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# The selection of a subset of individuals from within

a population to estimate characteristics of the whole
population.

Definition of Terms
 Population – group of people or items having
one or more common characteristics of interest
in the study
 Sample – representative subgroup of the larger
population
o Used to estimate something about a
population (generalize)
o Must be similar to population on
characteristic being investigated
 Target population - the collection of elements or
objects that possess the information sought by
the researcher and about which inferences are
 Sampling unit- an element, (or a unit containing
the element), that is available for selection at
some stage of the sampling process.
 Element - an object or person on which
measurement is actually taken or an observation
is made or fromwhich the information is desired.
 Sampling frame - totality of sampling units from
which a sample is drawn or picked

Reasons for Sampling
 Researchers rarely survey the entire population
because the cost of a census is too high.
 A study of the entire population is impossible in
most situations
 Speed of evaluation
 Lower cost
 Better quality of information
 More comprehensive data may be obtained

 The cost is lower
 Data collection is faster
 Possible to ensure homogeneity to improve the
accuracy and quality of the data.

 There could be a sampling error The difference
between a sample estimate and the population
parameter obtained by a complete count
 Sampling may create a feeling of discrimination
within the population
 Inadvisable where every unit of the population is
legally required to have a record
 For rare events small samples may not yield
sufficient cases for study

Criteria for Good Sampling Design
 The sample to be obtained should be
representative of the population
 The sample should be adequate
 Practicality and feasibility of the sampling
procedure
 Economy and efficiency of the sampling
design

Classification of SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
I. Probability Sampling Techniques
1. Simple Random Sampling
2. Systematic Sampling
3. Stratified Random Sampling
4. Cluster Sampling
5. Multi-Stage Sampling
II. Non probability Sampling Techniques
1. Convenience Sampling
2. Purposive Sampling
3. Quota Sampling
4. Snowball Sampling

I. Probability Sampling
 Every unit in the population has a chance
(greater than zero) of being selected in the
sample, and this probability can be
accurately determined.
 Possible to produce unbiased estimates of
population totals, by weighting sampled
units according to their probability of
selection.

Sampling: Design
And Procedures
Imelda MFF Garcia, MD, MMedPH, FPAFP
By: Papaeng & Noeloser

1. Simple Random Sampling
 Each possible sample of a given size (n) has a
known and equal probability of being the sample
actually selected.
 This implies that every element is selected
independently of every other element.

When to use Simple Random Sampling:
 If the population is homogenous
 If the population is not widely spread
geographically

Procedure for Drawing Simple Random Sampling:
1. Select a suitable sampling frame - a list of the
target or accessible population
2. Each element is assigned a number from 1 to N
(pop. size)
Or
3. Generate n (sample size) different random
numbers between 1 and N
The numbers generated denote the elements
that should be included in the sample

4. Get a table of random numbers.
Arbitrarily select a starting point then get a
series of random numbers equal to the sample
size.
The numbers in the series that correspond to
the list are the subjects of the study.

Merits of simple random sampling
 Representativeness of the samples is
ensured
 The sampling mean is an unbiased estimate
of the population mean
 Estimation method is simple and easy

Limitations of simple random sampling
 Difficult to identify every member of the
population
 Vulnerable to sampling error because of the
randomness of the selection
 Cumbersome and tedious when sampling an
unusually large population or covering
 Minority subgroups may not be present in
the sample in sufficient numbers for study

2. Systematic Sampling
 Relies on arranging the target population
according to some ordering scheme and then
selecting elements at regular intervals through
that ordered list.
 Every k
th
unit from an ordered population is
taken, the first unit being selected at random
from items between 1 and k

When to use Systematic Sampling
 If the frame is such that doing simple random
sampling may be quite cumbersome e.g. very
large sample size from a similarly large
population
 If the population is essentially randomly
arranged

Procedure for drawing Systematic Sampling:
1. Select a suitable sampling frame
2. Each element is assigned a number from 1 to N (pop.
size)
3. Determine the sampling interval k:
Sampling interval (k) =

total # in the list (population size N)
sample size (n)
If k is a fraction, round to the nearest integer
4. Select a random number, r, between 1 and k, as
explained in simple random sampling
5. The elements with the following numbers will
comprise the systematic random sample: r, r+k, r+2k,
r+3k, r+4k,...,r+(n-1)k

Merits of Systematic Sampling
 The sample is easy to select
 Easy to administer in the field
 The sample is evenly spread over the entire
reference population

Limitations of Systematic Sampling
 Vulnerable to periodicities
 Requires that the population frame is randomly
arranged

3. Stratified Random Sampling

 A two-step process in which the population is
partitioned into subpopulations, or strata.
 The strata are mutually exclusive and
collectively exhaustive - every population
element should be assigned to one and only
one stratum and no population elements should
be omitted.
 Then, elements are selected from each stratum
by a random procedure, usually SRS. Systematic
sampling may also be used.

