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Sampling

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**a population to estimate characteristics of the whole
**

population.

Definition of Terms

Population – group of people or items having

one or more common characteristics of interest

in the study

Sample – representative subgroup of the larger

population

o Used to estimate something about a

population (generalize)

o Must be similar to population on

characteristic being investigated

Target population - the collection of elements or

objects that possess the information sought by

the researcher and about which inferences are

to be made.

Sampling unit- an element, (or a unit containing

the element), that is available for selection at

some stage of the sampling process.

Element - an object or person on which

measurement is actually taken or an observation

is made or fromwhich the information is desired.

Sampling frame - totality of sampling units from

which a sample is drawn or picked

Reasons for Sampling

Researchers rarely survey the entire population

because the cost of a census is too high.

A study of the entire population is impossible in

most situations

Speed of evaluation

Lower cost

Better quality of information

More comprehensive data may be obtained

Advantages of Sampling

The cost is lower

Data collection is faster

Possible to ensure homogeneity to improve the

accuracy and quality of the data.

Disadvantages of Sampling

There could be a sampling error The difference

between a sample estimate and the population

parameter obtained by a complete count

Sampling may create a feeling of discrimination

within the population

Inadvisable where every unit of the population is

legally required to have a record

For rare events small samples may not yield

sufficient cases for study

Criteria for Good Sampling Design

The sample to be obtained should be

representative of the population

The sample should be adequate

Practicality and feasibility of the sampling

procedure

Economy and efficiency of the sampling

design

Classification of SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

I. Probability Sampling Techniques

1. Simple Random Sampling

2. Systematic Sampling

3. Stratified Random Sampling

4. Cluster Sampling

5. Multi-Stage Sampling

II. Non probability Sampling Techniques

1. Convenience Sampling

2. Purposive Sampling

3. Quota Sampling

4. Snowball Sampling

I. Probability Sampling

Every unit in the population has a chance

(greater than zero) of being selected in the

sample, and this probability can be

accurately determined.

Possible to produce unbiased estimates of

population totals, by weighting sampled

units according to their probability of

selection.

Sampling: Design

And Procedures

Imelda MFF Garcia, MD, MMedPH, FPAFP

By: Papaeng & Noeloser

1. Simple Random Sampling

Each possible sample of a given size (n) has a

known and equal probability of being the sample

actually selected.

This implies that every element is selected

independently of every other element.

When to use Simple Random Sampling:

If the population is homogenous

If the population is not widely spread

geographically

Procedure for Drawing Simple Random Sampling:

1. Select a suitable sampling frame - a list of the

target or accessible population

2. Each element is assigned a number from 1 to N

(pop. size)

Or

3. Generate n (sample size) different random

numbers between 1 and N

The numbers generated denote the elements

that should be included in the sample

4. Get a table of random numbers.

Arbitrarily select a starting point then get a

series of random numbers equal to the sample

size.

The numbers in the series that correspond to

the list are the subjects of the study.

Merits of simple random sampling

Representativeness of the samples is

ensured

The sampling mean is an unbiased estimate

of the population mean

Estimation method is simple and easy

Limitations of simple random sampling

Difficult to identify every member of the

population

Vulnerable to sampling error because of the

randomness of the selection

Cumbersome and tedious when sampling an

unusually large population or covering

widely spread samples

Minority subgroups may not be present in

the sample in sufficient numbers for study

2. Systematic Sampling

Relies on arranging the target population

according to some ordering scheme and then

selecting elements at regular intervals through

that ordered list.

Every k

th

unit from an ordered population is

taken, the first unit being selected at random

from items between 1 and k

When to use Systematic Sampling

If the frame is such that doing simple random

sampling may be quite cumbersome e.g. very

large sample size from a similarly large

population

If the population is essentially randomly

arranged

Procedure for drawing Systematic Sampling:

1. Select a suitable sampling frame

2. Each element is assigned a number from 1 to N (pop.

size)

3. Determine the sampling interval k:

Sampling interval (k) =

total # in the list (population size N)

sample size (n)

If k is a fraction, round to the nearest integer

4. Select a random number, r, between 1 and k, as

explained in simple random sampling

5. The elements with the following numbers will

comprise the systematic random sample: r, r+k, r+2k,

r+3k, r+4k,...,r+(n-1)k

Merits of Systematic Sampling

The sample is easy to select

Easy to administer in the field

The sample is evenly spread over the entire

reference population

Limitations of Systematic Sampling

Vulnerable to periodicities

Requires that the population frame is randomly

arranged

3. Stratified Random Sampling

A two-step process in which the population is

partitioned into subpopulations, or strata.

The strata are mutually exclusive and

collectively exhaustive - every population

element should be assigned to one and only

one stratum and no population elements should

be omitted.

Then, elements are selected from each stratum

by a random procedure, usually SRS. Systematic

sampling may also be used.

