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Fruit and vegetable juices
Ranjan Sharma
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Fruit and vegetable juice production
• Fruits
• Temperate
• Citrus
• Apple
• Pear
• Others
• Tropical
• Pineapple
• Mango
• Papaya puree
• Vegetables
• Carrot
• Tomato
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Supply chain analysis
http://www.pc.gov.au/inquiry/citrus/retailworks.pdf
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Common treatments
• Clarification
• Removal of excess pulp by centrifugation or
by finishers (screens)
• Removal of pectins, starch, gums, proteins,
polyphenolics, metal cations and lipids,
which otherwise cause haze before or
after preservation; enzymes use
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Common treatments
• Clarification
• Fining:heating to required temp, addition of
enzymes, allowing time for reaction,
addition of flocculating agents (gelatin,
bentonite, silica-sol)
• Ultrafiltration: very effective with yield in
the range of 95-97% than the above
methods
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Common treatments
• Preservation methods
• Deaeration to avoid loss of vitamin C
• Thermal treatment (Pasterurisation)
• Increase shelf life to 3-4 weeks under
refrigeration
• Stabilisation of cloud by inactivating pectolytic
enzymes, higher temperature (90-95 C) for 30 s
is required
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Common treatments (Preservation)
• Thermal treatment (Pasterurisation)
• Destroying yeasts (Saccharomyces roxii)
and lactobacillus
• Canning
• Low heating temp in unlaq cans
• Aseptic processing
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Common treatments (Preservation)
• Chemical preservatives
• SO
2
(100 ppm)
• Sorbate and benzoate mixture (400 ppm)
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H a r v e s t i n g
S t o r a g e
I n s p e c t i o n
W a s h i n g
P a s s i n g t h r o u g h p i n p r i c k i n g r o l l e r s
S i z e g r a d i n g
P a s t e u r i s a t i o n
J u i c e e x t r a c t i o n
Fruit processing for juice
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Citrus juice extraction
• Harvesting: do not ripen after picking,
therefore should be picked at correct
sugar concentration (12 B for orange)
• Storage: large bins (35 tonees) with
zig-zag arrangements of baffles to
avoid bruising of bottom fruits
• Inspection: removal of damaged &
spoiled
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Citrus juice extraction
• Washing under water sprays & brush
rollers
• Pin rolling to prink and puncture oil
glands to release essential oils and
pigments; oil components otherwise
contribute bitter notes
• Grading: size
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Citrus juice extraction
• Juice extraction
• Slicing the fruits to halves, reaming heads
rotate into flesh releasing juice
• Depth of ream controls quality:deeper the
ream lower is the quality Systems
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Citrus juice extraction
• Juice drains to trough below the
reamers & screened to remove pulp and
seeds
• Pasteurisation: at 80 C for 15 sec to
• Increase shelf life to 3-4 weeks under
refrigeration
• Stabilisation of cloud by inactivating
pectolytic enzymes, higher tempeature
(90-95 C) for 30 s is required
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Citrus juice extraction
• Single strength
• Concentrates
• By products
• Halves-shaved and used to produce
crystallised peel
• Essential oils
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Cross-section of an orange
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Material balance on citrus processing
http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/005/Y2515E/y2515e13.htm
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Household juicers
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Small-scale juicer
http://www.orangeman.biz/
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Juice extractor
www.storefast.co.uk/ fvp.htm
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Juice extractor
www.actrader.com.au/.../ extractingline1.html
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Industrial juice extractor
www.westernsource.com/ verrazzano/harvest3.htm
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Flowchart for pineapple juice concentrate
www.bpgjuice.com/ english/management.htm
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Pineapple juice concentrate
Washed raw fruits J uice extractor
J uice evaporator
Frozen storage Steriliser
Vacuum packing
www.bpgjuice.com/ english/management.htm
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Chemical changes
• Production of furfurals during storage
• Oxidation of vitamin c when packed in
containers permeable to air
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Fruit juice products
• Juice: 100% fruit content
• Juice drinks: juice diluted with sugar-
acid syrup with acidity up to 1% & ss 10-
12%, pH same as juice (3-4)
• Nectars:mixtures of juice, water and
sugar with ss content of 25-50%
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Fruit juice products
• Carbonated beverages
• May or may not contain fruit juice
• Soft drinks contain mixture of flavoured,
coloured and acidified syrup with benzoic
acid as a preservative
• Carbonated fruit juice is marked in some
countries