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DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

NONRESIDENT
TRAINING
COURSE

July 1990
Fluid Power
NAVEDTRA 14105

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
Although the words “he,” “him,” and
“his” are used sparingly in this course to
enhance communication, they are not
intended to be gender driven or to affront or
discriminate against anyone.
COMMANDING OFFICER
NETPDTC
6490 SAUFLEY FIELD RD
PENSACOLA, FL 32509-5237
ERRATA #3 19 Oct 99
Specific Instructions and Errata
FLUID POWER
1. This errata supersedes all previous erratas. No attempt has been made to
issue corrections for errors in typing, punctuation, etc., that do not affect
your ability to answer the question or questions.
2. To receive credit for deleted questions, show this errata to your local
course administrator (ESO/scorer). The local course administrator is directed
to correct the course and the answer key by indicating the question deleted.
3. Assignment Booklet
Delete the following questions, and leave the corresponding spaces blank
on the answer sheets:
Questions
2-6
2-9
2-15
3-5
Questions
4-52
5-22
5-67
Make the following changes:
Question
1-19
1-52
3-32
4-15
4-18
4-28
5-8
5-52/5-55
5-67
Change
In the questions, change the question to read "In the
metric system, the density of a substance is expressed
as..."
In the question, line 5, "60 cubic centimeters" is
equivalent to 60 milliliters.
In the blurb before the question, line 2, delete "and
3-33."
In alternative 3, change "form" to ‘from."
In the question. line 2, change "instead" to "installed."
In alternative 2, change "el" to "element."
In the blurb preceding the question, line 1, change "1-8"
to "5-8."
In the column under "COMPONENTS", in alternative 3, add
"mover" after "prime."
In the blurb preceding the question, line 2, change
"5-71" to " 5-70."


i
PREFACE
By enrolling in this self-study course, you have demonstrated a desire to improve yourself and the Navy.
Remember, however, this self-study course is only one part of the total Navy training program. Practical
experience, schools, selected reading, and your desire to succeed are also necessary to successfully round
out a fully meaningful training program.
COURSE OVERVIEW: In completing this nonresident training course, you will demonstrate a
knowledge of the subject matter by correctly answering questions on the following: fundamental physics as
appropriate to fluids at rest and in motion; types and characteristics of hydraulic and pneumatic fluids; major
components of basic fluid power systems and diagrams used to illustrate these systems; proper procedures
and precautions for handling and replacing lines, connectors, and sealing devices; proper procedures for
eliminating contaminants; purpose, operation, application of pumps, reservoirs, strainers, filters,
accumulators, flow control and measuring devices, directional control valves, and actuators; arrangement
and operation of representative fluid power systems including the function and interrelationship of major
components.
THE COURSE: This self-study course is organized into subject matter areas, each containing learning
objectives to help you determine what you should learn along with text and illustrations to help you
understand the information. The subject matter reflects day-to-day requirements and experiences of
personnel in the rating or skill area. It also reflects guidance provided by Enlisted Community Managers
(ECMs) and other senior personnel, technical references, instructions, etc., and either the occupational or
naval standards, which are listed in the Manual of Navy Enlisted Manpower Personnel Classifications
and Occupational Standards, NAVPERS 18068.
THE QUESTIONS: The questions that appear in this course are designed to help you understand the
material in the text.
VALUE: In completing this course, you will improve your military and professional knowledge.
Importantly, it can also help you study for the Navy-wide advancement in rate examination. If you are
studying and discover a reference in the text to another publication for further information, look it up.
1990 Edition Prepared by
MMC Albert Beasley, Jr.
Published by
NAVAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
AND TECHNOLOGY CENTER
NAVSUP Logistics Tracking Number
0504-LP-026-7730
ii
Sailor’s Creed
“I am a United States Sailor.
I will support and defend the
Constitution of the United States of
America and I will obey the orders
of those appointed over me.
I represent the fighting spirit of the
Navy and those who have gone
before me to defend freedom and
democracy around the world.
I proudly serve my country’s Navy
combat team with honor, courage
and commitment.
I am committed to excellence and
the fair treatment of all.”
C ONT E NT S
CHAPTER
1. I ntroducti on to Fl ui d Power.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. Forces i n Li qui ds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3. Hydraul i c Fl ui ds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4. Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5. Fl ui d Li nes and Fi tti ngs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6. Val ves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7. Seal i ng Devi ces and Materi al s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8. Measurement and Pressure Control Devi ces . . . . . . . . . .
9. Reservoi rs, Strai ners, Fi l ters, and Accumul ators . . . . . .
10. Actuators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11. Pneumati cs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12. Basi c Di agrams and Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
APPENDI X
I . Gl ossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I I . Mechani cal Symbol s Other than Aeronauti cal
for Fl ui d Power Di agrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I I I . Aeronauti cal Mechani cal Symbol s for Fl ui d
Power Di agrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Page
1-1
2-1
3-1
4-1
5-1
6-1
7-1
8-1
9-1
10-1
11-1
12-1
AI -1
AI I -1
AI I I -1
I NDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I NDEX-1
. . .
iii
CREDI TS
The compani es l i sted bel ow have provi ded permi ssi on to use certai n
tradenames/trademarks i n thi s edi ti on of Fluid Power. Permi ssi on to use these
tradenames/trademarks i s grateful l y acknowl edged. Permi ssi on to reproduce
or use these tradenames/trademarks must be obtai ned from the source.
SOURCE TEXT ON PAGE
DuPont
Greene, Tweed and Company
Mi nnesota Rubber
5-8
7-5
7-15
iv
v
INSTRUCTIONS FOR TAKING THE COURSE
ASSIGNMENTS
The text pages that you are to study are listed at
the beginning of each assignment. Study these
pages carefully before attempting to answer the
questions. Pay close attention to tables and
illustrations and read the learning objectives.
The learning objectives state what you should be
able to do after studying the material. Answering
the questions correctly helps you accomplish the
objectives.
SELECTING YOUR ANSWERS
Read each question carefully, then select the
BEST answer. You may refer freely to the text.
The answers must be the result of your own
work and decisions. You are prohibited from
referring to or copying the answers of others and
from giving answers to anyone else taking the
course.
SUBMITTING YOUR ASSIGNMENTS
To have your assignments graded, you must be
enrolled in the course with the Nonresident
Training Course Administration Branch at the
Naval Education and Training Professional
Development and Technology Center
(NETPDTC). Following enrollment, there are
two ways of having your assignments graded:
(1) use the Internet to submit your assignments
as you complete them, or (2) send all the
assignments at one time by mail to NETPDTC.
Grading on the Internet: Advantages to
Internet grading are:
• you may submit your answers as soon as
you complete an assignment, and
• you get your results faster; usually by the
next working day (approximately 24 hours).
In addition to receiving grade results for each
assignment, you will receive course completion
confirmation once you have completed all the
assignments. To submit your assignment
answers via the Internet, go to:
http://courses.cnet.navy.mil
Grading by Mail: When you submit answer
sheets by mail, send all of your assignments at
one time. Do NOT submit individual answer
sheets for grading. Mail all of your assignments
in an envelope, which you either provide
yourself or obtain from your nearest Educational
Services Officer (ESO). Submit answer sheets
to:
COMMANDING OFFICER
NETPDTC N331
6490 SAUFLEY FIELD ROAD
PENSACOLA FL 32559-5000
Answer Sheets: All courses include one
“scannable” answer sheet for each assignment.
These answer sheets are preprinted with your
SSN, name, assignment number, and course
number. Explanations for completing the answer
sheets are on the answer sheet.
Do not use answer sheet reproductions: Use
only the original answer sheets that we
provide—reproductions will not work with our
scanning equipment and cannot be processed.
Follow the instructions for marking your
answers on the answer sheet. Be sure that blocks
1, 2, and 3 are filled in correctly. This
information is necessary for your course to be
properly processed and for you to receive credit
for your work.
COMPLETION TIME
Courses must be completed within 12 months
from the date of enrollment. This includes time
required to resubmit failed assignments.
vi
PASS/FAIL ASSIGNMENT PROCEDURES
If your overall course score is 3.2 or higher, you
will pass the course and will not be required to
resubmit assignments. Once your assignments
have been graded you will receive course
completion confirmation.
If you receive less than a 3.2 on any assignment
and your overall course score is below 3.2, you
will be given the opportunity to resubmit failed
assignments. You may resubmit failed
assignments only once. Internet students will
receive notification when they have failed an
assignment--they may then resubmit failed
assignments on the web site. Internet students
may view and print results for failed
assignments from the web site. Students who
submit by mail will receive a failing result letter
and a new answer sheet for resubmission of each
failed assignment.
COMPLETION CONFIRMATION
After successfully completing this course, you
will receive a letter of completion.
ERRATA
Errata are used to correct minor errors or delete
obsolete information in a course. Errata may
also be used to provide instructions to the
student. If a course has an errata, it will be
included as the first page(s) after the front cover.
Errata for all courses can be accessed and
viewed/downloaded at:
http://www.advancement.cnet.navy.mil
STUDENT FEEDBACK QUESTIONS
We value your suggestions, questions, and
criticisms on our courses. If you would like to
communicate with us regarding this course, we
encourage you, if possible, to use e-mail. If you
write or fax, please use a copy of the Student
Comment form that follows this page.
For subject matter questions:
E-mail: n314.products@cnet.navy.mil
Phone: Comm: (850) 452-1001, Ext. 1826
DSN: 922-1001, Ext.1826
FAX: (850) 452-1370
(Do not fax answer sheets.)
Address: COMMANDING OFFICER
NETPDTC N314
6490 SAUFLEY FIELD ROAD
PENSACOLA FL 32509-5237
For enrollment, shipping, grading, or
completion letter questions
E-mail: fleetservices@cnet.navy.mil
Phone: Toll Free: 877-264-8583
Comm: (850) 452-1511/1181/1859
DSN: 922-1511/1181/1859
FAX: (850) 452-1370
(Do not fax answer sheets.)
Address: COMMANDING OFFICER
NETPDTC N331
6490 SAUFLEY FIELD ROAD
PENSACOLA FL 32559-5000
NAVAL RESERVE RETIREMENT CREDIT
If you are a member of the Naval Reserve, you
may earn retirement points for successfully
completing this course, if authorized under
current directives governing retirement of Naval
Reserve personnel. For Naval Reserve
retirement, this course is evaluated at 8 points.
(Refer to Administrative Procedures for Naval
Reservists on Inactive Duty, BUPERSINST
1001.39, for more information about retirement
points.)
vii
Student Comments
Course Title: Fluid Power
NAVEDTRA: 14105 Date:
We need some information about you:
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Street Address: City: State/FPO: Zip
Your comments, suggestions, etc.:
Privacy Act Statement: Under authority of Title 5, USC 301, information regarding your military status is
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written authorization to anyone other than those within DOD for official use in determining performance.
NETPDTC 1550/41 (Rev 4-00
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION TO FLUID POWER
Fl ui d power i s a term whi ch was created to
i ncl ude the generati on, control , and appl i cati on
of s mooth , effecti v e power of pu mped or
compressed fl ui ds (ei ther l i qui ds or gases) when
thi s power i s used to provi de force and moti on
to mechani sms. Thi s force and moti on maybe i n
the form of pushi ng, pul l i ng, rotati ng, regul ati ng,
or dri vi ng. Fl ui d power i ncl udes hydraul i cs, whi ch
i nvol ves l i qui ds, and pneumati cs, whi ch i nvol ves
gases. Li qui ds and gases are si mi l ar i n many
respects. The di fferences are poi nted out i n the
appropri ate areas of thi s manual .
Thi s manual presents many of the funda-
mental concepts i n the fi el ds of hydraul i cs and
pneumati cs. I t i s i ntended as a basi c reference for
al l personnel of the Navy whose duti es and
responsi bi l i ti es requi re them to have a knowl edge
of the fundamental s of fl ui d power . Conse-
quentl y, emphasi s i s pl aced pri mari l y on the
theory of operati on of typi cal fl ui d power systems
and components that have appl i cati ons i n naval
equi pment. Many appl i cati ons of fl ui d power are
presented i n thi s manual to i l l ustrate the functi ons
and operati on of di fferent systems and com-
ponents. However, these are onl y representati ve
of the many appl i cati ons of fl ui d power i n naval
equi pment. I ndi vi dual trai ni ng manual s for each
rate provi de i nformati on concerni ng the appl i ca-
ti on of fl ui d power to speci fi c equi pment for
whi ch the rati ng i s responsi bl e.
A br i ef summar y of the contents of thi s
tr ai ni ng manual i s gi ven i n the fol l owi ng
par agr aphs:
Chapter 2 covers the characteri sti cs of l i qui ds
and the factors affecti ng them. I t al so expl ai ns
the behavi or of l i qui ds at rest, i denti fi es the
characteri sti cs of l i qui ds i n moti on, and expl ai ns
the operati on of basi c hydraul i c components.
Chapter 3 di scusses the qual i ti es of fl ui ds
acceptabl e for hydraul i c systems and the types of
fl ui ds used. I ncl uded ar e secti ons on safety
precauti ons to fol l ow when handl i ng potenti al l y
hazar dous fl ui ds, l i qui d contami nati on, and
control of contami nants.
Chapter 4 covers the hydraul i c pump, the
component i n the hydr aul i c system whi ch
generates the force requi red for the system to
perform i ts desi gn functi on. The i nformati on
provi ded covers cl assi fi cati ons, types, operati on,
and constructi on of pumps.
Chapter 5 deal s wi th the pi pi ng, tubi ng and
fl exi bl e hoses, and connectors used to carry fl ui ds
under pressure.
Chapter 6 di scusses the cl assi fi cati on, types,
and operati on of val ves used i n the control of
fl ow, pressure, and di recti on of fl ui ds.
Chapter 7 covers the types and purposes of
seal i ng devi ces used i n fl ui d power systems,
i ncl udi ng the di fferent materi al s used i n thei r
constr ucti on. Addi ti onal l y, the gui del i nes for
sel ecti ng, i nstal l i ng, and removi ng O-ri ngs are
i ncl uded.
Chapter 8 di scusses the operati on of devi ces
used to measure and regul ate the pressure of fl ui ds
and to measure the temperature of fl ui ds.
Chapter 9 descri bes the functi ons and types
of reservoi rs, strai ners, fi l ters, and accumul ators,
and thei r uses i n fl ui d power systems.
Chapter 10 di scusses the types and operati on
of actuator s used to tr ansfor m the ener gy
generated by hydraul i c systems i nto mechani cal
force and moti on.
Chapter 11 deal s wi th pneumati cs. I t di scusses
the ori gi n of pneumati cs, the characteri sti cs and
compressi bi l i ty of gases, and the most commonl y
used gases i n pneumati c systems. Al so, secti ons
are i ncl uded to cover safety precauti ons and the
potenti al hazards of compressed gases.
Chapter 12 i denti fi es the types of di agrams
encountered i n fl ui d power systems. Thi s chapter
al so di scusses how components of chapters 4, 5,
6, 8, 9, and 10 are combi ned to form and operate
together as a system.
A gl ossary of terms commonl y used i n fl ui d
power i s pr ovi ded i n appendi x I . Appendi x I I
provi des symbol s used i n aeronauti cal mechani cal
1-1
systems, and appendi x I I I provi des symbol s used
i n nonaeronauti cal mechani cal systems.
The remai nder of chapter 1 i s devoted to the
advantages and probl ems of fl ui d power appl i -
cati ons. I ncl uded are bri ef secti ons on the hi story,
devel opment, and appl i cati ons of hydraul i cs,
the states of matter.
ADVANTAGES OF FLUID POWER
and
The extensi ve use of hydraul i cs and pneuma-
ti cs to transmi t power i s due to the fact that
properl y constructed fl ui d power systems possess
a number of favor abl e char acter i sti cs. They
el i mi nate the need for compl i cated systems of
gears, cams, and l evers. Moti on can be trans-
mi tted wi thout the sl ack i nherent i n the use of
sol i d machi ne parts. The fl ui ds used are not
subject to breakage as are mechani cal parts, and
the mechani sms are not subjected to great wear.
The di fferent parts of a fl ui d power system
can be conveni entl y l ocated at wi del y separated
poi nts, si nce the forces generated are rapi dl y
transmi tted over consi derabl e di stances wi th smal l
l oss. These forces can be conveyed up and down
or around corners wi th smal l l oss i n effi ci ency and
wi thout compl i cated mechani sms. Ver y l ar ge
forces can be control l ed by much smal l er ones and
can be transmi tted through comparati vel y smal l
l i nes and ori fi ces.