When to use Stratified Random Sampling:

Minority subgroups are present in the

population

Sampling problems differ in the various

population sections

Proportionate stratified sampling

The size of the sample drawn from each stratum is

proportionate to the relative size of that stratum in the

total population.

Disproportionate stratified sampling

The size of the sample from each stratum is

proportionate to the relative size of that stratum and to

the standard deviation of the distribution of the

characteristic of interest among all the elements in that

stratum.

Procedure for drawing Stratified Random Sampling:

1. Select a suitable frame

2. Select the stratification variable(s) and the number of

strata, H

3. Classify the entire population into H strata. Based on

the classification variable, each element of the

population is assigned to one of the H strata

4. In each stratum, number the elements from 1 to N

(the pop. size of stratum h)

5. Determine the sample size of each stratum, n, based

on proportionate or disproportionate stratified

sampling.

6. In each stratum, select a random sample of size n

Merits of Stratified Random Sampling:

Draws inferences about specific subgroups that

may be lost in a more generalized simple

random sampling

Increases precision without increasing cost.

Estimates of parameters in each stratum may

be derived

Proportionate representation of each strata is

ensured

More efficient statistical estimates are made

Limitations of Stratified Random Sampling:

Sampling frame for the entire population and

per stratum is needed

Varying sampling fractions to ensure sufficient

numbers of minority subgroups will change

actual population proportions

4. Cluster Sampling

A process in which the population is divided

into clusters and a subset of the clusters is

randomly selected.

Samples are often clustered by geography or by

time periods

When to use Cluster Sampling:

A list of the whole population is difficult to

obtain

There is little knowledge of the population

characteristics

The population is scattered over a large

geographic area

Procedure for drawing Cluster Sampling:

1. The target population is first divided into mutually

exclusive and collectively exhaustive subpopulations, or

clusters.

2. Then a random sample of clusters is selected, based

on a probability sampling technique such as Simple

Random Sampling.

For each selected cluster, either all the

elements are included in the sample (one-stage)

or a sample of elements is drawn using

probability sampling (two-stage).

Elements within a cluster should be as

heterogeneous as possible, but clusters

themselves should be as homogeneous as

possible.

Ideally, each cluster should be a small-scale

representation of the population.

In probability proportionate to size sampling,

the clusters are sampled with probability

proportional to size. In the second stage, the

probability of selecting a sampling unit in a

selected cluster varies inversely with the size of

the cluster.

Merits of Cluster Sampling:

More practical, less costly

Limitations of Cluster Sampling:

Sampling error is usually higher than for simple

random sampling of the same size

Conclusions should be stated in terms of

clusters

Problems of statistical analysis are greater

5. Multi–stage Sampling

Cluster sampling is commonly implemented as

multi-stage sampling.

This is a complex form of cluster sampling in

which two or more levels of units are

embedded one in the other.

Procedure for drawing Multi-stage Sampling:

Stage 1

Constructing the clusters that will be used to sample

from.

The target population is first divided into mutually

exclusive and collectively exhaustive subpopulations, or

clusters. Then a random sample of clusters is selected.

Stage 2

Randomly select from each sample cluster a sample of

primary units (rather than using all units contained in all

selected clusters).

Following stages

In each of those selected clusters, additional samples of

units are selected, and so on.

All ultimate units (individuals, for instance) selected at

the last step of this procedure are then surveyed.

This technique, thus, is essentially the process of taking

random subsamples of preceding random samples.

II. Non-probability Sampling

Probabilities for selection are not specified for

the individual units of the population.

Some elements of the population

have no chance of selection.

It involves the selection of elements based on

assumptions regarding the population of

interest, which forms the criteria for selection.

Information about the relationship between

sample and population is limited, making it

difficult to extrapolate from the sample to the

population.

1. Convenience Sampling

Haphazard or accidental sampling

Often, respondents are selected because they

happen to be in the right place at the right time.

“Take them where you find them” Whatever

items come on hand are used as samples.

2. Purposive Sampling

A criteria necessary for being included in the

study is established and subjects are included

because they fulfil the specific criteria.

3. Snowball Sampling

An initial group of subjects/respondents is

selected, usually at random.

Subjects who are already included are asked to

identify others who also have the same

requisite characteristics or who belong to the

target population of interest.

Subsequent respondents are selected based on

the referrals.

4. Quota Sampling

Volunteers are called to join the study and recruitment

is stopped once the proper size is achieved

May be viewed as two-stage restricted judgmental

sampling.

The first stage consists of developing control

categories, or quotas, of population

elements.

In the second stage, sample elements are

selected based on convenience

Errors of Estimate

1. Sampling Error

The difference between a sample estimate and the

population parameter obtained by a complete count

2. Non-sampling errors

2.1 Coverage errors

2.1.1 failure arising from inadequate

sampling frame

2.1.2 non response

2.2 Observational error

2.3 Processing error

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