You are on page 1of 11

QUESTIONSHEETS

CHEMISTRY

AS Level

ACID-BASE TITRATIONS

AS TOPIC 3

Questionsheet

MOLAR SOLUTIONS

15 marks

Questionsheet

PREPARATION OF A STANDARD SOLUTION

14 marks

Questionsheet

SIMPLE VOLUMETRIC CALCULATIONS

12 marks

Questionsheet

CALCULATIONS REQUIRING MOLAR CONCENTRATION


OF A PRIMARY STANDARD

16 marks

Questionsheet

DILUTION QUESTIONS

15 marks

Questionsheet

WATER OF CRYSTALLISATION

14 marks

Questionsheet

PERCENTAGE PURITY

14 marks

Questionsheet

TEST QUESTION I

15 marks

Questionsheet

TEST QUESTION II

16 marks

Questionsheet

10

TEST QUESTION III

16 marks

Authors
Trevor Birt
Donald E Caddy
Andrew Jones
Editor
John Brockington

Curriculum Press Licence Agreement:

John Brockington
Kevin Frobisher
Andy Shepherd

CP ress

urriculum

Paper copies of the A-Level Chemistry Questionsheets


may be copied free of charge by teaching staff or students
for use within their school, provided the Photocopy
Masters have been purchased by their school. No part of
these Questionsheets may be reproduced or transmitted,
in any other form or by any other means, without the
prior permission of the publisher. All rights are reserved.
This license agreement is covered by the laws of England
and Wales Curriculum Press March 2000.

The Curriculum Press Unit 305B The Big Peg 120 Vyse Street Birmingham B18 6NF

AS Level

TOPIC 3

Do not
write in
margin

Questionsheet 1

MOLAR SOLUTIONS
a) Define the terms molar concentration (or molarity) and molar solution.
Molar concentration ..........................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
Molar solution ...................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
b) What is the molar concentration of each of the following?
(i)

Hydrochloric acid containing 146 g dm-3 of HCl.

....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
(ii) Potassium iodide solution containing 300 g dm-3 of KI.
....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
c) A solution of ethanedioic acid-2-water, H2C2O4 .2H2O, was made by dissolving 1.48 g of the pure solid in
water and making up to the graduation mark in a 250 cm3 graduated flask. Calculate the concentration of the
solution:
(i)

in g dm-3

....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
(ii) in mol dm-3
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
d) How much anhydrous sodium carbonate must be weighed out in order to prepare 250 cm3 of solution of
concentration 0.05 mol dm-3?
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [3]
e) What mass of sodium hydroxide is present in 500 cm3 of a solution of concentration 0.0982 mol dm-3?
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [3]

TOTAL / 15

AS Level

TOPIC 3

Questionsheet 2

PREPARATION OF A STANDARD SOLUTION


a) (i)

What is meant by a primary standard in volumetric analysis?

...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
(ii) State three requirements of a primary standard.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [3]
b) Anhydrous sodium carbonate can be used as a primary standard in acid-base titrations.
In an experiment, a student weighed an empty weighing bottle on an analytical balance. She took the bottle off
the balance pan, added some anhydrous sodium carbonate and reweighed the bottle, after which she tipped the
sodium carbonate into a 100 cm3 beaker and weighed the bottle again. Using a stirring rod, she dissolved the
sodium carbonate in deionised water, and then poured the solution into a 250 cm3 graduated volumetric flask.
She washed the beaker and stirring rod with deionised water and transferred the washings also to the graduated
flask. With more deionised water she made the solution up to the graduation mark, adding water dropwise at
the end. Finally, she inserted the stopper and slowly inverted the flask about six times.
(i)

Why did the student use an analytical balance?

....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
(ii) Why did she take the bottle off the balance pan before adding the sodium carbonate?
....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
(iii) Why did she reweigh the bottle after tipping the sodium carbonate into a beaker?
....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
(iv) Why did she use deionised water rather than tap water?
....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
(v) Why did she wash out the beaker and transfer the washings?
....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
(vi) When filling the flask to the graduation mark, why did she add deionised water dropwise at the end?
....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
(vii) How did the student know when she had added the correct amount of water?
....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
(viii)Why did she invert the flask about six times?
....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
(ix) Why did she invert the flask slowly?
....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
(x) What would the student have done if she had overfilled the graduated flask with deionised water?
....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
TOTAL /14

Do not
write in
margin

AS Level

TOPIC 3

Do not
write in
margin

Questionsheet 3

SIMPLE VOLUMETRIC CALCULATIONS


NOTE Throughout this Questionsheet marks are awarded for correctly balanced chemical equations.
a) What volume of sulphuric acid containing 0.20 mol dm-3 is required to neutralise completely 20.0 cm3 of a
solution of potassium hydroxide containing 0.50 mol dm-3?
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [3]
b) 25.0 cm3 of a solution of sodium hydroxide is neutralised by 19.8 cm3 of a solution of hydrochloric acid
containing 0.15 mol dm-3. Calculate the concentration of the sodium hydroxide solution.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [3]
c) Calculate the volume of sodium hydroxide solution, containing 0.0990 mol dm-3, required to neutralise a
solution containing 0.148 g of ethanoic acid, CH3COOH.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [3]
d) A sample of sodium carbonate solution was neutralised by 19.6 cm3 of hydrochloric acid of concentration
0.103 mol dm-3. Calculate the mass of sodium carbonate in the sample solution.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [3]