I f the system i s wel l adapted to the work i t i s
requi red to perform, and i f i t i s not mi sused, i t
can pr ovi de smooth, fl exi bl e, uni for m acti on
wi thout vi brati on, and i s unaffected by vari ati on
of l oad. I n case of an overl oad, an automati c
rel ease of pressure can be guaranteed, so that the
system i s protected agai nst breakdown or strai n.
Fl ui d power systems can provi de wi del y vari abl e
moti ons i n both rotary and strai ght-l i ne trans-
mi ssi on of power. The need for control by hand
can be mi ni mi zed. I n addi ti on, fl ui d power
systems are economi cal to operate.
The questi on may ari se as to why hydraul i cs
i s used i n some appl i cati ons and pneumati cs i n
others. Many factors are consi dered by the user
and/or the manufacturer when determi ni ng whi ch
type of system to use i n a speci fi c appl i cati on.
Ther e ar e no har d and fast r ul es to fol l ow;
however, past experi ence has provi ded some
sound i deas that are usual l y consi dered when such
deci si ons are made. I f the appl i cati on requi res
speed, a medi um amount of pressure, and onl y
fai rl y accurate control , a pneumati c system may
be used. I f the appl i cati on requi res onl y a medi um
amount of pressure and a more accurate control ,
a combi nati on of hydraul i cs and pneumati cs may
be used. I f the appl i cati on requi res a great amount
of pressure and/or extremel y accurate control , a
hydraul i c system shoul d be used.
SPECIAL PROBLEMS
The extreme fl exi bi l i ty of fl ui d power el ements
presents a number of probl ems. Si nce fl ui ds have
no shape of thei r own, they must be posi ti vel y
confi ned throughout the enti re system. Speci al
consi derati on must be gi ven to the structural
i ntegri ty of the parts of a fl ui d power system.
Strong pi pes and contai ners must be provi ded.
Leaks must be pr evented. Thi s i s a ser i ous
probl em wi th the hi gh pressure obtai ned i n many
fl ui d power i nstal l ati ons.
The operati on of the system i nvol ves constant
movement of the fl ui d wi thi n the l i nes and
components. Thi s movement causes fr i cti on
wi thi n the fl ui d i tsel f and agai nst the contai ni ng
surfaces whi ch, i f excessi ve, can l ead to seri ous
l osses i n effi ci ency. Forei gn matter must not be
al l owed to accumul ate i n the system, where i t wi l l
cl og smal l passages or score cl osel y fi tted parts.
Chemi cal acti on may cause corrosi on. Anyone
worki ng wi th fl ui d power systems must know how
a fl ui d power system and i ts components operate,
both i n terms of the general pri nci pl es common
to al l physi cal mechani sms and of the pecul i ari ti es
of the parti cul ar arrangement at hand.
HYDRAULICS
The word hydraulics i s based on the Greek
word for water, and ori gi nal l y covered the study
of the physi cal behavi or of water at rest and i n
moti on. Use has broadened i ts meani ng to i ncl ude
the behavi or of al l l i qui ds, al though i t i s pri mari l y
concerned wi th the moti on of l i qui ds.
Hydraul i cs i ncl udes the manner i n whi ch
l i qui ds act i n tanks and pi pes, deal s wi th thei r
properti es, and expl ores ways to take advantage
of these properti es.
DEVELOPMENT OF HYDRAULICS
Al th ou gh th e moder n dev el opmen t of
hydraul i cs i s comparati vel y recent, the anci ents
were fami l i ar wi th many hydraul i c pri nci pl es and
thei r appl i cati ons. The Egypti ans and the anci ent
peopl e of Persi a, I ndi a, and Chi na conveyed water
1-2
al ong channel s for i r r i gati on and domesti c
purposes, usi ng dams and sl ui ce gates to control
the fl ow. The anci ent Cretans had an el aborate
pl umbi ng system. Archi medes studi ed the l aws of
fl oati ng and submerged bodi es. The Romans
constructed aqueducts to carry water to thei r
ci ti es.
After the breakup of the anci ent worl d, there
were few new devel opments for many centuri es.
Then, over a compar ati vel y shor t per i od,
begi nni ng near the end of the seventeenth century,
I tal i an physi ci st, Evangel i sta Torri cel l e, French
physi ci st, Edme Mar i otte, and l ater , Dani el
Bernoul l i conducted experi ments to study the
el ements of for ce i n the di schar ge of water
through smal l openi ngs i n the si des of tanks and
through short pi pes. Duri ng the same peri od,
Bl ai se Pascal , a French sci enti st, di scovered the
fundamental l aw for the sci ence of hydraul i cs.
Pascal ’s l aw states that i ncrease i n pressure on
the surface of a confi ned fl ui d i s transmi tted
undi mi ni shed throughout the confi ni ng vessel or
system (fi g. 1-1). (Thi s i s the basi c pri nci pl e of
hydraul i cs and i s covered i n detai l i n chapter 2
of thi s manual .)
For Pascal ’s l aw to be made effecti ve for
practi cal appl i cati ons, i t was necessary to have a
pi ston that “fi t exactl y.” I t was not unti l the l atter
part of the ei ghteenth century that methods were
found to make these snugl y fi tted parts requi red
i n hydraul i c systems. Thi s was accompl i shed by
the i nventi on of machi nes that were used to cut
and shape the necessary cl osel y fi tted parts and,
parti cul arl y, by the devel opment of gaskets and
packi ngs. Si nce that ti me, components such as
val ves, pumps, actuati ng cyl i nders, and motors
have been devel oped and r efi ned to mak e
hydraul i cs one of the l eadi ng methods of trans-
mi tti ng power.
Figure 1-1.—Force transmitted through fluid.
Use of Hydraulics
The hydraul i c press, i nvented by Engl i shman
John Br ahmah, was one of the fi r st wor k-
abl e pi eces of machi nery devel oped that used
hydraul i cs i n i ts operati on. I t consi sted of a
pl unger pump pi ped to a l arge cyl i nder and a ram.
Thi s press found wi de use i n Engl and because i t
provi ded a more effecti ve and economi cal means
of appl yi ng l arge forces i n i ndustri al uses.
Today, hydraul i c power i s used to operate
many di ffer ent tool s and mechani sms. I n a
garage, a mechani c rai ses the end of an auto-
mobi l e wi th a hydraul i c jack. Denti sts and barbers
use hydraul i c power, through a few strokes of a
control l ever, to l i ft and posi ti on thei r chai rs to
a conveni ent worki ng hei ght. Hydraul i c doorstops
keep heavy door s fr om sl ammi ng. Hydr aul i c
brakes have been standard equi pment on auto-
mobi l es si nce the 1930s. Most automobi l es are
equi pped wi th automati c transmi ssi ons that are
hydraul i cal l y operated. Power steeri ng i s another
appl i cati on of hydr aul i c power . Constr ucti on
workers depend upon hydraul i c power for the
oper ati on of var i ous components of thei r
equi pment. For exampl e, the bl ade of a bul l dozer
i s normal l y operated by hydraul i c power.
Duri ng the peri od precedi ng Worl d War I I ,
the Navy began to appl y hydraul i cs to naval
mechani sms extensi vel y. Si nce then, naval
appl i cati ons have i ncreased to the poi nt where
many i ngeni ous hydraul i c devi ces are used i n the
sol uti on of probl ems of gunnery, aeronauti cs, and
navi gati on. Aboard shi p, hydraul i c power i s used
to operate such equi pment as anchor wi ndl asses,
cranes, steeri ng gear, remote control devi ces, and
power dri ves for el evati ng and trai ni ng guns and
rocket l aunchers. El evators on ai rcraft carri ers use
hydraul i c power to transfer ai rcraft from the
hangar deck to the fl i ght deck and vi ce versa.
Hydraul i cs and pneumati cs (chapter 11) are
combi ned for some appl i cati ons. Thi s combi na-
ti on i s referred to as hydropneumati cs. A n
exampl e of thi s combi nati on i s the l i ft used i n
garages and servi ce stati ons. Ai r pressure i s
appl i ed to the surface of hydraul i c fl ui d i n a
reservoi r. The ai r pressure forces the hydraul i c
fl ui d to rai se the l i ft.
STATES OF MATTER
The materi al that makes up the uni verse i s
known as matter. Matter i s defi ned as any
substance that occupi es space and has wei ght.
1-3
Matter exi sts i n three states: sol i d, l i qui d, and gas;
each has di sti ngui shi ng characteri sti cs. Sol i ds have
a defi ni te vol ume and a defi ni te shape; l i qui ds
have a defi ni te vol ume, but take the shape of thei r
contai ni ng vessel s; gases have nei ther a defi ni te
shape nor a defi ni te vol ume. Gases not onl y take
the shape of the contai ni ng vessel , but al so expand
and fi l l the vessel , regardl ess of i ts vol ume.
Exampl es of the states of matter are i ron, water,
and ai r.
Matter can change from one state to another.
Water i s a good exampl e. At hi gh temperatures
i t i s i n the gaseous state known as steam. At
moderate temperatures i t i s a l i qui d, and at l ow
temperatures i t becomes i ce, whi ch i s defi ni tel y
a sol i d state. I n thi s exampl e, the temperature i s
the domi nant factor i n determi ni ng the state the
substance assumes.
Pressure i s another i mportant factor that wi l l
affect changes i n the state of matter. At pressures
l ower than atmospheri c pressure, water wi l l boi l
and thus change i nto steam at temperatures l ower
than 212° Fahrenhei t (F). Pressure i s al so a cri ti cal
factor i n changi ng some gases to l i qui ds or sol i ds.
Normal l y, when pressure and chi l l i ng are both
appl i ed to a gas, the gas assumes a l i qui d state.
Li qui d ai r, whi ch i s a mi xture of oxygen and
ni trogen, i s produced i n thi s manner.
I n the study of fl ui d power, we are concerned
pri mari l y wi th the properti es and characteri sti cs
of l i qui ds and gases. However, you shoul d keep
i n mi nd that the properti es of sol i ds al so affect
the characteri sti cs of l i qui ds and gases. The l i nes
and components, whi ch are sol i ds, encl ose and
contr ol the l i qui d or gas i n thei r r especti ve
systems.
1-4
CHAPTER 2
FORCES IN LIQUIDS
The study of l i qui ds i s di vi ded i nto two mai n
parts: l i qui ds at rest (hydrostati cs) and l i qui ds i n
moti on (hydraul i cs).
The effects of l i qui ds at r est can often
be expressed by si mpl e formul as. The effects
of l i qui ds i n moti on ar e mor e di ffi cul t to
expr ess due to fr i cti onal and other factor s
whose acti ons cannot be expressed by si mpl e
mathemati cs.
I n chapter 1 we l earned that l i qui ds have a
defi ni te vol ume but take the shape of thei r
contai ni ng vessel . Ther e ar e two addi ti onal
characteri sti cs we must expl ore pri or to pro-
ceedi ng.
Li qui ds ar e al most i ncompr essi bl e. For
exampl e, i f a pressure of 100 pounds per square
i nch (psi ) i s appl i ed to a gi ven vol ume of water
that i s at atmospheri c pressure, the vol ume wi l l
decrease by onl y 0.03 percent. I t woul d take a
force of approxi matel y 32 tons to reduce i ts
vol ume by 10 percent; however, when thi s force
i s removed, the water i mmedi atel y returns to i ts
ori gi nal vol ume. Other l i qui ds behave i n about
the same manner as water.
Another char acter i sti c of a l i qui d i s the
tendency to keep i ts free surface l evel . I f the
surface i s not l evel , l i qui ds wi l l fl ow i n the
di recti on whi ch wi l l tend to make the surface
l evel .
LIQUIDS AT REST
I n studyi ng fl ui ds at r est, we ar e con-
cer ned wi th the tr ansmi ssi on of for ce and
the factors whi ch affect the forces i n l i qui ds.
Addi ti onal l y, pressure i n and on l i qui ds and
factor s affecti ng pr essur e ar e of gr eat i m-
portance.
PRESSURE AND FORCE
The ter ms force and pressure ar e u s ed
extensi vel y i n the study of fl ui d power . I t
i s essenti al that we di sti ngui sh between the
ter ms. For ce means a total push or pul l .
I t i s the push or pul l exer ted agai nst the
total area of a parti cul ar surface and i s expressed
i n pounds or grams. Pressure means the amount
of push or pul l (force) appl i ed to each uni t area
of the surface and i s expressed i n pounds per
s qu ar e i n ch (l b/i n
2
) or gr ams per squar e
centi meter (gm/cm
2
). Pressure maybe exerted i n
one di recti on, i n several di recti ons, or i n al l
di recti ons.
Computing Force, Pressure, and Area
A for mul a i s used i n computi ng for ce,
pressure, and area i n fl ui d power systems. I n thi s
formul a, P refers to pressure, F i ndi cates force,
and A represents area.
Force equal s pressure ti mes area. Thus, the
formul a i s wri tten
Equati on 2-1.
Pressure equal s force di vi ded by area. By
rearrangi ng the formul a, thi s statement may be
condensed i nto
Equati on 2-2.
Si nce area equal s force di vi ded by pressure,
the formul a i s wri tten
Equati on 2-3.
2-1
Figure 2-1.—Device for determining the arrangement of the
force, pressure, and area formula.
Fi gure 2-1 i l l ustrates a memory devi ce for
recal l i ng the di fferent vari ati ons of thi s formul a.
Any l etter i n the tri angl e may be expressed as the
product or quoti ent of the other two, dependi ng
on i ts posi ti on wi thi n the tri angl e.
For exampl e, to fi nd area, consi der the l etter
A as bei ng set off to i tsel f, fol l owed by an equal
si gn. Now l ook at the other two l etters. The l etter
F i s above the l etter P; therefore,
NOTE: Someti mes the ar ea may not be
expr essed i n squar e uni ts. I f the sur face i s
r ectangul ar , you can deter mi ne i ts ar ea by
mul ti pl yi ng i ts l ength (say, i n i nches) by i ts wi dth
(al so i n i nches). The majori ty of areas you wi l l
consi der i n these cal cul ati ons are ci rcul ar i n shape.
Ei ther the radi us or the di ameter may be gi ven,
but you must know the radi us i n i nches to fi nd
the area. The radi us i s one-hal f the di ameter. To
determi ne the area, use the formul a for fi ndi ng
the area of a ci rcl e. Thi s i s wri tten A = where
A i s the area, i s 3.1416 (3.14 or 3 1/7 for most
cal cul ati ons), and r
2
i ndi cates the radi us squared.
Atmospheric Pressure
The atmosphere i s the enti re mass of ai r that
surrounds the earth. Whi l e i t extends upward for
about 500 mi l es, the secti on of pri mary i nterest
i s the porti on that rests on the earth’s surface and
extends upward for about 7 1/2 mi l es. Thi s l ayer
i s cal l ed the troposphere.
I f a col umn of ai r 1-i nch square extendi ng al l
the way to the “top” of the atmosphere coul d
be wei ghed, thi s col umn of ai r woul d wei gh
approxi matel y 14.7 pounds at sea l evel . Thus,
atmospheri c pressure at sea l evel i s approxi matel y
14.7 psi .
As one ascends, the atmospheri c pressure
decreases by approxi matel y 1.0 psi for every 2,343
feet. However, bel ow sea l evel , i n excavati ons and
depressi ons, atmospheri c pressure i ncreases.
Pressures under water di ffer from those under ai r
onl y because the wei ght of the water must be
added to the pressure of the ai r.
Atmospheri c pressure can be measured by any
of sever al methods. The common l abor ator y
method uses the mercury col umn barometer. The
hei ght of the mer cur y col umn ser ves as an
i ndi cator of atmospheri c pressure. At sea l evel and
at a temperature of 0° Cel si us (C), the hei ght of
the mercury col umn i s approxi matel y 30 i nches,
or 76 centi meters. Thi s represents a pressure of
approxi matel y 14.7 psi . The 30-i nch col umn i s
used as a reference standard.
Another devi ce used to measure atmospheri c
pressure i s the aneroi d barometer. The aneroi d
bar ometer uses the change i n shape of an
evacuated metal cel l to measure vari ati ons i n
atmospheri c pressure (fi g. 2-2). The thi n metal of
the aneroi d cel l moves i n or out wi th the vari ati on
of pressure on i ts external surface. Thi s movement
i s transmi tted through a system of l evers to a
poi nter, whi ch i ndi cates the pressure.