When to use Stratified Random Sampling:
 Minority subgroups are present in the
population
 Sampling problems differ in the various
population sections

Proportionate stratified sampling
The size of the sample drawn from each stratum is
proportionate to the relative size of that stratum in the
total population.
Disproportionate stratified sampling
The size of the sample from each stratum is
proportionate to the relative size of that stratum and to
the standard deviation of the distribution of the
characteristic of interest among all the elements in that
stratum.

Procedure for drawing Stratified Random Sampling:
1. Select a suitable frame
2. Select the stratification variable(s) and the number of
strata, H
3. Classify the entire population into H strata. Based on
the classification variable, each element of the
population is assigned to one of the H strata
4. In each stratum, number the elements from 1 to N
(the pop. size of stratum h)
5. Determine the sample size of each stratum, n, based
on proportionate or disproportionate stratified
sampling.
6. In each stratum, select a random sample of size n

Merits of Stratified Random Sampling:
 Draws inferences about specific subgroups that
may be lost in a more generalized simple
random sampling
 Increases precision without increasing cost.
 Estimates of parameters in each stratum may
be derived
 Proportionate representation of each strata is
ensured
 More efficient statistical estimates are made

Limitations of Stratified Random Sampling:
 Sampling frame for the entire population and
per stratum is needed
 Varying sampling fractions to ensure sufficient
numbers of minority subgroups will change
actual population proportions

4. Cluster Sampling
 A process in which the population is divided
into clusters and a subset of the clusters is
randomly selected.
 Samples are often clustered by geography or by
time periods

When to use Cluster Sampling:
 A list of the whole population is difficult to
obtain
 There is little knowledge of the population
characteristics
 The population is scattered over a large
geographic area

Procedure for drawing Cluster Sampling:
1. The target population is first divided into mutually
exclusive and collectively exhaustive subpopulations, or
clusters.
2. Then a random sample of clusters is selected, based
on a probability sampling technique such as Simple
Random Sampling.

 For each selected cluster, either all the
elements are included in the sample (one-stage)
or a sample of elements is drawn using
probability sampling (two-stage).
 Elements within a cluster should be as
heterogeneous as possible, but clusters
themselves should be as homogeneous as
possible.
 Ideally, each cluster should be a small-scale
representation of the population.
 In probability proportionate to size sampling,
the clusters are sampled with probability
proportional to size. In the second stage, the

probability of selecting a sampling unit in a
selected cluster varies inversely with the size of
the cluster.

Merits of Cluster Sampling:
 More practical, less costly

Limitations of Cluster Sampling:
 Sampling error is usually higher than for simple
random sampling of the same size
 Conclusions should be stated in terms of
clusters
 Problems of statistical analysis are greater

5. Multi–stage Sampling
 Cluster sampling is commonly implemented as
multi-stage sampling.
 This is a complex form of cluster sampling in
which two or more levels of units are
embedded one in the other.

Procedure for drawing Multi-stage Sampling:
Stage 1
Constructing the clusters that will be used to sample
from.
The target population is first divided into mutually
exclusive and collectively exhaustive subpopulations, or
clusters. Then a random sample of clusters is selected.
Stage 2
Randomly select from each sample cluster a sample of
primary units (rather than using all units contained in all
selected clusters).
Following stages
In each of those selected clusters, additional samples of
units are selected, and so on.
All ultimate units (individuals, for instance) selected at
the last step of this procedure are then surveyed.
This technique, thus, is essentially the process of taking
random subsamples of preceding random samples.

II. Non-probability Sampling
 Probabilities for selection are not specified for
the individual units of the population.
 Some elements of the population
have no chance of selection.
 It involves the selection of elements based on
assumptions regarding the population of
interest, which forms the criteria for selection.
 Information about the relationship between
sample and population is limited, making it
difficult to extrapolate from the sample to the
population.

1. Convenience Sampling
 Haphazard or accidental sampling
 Often, respondents are selected because they
happen to be in the right place at the right time.
 “Take them where you find them” Whatever
items come on hand are used as samples.

2. Purposive Sampling
 A criteria necessary for being included in the
study is established and subjects are included
because they fulfil the specific criteria.

3. Snowball Sampling
 An initial group of subjects/respondents is
selected, usually at random.
identify others who also have the same
requisite characteristics or who belong to the
target population of interest.
 Subsequent respondents are selected based on
the referrals.

4. Quota Sampling
Volunteers are called to join the study and recruitment
is stopped once the proper size is achieved
May be viewed as two-stage restricted judgmental
sampling.
 The first stage consists of developing control
categories, or quotas, of population
elements.
 In the second stage, sample elements are
selected based on convenience

Errors of Estimate
1. Sampling Error
The difference between a sample estimate and the
population parameter obtained by a complete count
2. Non-sampling errors
2.1 Coverage errors