TOTAL / 12

AS Level

TOPIC 3

Questionsheet 4

CALCULATIONS REQUIRING MOLAR CONCENTRATION OF A PRIMARY STANDARD


NOTE Throughout this Questionsheet marks are awarded for correctly balanced chemical equations.
a) 1.547 g of anhydrous sodium carbonate were dissolved in deionised water and the solution was made up to
250 cm3 in a graduated flask. 25.0 cm3 of this solution neutralised 24.6 cm3 of dilute sulphuric acid. Calculate,
first, the concentration of sodium carbonate, then that of the sulphuric acid, both in moles per dm3.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [5]
b) (i)

Why is sodium hydroxide unsuitable as a primary standard?

...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
(ii) In order to standardise a solution of sodium hydroxide, a chemist first prepared a solution of ethanedioic
acid-2-water, H2C2O4 .2H2O, by dissolving 14.6 g of crystals in water and making the solution up to 250
cm3 in a graduated flask. He then pipetted 25.0 cm3 of this solution into a conical flask, added
phenolphthalein solution as indicator, and titrated it against the sodium hydroxide solution: 24.1 cm3 of
the latter were required. Calculate, first, the molar concentration of the ethanedioic acid solution, and
then that of the sodium hydroxide.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [5]
(iii) The chemist then used the standardised sodium hydroxide to estimate the concentration of sulphuric
acid from a car battery. He found that 2.00 cm3 of battery acid were neutralised by 20.7 cm3 of the
sodium hydroxide solution. Calculate the concentration of sulphuric acid in the battery acid in grams
per dm3.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [4]

TOTAL / 16

Do not
write in
margin

AS Level

TOPIC 3

Do not
write in
margin

Questionsheet 5

DILUTION QUESTIONS
NOTE Throughout this Questionsheet, marks are awarded for correctly balanced chemical equations.
a) Why must concentrated solutions be diluted before being titrated by normal laboratory standard solutions?
....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
b) 10.0 cm3 of concentrated hydrochloric acid were pipetted into a 1dm3 graduated flask and diluted to the
graduation mark with deionised water. 25.0 cm3 of this diluted solution were titrated by 23.6 cm3 of aqueous
sodium hydroxide containing 0.099 mol dm-3. Calculate, first, the molar concentration of the diluted
hydrochloric acid, and then that of the concentrated hydrochloric acid.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [4]
c) In an experiment to determine the ethanoic acid content of vinegar, 25.0 cm3 of vinegar were diluted to 200
cm3 with deionised water. 25.0 cm3 of the diluted solution were titrated by 25.5 cm3 of sodium hydroxide
solution of concentration 0.102 mol dm-3. Calculate the following.
(i)

The mass of ethanoic acid in a 350 cm3 bottle of vinegar.

...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [6]
(ii) The mass of ethanoic acid in a 1.14 dm3 bottle of vinegar.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
(iii) The volume of 0.102 M NaOH(aq) which would have been needed to titrate 25.0 cm3 of the original
vinegar.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]

TOTAL / 15

AS Level

TOPIC 3

Do not
write in
margin

Questionsheet 6

WATER OF CRYSTALLISATION
NOTE Throughout this Questionsheet, marks are awarded for correctly balanced chemical equations.
a) 1.33g of hydrated ethanedioic acid, H2C2O4 .nH2O, were dissolved in deionised water and the solution made
up to 250 cm3 in a graduated flask. 25.0 cm3 of this solution were titrated by 21.1 cm3 of aqueous sodium
hydroxide of concentration 0.100 mol dm-3. Calculate the number of molecules of water of crystallisation in
the hydrated ethanedioic acid by answering the following questions.
(i)

How many moles of anhydrous H2C2O4 are there in 1 dm3 of solution?

...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [3]
(ii) Convert this to a mass of anhydrous H2C2O4 in 1 dm3.
....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
(iii) What is the mass of water of crystallisation in 1 dm3?
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
(iv) Convert this to the number of moles of water of crystallisation in 1 dm3.
....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
(v) How many moles of water are associated with 1 mole of anhydrous H2C2O4?
....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
b) 2.475 g of hydrated potassium carbonate, K2CO3.xH2O, were dissolved in deionised water to make 1 dm3 of
solution. 25.0 cm3 of this solution required 30.0 cm3 of a solution of sulphuric acid, containing 0.0125 mol
dm-3, for neutralisation. Calculate the value of x.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [6]

TOTAL /14

AS Level

TOPIC 3

Do not
write in
margin

Questionsheet 7

PERCENTAGE PURITY
NOTE Throughout this Questionsheet, marks are awarded for correctly balanced chemical equations.
a) On storage, calcium hydroxide (agricultural slaked lime) is slowly converted into calcium carbonate.
(i)

What is the cause of this deterioration?