The atmospher i c pr essur e does not var y
uni forml y wi th al ti tude. I t changes more rapi dl y
at l ower al ti tudes because of the compressi bi l i ty
of the ai r, whi ch causes the ai r l ayers cl ose to the
earth’s surface to be compressed by the ai r masses
above them. Thi s effect, however, i s parti al l y
counteracted by the contracti on of the upper
Figure 2-2.—Simple diagram of the aneroid barometer.
2-2
l ayer s due to cool i ng. The cool i ng tends to
i ncrease the densi ty of the ai r.
Atmospheri c pressures are qui te l arge, but i n
most i nstances practi cal l y the same pressure i s
present on al l si des of objects so that no si ngl e
surface i s subjected to a great l oad.
Atmospheri c pressure acti ng on the surface of
a l i qui d (fi g. 2-3, vi ew A) i s transmi tted equal l y
throughout the l i qui d to the wal l s of the contai ner,
but i s bal anced by the same atmospheri c pressure
acti ng on the outer wal l s of the contai ner. I n vi ew
B of fi gure 2-3, atmospheri c pressure acti ng on
the surface of one pi ston i s bal anced by the same
pressure acti ng on the surface of the other pi ston.
The di fferent areas of the two surfaces make no
di fference, si nce for a uni t of area, pressures are
bal anced.
TRANSMISSION OF FORCES
THROUGH LIQUIDS
When the end of a sol i d bar i s struck, the mai n
force of the bl ow i s carri ed strai ght through the
bar to the other end (fi g. 2-4, vi ew A). Thi s
happens because the bar i s ri gi d. The di recti on
of the bl ow al most enti r el y deter mi nes the
di recti on of the transmi tted force. The more ri gi d
Figure 2-4.—Transmission of force: (A) solid; (B) fluid.
the bar, the l ess force i s l ost i nsi de the bar or
tr ansmi tted outwar d at r i ght angl es to the
di recti on of the bl ow.
When a force i s appl i ed to the end of a col umn
of confi ned l i qui d (fi g. 2-4, vi ew B), i t i s
transmi tted strai ght through to the other end and
al so equal l y and undi mi ni shed i n every di recti on
throughout the col umn—forward, backward, and
si deways—so that the contai ni ng vessel i s l i teral l y
fi l l ed wi th pressure.
An exampl e of thi s di stri buti on of force i s
i l l ustrated i n fi gure 2-5. The fl at hose takes on
Figure 2-3.—Effects of atmospheric pressure. Figure 2-5.—Distribution of force.
2-3
a ci rcul ar cross secti on when i t i s fi l l ed wi th water
under pressure. The outward push of the water
i s equal i n every di recti on.
So far we have expl ai ned the effects of
atmospheri c pressure on l i qui ds and how external
forces are di stri buted through l i qui ds. Let us now
focus our attenti on on forces generated by the
wei ght of l i qui ds themsel ves. To do thi s, we must
fi rst di scuss densi ty, speci fi c gravi ty, and Pascal ’s
l aw.
Density and Specific Gravity
The densi ty of a substance i s i ts wei ght per uni t
vol ume. The uni t vol ume i n the Engl i sh system
of measurement i s 1 cubi c foot. I n the metri c
system i t i s the cubi c centi meter; therefore, densi ty
i s expressed i n pounds per cubi c foot or i n grams
per cubi c centi meter.
To fi nd the densi ty of a substance, you must
know i ts wei ght and vol ume. You then di vi de i ts
wei ght by i ts vol ume to fi nd the wei ght per uni t
vol ume. I n equati on form, thi s i s wri tten as
Equati on 2-4.
EXAMPLE: The l i qui d that fi l l s a certai n
contai ner wei ghs 1,497.6 pounds. The
contai ner i s 4 feet l ong, 3 feet wi de, and
2 feet deep. I ts vol ume i s 24 cubi c feet
(4 ft x 3 ft x 2 ft). I f 24 cubi c feet of thi s
l i qui d wei ghs 1,497.6 pounds, then 1 cubi c
foot wei ghs
or 62.4 pounds. Therefore, the densi ty of
the l i qui d i s 62.4 pounds per cubi c foot.
Thi s i s the densi ty of water at 4°C and i s
usual l y used as the standar d for compar i ng
densi ti es of other substances. The temperature of
4°C was sel ected because water has i ts maxi mum
densi ty at thi s temperature. I n the metri c system,
the densi ty of water i s 1 gr am per cubi c
centi meter. The standard temperature of 4°C i s
used whenever the densi ty of l i qui ds and sol i ds
i s measured. Changes i n temperature wi l l not
change the wei ght of a substance but wi l l change
the vol ume of the substance by expansi on or
contracti on, thus changi ng the wei ght per uni t
vol ume.
I n physi cs, the word specific i mpl i es a rati o.
Wei ght i s the measure of the earth’s attracti on for
a body. The earth’s attracti on for a body i s cal l ed
gravi ty. Thus, the rati o of the wei ght of a uni t
vol ume of some substance to the wei ght of an
equal vol ume of a standard substance, measured
under standard pressure and temperature con-
di ti ons, i s cal l ed speci fi c gr avi ty. The ter ms
specific weight and specific density are someti mes
used to express thi s rati o.
The fol l owi ng formul as are used to fi nd the
speci fi c gravi ty (sp gr) of sol i ds and l i qui ds, wi th
water used as the standard substance.
or ,
The same formul as are used to fi nd the speci fi c
gravi ty of gases by substi tuti ng ai r, oxygen, or
hydrogen for water.
I f a cubi c foot of a certai n l i qui d wei ghs 68.64
pounds, then i ts speci fi c gravi ty i s 1.1,
Thus, the speci fi c gravi ty of the l i qui d i s the
rati o of i ts densi ty to the densi ty of water. I f the
speci fi c gravi ty of a l i qui d or sol i d i s known, the
densi ty of the l i qui d or sol i d maybe obtai ned by
mul ti pl yi ng i ts speci fi c gravi ty by the densi ty of
water. For exampl e, i f a certai n hydraul i c l i qui d
has a speci fi c gravi ty of 0.8, 1 cubi c foot of the
l i qui d wei ghs 0.8 ti mes as much as a cubi c foot
of water—0.8 ti mes 62.4, or 49.92 pounds. I n the
metri c system, 1 cubi c centi meter of a substance
wi th a speci fi c gravi ty of 0.8 wei ghs 1 ti mes 0.8,
or 0.8 grams. (Note that i n the metri c system the
speci fi c gravi ty of a l i qui d or sol i d has the same
numeri cal val ue as i ts densi ty, because water
wei ghs 1 gram per cubi c centi meter.)
Speci fi c gravi ty and densi ty are i ndependent
of the si ze of the sampl e under consi derati on and
depend onl y on the substance of whi ch i t i s made.
A devi ce cal l ed a hydrometer i s used for
measuri ng the speci fi c gravi ty of l i qui ds.
2-4
Pascal’s Law
Recal l from chapter 1 that the foundati on of
modern hydraul i cs was establ i shed when Pascal
di scovered that pressure i n a fl ui d acts equal l y i n
al l di recti ons. Thi s pressure acts at ri ght angl es
to the contai ni ng sur faces. I f some type of
pressure gauge, wi th an exposed face, i s pl aced
beneath the surface of a l i qui d (fi g. 2-6) at a
speci fi c depth and poi nted i n di fferent di recti ons,
the pressure wi l l read the same. Thus, we can say
that pr essur e i n a l i qui d i s i ndependent of
di recti on.
Pressure due to the wei ght of a l i qui d, at any
l evel , depends on the depth of the fl ui d from the
surface. I f the exposed face of the pressure gauges,
fi gure 2-6, are moved cl oser to the surface of the
l i qui d, the i ndi cated pressure wi l l be l ess. When
the depth i s doubl ed, the i ndi cated pressure i s
doubl ed. Thus the pressure i n a l i qui d i s di rectl y
proporti onal to the depth.
Consi der a contai ner wi th ver ti cal si des
(fi g. 2-7) that i s 1 foot l ong and 1 foot wi de. Let
i t be fi l l ed wi th water 1 foot deep, provi di ng 1
cubi c foot of water. We l earned earl i er i n thi s
chapter that 1 cubi c foot of water wei ghs 62.4
pounds. Usi ng thi s i nformati on and equati on 2-2,
P = F/A, we can cal cul ate the pressure on the
bottom of the contai ner.
Si nce there are 144 square i nches i n 1 square foot,
Thi s can be stated as fol l ows: the wei ght of a
col umn of water 1 foot hi gh, havi ng a cross-
secti onal area of 1 square i nch, i s 0.433 pound.
I f the depth of the col umn i s tri pl ed, the
wei ght of the col umn wi l l be 3 x 0.433, or 1.299
pounds, and the pressure at the bottom wi l l be
1.299 l b/i n
2
(psi ), si nce pressure equal s the force
di vi ded by the area. Thus, the pressure at any
depth i n a l i qui d i s equal to the wei ght of the
col umn of l i qui d at that depth di vi ded by the
Figure 2-6.—Pressure of a liquid is independent of direction.
cross-secti onal area of the col umn at that depth.
The vol ume of a l i qui d that produces the pressure
i s referred to as the fl ui d head of the l i qui d. The
pressure of a l i qui d due to i ts fl ui d head i s al so
dependent on the densi ty of the l i qui d.
I f we l et A equal any cross-secti onal area of
a l i qui d col umn and h equal the depth of the
col umn, the vol ume becomes Ah. Usi ng equati on
2-4, D = W/V, the wei ght of the l i qui d above area
A i s equal to AhD.
Figure 2-7.—Water pressure in a 1-cubic-foot container.
2-5
Si nce pressure i s equal to the force per uni t area,
set A equal to 1. Then the formul a pressure
becomes
P = h D Equati on 2-5.
I t i s essenti al that h and D be expressed i n si mi l ar
uni ts. That i s, i f D i s expressed i n pounds per
cubi c foot, the val ue of h must be expressed i n
feet. I f the desi red pressure i s to be expressed i n
pounds per square i nch, the pressure formul a,
equati on 2-5, becomes
Equati on 2-6.
Pas cal was al s o th e fi r s t to pr ov e by
exper i ment that the shape and vol ume of a
contai ner i n no way al ters pressure. Thus i n fi gure
2-8, i f the pressure due to the wei ght of the l i qui d
at a poi nt on hori zontal l i ne H i s 8 psi , the
pressure i s 8 psi everywhere at l evel H i n the
system. Equati on 2-5 al so shows that the pressure
i s i ndependent of the shape and vol ume of a
contai ner.
Pressure and Force in Fluid Power Systems
Figure 2-9.—Force transmitted through fluid.
of the shape of the contai ner. Consi der the effect
of thi s i n the system shown i n fi gure 2-9. I f there
i s a resi stance on the output pi ston and the i nput
pi ston i s pushed downward, a pressure i s created
through the fl ui d, whi ch acts equal l y at ri ght
angl es to surfaces i n al l parts of the contai ner.
I f force 1 i s 100 pounds and the area of the
i nput pi ston i s 10 square i nches, then the pressure
i n the fl ui d i s 10 psi
Recal l that, accordi ng to Pascal ’s l aw, any
force appl i ed to a confi ned fl ui d i s transmi tted
i n al l di recti ons throughout the fl ui d regardl ess
NOTE: Fl ui d pressure cannot be created
wi thout resi stance to fl ow. I n thi s case, resi stance
Figure 2-8.—Pressure relationship
2-6
with shape.
i s pr ovi ded by the equi pment to whi ch the
output pi ston i s attached. The for ce of r e-
si stance acts agai nst the top of the output
pi ston. The pr essur e cr eated i n the system
by the i nput pi ston pushes on the undersi de of
the output pi ston wi th a force of 10 pounds on
each square i nch.
I n thi s case, the fl ui d col umn has a uni form
cross secti on, so the area of the output pi ston
i s the same as the area of the i nput pi ston,
or 10 squar e i nches. Ther efor e, the upwar d
for ce on the output pi ston i s 100 pounds
(10 psi x 10 sq. i n.), the same as the force appl i ed
to the i nput pi ston. Al l that was accompl i shed i n
thi s system was to transmi t the 100-pound force
around the bend. However, thi s pri nci pl e under-
l i es practi cal l y al l mechani cal appl i cati ons of fl ui d
power.
At thi s poi nt you shoul d note that si nce
Pascal ’s l aw i s i ndependent of the shape of
the contai ner , i t i s not necessar y that the
tube connecti ng the two pi stons have the same
cross-secti onal area of the pi stons. A connecti on
of any si ze, shape, or l ength wi l l do, as l ong as
an unobstructed passage i s provi ded. Therefore,
the system shown i n fi gure 2-10, wi th a rel ati vel y
smal l , bent pi pe connecti ng two cyl i nder s,
wi l l act exactl y the same as the system shown i n
fi gure 2-9.
MULTIPLICATION OF FORCES.— Con-
si der the si tuati on i n fi gure 2-11, where the i nput
pi ston i s much smal l er than the output pi ston.
Assume that the area of the i nput pi ston i s 2
square i nches. Wi th a resi stant force on the output
pi ston a downward force of 20 pounds acti ng on
the i nput pi ston creates a pressure of or 10 psi
Figure 2-10.—Transmitting force through a small pipe.
Figure 2-11.—Multiplication of forces.
i n the fl ui d. Al though thi s force i s much smal l er
than the force appl i ed i n fi gures 2-9 and 2-10, the
pressure i s the same. Thi s i s because the force i s
appl i ed to a smal l er area.
Thi s pressure of 10 psi acts on al l parts of the
fl ui d contai ner , i ncl udi ng the bottom of the
output pi ston. The upward force on the output
pi ston i s 200 pounds (10 pounds of pressure on
each square i nch). I n thi s case, the ori gi nal force
has been mul ti pl i ed tenfol d whi l e usi ng the same
pressure i n the fl ui d as before. I n any system wi th
these di mensi ons, the rati o of output force to
i nput force i s al ways ten to one, regardl ess of the
appl i ed force. For exampl e, i f the appl i ed force
of the i nput pi ston i s 50 pounds, the pressure i n
the system wi l l be 25 psi . Thi s wi l l support a
resi stant force of 500 pounds on the output pi ston.
The system works the same i n reverse. I f we
change the appl i ed force and pl ace a 200-pound
force on the output pi ston (fi g. 2-11), maki ng i t
the i nput pi ston, the output force on the i nput
pi ston wi l l be one-tenth the i nput force, or 20
pounds. (Someti mes such resul ts are desi red.)
Therefore, i f two pi stons are used i n a fl ui d power
system, the force acti ng on each pi ston i s di rectl y
proporti onal to i ts area, and the magni tude of
each force i s the product of the pressure and the
area of each pi ston.
Note the whi te arrows at the bottom of fi gure
2-11 that i ndi cate up and down movement. The
movement they represent wi l l be expl ai ned l ater
i n the di scussi on of vol ume and di stance factors.
2-7
DIFFERENTIAL AREAS.— Consi der the
speci al si tuati on shown i n fi gure 2-12. Here, a
si ngl e pi ston (1) i n a cyl i nder (2) has a pi ston rod
(3) attached to one of i ts si des. The pi ston rod
extends out of one end of the cyl i nder. Fl ui d under
pressure i s admi tted equal l y to both ends of the
cyl i nder. The opposed faces of the pi ston (1)
behave l i ke two pi stons acti ng agai nst each other.
The area of one face i s the ful l cross-secti onal area
of the cyl i nder, say 6 square i nches, whi l e the area
of the other face i s the area of the cyl i nder mi nus
the area of the pi ston rod, whi ch i s 2 square
i nches. Thi s l eaves an effecti ve area of 4 square
i nches on the ri ght face of the pi ston. The pressure
on both faces i s the same, i n thi s case, 20 psi .
Appl yi ng the rul e just stated, the force pushi ng
the pi ston to the ri ght i s i ts area ti mes the pressure,
or 120 pounds (20 x 6). Li kewi se, the for ce
pushi ng the pi ston to the l eft i s i ts area ti mes the
pressure, or 80 pounds (20 x 4). Therefore, there
i s a net unbal anced force of 40 pounds acti ng to
the r i ght, and the pi ston wi l l move i n that
di recti on. The net effect i s the same as i f the pi ston
and the cyl i nder had the same cross-secti onal area
as the pi ston rod.
VOLUME AND DISTANCE FACTORS.—
You have l earned that i f a force i s appl i ed to a
system and the cross-secti onal areas of the i nput
and output pi stons are equal , as i n fi gures 2-9 and
2-10, the force on the i nput pi ston wi l l support
an equal resi stant force on the output pi ston. The
pressure of the l i qui d at thi s poi nt i s equal to the
force appl i ed to the i nput pi ston di vi ded by the
pi ston’s area. Let us now l ook at what happens
when a force greater than the resi stance i s appl i ed
to the i nput pi ston.
