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ANAEROBIC BACTERIA

MULTIPLICATION OF THE OPPORTUNISTIC PATHOGENS IS FACILITATED BY:

CHARACTERICTICS:

Anaerobes generate energy by

Some are sensitive to O2 concentration

fermentation (breakdown of sugar to pyruvate) Lack of the capacity to utilize O2 as a

terminal hydrogen acceptor

as low as 0.5% O2 Most can survive in 3-5% O2

A few can grow poorly in the presence

of air aerotolerant anaerobes (multiply in the absence of oxygen like Clostridium Histolyticum) Many are members of the normal flora

created by presence of facultative anaerobes Obligate anaerobe- strictly no O2

OTHER CHARACTERISTICS

  • 1. Part of normal flora

  • 2. Can survive at O2 free microenvironment of the body

  • 3. Causes mix infection

  • 4. Can grow on enrich media (reducing agent) maintains redox potential

FACTORS THAT INHIBIT GROWTH OF ANAEROBES BY OXYGEN

  • 1. Toxic compounds are produce

    • - e.g. H2O2, superoxides

  • 2. Absence of catalase and superoxide dismutase

  • 3. Oxidation of essential sulfhydryl groups in enzymes without sufficient reducing power to regenerate them

FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR THEIR VIRULENCE

Lipopolysaccharide Promotes abscess formation, enhanced coagulation

Polysaccharide capsule Correlated with abscess production

Enzymes

  • a. Collagenase

  • b. Heparinase

develop thrombophlebitis and septic emboli

Short chain fatty acids

  • a. Butyrate seen on dental plaque

1.

Inhibition of phagocytosis and intracellular killing by PMN in the presence of bacteroides by

a.

Competition of opsonins

b.

Inhibition of capsular materials

2.

Protection of antibiotics, susceptibility strains in mixtures thru destruction by the beta lactamases

3.

Utilization of O2 by facultative species that aids in producing a suitable environment for growth of anaerobe

 

Gram

 

Morphology

stain

Genus

Sporeforming

 

Clostridium

 

bacilli

+

 

+

Actinomyces, Bifidobacteria, Eubacteria,

 

Non-

Propionibacterium,

sporeforming

Mobilincus, Lactobacilli

 

bacilli

 

Bacteroides,

 

-

Fusobacterium, Prevotella, Porphyromas

   

Peptococci,

Non-

sporeforming

+

Peptostreptococci,

Streptococci

 

cocci

-

Veilonella

CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS

 

A.

Clinical hints

1.

Odor- foul smelling odor, fishy odor

2.

Tissue- gas

3.

Location- proximity with mucus membrane

4.

Necrotic tissue- black, gangrenous

5.

Endocarditis with (-) blood culture

6.

Infection associated with malignancy

7.

Black discoloration

 

8.

Blood containing exudates

9.

Associated with sulfur granules- small black granules

10.

Bacteremic feature with jaundice

11.

Human Bites

B.

Infection produced

 
  • 1. Bacteremia

  • 2. Brain abscess

  • 3. Otogenic meningitis

  • 4. Dental infection

  • 5. Pulmonary Infection

  • 6. Puerperal sepsis peptostreptococcus &

peptococcus

  • 7. Chronic meningitis

  • b. Succinic acid- reduces phagocytic killing

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ANAEROBIC BACTERIA MULTIPLICATION OF THE OPPORTUNISTIC PATHOGENS IS FACILITATED BY: CHARACTERICTICS:  Anaerobes generate energy by
ANAEROBIC BACTERIA MULTIPLICATION OF THE OPPORTUNISTIC PATHOGENS IS FACILITATED BY: CHARACTERICTICS:  Anaerobes generate energy by

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LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS

c. Methylene blue strip

 
  • A. Collection

Indicator presence of O2

-

Anaerobes are endogenous in nature

Blue (+) O2

 

White (-) O2

  • I. Appropriate specimens for anaerobic culture

  • 1. Pus

II. Anaerobic Glove Chamber

  • 2. Pleural fluid thoracentesis

Close system

  • 3. Urine Suprapubic aspiration

Used for premature babies e.g.incubator

  • 4. Pulmonary secretions

  • 5. Uterine secretions or sinus tract material

II. Collection by needle aspiration is preferable than swab culture because of:

III. Roll Tube Has a pedal gas (CO2 & H2) would come out place test tube directly to the outlets

 

a.

Better survival of pathogen

METHODS FOR EXCLUDING OXYGEN

b.

Greater quantity of specimen

  • 1. Fluid media containing fresh animal tissue

c.

Less contamination with extraneous

or 0.1% agar containing a reducing agent,

organism are often achieved

thioglycolate.

 
  • 2. Anaerobic jar

 
  • B. Handling

  • 3. Anaerobic glove chamber

If swab must be used, a 2 tube system must be used

-

D. Identification

  • a. 1st tube contains swab in O2 free CO2

 

- Plates are checked at:

  • b. 2nd tube contains PRAS (pre-reduced

18-24 hrs for faster growing species like

anaerobically sterilized culture media)

Clostridium perfringens & B. fragilis and daily thereafter up to

 

Specimen should be placed in anaerobic transport device with gas mixture

5-7 days for slowly growing species lke actinomyces, eubacterium and

  • C. Isolation

propionbacterium

Gram stain should be done in the

Genus is determined by:

laboratory

Gram stain, cellular morphology, gas liquid chromatography

a.

Choice of appropriate media and methods of culture

Species determination is based on fermentation

b.

Quality control for the types of bbacteria that laboratory culture reveal

of sugars and other biochemical determination

 

TREATMENT

A solid or liquid medium maybe used and

Susceptibility testing should be done

must provide an aerobic environment

anaerobic culture system (mechanically

Surgical drainage and resection of necrotic tissue

reduces 02, CO2-terminal acceptor)

debridement Most are resistant to aminoglycosides

I.

Anaerobic Jar

For bacteroides group, if resistant to

  • a. Clindamycin

  • 1. Candle jar Reduces O2 environment

penicillin and cephalosporin, they may use:

 

Only increases CO2 tension

  • b. Metronidazole

  • 2. Gas Pak Jar

  • c. Chloramphenicol

a.

Palladium aluminum coated pellets

b.

Gas Pak envelope

Catalyst



Chemically reduces O2

Reacts with residual O2 in the

Special Thanks to:

presence of h2 to form H2O

ZombDAVID and RemingKENT!!

Generates CO2 and H2 gases

addition of 10 ml H2O = H2O2+CO2

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LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS c. Methylene blue strip  A. Collection Indicator – presence of O2 - Anaerobes
LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS c. Methylene blue strip  A. Collection Indicator – presence of O2 - Anaerobes

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