....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
(ii) Write a chemical equation for the change.
....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
b) In an experiment to determine the purity of a batch of slaked lime, 0.204 g was weighed out, transferred to a
beaker, and sufficient water added to dissolve the calcium hydroxide. The insoluble calcium carbonate was
filtered off and discarded. The solution was then titrated by 20.8 cm3 of hydrochloric acid of concentration
0.210 mol dm-3.
(i)

Why was the calcium carbonate filtered off before the solution was titrated?

...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
(ii) Calculate the percentage purity of the slaked lime.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [4]
c) A bottle of sodium chloride had become contaminated by sodium carbonate. 5.07 g of the mixture were
dissolved in deionised water and made up to 250 cm3. 25.0 cm3 of this soution were titrated with 18.6 cm3 of
hydrochloric acid of concentration 0.105 mol dm-3. Calculate the percentage purity of the sodium chloride.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [6]

TOTAL / 14

AS Level

TOPIC 3

Do not
write in
margin

Questionsheet 8

TEST QUESTION I
NOTE Throughout this Questionsheet marks are awarded for correctly balanced chemical equations.
a) 1.15 g of a monobasic (monoprotic) organic acid were dissolved in water to make 250 cm3 of solution. 25.0
cm3 of this solution required 25.0 cm3 of sodium hydroxide solution containing 0.100 mol dm-3 for complete
neutralisation. Calculate the molar mass of the organic acid.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [4]
b) Find the volume of a solution of nitric acid, containing 0.40 mol dm-3, which will react exactly with 1.00 g of
magnesium carbonate.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [4]
c) A road tanker has crashed on a motorway, spilling 1000 dm3 of 10 M hydrochloric acid (i.e. of concentration
10 mol dm-3).
(i)

Calculate the minimum mass of calcium carbonate that the fire brigade would need to neutralise this
acid.

...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [3]
(ii) Suggest two reasons why the fire brigade neutralised the acid with calcium carbonate rather than sodium
hydroxide (caustic soda).
Reason 1 ....................................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................................... [2]
Reason 2 ....................................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................................... [2]

TOTAL /15

AS Level

TOPIC 3

Do not
write in
margin

Questionsheet 9

TEST QUESTION II
Two brands of washing soda, Deluxwash and Econosoda, are available in a supermarket. Both brands contain
sodium carbonate but in different percentages. The percentage of sodium carbonate in each brand was determined
by titration against hydrochloric acid.
a) The concentration of the hydrochloric acid to be used was first determined by titration against a sodium
hydroxide solution of known concentration.
(i)

Write a balanced equation for the reaction between hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide.

....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
(ii) It required 19.2 cm3 of 0.5 M sodium hydroxide to neutralise 25.0 cm3 of hydrochloric acid. Calculate
the molarity of the hydrochloric acid.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [3]
b) 20.0 g of Econosoda was fully dissolved in 1 dm3 of water. 25.0 cm3 of this solution was pipetted into a
conical flask. It required 19.1 cm3 of the hydrochloric acid to neutralise the solution of Econosoda in the
conical flask.
(i)

Write a balanced equation for the reaction between sodium carbonate and hydrochloric acid.

....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
(ii) Calculate the molarity of the sodium carbonate solution in the conical flask.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [3]
(iii) Calculate the percentage by mass of sodium carbonate contained in Econosoda.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [3]
c) In a similar experiment it was found that Deluxwash contained 98% sodium carbonate by mass. 500 g of
Econosoda cost 1.75 and 500 g of Deluxwash cost 2.45. Determine by calculation which brand of washing
soda is better value for money.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [4]
TOTAL /16

AS Level

TOPIC 3

Do not
write in
margin

Questionsheet 10

TEST QUESTION III


The human stomach contains a weak solution of hydrochloric acid. If excess hydrochloric acid is produced, it
may lead to painful indigestion. This can be treated by solid indigestion tablets which contain sodium hydrogencarbonate to neutralise the excess hydrochloric acid.
a) Write a balanced equation for the reaction between hydrochloric acid and an aqueous solution of sodium
hydrogencarbonate.
....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
b) A 5.00 g indigestion tablet, containing 85% sodium hydrogencarbonate, was crushed and dissolved in 250
cm3 of water.
(i)

Calculate the concentration of the sodium hydrogencarbonate solution formed.

...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [3]
(ii) Calculate the volume of 0.15 M hydrochloric acid that 25 cm3 of the sodium hydrogencarbonate solution
would neutralise.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [3]
c) Whilst doing some car repairs, a mechanic spilt 10 cm3 of car battery acid on his hand. The battery acid was
2 M sulphuric acid. He decided to neutralise the acid using the indigestion tablets referred to in b). Calculate
the number of indigestion tablets required to neutralise the acid fully.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [5]
d) Another popular indigestion cure is Milk of Magnesia, which contains a suspension of magnesium hydroxide.
Give two reasons why Milk of Magnesia is better as an indigestion cure than solid sodium hydrogencarbonate
tablets.
Advantage 1 ......................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
Advantage 2 ......................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]

TOTAL / 16