I n the system i l l ustrated i n fi gure 2-9, assume
that the resi stance force on the output pi ston i s
100 psi . I f a force sl i ghtl y greater than 100 pounds
i s appl i ed to the i nput pi ston, the pressure i n the
system wi l l be sl i ghtl y greater than 10 psi . Thi s
i ncrease i n pressure wi l l overcome the resi stance
force on the output pi ston. Assume that the i nput
pi ston i s forced downward 1 i nch. The movement
di spl aces 10 cubi c i nches of fl ui d. The fl ui d must
go somewhere. Si nce the system i s cl osed and the
fl ui d i s practi cal l y i ncompressi bl e, the fl ui d wi l l
move to the ri ght si de of the system. Because the
output pi ston al so has a cross-secti onal area of
10 square i nches, i t wi l l move 1 i nch upward to
accommodate the 10 cubi c i nches of fl ui d. You
may general i ze thi s by sayi ng that i f two pi stons
i n a cl osed system have equal cross-secti onal areas
and one pi ston i s pushed and moved, the other
pi ston wi l l move the same di stance, though i n the
opposi te di recti on. Thi s i s because a decrease i n
vol ume i n one part of the system i s bal anced by
one equal i ncrease i n vol ume i n another part of
the system.
Appl y thi s reasoni ng to the system i n fi gure
2-11. I f the i nput pi ston i s pushed down a di stance
Figure 2-12.—Differential areas on a piston.
2-8
of 1 i nch, the vol ume of fl ui d i n the l eft cyl i nder
wi l l decrease by 2 cubi c i nches. At the same ti me,
the vol ume i n the ri ght cyl i nder wi l l i ncrease by
2 cubi c i nches. Si nce the di ameter of the ri ght
cyl i nder cannot change, the pi ston must move
upward to al l ow the vol ume to i ncrease. The
pi ston wi l l move a di stance equal to the vol ume
i ncrease di vi ded by the surface area of the pi ston
(equal to the surface area of the cyl i nder). I n thi s
exampl e, the pi ston wi l l move one-tenth of an i nch
(2 cu. i n. ÷ 20 sq. i n.). Thi s l eads to the second
basi c rul e for a fl ui d power system that contai ns
two pi stons: The di stances the pi stons move are
i nversel y proporti onal to the areas of the pi stons.
Or more si mpl y, i f one pi ston i s smal l er than the
other, the smal l er pi ston must move a greater
di stance than the l arger pi ston any ti me the pi stons
move.
LIQUIDS IN MOTION
I n the operati on of fl ui d power systems, there
must be a fl ow of fl ui d. The amount of fl ow wi l l
vary from system to system. To understand fl ui d
power systems i n acti on, i t i s necessar y to
understand some of the characteri sti cs of l i qui ds
i n moti on.
Li qui ds i n moti on have characteri sti cs di f-
ferent from l i qui ds at rest. Fri cti onal resi stances
wi thi n a fl ui d (vi scosi ty) and i nerti a contri bute to
these di fferences. (Vi scosi ty i s di scussed i n chapter
3.) I nertia, whi ch means the resi stance a mass
offers to bei ng set i n moti on, wi l l be di scussed
l ater i n thi s secti on. There are other rel ati onshi ps
of l i qui ds i n moti on wi th whi ch you must become
fami l i ar. Among these are vol ume and vel oci ty
of fl ow, fl ow r ate and speed, l ami nar and
turbul ent fl ow, and more i mportantl y, the force
and energy changes whi ch occur i n fl ow.
VOLUME AND VELOCITY OF FLOW
The vol ume of a l i qui d passi ng a poi nt i n a
gi ven ti me i s known as i ts volume of flow or fl ow
rate. The vol ume of fl ow i s usual l y expressed i n
gal l ons per mi nute (gpm) and i s associ ated wi th
rel ati ve pressures of the l i qui d, such as 5 gpm at
40 psi .
The velocity of flow or vel oci ty of the fl ui d
i s defi ned as the average speed at whi ch the fl ui d
moves past a gi ven poi nt. I t i s usual l y expressed
i n feet per second (fps) or feet per mi nute (fpm).
Vel oci ty of fl ow i s an i mportant consi derati on i n
si zi ng the hydraul i c l i nes. (Hydraul i c l i nes are
di scussed i n chapter 5.)
Vol ume and vel oci ty of fl ow ar e often
consi der ed together . Wi th other condi ti ons
unal ter ed—that i s, wi th v ol u me of i n pu t
unchanged—the vel oci ty of fl ow i ncreases as the
cross secti on or si ze of the pi pe decreases, and the
vel oci ty of fl ow decreases as the cross secti on
i ncreases. For exampl e, the vel oci ty of fl ow i s sl ow
at wi de parts of a stream and rapi d at narrow
parts, yet the vol ume of water passi ng each part
of the stream i s the same.
I n fi gure 2-13, i f the cross-secti onal area of
the pi pe i s 16 square i nches at poi nt A and 4
square i nches at poi nt B, we can cal cul ate the
rel ati ve vel oci ty of fl ow usi ng the fl ow equati on
Q = v A Equati on 2-7.
where Q i s the vol ume of fl ow, v i s the vel oci ty
of fl ow and A i s the cross-secti onal area of the
l i qui d. Si nce the vol ume of fl ow at poi nt A, Q
1
,
i s equal to the vol ume of fl ow at poi nt B, Q
2
, we
can use equati on 2-7 to determi ne the rati o of the
Figure 2-13.—Volume and velocity of flow.
2-9
vel oci ty of fl ow at poi nt A, v
1
, to the vel oci ty of
fl ow at poi nt B, v
2
.
Si n ce Q
1
= Q
2
, A
1
v
1
= A
2
v
2
From fi gure 2-13; A
1
= 16sq. i n., A
2
= 4sq. i n.
Substi tuti ng: 16v
1
= 4V
2
or v
2
= 4v
I
Therefore, the vel oci ty of fl ow at poi nt B i s four
ti mes the vel oci ty of fl ow at poi nt A.
VOLUME OF FLOW AND SPEED
I f you consi der the cyl i nder vol ume you must
fi l l and the di stance the pi ston must travel , you
can rel ate the vol ume of fl ow to the speed of the
pi ston. The vol ume of the cyl i nder i s found by
mul ti pl yi ng the pi ston area by the l ength the pi ston
must travel (stroke).
Suppose you have deter mi ned that two
cyl i nders have the same vol ume and that one
cyl i nder i s twi ce as l ong as the other. I n thi s case,
the cross-secti onal area of the l onger tube wi l l be
hal f of the cross-secti onal area of the other tube.
I f fl ui d i s pumped i nto each cyl i nder at the same
rate, both pi stons wi l l reach thei r ful l travel at the
same ti me. However, the pi ston i n the smal l er
cyl i nder must travel twi ce as fast because i t has
twi ce as far to go.
There are two ways of control l i ng the speed
of the pi ston, (1) by varyi ng the si ze of the cyl i nder
and (2) by varyi ng the vol ume of fl ow (gpm) to
the cyl i nders. (Hydraul i c cyl i nders are di scussed
i n detai l i n chapter 10. )
STREAMLINE AND
TURBULENT FLOW
At l ow vel oci ti es or i n tubes of smal l di ameter,
fl ow i s streaml i ned. Thi s means that a gi ven
parti cl e of fl ui d moves strai ght forward wi thout
bumpi ng i nto other parti cl es and wi thout crossi ng
thei r paths. Streaml i ne fl ow i s often referred to
as l ami nar fl ow, whi ch i s defi ned as a fl ow
si tuati on i n whi ch fl ui d moves i n paral l el l ami na
or l ayers. As an exampl e of streaml i ne fl ow,
consi der fi gure 2-14, whi ch i l l ustrates an open
stream fl owi ng at a sl ow, uni form rate wi th l ogs
fl oati ng on i ts surface. The l ogs represent parti cl es
of fl ui d. As l ong as the stream fl ows at a sl ow,
uni form rate, each l og fl oats downstream i n i ts
Figure 2-14.—Streamline flow.
own path, wi thout crossi ng or bumpi ng i nto the
other.
I f the stream narrows, however, and the
vol ume of fl ow remai ns the same, the vel oci ty
of fl ow i ncr eases. I f the vel oci ty i ncr eases
suffi ci entl y, the water becomes turbul ent. (See
fi g. 2-15.) Swi rl s, eddi es, and cross-moti ons are
set up i n the water. As thi s happens, the l ogs are
thrown agai nst each other and agai nst the banks
of the stream, and the paths fol l owed by di fferent
l ogs wi l l cross and recross.
Parti cl es of fl ui d fl owi ng i n pi pes act i n the
same manner. The fl ow i s streaml i ned i f the fl ui d
fl ows sl owl y enough, and remai ns streaml i ned at
greater vel oci ti es i f the di ameter of the pi pe i s
smal l . I f the vel oci ty of fl ow or si ze of pi pe i s
i ncreased suffi ci entl y, the fl ow becomes turbul ent.
Whi l e a hi gh vel oci ty of fl ow wi l l produce
turbul ence i n any pi pe, other factors contri bute
to turbul ence. Among these are the roughness of
the i nsi de of the pi pe, obstructi ons, the degree of
curvature of bends, and the number of bends i n
the pi pe. I n setti ng up or mai ntai ni ng fl ui d power
systems, care shoul d be taken to el i mi nate or
Figure 2-15.—Turbulent flow.
2-10
mi ni mi ze as many causes of tur bul ence as
possi bl e, si nce the energy consumed by turbul ence
i s wasted. Li mi tati ons rel ated to the degree
and number of bends of pi pe are di scussed i n
chapter 5.
Whi l e desi gners of fl ui d power equi pment do
what they can to mi ni mi ze turbul ence, i t cannot
be avoi ded. For exampl e, i n a 4-i nch pi pe at 68°F,
fl ow becomes turbul ent at vel oci ti es over approxi -
matel y 6 i nches per second or about 3 i nches per
second i n a 6-i nch pi pe. These vel oci ti es are far
bel ow those commonl y encountered i n fl ui d power
systems, where vel oci ti es of 5 feet per second and
above are common. I n streaml i ned fl ow, l osses
due to fri cti on i ncrease di rectl y wi th vel oci ty. Wi th
turbul ent fl ow these l osses i ncrease much more
r api dl y.
FACTORS INVOLVED IN FLOW
An understandi ng of the behavi or of fl ui ds i n
moti on, or sol i ds for that matter, requi res an
understandi ng of the term inertia. I nerti a i s the
term used by sci enti sts to descri be the property
possessed by al l forms of matter that makes the
matter resi st bei ng moved i f i t i s at rest, and
l i kewi se, resi st any change i n i ts rate of moti on
i f i t i s movi ng.
The basi c statement cover i ng i ner ti a i s
Newton’s fi rst l aw of moti on—i nerti a. Si r I saac
Newton was a Bri ti sh phi l osopher and mathe-
mati ci an. Hi s fi rst l aw states: A body at rest tends
to remain at rest, and a body in motion tends to
remain in motion at the same speed and direction,
unless acted on by some unbalanced force.
Thi s si mpl y says what you have l ear ned by
experi ence—that you must push an object to start
i t movi ng and push i t i n the opposi te di recti on
to stop i t agai n.
A fami l i ar i l l ustrati on i s the effort a pi tcher
must exert to make a fast pi tch and the opposi ti on
the catcher must put forth to stop the bal l .
Si mi l arl y, consi derabl e work must be performed
by the engi ne to make an automobi l e begi n
to rol l ; al though, after i t has attai ned a certai n
vel oci ty, i t wi l l rol l al ong the road at uni form
speed i f just enough effor t i s expended to
overcome fri cti on, whi l e brakes are necessary to
stop i ts moti on. I nerti a al so expl ai ns the ki ck or
recoi l of guns and the tremendous stri ki ng force
of projecti l es.
Inertia
To
and Force
overcome the tendency of an object to
resi st any change i n i ts state of rest or moti on,
some force that i s not otherwi se cancel ed or
unbal anced must act on the obj ect. Some
unbal anced force must be appl i ed whenever fl ui ds
are set i n moti on or i ncreased i n vel oci ty; whi l e
conversel y, forces are made to do work el sewhere
whenever fl ui ds i n moti on ar e r etar ded or
stopped.
There i s a di rect rel ati onshi p between the
magni tude of the force exerted and the i nerti a
agai nst whi ch i t acts. Thi s force i s dependent
on two factor s: (1) the mass of the obj ect
(whi ch i s proporti onal to i ts wei ght), and (2)
the r ate at whi ch the vel oci ty of the object
i s changed. The rul e i s that the force i n
pounds requi red to overcome i nerti a i s equal
to the wei ght of the object mul ti pl i ed by the
change i n vel oci ty, measured i n feet per second,
and di vi ded by 32 ti mes the ti me i n seconds
requi red to accompl i sh the change. Thus, the rate
of change i n vel oci ty of an object i s proporti onal
to the force appl i ed. The number 32 appears
because i t i s the conversi on factor between wei ght
and mass.
There are fi ve physi cal factors that can act on
a fl ui d to affect i ts behavi or. Al l of the physi cal
acti ons of fl ui ds i n al l systems are determi ned by
the rel ati onshi ps of these fi ve factors to each
other. Summari zi ng, these fi ve factors are as
fol l ows:
1. Gravi ty, whi ch acts at al l ti mes on al l
bodi es, regardl ess of other forces
2. Atmospher i c pr essur e, whi ch acts on
any par t of a system exposed to the open
ai r
3. Speci fi c appl i ed forces, whi ch mayor may
not be present, but whi ch, i n any event, are
enti rel y i ndependent of the presence or absence
of moti on
4. I nerti a, whi ch comes i nto pl ay whenever
there i s a change from rest to moti on or the
opposi te, or whenever ther e i s a change i n
di recti on or i n rate of moti on
5. Fri cti on, whi ch i s al ways present whenever
there i s moti on
2-11
Fi gure 2-16 i l l ustrates a possi bl e rel ati onshi p
of these factors wi th respect to a parti cl e of fl ui d
(P) i n a system. The di fferent forces are shown
i n terms of head, or i n other words, i n terms of
verti cal col umns of fl ui d requi red to provi de
the for ces. At the par ti cul ar moment under
consi derati on, a parti cl e of water (P) i s bei ng acted
on by appl i ed force (A), by atmospheri c pressure
(B), and by gravi ty (C) produced by the wei ght
of the fl ui d standi ng over i t. The parti cl e possesses
suffi ci ent i nerti a or vel oci ty head to ri se to l evel
P1, si nce head equi val ent to F was l ost i n fri cti on
as P passed through the system. Si nce atmospheri c
pressure (B) acts downward on both si des of the
system, what i s gai ned on one si de i s l ost on the
other.
I f al l the pressure acti ng on P to force i t
through the nozzl e coul d be recovered i n the form
of el evati on head, i t woul d ri se to l evel Y. I f
account i s taken of the bal ance i n atmospheri c
pressure, i n a fri cti onl ess system, P woul d ri se to
l evel X, or preci sel y as hi gh as the sum of the
gravi ty head and the head equi val ent to the
appl i ed force.
Kinetic Energy
I t was previ ousl y poi nted out that a force must
be appl i ed to an object i n order to gi ve i t a vel oci ty
or to i ncrease the vel oci ty i t al ready has. Whether
the force begi ns or changes vel oci ty, i t acts over
a certai n di stance. A force acti ng over a certai n
di stance i s work. Work and al l forms i nto whi ch
i t can be changed ar e cl assi fi ed as ener gy.
Obvi ousl y then, energy i s requi red to gi ve an
object vel oci ty. The greater the energy used, the
greater the vel oci ty wi l l be.
Di sr egar di ng fr i cti on, for an object to be
brought to rest or for i ts moti on to be sl owed
down, a force opposed to i ts moti on must be
appl i ed to i t. Thi s force al so acts over some
di stance. I n thi s way energy i s gi ven up by the
object and del i vered i n some form to whatever
opposes i ts conti nuous moti on. The movi ng object
i s therefore a means of recei vi ng energy at one
pl ace (where i ts moti on i s i ncreased) and del i veri ng
i t to another poi nt (wher e i t i s stopped or
retarded). Whi l e i t i s i n moti on, i t i s sai d to
contai n thi s energy as energy of moti on or kinetic
ener gy.
