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Listening Comprehension

Negative Forms

- He didn’t like the unclean = liked clean office
- It isn’t snowing, so they aren’t going to the mountain = two negatives make
the sentence positive
- Hardly, barely, only, scarcely = almost none
Rarely, seldom = almost never
- He couldn’t be happier = He extremely happy

- So do I
- Me too
- I’ll say Agreement with positive Statements
- Isn’t it!
- You can say that again

- …. Isn’t it
- As far as I know Uncertainty Expressions
- As far as I can tell

- Why not … Suggestion Expressions
- Let’s ……
The best answer is one that shows uncertainty or suggestion

Expressions of surprise
The best answer is one that shows surprise
Ex.
Did you see Paul driving around in his Mustang?
Then, he DID get a new car.
So he can.
What has the man ASSUMED?
Thought?
Paul would not get a new car
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An Affirmative implies a Negative
The best answer is one implies the opposite of what is said

Examples Meaning
I wish I had time to help
I wish I did not have time to help

I wish he were at home
I wish he had been at home
No time to help
Time to help

Is not at home
Was not at home
If she were at home, she could do it

If she weren’t at home, she could do it
Not at home

At home

Idioms
- Burning the candle at both ends = doing too much
- It’s a piece of cake = is easy
- It’s all in a day’s work = this a regular part of job
- A pin drop = بهتىص شعمستم ةربلا لسنت
- Better late than ever = صنبخ يجيت شم كنا نم نسحا رخأتت
- Two heads better than one = work together
- There is no time like the president = it is better to do it now
- Just my luck!
- To each his own = ينبثنا ريغ قوز هذنع ذحاو مك
- No sooner said than done = she will do it immediately
- You could have knocked me down = express of surprise
With a feather يغبمد ىهع ينيبرضت نكمم
- We’re all in the same boat
- She’s really head and shoulders = she’s the of them all
Above the rest
Dot all the i’s and cross all the t’s = pay attention to every detail
- Take turns = alternate responsibility نتي ةينىئسمنا ةوب
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- A chip of the old block = looks like, resemble ونم ةخسن
- Coming down with something = doesn’t like it
- Put his foot in his mouth = he said something embarrassing
- Playing with fire = doing something dangerous
- Cut it out = stop, enough
- Barking up the wrong tree = made a mistake
- It’s like trying to swim upstream = is really difficult ربيتنا سكع وىعت















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Structure and Written Expression

Connectors between two clauses
Time: when, whenever, while, until, once, after, before, as long as, by the time, as
soon as, as, since
Cause: inasmuch as, now that, because, as, since
Condition: if, in case, provided (should followed by Sub. + Verb), providing,
unless, whether.
Contrast: although, even though, though, while, whereas.
Manner: as, in that
Place: where, wherever.
Adjective connectors as subject: who (for people), which (for things), that
(for people and things).

* These words are grammatically singular, so they take singular
verb:
Anybody everybody nobody somebody
Anyone everyone no one someone + Singular Verb
Anything everything nothing something

Each, every + Noun


- V. Have + p.p. past participle
- V. Be + present participle (ing) or past participle

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Negative Expressions
No, barely, not, hardly, never, only, neither, rarely, nor, scarcely, seldom
When negative expression appears at the beginning of the sentence or in the middle
of a sentence, the subject and verb are inverted
EX.
Only in extremely dangerous situations will the printing presses be stopped

Present Perfect have, has +p.p.
Express an action happened in the past and continued to the present
Ex. For ten years
Since (1920)
Lately


Past Perfect had +p.p.
Express an action happened in the past and ended in the past
Ex. She lived in Los Anglos for ten years when she moved to San Diego
By (1920)

Past Simple
in (1920)
(Two years) ago
Last (year)

* It is (present) certain that he will graduate
I knew (past) that he would arrive

* Many, few, fewer, number ---- countable nouns (many films)
Much, amount, little, less ---- uncountable nouns (much fun)


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* Ex.
I have another book ---- in a singular
I have others books --- in plural form

Passive Voice Structure
Active Voice Passive Voice


They make Fords in
Cologne.
Fords are made in
Cologne.
Present Simple

Susan is cooking dinner. Dinner is being cooked by
Susan

Present
Continuous
James Joyce wrote
"Dubliners".
"Dubliners" was written
by James Joyce.

Past Simple
They were painting the
house when I arrived.
The house was being
painted when I arrived.

Past Continuous
They have produced over
20 models in the past two
years.
Over 20 models have been
produced in the past two
years.

Present Perfect
They are going to build a
new factory in Portland.
A new factory is going to
be built in Portland.
Future Intention
with Going to

I will finish it tomorrow. It will be finished
tomorrow.

Future Simple