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NON-SPOREFORMERS ANAEROBIC
BACTERIA
Dr. Lim
ANAEROBIC GRAM (-) BACILLI
 Bacteroides fragilis
 Prevotella
 Fusobacteria

Bacteroides fragilis
 Moderately anaerobic -> resist
O2 toxicity due to presence of
superoxide dismutase and
catalaase
 With LPS in the cell membrane ->
negligible endotoxic activity
 Produce betalactamase
 Predominant isolates of colon
 Disseminate in the blood stream
and goes to other organs
 Causes most serious anaerobic
infections ->peritonitis, sepsis

Virulence factors in anaerobic gram
negative bacilli
 Adhesions: enhances virulence
 Capsule: B.fragilis, Prevotella
 Fimbriae: B.fragilis,
Porphyromonas
 Resist oxygen toxicity – SOD,
catalase
 Bacteroides – little endotoxin
activity
 Almost all Bacteroides produce
beta – lactamase.


Fusobacterium
 Normal flora of mouth and colon
 Opportunistic
 with scattered wheat straw,
fusiform appearance
 causes Vincents Angina (with
Prevotella) – acute necrotizing
ulcerative gingivitis

Non-sporeforming Gram Positive
Bacilli
 Actinomyces
 Propionibacterium
 Lactobacillus
 Bifidobacterium
 Mobiluncus – bacterial vaginosis,
opportunistic infections
 Eubacterium – opportunistic
infection

ANAEROBIC GRAM (+) BACILLI
Eubacterium
 Associated with opportunistic
infections

Actinomycetes
 Bacteria which looks like fungi
 Actinomycosis

Propionibacterium
 Normal flora of the skin
 Related to acne formation
 Opportunistic in prosthetic
devices

Lactobacillus
 Normal flora of colon and vagina
 Chief source of lactic acid of
vagina
 Associated with opportunistic
infections
 Can cause endocarditis

Bifidobacteria
 Gram positive rods
 Normal flora of mouth and colon
 Present in the intestinal flora of
newborn

Peptostreptococcus
 Normal flora of colon
 Gram positive cocci
 Opportunistic Bacteria in the
other sites

Predisposing factors:
 Chronic disease
 Trauma
 Surgery


MISCELLANEOUS BACTERIA
Erysipelothrix rhusopathiae
 Causes ERYSIPELOID
- associated with meat and fish
handlers (hands infected as
they handle the meat causing
swelling of the fingers)
- skin infection that resembles
like ERYSIPELAS (which is
associated with streptococcus)
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Gardinerella vaginalis
 Associated with non-specific
vaginitis
- characterized by a
malodorous vaginal discharge
and CLUE CELLS (vaginal
epithelial cells covered with
bacteria)
- Bacterial vaginosis – STD


Calymmatobacterium granulomatis
 Causes granuloma inguinale
- sexually transmitted disease
characterized by genital
ulceration and soft tissue and
bone destruction
 Visualization of Donovan bodies
with large macrophages from the
lesions (diagnosis)
 Causes “Donovanosis”

HACEK BACTERIA
 Bacteria associated with the
development of endocarditis
 Hemophilus aphrophilus
 Actinomyces
actinomycetemcomitans
 Cardiobacterium hominis
 Eikenella corrodens (sepsis, soft
tissue of head and neck)
 Kingela kingae (opportunistic
infection)

Rat Bite fever – “sodoku”
 Streptobacillus moniliformis
 Spirillum minus

Bartonella
 B.bacilliformis
- Oroya fever + verruca percuana=
Carrisons dse
 Bite of sandfly from
andes mountain animals;
very rare

 B.quintana
- Bite of human body louse
- Causes Trench fever
- Causes bacillary angiomatosis
 Vascular proliferative
tumor (like Kaposi
sarcoma)
 Associated with
endocarditis
 B.henselae: Cat scratch disease,
bacillary angiomatosis, endocarditis

Flavobacterium meningosepticum
 Neonatal meningitis and sepsis