Si nce energy can never be destroyed, i t fol l ows
that i f fri cti on i s di sregarded the energy del i vered
to stop the object wi l l exactl y equal the energy
that was requi red to i ncrease i ts speed. At al l ti mes
the amount of ki neti c energy possessed by an
object depends on i ts wei ght and the vel oci ty at
whi ch i t i s movi ng.
Figure 2-16.—Physical factors governing fluid flow.
2-12
The mathemati cal rel ati onshi p for ki neti c
energy i s stated i n the rul e: “Ki neti c energy i n
foot-pounds i s equal to the force i n pounds whi ch
created i t, mul ti pl i ed by the di stance through
whi ch i t was appl i ed, or to the wei ght of the
movi ng object i n pounds, mul ti pl i ed by the square
of i ts vel oci ty i n feet per second, and di vi ded by
64.s”
The r el ati onshi p between i ner ti a for ces,
vel oci ty, and ki neti c energy can be i l l ustrated by
anal yzi ng what happens when a gun fi res a
projecti l e agai nst the armor of an enemy shi p. (See
fi g. 2-17.) The expl osi ve force of the powder i n
the breach pushes the projecti l e out of the gun,
gi vi ng i t a hi gh vel oci ty. Because of i ts i nerti a,
the projecti l e offers opposi ti on to thi s sudden
vel oci ty and a reacti on i s set up that pushes the
gun backward (ki ck or recoi l ). The force of the
expl osi on acts on the projecti l e throughout i ts
movement i n the gun. Thi s i s force acti ng through
a di stance produci ng work. Thi s work appears as
ki neti c energy i n the speedi ng projecti l e. The
resi stance of the ai r produces fri cti on, whi ch uses
some of the energy and sl ows down the projecti l e.
Eventual l y, however, the projecti l e hi ts i ts target
and, because of the i nerti a, tri es to conti nue
movi ng. The target, bei ng rel ati vel y stati onary,
tends to remai n stati onary because of i ts i nerti a.
The resul t i s that a tremendous force i s set up that
ei ther l eads to the penetrati on of the armor or
the shatteri ng of the projecti l e. The projecti l e
i s si mpl y a means of transferri ng energy, i n
thi s i nstance for destructi ve purpose, from the
gun to the enemy shi p. Thi s energy i s transmi tted
i n the for m of ener gy of moti on or ki neti c
ener gy.
A si mi l ar acti on takes pl ace i n a fl ui d power
system i n whi ch the fl ui d takes the pl ace of the
projecti l e. For exampl e, the pump i n a hydraul i c
Figure 2-17.—Relationship of inertia, velocity, and kinetic
energy.
system i mpar ts ener gy to the fl ui d, whi ch
overcomes the i nerti a of the fl ui d at rest and
causes i t to fl ow through the l i nes. The fl ui d fl ows
agai nst some type of actuator that i s at rest. The
fl ui d tends to conti nue fl owi ng, overcomes the
i nerti a of the actuator, and moves the actuator
to do work. Fri cti on uses up a porti on of the
energy as the fl ui d fl ows through the l i nes and
components.
RELATIONSHIP OF FORCE,
PRESSURE, AND HEAD
I n deal i ng wi th fl ui ds, forces are usual l y
consi dered i n rel ati on to the areas over whi ch they
are appl i ed. As previ ousl y di scussed, a force
acti ng over a uni t area i s a pressure, and pressure
can al ternatel y be stated i n pounds per square i nch
or i n terms of head, whi ch i s the verti cal hei ght
of the col umn of fl ui d whose wei ght woul d
produce that pressure.
I n most of the appl i cati ons of fl ui d power i n
the Navy, appl i ed forces greatl y outwei gh al l other
forces, and the fl ui d i s enti rel y confi ned. Under
these ci rcumstances i t i s customary to thi nk of the
forces i nvol ved i n terms of pressures. Si nce the
term head i s encountered frequentl y i n the study
of fl ui d power, i t i s necessary to understand what
i t means and how i t i s rel ated to pressure and
for ce.
Al l fi ve of the factors that control the acti ons
of fl ui ds can, of course, be expressed ei ther as
force, or i n terms of equi val ent pressures or head.
I n each si tuati on, the di fferent factors are referred
to i n the same terms, si nce they can be added and
subtracted to study thei r rel ati onshi p to each
other.
At thi s poi nt you need to revi ew some terms
i n general use. Gravi ty head, when i t i s i mportant
enough to be consi dered, i s someti mes referred
to as head. The effect of atmospheri c pressure i s
referred to as atmospheri c pressure. (Atmospheri c
pressure i s frequentl y and i mproperl y referred to
as sucti on.) I nerti a effect, because i t i s al ways
di rectl y rel ated to vel oci ty, i s usual l y cal l ed
vel oci ty head; and fri cti on, because i t represents
a l oss of pressure or head, i s usual l y referred to
as fri cti on head.
STATIC AND DYNAMIC FACTORS
Gr avi ty, appl i ed for ces, and atmospher i c
pressure are stati c factors that appl y equal l y to
2-13
fl ui ds at rest or i n moti on, whi l e i nerti a and
fri cti on are dynami c factors that appl y onl y to
fl ui ds i n moti on. The mathemati cal sum of
gravi ty, appl i ed force, and atmospheri c pressure
i s the stati c pressure obtai ned at any one poi nt
i n a fl ui d at any gi ven ti me. Stati c pressure exi sts
i n addi ti on to any dynami c factors that may al so
be present at the same ti me.
Remember, Pascal ’s l aw states that a pressure
set up i n a fl ui d acts equal l y i n al l di recti ons and
at ri ght angl es to the contai ni ng surfaces. Thi s
covers the si tuati on onl y for fl ui ds at rest or
practi cal l y at rest. I t i s true onl y for the factors
maki ng up stati c head. Obvi ousl y, when vel oci ty
becomes a factor i t must have a di recti on, and
as previ ousl y expl ai ned, the force rel ated to the
vel oci ty must al so have a di r ecti on, so that
Pascal ’s l aw al one does not appl y to the dynami c
factors of fl ui d power.
The dynami c factors of i nerti a and fri cti on are
rel ated to the stati c factors. Vel oci ty head and
fri cti on head are obtai ned at the expense of stati c
head. However, a porti on of the vel oci ty head can
al ways be reconverted to stati c head. Force, whi ch
can be produced by pressure or head when deal i ng
wi th fl ui ds, i s necessary to start a body movi ng
i f i t i s at rest, and i s present i n some form when
the moti on of the body i s arrested; therefore,
whenever a fl ui d i s gi ven vel oci ty, some part of
i ts ori gi nal stati c head i s used to i mpart thi s
vel oci ty, whi ch then exi sts as vel oci ty head.
BERNOULLI’S PRINCIPLE
Consi der the system i l l ustrated i n fi gure 2-18.
Chamber A i s under pressure and i s connected by
a tube to chamber B, whi ch i s al so under pressure.
The pressure i n chamber A i s stati c pressure of
100 psi . The pressure at some poi nt (X) al ong the
connecti ng tube consi sts of a vel oci ty pressure of
Figure 2-18.—Relation of static and dynamic factors—
Bernoulli’s principle.
10 psi exerted i n a di recti on paral l el to the l i ne
of fl ow, pl us the unused stati c pressure of 90 psi ,
whi ch sti l l obeys Pascal ’s l aw and operates equal l y
i n al l di recti ons. As the fl ui d enters chamber B
i t i s sl owed down, and i ts vel oci ty i s changed back
to pressure. The force requi red to absorb i ts
i nerti a equal s the force requi red to start the fl ui d
movi ng ori gi nal l y, so that the stati c pressure i n
chamber B i s equal to that i n chamber A.
Thi s si tuati on (fi g. 2-18) di sregards fri cti on;
therefore, i t woul d not be encountered i n actual
pr acti ce. For ce or head i s al so r equi r ed to
overcome fri cti on but, unl i ke i nerti a effect, thi s
force cannot be recovered agai n, al though the
energy represented sti l l exi sts somewhere as heat.
Therefore, i n an actual system the pressure i n
chamber B woul d be l ess than i n chamber A by
the amount of pr essur e used i n over comi ng
fri cti on al ong the way.
At al l poi nts i n a system the stati c pressure i s
al ways the ori gi nal stati c pressure, l ess any vel oci ty
head at the poi nt i n questi on and l ess the fri cti on
head consumed i n reachi ng that poi nt. Si nce both
the vel oci ty head and the fri cti on head represent
energy that came from the ori gi nal stati c head,
and si nce energy cannot be destroyed, the sum of
the stati c head, the vel oci ty head, and the fri cti on
head at any poi nt i n the system must add up to
the or i gi nal stati c head. Thi s i s known as
Ber noul l i 's pr i nci pl e, whi ch states: For the
horizontal flow of fluid through a tube, the sum
of the pressure and the kinetic energy per unit
volume of the fluid is constant. Thi s pr i nci pl e
governs the rel ati ons of the stati c and dynami c
factors concerni ng fl ui ds, whi l e Pascal ’s l aw states
the manner i n whi ch the stati c factors behave
when taken by themsel ves.
MINIMIZING FRICTION
Fl ui d power equi pment i s desi gned to reduce
fri cti on to the l owest possi bl e l evel . Vol ume and
vel oci ty of fl ow are made the subject of careful
study. The proper fl ui d for the system i s chosen.
Cl ean, smooth pi pe of the best di mensi ons for the
parti cul ar condi ti ons i s used, and i t i s i nstal l ed
al ong as di rect a route as possi bl e. Sharp bends
and sudden changes i n cross-secti onal areas are
avoi ded. Val ves, gauges, and other components
are desi gned to i nterrupt fl ow as l i ttl e as possi bl e.
Careful thought i s gi ven to the si ze and shape of
the openi ngs. The systems are desi gned so they
2-14
can be kept cl ean i nsi de and vari ati ons from
normal operati on can easi l y be detected and
r emedi ed.
OPERATION OF HYDRAULIC
COMPONENTS
To tr ansmi t and contr ol power thr ough
pr essur i zed fl ui ds, an ar r angement of i nter -
connected components i s r equi r ed. Such an
arrangement i s commonl y referred to as a system.
The number and arrangement of the components
vary from system to system, dependi ng on the
parti cul ar appl i cati on. I n many appl i cati ons, one
mai n system suppl i es power to several subsystems,
whi ch are someti mes referred to as ci rcui ts. The
compl ete system may be a smal l compact uni t;
more often, however, the components are l ocated
at wi del y separated poi nts for conveni ent control
and operati on of the system.
The basi c components of a fl ui d power system
are essenti al l y the same, regardl ess of whether the
system uses a hydraul i c or a pneumati c medi um.
There are fi ve basi c components used i n a system.
These basi c components are as fol l ows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Reservoi r or recei ver
Pump or compressor
Li nes (pi pe, tubi ng, or fl exi bl e hose)
Di recti onal control val ve
Actuati ng devi ce
Several appl i cati ons of fl ui d power requi re
onl y a si mpl e system; that i s, a system whi ch uses
onl y a few components i n addi ti on to the fi ve
basi c components. A few of these appl i cati ons are
presented i n the fol l owi ng paragraphs. We wi l l
expl ai n the operati on of these systems bri efl y at
thi s ti me so you wi l l know the purpose of each
component and can better under stand how
hydraul i cs i s used i n the operati on of these
systems. More compl ex fl ui d power systems are
descri bed i n chapter 12.
HYDRAULIC J ACK
The hydraul i c jack i s perhaps one of the
si mpl est for ms of a fl ui d power system. By
movi ng the handl e of a smal l devi ce, an i ndi vi dual
can l i ft a l oad wei ghi ng several tons. A smal l
i ni ti al force exerted on the handl e i s transmi tted
by a fl ui d to a much l arger area. To understand
thi s better, study fi gure 2-19. The smal l i nput
pi ston has an area of 5 square i nches and i s
di rectl y connected to a l arge cyl i nder wi th an
output pi ston havi ng an area of 250 square i nches.
The top of thi s pi ston forms a l i ft pl atform.
I f a force of 25 pounds i s appl i ed to the i nput
pi ston, i t produces a pressure of 5 psi i n the fl ui d,
that i s, of cour se, i f a suffi ci ent amount of
resi stant force i s acti ng agai nst the top of the
output pi ston. Di sregardi ng fri cti on l oss, thi s
pressure acti ng on the 250 square i nch area of the
output pi ston wi l l support a resi stance force of
1,250 pounds. I n other words, thi s pressure coul d
overcome a force of sl i ghtl y under 1,250 pounds.
An i nput force of 25 pounds has been transformed
i nto a worki ng force of more than hal f a ton;
however, for thi s to be true, the di stance travel ed
by the i nput pi ston must be 50 ti mes greater than
the di stance travel ed by the output pi ston. Thus,
for every i nch that the i nput pi ston moves, the
output pi ston wi l l move onl y one-fi fti eth of an
i n c h .
Thi s woul d be i deal i f the output pi ston needed
to move onl y a short di stance. However, i n most
i nstances, the output pi ston woul d have to be
capabl e of movi ng a greater di stance to serve a
practi cal appl i cati on. The devi ce shown i n fi gure
2-19 i s not capabl e of movi ng the output pi ston
farther than that shown; therefore, some other
means must be used to rai se the output pi ston to
a greater hei ght.
Figure 2-19.—Hydraulic jack.
2-15
The output pi ston can be rai sed hi gher and
mai ntai ned at thi s hei ght i f addi ti onal components
are i nstal l ed as shown i n fi gure 2-20. I n thi s
i l l ustrati on the jack i s desi gned so that i t can be
rai sed, l owered, or hel d at a constant hei ght.
These resul ts are attai ned by i ntroduci ng a number
of val ves and al so a reserve suppl y of fl ui d to be
used i n the system.
Noti ce that thi s system contai ns the fi ve basi c
components—the reservoi r; cyl i nder 1, whi ch
serves as a pump; val ve 3, whi ch serves as a
di recti onal control val ve; cyl i nder 2, whi ch serves
as the actuati ng devi ce; and l i nes to transmi t the
fl ui d to and from the di fferent components. I n
addi ti on, thi s system contai ns two val ves, 1 and
2, whose functi ons are expl ai ned i n the fol l owi ng
di scussi on.
As the i nput pi ston i s rai sed (fi g. 2-20, vi ew
A), val ve 1 i s cl osed by the back pressure from
the wei ght of the output pi ston. At the same ti me,
val ve 2 i s opened by the head of the fl ui d i n the
reservoi r. Thi s forces fl ui d i nto cyl i nder 1. When
the i nput pi ston i s l owered (fi g. 2-20, vi ew B), a
pressure i s devel oped i n cyl i nder 1. When thi s
pressure exceeds the head i n the reservoi r, i t cl oses
val ve 2. When i t exceeds the back pressure from
the output pi ston, i t opens val ve 1, forci ng fl ui d
i nto the pi pel i ne. The pressure from cyl i nder 1 i s
Figure 2-20.—Hydraulic jack; (A) up stroke; (B) downstroke.
thus transmi tted i nto cyl i nder 2, where i t acts to
rai se the output pi ston wi th i ts attached l i ft
pl atform. When the i nput pi ston i s agai n rai sed,
the pressure i n cyl i nder 1 drops bel ow that i n
cyl i nder 2, causi ng val ve 1 to cl ose. Thi s prevents
the return of fl ui d and hol ds the output pi ston
wi th i ts attached l i ft pl atform at i ts new l evel .
Duri ng thi s stroke, val ve 2 opens agai n al l owi ng
a new suppl y of fl ui d i nto cyl i nder 1 for the next
power (downward) stroke of the i nput pi ston.
Thus, by repeated strokes of the i nput pi ston, the
l i ft pl atform can be progressi vel y rai sed. To l ower
the l i ft pl atform, val ve 3 i s opened, and the fl ui d
from cyl i nder 2 i s returned to the reservoi r.
HYDRAULIC BRAKES
The hydr aul i c br ake system used i n the
automobi l e i s a mul ti pl e pi ston system. A mul ti pl e
pi ston system al l ows forces to be transmi tted to
two or more pi stons i n the manner i ndi cated i n
fi gure 2-21. Note that the pressure set up by the
force appl i ed to the i nput pi ston (1) i s transmi tted
undi mi ni shed to both output pi stons (2 and 3),
and that the resul tant force on each pi ston i s
proporti onal to i ts area. The mul ti pl i cati on of
forces from the i nput pi ston to each output pi ston
i s the same as that expl ai ned earl i er.
The hydraul i c brake system from the master
cyl i nder s to the wheel cyl i nder s on most
Figure 2-21.—Multiple piston system.
