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DAIRY HERD MANAGEMENT DAIRY HERD MANAGEMENT

Dr. Dr. Avijit Avijit Dey Dey
B.V.Sc B.V.Sc. & A.H., M.V. Sc. (NDRI), Ph.D. (IVRI) . & A.H., M.V. Sc. (NDRI), Ph.D. (IVRI)
PURPOSE OF ANIMAL REARING
MILK
MEAT
HIDE
WOOL & HAIR
FUEL & FERTILIZER (COW DUNG)
TRANSPORTATION (BULLOCK CART)
PLOUGHING
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MILK
MEAT
HIDE
WOOL & HAIR
FUEL & FERTILIZER (COW DUNG)
TRANSPORTATION (BULLOCK CART)
PLOUGHING
Ploughing
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Transportation
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Transportation of Milk
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Transportation
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ASPECTS OF LIVESOCK MANAGEMENT
BREEDING
FEEDING
WEEDING
HEEDING
BREEDING
FEEDING
WEEDING
HEEDING
BREEDING
FEEDING
WEEDING
HEEDING
BREEDING
FEEDING
WEEDING
HEEDING
HOUSING HOUSING
HYGIENE & SANITATION HYGIENE & SANITATION
CARE OF ANIMALS CARE OF ANIMALS
BREEDING
Selection of breed
Bred at proper age
Avoid haphazard breeding
Maintain record
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Selection of breed
Bred at proper age
Avoid haphazard breeding
Maintain record
BREEDING
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FEEDING
Sorghum /maize/pearl millet 30 kg
Rice bran/wheat bran 30 kg
Groundnut cake 25 kg
Toor chuni/ gram husk: 12 kg
Mineral mixture 2kg
Composition of concentrate mixture
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Common salt 1kg
Treatment of Straw
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Heeding (Culling)
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• Culled cow after 6
th
lactation
• Disease; Mastitis, Brucellosis,
• Injury; cut teats, damaged teats
• Permanent disable cow; leg, feet
• Major reproductive problems
• Male calves at early age
HOUSING
HOUSING
Model Cattle Shed
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Mist Cooling System
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Covered area (m
2
) Open area(m
2
)
Bulls 12 120
Cows 3.5 7.0
Floor Space Requirement
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Cows 3.5 7.0
Down calvers 12.0 12.0
Young calves
upto 3 months
1.0 2.0
Older calves 2.0 4.0
Management of Heifer
 Monitor growth
 Come to heat at 18 months of age
 Regular deworming
 Regular vaccination
 Feeding; extra 0.5-1.0kg concentrate given
form 6 month
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 Monitor growth
 Come to heat at 18 months of age
 Regular deworming
 Regular vaccination
 Feeding; extra 0.5-1.0kg concentrate given
form 6 month
Age Determination
Time of eruption Incisors (lower jaw)
Birth – 1month All 8 temporary incisors
2yrs- 2.5 yrs 1
st
pair of permanent incisors
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2yrs- 2.5 yrs 1
st
pair of permanent incisors
3yrs- 3.5 yrs 2
nd
pair of permanent incisors
4yrs- 4.5 yrs 3
rd
pair of permanent incisors
5yrs- 5.5 yrs 4
th
pair of permanent incisors
Care of Pregnant Cow
 Feeding; extra 0.5-1.0kg concentrate given
form 6 month
 Method of Drying (stop milking)
 Incomplete milking
 Intermittent milking
 Complete cessation
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 Feeding; extra 0.5-1.0kg concentrate given
form 6 month
 Method of Drying (stop milking)
 Incomplete milking
 Intermittent milking
 Complete cessation
Care of advanced Pregnant Cow
 Feeding; extra 1.0-1.5kg concentrate given
Provide mineral mixture
 Provide green fodder
 Not chased by the dog, bull or other animals
 Do not allow to fight with other animals
 Bedding should be provided
 Slippery floor avoided
 Close watching of the animal
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 Feeding; extra 1.0-1.5kg concentrate given
Provide mineral mixture
 Provide green fodder
 Not chased by the dog, bull or other animals
 Do not allow to fight with other animals
 Bedding should be provided
 Slippery floor avoided
 Close watching of the animal
Parturition Parturition
Parturition Parturition
Management of New Born Calves Management of New Born Calves
•Remove mucous from the calf's mouth and nose.
