mk)
(b) (i) The inputs are: Clock, Instruction Register, Flags, Control Signals from Control Bus
The Outputs are: Control Signals within the Processor, Control Signals to Control Bus ( )
(b) (ii) The Control Memory is what distinguished the Microprogrammed Control Unit from the hardwired
Control Unit. This is where internal memory in a Microprogrammed Control Unit where sequencing of
microinstructions could be stored. (1mk)
C (i) Flexibility: Once the control unit of a hard-wired computer is designed and built, it is virtually impossible
to alter its architecture and instruction set. In the case of a micro-programmed computer, however, we can
change the computer's instruction set simply by altering the microprogram stored in its control memory.
(ii) Another advantage to using micro-programmed control is the fact that the task of designing the computer
in the first place is simplified. The process of specifying the architecture and instruction set is now one of
software (micro-programming) as opposed to hardware design.
(iii) If speed is a consideration, hard-wiring may be required since it is faster to have the hardware issue the required
control signals than to have a "program" do it. (2MKS)



C(ii) BLOCK DIAGRAM OF A CONTROL UNIT.
(4MKS)
TOTAL MARKS = 12 MKS
4(a) (i) Operation Code (Opcode) (ii) Source Operand Reference (iii) Result Operand Reference
(iv) Next Instruction Reference (Correct 4 x 1mk each = 4mks)
(b) C ← A + B
LOAD B AC ← B
ADD A AC ←AC + A
STORE C C ←AC (2 MKS)
(c) ONE ADDRESS
LOAD A AC ← A
MUL B AC ←AC * B
ADD C AC ←AC + C
STORE C C ← AC (2MKS)
TWO ADDRESS
MOVE Y,A Y ← A
MUL Y,B Y ←Y * B
ADD C,Y C ←C + Y (2MKS)
THREE ADDRESSES
MUL Y,A,B Y ← A * B
ADD C,C,Y C ← C + Y (2MKS) TOTAL MARKS = 12 MKS


5 (a) (i) SYNCHRONOUS BUSES - In synchronous buses, the steps of data transfer take place at fixed clock
cycles. Everything is synchronized to bus clock and clock signals are made available to both master and slave.
Synchronous buses are simple and easily implemented. (2MKS)
(ii) ASYNCHRONOUS BUSES - There are no fixed clock cycles in asynchronous buses. Handshaking is used
instead. The figure below shows the handshaking protocol. Asynchronous bus is appropriate for different
speed devices. (2MKS)
(iii) BUS ARBITRATION - Bus arbitration is needed to resolve conflicts when two or more devices want to
become the bus master at the same time. In short, arbitration is the process of selecting the next bus master
from among multiple candidates. Conflicts can be resolved based on fairness or priority in a centralized or
distributed mechanisms. (2MKS)
(iv) BUS - A system bus consists, typically, of from about 50 to hundreds of separate lines. Each line is assigned
a particular meaning or function. A bus in computer terminology represents a physical connection used to
carry a signal from one point to another. The signal carried by a bus may represent address, data, control
signal, or power. Typically, a bus consists of a number of connections running together. Each connection is
called a bus line. A bus is a communication pathway connecting two or more devices. (2MKS)
(b) An advantage of using a bus is to eliminate the need for connecting every device with every other device,
which avoids the wiring complexity that would quickly dominate the cost of such a system. (1MK)
Disadvantages of using a bus include the slowdown introduced by the master/slave configuration, the time
involved in implementing a protocol (see below), and the lack of scalability to large sizes due to fan-out and
timing constraints. (1 MK)
(C) DATA TRANSFER TYPES
(i) Read (ii) Write (iii) Read – Modify – Write (iv) Read – after – Write (v) Block ( )
TOTAL MARKS = 12 MKS
6 (a) TYPICAL MEMORY HIERARCHY
(5MKS)
(b) (i) Access time (ii) Capacity (iii) Cycle Time (iv) Latency (v) Bandwidth (vi) Cost ( )
(c) (i) VIRTUAL MEMORY - A virtual memory system attempts to optimize the use of the main memory (the
higher speed portion) with the hard disk (the lower speed portion). In effect, virtual memory is a technique for
using the secondary storage to extend the apparent limited size of the physical memory beyond its actual
physical size. (2MKS)
(ii) CACHE MEMORY – A cache memory is a small but fast memory in which the contents of the most
commonly accessed locations are maintained. It is a small high speed memory that is near the CPU. A cache
memory is faster than main memory. A cache memory has fewer memory locations than a main memory, and
as a result, it has a shallow decoding tree, which reduces the access time. (2MKS) TOTAL MARKS = 12MKS
7 (a) CPU
time(a)
= 50s CPU
time(b)
= 50s
Clock Speed = 500MHz CPI
B
= 2.5 × CPI
A


CPU time
a
= Instruction count × CPI
a

500MHz Instruction count × CPI
a
= 500×10
6
×50
CPU time
b
= Instruction count × CPI
b →
ClockRate
b
= Instruction count × 2.5× CPI
a

ClockRate
b
20
ClockRate
b
= 2.5×(Instruction count × CPI
a
)
=
2.5×50 × 500×10
6
Mhz = 3125MHz


20 20
Clock Rate
B
= 3125MHz (4 mks)

(b) . CPI
1
= =

MIPS
1
= Clock Rate = 500 ×10
6

CPI
1
× 10
6
3.30 ×10
6

CPU time
1
= Instruction count × CPI
1
= 23 ×10
6
× 3.30
Clock rate

500 ×10
6

CPI
2
= = 5

MIPS
2
= Clock Rate = 500 ×10
6

CPI
2
× 10
6
2.55 ×10
6

CPU time
2
= Instruction count × CPI
2
= 29 ×10
6
× 2.55
Clock rate

500 ×10
6
According to MIPS, MIPS
2
> MIPS
1
. Compiler 2 is faster in executing in executing instructions than Compiler 1.
According to CPU
time
, Compiler 2 requires less CPU
time
as compared to Compiler 1.
Therefore Code Sequence 2 runs faster. (6 mks)

C) The General Purpose Registers are:
i. Accumulator Register (AX): used in arithmetic operations.
ii. Counter Register (CX): used in shift/rotate instructions and loops. `
iii. Data Register (DX): used in arithmetic operations and I/O Operations.
iv. Base Register (BX): used as a pointer to data (located in segment register DS, when in segmented mode).
v. Stack Pointer Register (SP): Pointer to the top of the stack.
vi. Stack Base Pointer Register (BP): used to point to the base of the stack.
vii. Source Index Register (SI): used as a pointer to a source in stream operations
viii. Destination Index Register (DI): used as a pointer to a destination in stream operations.
( ) TOTAL MARKS = 12 MKS
TOTAL = 60MKS
---- CONVERSION RATE
GRAND TOTAL = 50MKS