2-16
automobi l es operates i n a way si mi l ar to the
system i l l ustrated i n fi gure 2-22.
When the br ake pedal i s depr essed, the
pressure on the brake pedal moves the pi ston
wi thi n the master cyl i nder, forci ng the brake fl ui d
from the master cyl i nder through the tubi ng and
fl exi bl e hose to the wheel cyl i nders. The wheel
cyl i nders contai n two opposed output pi stons,
each of whi ch i s attached to a brake shoe fi tted
i nsi de the brake drum. Each output pi ston pushes
the attached brake shoe agai nst the wal l of the
brake drum, thus retardi ng the rotati on of the
wheel . When pressure on the pedal i s rel eased, the
spri ngs on the brake shoes return the wheel
cyl i nder pi stons to thei r rel eased posi ti ons. Thi s
acti on for ces the di spl aced br ake fl ui d back
through the fl exi bl e hose and tubi ng to the master
cyl i nder.
The force appl i ed to the brake pedal produces
a pr opor ti onal for ce on each of the output
pi stons, whi ch i n turn appl y the brake shoes
fr i cti onal l y to the tur ni ng wheel s to r etar d
rotati on.
As previ ousl y menti oned, the hydraul i c brake
system on most automobi l es operates i n a si mi l ar
way, as shown i n fi gure 2-22. I t i s beyond the
scope of thi s manual to di scuss the vari ous brake
systems.
Figure 2-22.—An automobile brake system.
2-17
CHAPTER 3
HYDRAULIC FLUIDS
Duri ng the desi gn of equi pment that requi res
fl ui d power , many factor s ar e consi der ed i n
sel ecti ng the type of system to be used—hydraul i c,
pneumati c, or a combi nati on of the two. Some
of the factors are requi red speed and accuracy of
operati on, surroundi ng atmospheri c condi ti ons,
economi c condi ti ons, avai l abi l i ty of repl acement
fl ui d, requi red pressure l evel , operati ng tempera-
ture range, contami nati on possi bi l i ti es, cost of
transmi ssi on l i nes, l i mi tati ons of the equi pment,
l ubri ci ty, safety to the operators, and expected
servi ce l i fe of the equi pment.
After the type of system has been sel ected,
many of these same factors must be consi dered
i n sel ecti ng the fl ui d for the system. Thi s chapter
i s devoted to hydraul i c fl ui ds. I ncl uded i n i t are
secti ons on the properti es and characteri sti cs
desi red of hydraul i c fl ui ds; types of hydraul i c
fl ui ds; hazards and safety precauti ons for worki ng
wi th, handl i ng, and di sposi ng of hydr aul i c
l i qui ds; types and control of contami nati on; and
sampl i ng.
PROPERTIES
I f fl ui di ty (the physi cal property of a substance
that enabl es i t to fl ow) and i ncompressi bi l i ty were
the onl y properti es requi red, any l i qui d not too
thi ck mi ght be used i n a hydr aul i c system.
However, a sati sfactory l i qui d for a parti cul ar
system must possess a number of other properti es.
The most i mportant properti es and some charac-
teri sti cs are di scussed i n the fol l owi ng paragraphs.
VISCOSITY
Vi scosi ty i s one of the most i mpor tant
properti es of hydraul i c fl ui ds. I t i s a measure of
a fl ui d’s resi stance to fl ow. A l i qui d, such as
gasol i ne, whi ch fl ows easi l y has a l ow vi scosi ty;
and a l i qui d, such as tar, whi ch fl ows sl owl y has
a hi gh vi scosi ty. The vi scosi ty of a l i qui d i s
affected by changes i n temperature and pressure.
As the temperature of a l i qui d i ncreases, i ts
vi scosi ty decreases. That i s, a l i qui d fl ows more
easi l y when i t i s hot than when i t i s col d. The
vi scosi ty of a l i qui d i ncreases as the pressure on
the l i qui d i ncreases.
A sati sfactory l i qui d for a hydraul i c system
must be thi ck enough to gi ve a good seal at
pumps, motors, val ves, and so on. These com-
ponents depend on cl ose fi ts for creati ng and
mai ntai ni ng pr essur e. Any i nter nal l eakage
through these cl earances resul ts i n l oss of pressure,
i nstantaneous contr ol , and pump effi ci ency.
Leakage l osses are greater wi th thi nner l i qui ds
(l ow vi scosi ty). A l i qui d that i s too thi n wi l l al so
al l ow rapi d weari ng of movi ng parts, or of parts
that operate under heavy l oads. On the other
hand, i f the l i qui d i s too thi ck (vi scosi ty too hi gh),
the i nternal fri cti on of the l i qui d wi l l cause an
i ncrease i n the l i qui d’s fl ow resi stance through
cl ear ances of cl osel y fi tted par ts, l i nes, and
i nternal passages. Thi s resul ts i n pressure drops
thr oughout the system, sl uggi sh oper ati on
of the equi pment, and an i ncrease i n power
consumpti on.
Measurement of Viscosity
Vi scosi ty i s normal l y determi ned by measuri ng
the ti me requi red for a fi xed vol ume of a fl ui d
(at a gi ven temper atur e) to fl ow thr ough a
cal i brated ori fi ce or capi l l ary tube. The i nstru-
ments used to measure the vi scosi ty of a l i qui d
are known as vi scometers or vi scosi meters.
Several types of vi scosi meters are i n use today.
The Saybol t vi scometer, shown i n fi gure 3-1,
measures the ti me requi red, i n seconds, for 60
mi l l i l i ters of the tested fl ui d at 100°F to pass
through a standard ori fi ce. The ti me measured i s
3-1
Figure 3-1.—Saybolt viscometer.
used to express the fl ui d’s vi scosi ty, i n Saybol t
uni versal seconds or Saybol t furol seconds.
The gl ass capi l l ary vi scometers, shown i n
fi gure 3-2, are exampl es of the second type of
vi scometer used. These vi scometers are used to
measure ki nemati c vi scosi ty. Li ke the Saybol t
vi scometer, the gl ass capi l l ary measures the ti me
i n seconds requi red for the tested fl ui d to fl ow
through the capi l l ary. Thi s ti me i s mul ti pl i ed by
the temperature constant of the vi scometer i n use
to provi de the vi scosi ty, expressed i n centi strokes.
The fol l owi ng for mul as may be used to
convert centi strokes (cSt uni ts) to approxi mate
Saybol t uni versal seconds (SUS uni ts).
For SUS val ues between 32 and 100:
For SUS val ues greater than 100:
Al though the vi scometers di scussed above are
used i n l aboratori es, there are other vi scometers
i n the suppl y system that are avai l abl e for l ocal
use. These vi scometers can be used to test the
vi scosi ty of hydraul i c fl ui ds ei ther pri or to thei r
bei ng added to a system or peri odi cal l y after they
have been i n an operati ng system for a whi l e.
Figure 3-2.–Various styles of glass capillary viscometers.
3-2
Addi ti onal i nformati on on the vari ous types
of vi scometers and thei r operati on can be found
i n the Physical Measurements Training Manual,
NAVAI R 17-35QAL-2.
Viscosity Index
The vi scosi ty i ndex (V.I .) of an oi l i s a number
that i ndi cates the effect of temperature changes
on the vi scosi ty of the oi l . A l ow V.I . si gni fi es
a rel ati vel y l arge change of vi scosi ty wi th changes
of temperature. I n other words, the oi l becomes
extremel y thi n at hi gh temperatures and extremel y
thi ck at l ow temperatures. On the other hand, a
hi gh V.I . si gni fi es r el ati vel y l i ttl e change i n
vi scosi ty over a wi de temperature range.
An i deal oi l for most pur poses i s one
that mai ntai ns a constant vi scosi ty throughout
temperature changes. The i mportance of the V.I .
can be shown easi l y by consi deri ng automoti ve
l ubr i cants. An oi l havi ng a hi gh V.I . r esi sts
excessi ve thi ckeni ng when the engi ne i s col d and,
consequentl y, promotes rapi d starti ng and prompt
ci rcul ati on; i t resi sts excessi ve thi nni ng when the
motor i s hot and thus provi des ful l l ubri cati on and
prevents excessi ve oi l consumpti on.
Another exampl e of the i mportance of the V.I .
i s the need for a hi gh V.I . hydraul i c oi l for mi l i tary
ai rcraft, si nce hydraul i c control systems may be
exposed to temperatures rangi ng from bel ow
–65°F at hi gh al ti tudes to over 100°F on the
ground. For the proper operati on of the hydraul i c
control system, the hydraul i c fl ui d must have a
suffi ci entl y hi gh V.I . to perform i ts functi ons at
the extremes of the expected temperature range.
Li qui ds wi th a hi gh vi scosi ty have a greater
resi stance to heat than l ow vi scosi ty l i qui ds whi ch
have been deri ved from the same source. The
average hydraul i c l i qui d has a rel ati vel y l ow
vi scosi ty. Fortunatel y, there i s a wi de choi ce of
l i qui ds avai l abl e for use i n the vi scosi ty range
requi red of hydraul i c l i qui ds.
The V.I . of an oi l may be determi ned i f i ts
vi scosi ty at any two temperatures i s known.
Tabl es, based on a l arge number of tests, are
i ssued by the Amer i can Soci ety for Testi ng
and Mater i al s (ASTM). These tabl es per mi t
cal cul ati on of the V.I . from known vi scosi ti es.
LUBRICATING POWER
I f moti on takes pl ace between surfaces i n
contact, fri cti on tends to oppose the moti on.
When pressure forces the l i qui d of a hydraul i c
system between the surfaces of movi ng parts, the
l i qui d spreads out i nto a thi n fi l m whi ch enabl es
the parts to move more freel y. Di fferent l i qui ds,
i ncl udi ng oi l s, vary greatl y not onl y i n thei r
l ubri cati ng abi l i ty but al so i n fi l m strength. Fi l m
strength i s the capabi l i ty of a l i qui d to resi st bei ng
wi ped or squeezed out from between the surfaces
when spread out i n an extremel y thi n l ayer. A
l i qui d wi l l no l onger l ubri cate i f the fi l m breaks
down, si nce the moti on of part agai nst part wi pes
the metal cl ean of l i qui d.
Lubri cati ng power vari es wi th temperature
changes; therefore, the cl i mati c and worki ng
condi ti ons must enter i nto the determi nati on of
the l ubr i cati ng qual i ti es of a l i qui d. Unl i ke
vi scosi ty, whi ch i s a physi cal pr oper ty, the
l ubri cati ng power and fi l m strength of a l i qui d
i s di r ectl y r el ated to i ts chemi cal natur e.
Lubri cati ng qual i ti es and fi l m strength can be
i mproved by the addi ti on of certai n chemi cal
agents.
CHEMICAL STABILITY
Chemi cal stabi l i ty i s another property whi ch
i s exceedi ngl y i mportant i n the sel ecti on of a
hydraul i c l i qui d. I t i s defi ned as the l i qui d’s abi l i ty
to resi st oxi dati on and deteri orati on for l ong
peri ods. Al l l i qui ds tend to undergo unfavorabl e
changes under severe operati ng condi ti ons. Thi s
i s the case, for exampl e, when a system operates
for a consi der abl e per i od of ti me at hi gh
temper atur es.
Excessi ve temperatures, especi al l y extremel y
hi gh temperatures, have a great effect on the l i fe
of a l i qui d. The temperature of the l i qui d i n the
reservoi r of an operati ng hydraul i c system does
not al ways i ndi cate the operati ng condi ti ons
throughout the system. Local i zed hot spots occur
on beari ngs, gear teeth, or at other poi nts where
the l i qui d under pressure i s forced through smal l
ori fi ces. Conti nuous passage of the l i qui d through
these poi nts may produce l ocal temperatures hi gh
enough to carboni ze the l i qui d or turn i t i nto
sl udge, yet the l i qui d i n the reservoi r may not
i ndi cate an excessi vel y hi gh temperature.
Li qui ds may break down i f exposed to ai r,
water, sal t, or other i mpuri ti es, especi al l y i f they
are i n constant moti on or subjected to heat. Some
metal s, such as zi nc, l ead, brass, and copper, have
undesi r abl e chemi cal r eacti ons wi th cer tai n
l i qui ds.
These chemi cal reacti ons resul t i n the forma-
ti on of sl udge, gums, carbon, or other deposi ts
whi ch cl og openi ngs, cause val ves and pi stons to
sti ck or l eak, and gi ve poor l ubri cati on to movi ng
3-3
parts. Once a smal l amount of sl udge or other
deposi ts i s formed, the rate of formati on general l y
i ncreases more rapi dl y. As these deposi ts are
for med, cer tai n changes i n the physi cal and
chemi cal properti es of the l i qui d take pl ace. The
l i qui d usual l y becomes dar ker , the vi scosi ty
i ncreases and damagi ng aci ds are formed.
The extent to whi ch changes occur i n di fferent
l i qui ds depends on the type of l i qui d, type of
refi ni ng, and whether i t has been treated to
pr ovi de fur ther r esi stance to oxi dati on. The
stabi l i ty of l i qui ds can be i mpr oved by the
addi ti on of oxi dati on i nhi bi tor s. I nhi bi tor s
sel ected to i mprove stabi l i ty must be compati bl e
wi th the other requi red properti es of the l i qui d.
FREEDOM FROM ACIDITY
An i deal hydraul i c l i qui d shoul d be free from
aci ds whi ch cause corrosi on of the metal s i n the
system. Most l i qui ds cannot be expected to remai n
compl etel y noncorrosi ve under severe operati ng
condi ti ons. The degree of aci di ty of a l i qui d, when
new, may be sati sfactory; but after use, the l i qui d
may tend to become corrosi ve as i t begi ns to
deter i or ate.
Many systems are i dl e for l ong peri ods after
operati ng at hi gh temperatures. Thi s permi ts
moi sture to condense i n the system, resul ti ng i n
rust formati on.
Certai n corrosi on- and rust-preventi ve addi -
ti ves are added to hydraul i c l i qui ds. Some of these
addi ti ves are effecti ve onl y for a l i mi ted peri od.
Therefore, the best procedure i s to use the l i qui d
speci fi ed for the system for the ti me speci fi ed by
the system manufacturer and to protect the l i qui d
and the system as much as possi bl e fr om
contami nati on by forei gn matter, from abnormal
temperatures, and from mi suse.
FLASHPOINT
Fl ashpoi nt i s the temperature at whi ch a l i qui d
gi ves off vapor i n suffi ci ent quanti ty to i gni te
momentari l y or fl ash when a fl ame i s appl i ed. A
hi gh fl ashpoi nt i s desi rabl e for hydraul i c l i qui ds
because i t provi des good resi stance to combusti on
and a l ow degr ee of evapor ati on at nor mal
temperatures. Requi red fl ashpoi nt mi ni mums
vary from 300°F for the l i ghtest oi l s to 510°F for
the heavi est oi l s.
FIRE POINT
Fi re poi nt i s the temperature at whi ch a
substance gi ves off vapor i n suffi ci ent quanti ty
to i gni te and conti nue to burn when exposed to
a spark or fl ame. Li ke fl ashpoi nt, a hi gh fi re poi nt
i s requi red of desi rabl e hydraul i c l i qui ds.
MINIMUM TOXICITY
Toxi ci ty i s defi ned as the qual i ty, state, or
degree of bei ng toxi c or poi sonous. Some l i qui ds
contai n chemi cal s that are a seri ous toxi c hazard.
These toxi c or poi sonous chemi cal s may enter the
body through i nhal ati on, by absorpti on through
the ski n, or through the eyes or the mouth. The
resul t i s si ckness and, i n some cases, death.
Manufactur er s of hydr aul i c l i qui ds str i ve to
produce sui tabl e l i qui ds that contai n no toxi c
chemi cal s and, as a resul t, most hydraul i c l i qui ds
are free of harmful chemi cal s. Some fi re-resi stant
l i qui ds are toxi c, and sui tabl e protecti on and care
i n handl i ng must be provi ded.
DENSITY AND COMPRESSIBILITY
A fl ui d wi th a speci fi c gravi ty of l ess than 1.0
i s desi red when wei ght i s cri ti cal , al though wi th
proper system desi gn, a fl ui d wi th a speci fi c
gravi ty greater than one can be tol erated. Where
avoi dance of detecti on by mi l i tary uni ts i s desi red,
a fl ui d whi ch si nks rather than ri ses to the surface
of the water i s desi rabl e. Fl ui ds havi ng a speci fi c
gravi ty greater than 1.0 are desi red, as l eaki ng
fl ui d wi l l si nk, al l owi ng the vessel wi th the l eak
to remai n undetected.