•Vigorously rub and dry the calf with warm towels.
•Feed the calf approx. 3 liters (3 quarts) of colostrum
within 30 minutes of birth and continue 4 days.
•Naval cord- tied 2.5cm
•Alternate to colostrum; 2 eggs +30ml castor oil
•Protection from cold weather
•Remove mucous from the calf's mouth and nose.
•Vigorously rub and dry the calf with warm towels.
•Feed the calf approx. 3 liters (3 quarts) of colostrum
within 30 minutes of birth and continue 4 days.
•Naval cord- tied 2.5cm
•Alternate to colostrum; 2 eggs +30ml castor oil
•Protection from cold weather
Management of New Born Calves Management of New Born Calves
Management of New Born Calves Management of New Born Calves
Colostrum Feeding
FEEDING OF CALF FEEDING OF CALF
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Common Diseases of Calves Common Diseases of Calves
•Diarrhoea
•Pneumonia
•Joint ill
•Round worm infection
•Diarrhoea
•Pneumonia
•Joint ill
•Round worm infection
Management of Calves Management of Calves
•Removal of extra teat
•Dehorning (3-10days) ; Costic potash stick/hot iron
rod
•Regular deworming (piperazine, albendazole),
grooming
•Record keeping
•Removal of supernumerary teats
•Removal of extra teat
•Dehorning (3-10days) ; Costic potash stick/hot iron
rod
•Regular deworming (piperazine, albendazole),
grooming
•Record keeping
•Removal of supernumerary teats
CASTRATION
Younger age (about 2 yrs of age)
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Vaccination Schedule Vaccination Schedule
Disease Vaccine Dose
(mL)
Repeat Time of
vaccination
FMD Raksha-OVAC 2 I/M 6 months
HS & BQ Alum
Precipitated
Vaccine
5 S/C I yr Before rainy
season
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HS & BQ Alum
Precipitated
Vaccine
5 S/C I yr Before rainy
season
Anthrax Spore Vaccine 1 S/C 1 yr Before rainy
season
NEWLY CALVED COW
Placenta should be expelled 2-8 hours after
calving.
Animal should not consume placenta
Chance of milk fever
Cleaning of back side of the animals
Milking regularly
Check for possible prolapse
Udder checked
Nutrition
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Placenta should be expelled 2-8 hours after
calving.
Animal should not consume placenta
Chance of milk fever
Cleaning of back side of the animals
Milking regularly
Check for possible prolapse
Udder checked
Nutrition
Milk Fever Milk Fever
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Reproduction Management Reproduction Management
Heat detection
Artificial Insemination
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Pregnancy Diagnosis
Heat Detection
Restlessness
Appetite depressed
Bellowing
Rise of body temperature
Mucus discharge from vagina
Mounting other animals
Depressed milk yield
Frequent urination
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Restlessness
Appetite depressed
Bellowing
Rise of body temperature
Mucus discharge from vagina
Mounting other animals
Depressed milk yield
Frequent urination
Artificial Insemination (AI)
Why do AI?
When do AI?
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Why do AI?
When do AI?
Pregnancy Diagnosis
Cessation of estrus
Tendency to grow fat
Increase body weight
Tendency to consume more feed
Sign of pregnancy
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Cessation of estrus
Tendency to grow fat
Increase body weight
Tendency to consume more feed
Symptoms of pregnancy
Per-rectal examination
Restrain of Animal
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Disposal of Manure
Alnutt’s Manure pit 4.5 quintals manure/m
3
Manure transferred to the field twice a year
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3 m
2
2.5 m
Mi l k i ng Management Mi l k i ng Management Mi l k i ng Management Mi l k i ng Management
PRINCIPLE OF MILK SYNTHESIS
MILKING OF ANIMALS
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•STRIPPING
•KNUCKLING
•FULL HAND MILKING
Machine Milking
Machine Milking
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