Recal l from chapter 2 that under extreme
pressure a fl ui d may be compressed up to 7
per cent of i ts or i gi nal vol ume. Hi ghl y com-
pressi bl e fl ui ds produce sl uggi sh system operati on.
Thi s does not present a seri ous probl em i n smal l ,
l ow-speed operati ons, but i t must be consi dered
i n the operati ng i nstructi ons.
FOAMING TENDENCIES
Foam i s an emul si on of gas bubbl es i n the
fl ui d. Foam i n a hydraul i c system resul ts from
compressed gases i n the hydraul i c fl ui d. A fl ui d
under hi gh pressure can contai n a l arge vol ume
of ai r bubbl es. When thi s fl ui d i s depressuri zed,
as when i t reaches the reservoi r, the gas bubbl es
i n the fl ui d expand and pr oduce foam. Any
amount of foami ng may cause pump cavi tati on
and produce poor system response and spongy
3-4
control . Therefore, defoami ng agents are often
added to fl ui ds to prevent foami ng. Mi ni mi zi ng
ai r i n fl ui d systems i s di scussed l ater i n thi s
chapter.
CLEANLINESS
Cl eanl i ness i n hydraul i c systems has recei ved
consi derabl e attenti on recentl y. Some hydraul i c
systems, such as aerospace hydraul i c systems, are
extr emel y sensi ti ve to contami nati on. Fl ui d
cl eanl i ness i s of pri mary i mportance because
contami nants can cause component mal functi on,
pr event pr oper val ve seati ng, cause wear i n
components, and may i ncrease the response ti me
of servo val ves. Fl ui d contami nants are di scussed
l ater i n thi s chapter.
The i nsi de of a hydraul i c system can onl y be
kept as cl ean as the fl ui d added to i t. I ni ti al fl ui d
cl eanl i ness can be achi eved by observi ng stri ngent
cl eanl i ness requi rements (di scussed l ater i n thi s
chapter) or by fi l teri ng al l fl ui d added to the
system.
TYPES OF HYDRAULIC FLUIDS
There have been many l i qui ds tested for use
i n hydraul i c systems. Currentl y, l i qui ds bei ng used
i ncl ude mi ner al oi l , water , phosphate ester ,
water -based ethyl ene gl ycol compounds, and
si l i cone fl ui ds. The three most common types of
hydraul i c l i qui ds are petrol eum-based, syntheti c
fi re-resi stant, and water-based fi re-resi stant.
PETROLEUM-BASED FLUIDS
The most common hydraul i c fl ui ds used i n
shi pboard systems are the petrol eum-based oi l s.
These fl ui ds contai n addi ti ves to protect the fl ui d
from oxi dati on (anti oxi dant), to protect system
metal s from corrosi on (anti corrosi on), to reduce
tendency of the fl ui d to foam (foam suppressant),
and to i mprove vi scosi ty.
Petrol eum-based fl ui ds are used i n surface
shi ps’ el ectr ohydr aul i c steer i ng and deck
machi ner y systems, submar i nes’ hydr aul i c
systems, and ai rcraft automati c pi l ots, shock
absorbers, brakes, control mechani sms, and other
hydraul i c systems usi ng seal materi al s compati bl e
wi th petrol eum-based fl ui ds.
SYNTHETIC FIRE-RESISTANT FLUIDS
Petr ol eum-based oi l s contai n most of the
desi red properti es of a hydraul i c l i qui d. However,
they are fl ammabl e under normal condi ti ons and
can become expl osi ve when subjected to hi gh
pressures and a source of fl ame or hi gh tempera-
tures. Nonfl ammabl e syntheti c l i qui ds have been
devel oped for use i n hydraul i c systems where fi re
hazards exi st.
Phosphate Ester Fire-Resistant Fluid
Phosphate ester fi r e-r esi stant fl ui d for
shi pboard use i s covered by speci fi cati on MI L-
H-19457. There are certai n trade names cl osel y
associ ated wi th these fl ui ds. However, the onl y
acceptabl e fl ui ds conformi ng to MI L-H-19457 are
the ones l i sted on the current Qual i fi ed Products
Li st (QPL) 19457. These fl ui ds wi l l be del i vered
i n contai ners marked MI L-H-19457C or a l ater
speci fi cati on r evi si on. Phosphate ester i n
contai ners marked by a brand name wi thout a
speci fi cati on i denti fi cati on must not be used i n
shi pboard systems, as they may contai n toxi c
chemi cal s.
These fl ui ds wi l l burn i f suffi ci ent heat and
fl ame ar e appl i ed, but they do not suppor t
combusti on. Drawbacks of phosphate ester fl ui ds
are that they wi l l attack and l oosen commonl y
used pai nts and adhesi ves, deteri orate many types
of i nsul ati ons used i n el ectr i cal cabl es, and
deter i or ate many gasket and seal mater i al s.
Therefore, gaskets and seal s for systems i n whi ch
phosphate ester fl ui ds are used are manufactured
of speci fi c materi al s. Naval Ships’ Technical
Manual, chapter 262, speci fi es pai nts to be used
on exteri or surfaces of hydraul i c systems and
components i n whi ch phosphate ester fl ui d i s used
and on shi p structure and decks i n the i mmedi ate
vi ci ni ty of thi s equi pment. Naval Ships’ Technical
Manual, chapter 078, speci fi es gasket and seal
materi al s used. NAVAI R 01-1A-17 al so contai ns
a l i st of materi al s resi stant to phosphate ester
fl ui ds.
Trade names for phosphate ester fl ui ds, whi ch
do not conform to MI L-H-19457 i ncl ude Pydraul ,
Skydrol , and Fyre Safe.
PHOSPHATE ESTER FLUID SAFETY.—
As a mai ntenance person, operator, supervi sor,
or crew member of a shi p, squadron, or naval
shor e i nstal l ati on, you must under stand the
hazards associ ated wi th hydraul i c fl ui ds to whi ch
you may be exposed.
3-5
Phosphate ester fl ui d conformi ng to speci fi -
cati on MI L-H-19457 i s used i n ai rcraft el evators,
bal l ast val ve operati ng systems, and repl eni sh-
ment-at-sea systems. Thi s type of fl ui d contai ns
a contr ol l ed amount of neur otoxi c mater i al .
Because of the neurotoxi c effects that can resul t
from i ngesti on, ski n absorpti on, or i nhal ati on of
these fl ui ds, be sur e to use the fol l owi ng
precauti ons:
1. Avoi d contact wi th the fl ui ds by weari ng
protecti ve cl othi ng.
2. Use chemi cal goggl es or face shi el ds to
protect your eyes.
3. I f you are expected to work i n an
atmosphere contai ni ng a fi ne mi st or spray,
wear a conti nuous-fl ow ai rl i ne respi rator.
4. Thoroughl y cl ean ski n areas contami nated
by thi s fl ui d wi th soap and water.
5. I f you get any fl ui d i n your eyes, fl ush them
wi th runni ng water for at l east 15 mi nutes
and seek medi cal attenti on.
I f you come i n contact wi th MI L-H-19457
fl ui d, report the contact when you seek medi cal
ai d and whenever you have a routi ne medi cal
exami nati on.
Naval Ships’ Technical Manual, chapter 262,
contai ns a l i st of protecti ve cl othi ng, al ong wi th
nati onal stock numbers (NSN), for use wi th fl ui ds
conformi ng to MI L-H-19457. I t al so contai ns
procedures for repai r work and for l ow-l evel
l eakage and massi ve spi l l s cl eanup.
PHOSPHATE ESTER FLUID DISPOSAL.—
Waste MI L-H-19457 fl ui ds and refuse (rags and
other materi al s) must not be dumped at sea. Fl ui d
shoul d be pl aced i n bung-type drums. Rags and
other materi al s shoul d be pl aced i n open top
drums for shore di sposal . These drums shoul d be
marked wi th a warni ng l abel stati ng thei r content,
safety precauti ons, and di sposal i nstructi ons.
Detai l ed i nstructi ons for phosphate ester fl ui ds
di sposal can be found i n Naval Ships’ Technical
Manual, chapter 262, and OPNAVI NST 5090.1.
Silicone Synthetic Fire-Resistant Fluids
Si l i cone syntheti c fi re-resi stant fl ui ds are
frequentl y used for hydraul i c systems whi ch
requi re fi re resi stance, but whi ch have onl y
margi nal requi rements for other chemi cal or
physi cal properti es common to hydraul i c fl ui ds.
Si l i cone fl ui ds do not have the detr i mental
characteri sti cs of phosphate ester fl ui ds, nor
do they provi de the corrosi on protecti on and
l ubri cati on of phosphate ester fl ui ds, but they are
excel l ent for fi r e pr otecti on. Si l i cone fl ui d
conformi ng to MI L-S-81087 i s used i n the mi ssi l e
hol ddown and l ockout system aboard submari nes.
Lightweight Synthetic Fire-Resistant Fluids
I n appl i cati ons wher e wei ght i s cr i ti cal ,
l i ghtwei ght syntheti c fl ui d i s used i n hydraul i c
systems. MI L-H-83282 i s a syntheti c, fi re-resi stant
hydraul i c fl ui d used i n mi l i tary ai rcraft and
hydrofoi l s where the requi rement to mi ni mi ze
wei ght di ctates the use of a l ow-vi scosi ty fl ui d.
I t i s al so the most commonl y used fl ui d i n avi ati on
support equi pment. NAVAI R 01-1A-17 contai ns
addi ti onal i nformati on on fl ui ds conformi ng to
speci fi cati on MI L-H-83282.
WATER-BASED FIRE-RESISTANT
FLUIDS
The most wi del y used water-based hydraul i c
fl ui ds may be cl assi fi ed as water-gl ycol mi xtures
and water-syntheti c base mi xtures. The water-
gl ycol mi xture contai ns addi ti ves to protect i t from
oxi dati on, corrosi on, and bi ol ogi cal growth and
to enhance i ts l oad-carryi ng capaci ty.
Fi re resi stance of the water mi xture fl ui ds
depends on the vapori zati on and smotheri ng
effect of steam generated from the water. The
water i n water-based fl ui ds i s constantl y bei ng
dri ven off whi l e the system i s operati ng. There-
fore, frequent checks to mai ntai n the correct rati o
of water are i mportant.
The water -based fl ui d used i n catapul t
r etr acti ng engi nes, jet bl ast defl ector s, and
weapons el evators and handl i ng systems conforms
to MI L-H-22072.
The safety precauti ons outl i ned for phosphate
ester fl ui d and the di sposal of phosphate ester
fl ui d al so appl y to water-based fl ui d conformi ng
to MI L-H-22072.
CONTAMINATION
Hydr aul i c fl ui d contami nati on may be
descri bed as any forei gn materi al or substance
whose presence i n the fl ui d i s capabl e of adversel y
affecti ng system performance or rel i abi l i ty. I t may
assume many di fferent forms, i ncl udi ng l i qui ds,
gases, and sol i d matter of vari ous composi ti on,
si zes, and shapes. Sol i d matter i s the type most
often found i n hydraul i c systems and i s general l y
3-6
referred to as parti cul ate contami nati on. Con-
tami nati on i s al ways present to some degree, even
i n new, unused fl ui d, but must be kept bel ow a
l evel that wi l l adversel y affect system operati on.
Hydr aul i c contami nati on contr ol consi sts of
requi rements, techni ques, and practi ces necessary
to mi ni mi ze and control fl ui d contami nati on.
CLASSIFICATION
There are many types of contami nants whi ch
are harmful to hydraul i c systems and l i qui ds.
These contami nants may be di vi ded i nto two
di fferent cl asses—parti cul ate and fl ui d.
Particulate Contamination
Thi s cl ass of contami nants i ncl udes organi c,
metal l i c sol i d, and i norgani c sol i d contami nants.
These contami nants are di scussed i n the fol l owi ng
paragraphs.
ORGANIC CONTAMINATION.— Organi c
sol i ds or semi sol i ds found i n hydraul i c systems
are produced by wear, oxi dati on, or pol ymeri za-
ti on. Mi nute parti cl es of O-ri ngs, seal s, gaskets,
and hoses are present, due to wear or chemi cal
reacti ons. Syntheti c products, such as neoprene,
si l i cones, and hypal on, though r esi stant to
chemi cal reacti on wi th hydraul i c fl ui ds, produce
smal l wear parti cl es. Oxi dati on of hydraul i c fl ui ds
i ncreases wi th pressure and temperature, al though
anti oxi dants are bl ended i nto hydraul i c fl ui ds to
mi ni mi ze such oxi dati on. The abi l i ty of a
hydr aul i c fl ui d to r esi st oxi dati on or pol y-
meri zati on i n servi ce i s defi ned as i ts oxi dati on
stabi l i ty. Oxi dati on products appear as organi c
aci ds, asphal ti cs, gums, and varni shes. These
products combi ne wi th parti cl es i n the hydraul i c
fl ui d to form sl udge. Some oxi dati on products are
oi l sol ubl e and cause the hydr aul i c fl ui d to
i ncrease i n vi scosi ty; other oxi dati on products are
not oi l sol ubl e and form sedi ment.
METALLIC SOLID CONTAMINATION.—
Metal l i c contami nants are al most al ways present
i n a hydraul i c system and wi l l range i n si ze from
mi croscopi c parti cl es to parti cl es readi l y vi si bl e
to the naked eye. These parti cl es are the resul t of
weari ng and scori ng of bare metal parts and
pl ati ng materi al s, such as si l ver and chromi um.
Al though practi cal l y al l metal s commonl y used
for parts fabri cati on and pl ati ng may be found
i n hydraul i c fl ui ds, the major metal l i c materi al s
found are ferrous, al umi num, and chromi um
parti cl es. Because of thei r conti nuous hi gh-speed
i nternal movement, hydraul i c pumps usual l y
contr i bute most of the metal l i c par ti cul ate
contami nati on present i n hydraul i c systems. Metal
parti cl es are al so produced by other hydraul i c
system components, such as val ves and actuators,
due to body wear and the chi ppi ng and weari ng
away of smal l pi eces of metal pl ati ng materi al s.
I NORGANI C SOLI D CONTAMI NA-
TION.— Thi s contami nant group i ncl udes dust,
pai nt parti cl es, di rt, and si l i cates. Gl ass parti cl es
from gl ass bead peeni ng and bl asti ng may al so
be found as contami nants. Gl ass parti cl es are very
undesi rabl e contami nants due to thei r abrasi ve
effect on syntheti c rubber seal s and the very fi ne
surfaces of cri ti cal movi ng parts. Atmospheri c
dust, di rt, pai nt parti cl es, and other materi al s are
often drawn i nto hydraul i c systems from external
sources. For exampl e, the wet pi ston shaft of a
hydr aul i c actuator may dr aw some of these
forei gn materi al s i nto the cyl i nder past the wi per
and dynami c seal s, and the contami nant materi al s
ar e then di sper sed i n the hydr aul i c fl ui d.
Contami nants may al so enter the hydraul i c fl ui d
duri ng mai ntenance when tubi ng, hoses, fi tti ngs,
and components are di sconnected or repl aced. I t
i s therefore i mportant that al l exposed fl ui d ports
be seal ed wi th approved protecti ve cl osures to
mi ni mi ze such contami nati on.
Fluid Contamination
Ai r, water, sol vent, and other forei gn fl ui ds
are i n the cl ass of fl ui d contami nants.
AIR CONTAMINATION.— Hydraul i c fl ui ds
are adversel y affected by di ssol ved, entrai ned, or
free ai r. Ai r may be i ntroduced through i mproper
mai ntenance or as a resul t of system desi gn. Any
mai ntenance operati on that i nvol ves breaki ng i nto
the hydraul i c system, such as di sconnecti ng or
removi ng a l i ne or component wi l l i nvari abl y
resul t i n some ai r bei ng i ntroduced i nto the
system. Thi s sour ce of ai r can and must be
mi ni mi zed by prebi l l i ng repl acement components
wi th new fi l tered fl ui d pri or to thei r i nstal l ati on.
Fai l i ng to prefi l l a fi l ter el ement bowl wi th fl ui d
i s a good exampl e of how ai r can be i ntroduced
i nto the system. Al though prebi l l i ng wi l l mi ni mi ze
i ntroducti on of ai r, i t i s sti l l i mportant to vent the
system where venti ng i s possi bl e.
Most hydraul i c systems have bui l t-i n sources
of ai r. Leaky seal s i n gas-pressuri zed accumul ators
and reservoi rs can feed gas i nto a system faster
3-7
than i t can be removed, even wi th the best of
mai ntenance. Another l esser known but major
source of ai r i s ai r that i s sucked i nto the system
past actuator pi ston rod seal s. Thi s usual l y occurs
when the pi ston rod i s stroked by some external
means whi l e the actuator i tsel f i s not pressuri zed.
WATER CONTAMINATION.— Water i s a
ser i ous contami nant of hydr aul i c systems.
Hydr aul i c fl ui ds ar e adver sel y affected by
di ssol ved, emul si fi ed, or fr ee water . Water
contami nati on may resul t i n the formati on of i ce,
whi ch i mpedes the operati on of val ves, actuators,
and other movi ng parts. Water can al so cause the
formati on of oxi dati on products and corrosi on
of metal l i c surfaces.
SOLVENT CONTAMINATION.— Sol vent
contami nati on i s a speci al form of forei gn fl ui d
contami nati on i n whi ch the ori gi nal contami -
nati ng substance i s a chl ori nated sol vent. Chl ori -
nated sol vents or thei r r esi dues may, when
i ntroduced i nto a hydraul i c system, react wi th any
water present to form hi ghl y corrosi ve aci ds.
Chl ori nated sol vents, when al l owed to com-
bi ne wi th mi nute amounts of water often found
i n operati ng hydraul i c systems, change chemi cal l y
i nto hydrochl ori c aci ds. These aci ds then attack
i nter nal metal l i c sur faces i n the system,
parti cul arl y those that are ferrous, and produce
a severe rust-l i ke corrosi on. NAVAI R 01-1A-17
and NSTM, chapter 556, contai n tabl es of
sol vents for use i n hydraul i c mai ntenance.
FOREIGN-FLUIDS CONTAMINATION.—
Hydraul i c systems can be seri ousl y contami nated
by forei gn fl ui ds other than water and chl ori nated
sol vents. Thi s type of contami nati on i s general l y
a resul t of l ube oi l , engi ne fuel , or i ncorrect
hydraul i c fl ui d bei ng i ntroduced i nadvertentl y i nto
the system duri ng servi ci ng. The effects of such
contami nati on depend on the contami nant, the
amount i n the system, and how l ong i t has been
present.
NOTE: I t i s extremel y i mportant that the
di fferent types of hydraul i c fl ui ds are not mi xed
i n one system. I f di fferent type hydraul i c fl ui ds
are mi xed, the characteri sti cs of the fl ui d requi red
for a speci fi c pur pose ar e l ost. Mi xi ng the
di fferent types of fl ui ds usual l y wi l l resul t i n a
heavy, gummy deposi t that wi l l cl og passages and
requi re a major cl eani ng. I n addi ti on, seal s and
packi ng i nstal l ed for use wi th one fl ui d usual l y
are not compati bl e wi th other fl ui ds and damage
to the seal s wi l l resul t.
ORIGIN OF CONTAMINATION
Recal l that contami nants are produced from
wear and chemi cal r eacti ons, i ntr oduced by
i mproper mai ntenance, and i nadvertentl y i ntro-
duced duri ng servi ci ng. These methods of con-
tami nant i ntroducti on fal l i nto one of the four
major areas of contami nant ori gi n.
1. Parti cl es ori gi nal l y contai ned i n the system.
These parti cl es ori gi nate duri ng the fabri cati on
and storage of system components. Wel d spatter
and sl ag may remai n i n wel ded system com-
ponents, especi al l y i n r eser voi r s and pi pe
assembl i es. The presence i s mi ni mi zed by proper
desi gn. For exampl e, seam-wel ded overl appi ng
joi nts are preferred, and arc wel di ng of open
secti ons i s usual l y avoi ded. Hi dden passages i n
val ve bodi es, i naccessi bl e to sand bl asti ng or other
methods of cl eani ng, are the mai n source of
i ntroducti on of core sand. Even the most careful l y
desi gned and cl eaned casti ng wi l l al most i nvari -
abl y free some sand parti cl es under the acti on of
hydraul i c pressure. Rubber hose assembl i es al ways
contai n some l oose par ti cl es. Most of these
parti cl es can be removed by fl ushi ng the hose
befor e i nstal l ati on; however , some par ti cl es
wi thstand cl eani ng and are freed l ater by the
acti on of hydraul i c pressure.
Parti cl es of l i nt from cl eani ng rags can
cause abrasi ve damage i n hydraul i c systems,
especi al l y to cl osel y fi tted movi ng par ts. I n
addi ti on, l i nt i n a hydraul i c system packs easi l y
i nto cl earances between packi ng and contacti ng
sur faces, l eadi ng to component l eakage and
decreased effi ci ency. Li nt al so hel ps cl og fi l ters
pr ematur el y. The use of the pr oper wi pi ng
materi al s wi l l reduce or el i mi nate l i nt contami na-
ti on. The wi pi ng materi al s to be used for a gi ven
appl i cati on wi l l be determi ned by
a.
b.
c.
substances bei ng wi ped or absorbed,
the amount of absorbency requi red,
and/or
the requi red degree of cl eanl i ness.
These wi pi ng mater i al s ar e categor i zed for
contami nati on control by the degree of l i nt or
debri s that they may deposi t duri ng use. For
i nter nal hydr aul i c r epai r s, thi s factor i tsel f
wi l l determi ne the choi ce of wi pi ng materi al .
3-8
NAVAI R 01-1A-17 and NSTM, chapter 556,
provi des i nformati on on l ow-l i nt wi pi ng cl oths.
Rust or corrosi on i ni ti al l y present i n a
hydr aul i c system can usual l y be tr aced to
i mproper storage of materi al s and component
parts. Parti cl es can range i n si ze from l arge fl akes
to abrasi ves of mi croscopi c di mensi ons. Proper
preservati on of stored parts i s hel pful i n el i mi -
nati ng corrosi on.
2. Parti cl es i ntroduced from outsi de sources.
Parti cl es can be i ntroduced i nto hydraul i c systems
at poi nts where ei ther the l i qui d or certai n worki ng
parts of the system (for exampl e, pi ston rods) are
at l east i n temporary contact wi th the atmosphere.
The most common contami nant i ntr oducti on
areas are at the refi l l and breather openi ngs,
cyl i nder rod packi ngs, and open l i nes where
components are removed for repai r or repl ace-
ment. Contami nati on ari si ng from carel essness
duri ng servi ci ng operati ons i s mi ni mi zed by the
use of fi l ters i n the system fi l l l i nes and fi nger
str ai ner s i n the fi l l er adapter of hydr aul i c
reservoi rs. Hydr aul i c cyl i nder pi ston r ods
i ncorporate wi per ri ngs and dust seal s to prevent
the dust that settl es on the pi ston rod duri ng i ts
outward stroke from enteri ng the system when the
pi ston rod retracts. Caps and pl ugs are avai l abl e
and shoul d be used to seal off the open l i nes when
a comp on en t i s r emov ed f or r ep a i r or
repl acement.
3. Parti cl es created wi thi n the system duri ng
operati on. Contami nants created duri ng system
operati on are of two general types—mechani cal
and chemi cal . Parti cl es of a mechani cal nature are
formed by weari ng of parts i n fri cti onal contact,
such as pumps, cyl i nders, and packi ng gl and
components. These wear parti cl es can vary from
l arge chunks of packi ngs down to steel shavi ngs
that are too smal l to be trapped by fi l ters.
The major source of chemi cal contami -
nants i n hydraul i c l i qui d i s oxi dati on. These
contami nants are formed under hi gh pressure and
temperatures and are promoted by the chemi cal
acti on of water and ai r and of metal s l i ke copper
and i ron oxi des. Li qui d-oxi dati on products appear
i ni ti al l y as organi c aci ds, asphal ti nes, gums,
and varni shes—someti mes combi ned wi th dust
parti cl es as sl udge. Li qui d-sol ubl e oxi dati on
products tend to i ncrease l i qui d vi scosi ty, whi l e
i nsol ubl e types separate and form sedi ments,
especi al l y on col der el ements such as heat
exchanger coi l s.
Li qui ds contai ni ng anti oxi dants have l i ttl e
tendency to form gums and sl udge under normal
operati ng condi ti ons. However, as the tempera-
ture i ncreases, resi stance to oxi dati on di mi ni shes.
Hydraul i c l i qui ds that have been subjected to
excessi vel y hi gh temperatures (above 250°F for
most l i qui ds) wi l l break down, l eavi ng mi nute
parti cl es of asphal ti nes suspended i n the l i qui ds.
The l i qui d changes to brown i n col or and i s
referred to as decomposed l i qui d. Thi s expl ai ns
the i mportance of keepi ng the hydraul i c l i qui d
temperature bel ow speci fi c l evel s.
The second contami nant-produci ng chemi -
cal acti on i n hydraul i c l i qui ds i s one that permi ts
these l i qui ds to react wi th certai n types of rubber.
Thi s reacti on causes structural changes i n the
rubber, turni ng i t bri ttl e, and fi nal l y causi ng i ts
compl ete di si ntegrati on. For thi s reason, the
compati bi l i ty of system l i qui d wi th seal s and hose
materi al i s a very i mportant factor.
4. Parti cl es i ntroduced by forei gn l i qui ds. One
of the most common forei gn-fl ui d contami nants
i s water, especi al l y i n hydraul i c systems that
requi re petrol eum-based l i qui ds. Water, whi ch
enters even the most careful l y desi gned system by
condensati on of atmospheri c moi sture, normal l y
settl es to the bottom of the r eser voi r . Oi l
movement i n the reservoi r di sperses the water i nto
fi ne dr opl ets, and agi tati on of the l i qui d i n
the pump and i n hi gh-speed passages forms an
oi l -water-ai r emul si on. Thi s emul si on normal l y
separates duri ng the rest peri od i n the system
r eser voi r ; but when fi ne dust and cor r osi on
parti cl es are present, the emul si on i s chemi cal l y
changed by hi gh pr essur es i nto sl udge. The
damagi ng acti on of sl udge expl ai ns the need for
effecti ve fi l trati on, as wel l as the need for water
separati on qual i ti es i n hydraul i c l i qui ds.
CONTAMINATION CONTROL
Mai ntai ni ng hydraul i c fl ui d wi thi n al l owabl e
contami nati on l i mi ts for both water and parti cu-
l ate matter i s cruci al to the care and protecti on
of hydraul i c equi pment.
Fi l ters (di scussed i n chapter 9) wi l l provi de
adequate control of the parti cul ar contami nati on
pr obl em dur i ng al l nor mal hydr aul i c system
operati ons i f the fi l trati on system i s i nstal l ed
properl y and fi l ter mai ntenance i s performed
properl y. Fi l ter mai ntenance i ncl udes changi ng
el ements at proper i nterval s. Control of the si ze
and amount of contami nati on enteri ng the system
fr om any other sour ce i s the r esponsi bi l i ty
3-9
of the personnel who servi ce and mai ntai n the
equi pment. Duri ng i nstal l ati on, mai ntenance, and
repai r of hydraul i c equi pment, the retenti on of
cl eanl i ness of the system i s of par amount
i mpor tance for subsequent sati sfactor y per -
for mance.
The fol l owi ng mai ntenance and ser vi ci ng
procedures shoul d be adhered to at al l ti mes to
provi de proper contami nati on control :
1. Al l tool s and the work area (workbenches
and test equi pment) shoul d be kept i n a cl ean,
di rt-free condi ti on.
2. A sui tabl e contai ner shoul d al ways be
provi ded to recei ve the hydraul i c l i qui d that i s
spi l l ed duri ng component removal or di sassembl y.
NOTE: The reuse of drai ned hydraul i c
l i qui d i s prohi bi ted i n most hydraul i c systems. I n
some l arge-capaci ty systems the reuse of fl ui d i s
permi tted. When l i qui d i s drai ned from these
systems for reuse, i t must be stored i n a cl ean and
sui tabl e contai ner. The l i qui d must be strai ned
and/or fi l tered when i t i s returned to the system
r eser voi r .
3. Befor e hydr aul i c l i nes or fi tti ngs ar e
di sconnected, the affected area shoul d be cl eaned
wi th an approved dry-cl eani ng sol vent.
4. Al l hydraul i c l i nes and fi tti ngs shoul d be
capped or pl ugged i mmedi atel y after di scon-
necti on.
5. Befor e any hydr aul i c components ar e
assembl ed, thei r parts shoul d be washed wi th an
approved dry-cl eani ng sol vent.
6. After the par ts have been cl eaned i n
dry-cl eani ng sol vent, they shoul d be dr i ed
thor oughl y wi th cl ean, l ow-l i nt cl oths and
l ubri cated wi th the recommended preservati ve or
hydraul i c l i qui d before assembl y.
NOTE: Onl y cl ean, l ow l i nt type I or I I
cl oths as appropri ate shoul d be used to wi pe or
dry component parts.
7. Al l packi ngs and gaskets shoul d be repl aced
duri ng the assembl y procedures.
8. Al l parts shoul d be connected wi th care to
avoi d stri ppi ng metal sl i vers from threaded areas.
Al l fi tti ngs and l i nes shoul d be i nstal l ed and
tor qued accor di ng to appl i cabl e techni cal
i nstr ucti ons.
9. Al l hydraul i c servi ci ng equi pment shoul d
be kept cl ean and i n good operati ng condi ti on.
Some hydraul i c fl ui d speci fi cati ons, such as
MI L-H-6083, MI L-H-46170, and MI L-H-83282,
contai n parti cl e contami nati on l i mi ts that are so
l ow that the products are packaged under cl ean
room condi ti ons. Very sl i ght amounts of di rt,
rust, and metal parti cl es wi l l cause them to
fai l the speci fi cati on l i mi t for contami nati on.
Si nce these fl ui ds are usual l y al l packaged i n
hermeti cal l y seal ed contai ners, the act of openi ng
a contai ner may al l ow more contami nants i nto the
fl ui d than the speci fi cati on al l ows. Therefore,
extreme care shoul d be taken i n the handl i ng of
these fl ui ds. I n openi ng the contai ner for use,
observati on, or tests, i t i s extremel y i mportant that
the can be opened and handl ed i n a cl ean
envi ronment. The area of the contai ner to be
opened shoul d be fl ushed wi th fi l tered sol vent
(petrol eum ether or i sopropyl al cohol ), and the
devi ce used for openi ng the contai ner shoul d be
thoroughl y ri nsed wi th fi l tered sol vent. After the
contai ner i s opened, a smal l amount of the
materi al shoul d be poured from the contai ner and
di sposed of pr i or to pour i ng the sampl e for
anal ysi s. Once a contai ner i s opened, i f the
contents are not total l y used, the unused porti on
shoul d be di scarded. Si nce the l evel of con-
tami nati on of a system contai ni ng these fl ui ds
must be kept l ow, mai ntenance on the system’s
components must be per for med i n a cl ean
envi ronment commonl y known as a control l ed
envi ronment work center. Speci fi c i nformati on
about the control l ed envi ronment work center can
be found i n the Aviation Hydraulics Manual,
NAVAI R 01-1A-17.
HYDRAULIC FLUID SAMPLING
The condi ti on of a hydraul i c system, as wel l
as i ts probabl e future performance, can best be
determi ned by anal yzi ng the operati ng fl ui d. Of
parti cul ar i nterest are any changes i n the physi cal
and chemi cal properti es of the fl ui d and excessi ve
parti cul ate or water contami nati on, ei ther of
whi ch i ndi cates i mpendi ng troubl e.
Excessi ve parti cul ate contami nati on of the
fl ui d i ndi cates that the fi l ters are not keepi ng the
system cl ean. Thi s can resul t from i mproper fi l ter
mai ntenance, i nadequate fi l ters, or excessi ve
ongoi ng corrosi on and wear.
Oper ati ng equi pment shoul d be sampl ed
accordi ng to i nstructi ons gi ven i n the operati ng
3-10
and mai ntenance manual for the par ti cul ar
equi pment or as di rected by the MRCs.
1. Al l sampl es shoul d be taken from ci rcu-
l ati ng systems, or i mmedi atel y upon shutdown,
whi l e the hydraul i c fl ui d i s wi thi n 5°C (9°F) of
normal system operati ng temperature. Systems
not up to temperature may provi de nonrepre-
sentati ve sampl es of system di r t and water
content, and such sampl es shoul d ei ther be
avoi ded or so i ndi cated on the anal ysi s report. The
fi rst oi l comi ng from the sampl i ng poi nt shoul d
be di scarded, si nce i t can be very di rty and does
not represent the system. As a general rul e, a
vol ume of oi l equi val ent to one to two ti mes the
vol ume of oi l contai ned i n the sampl i ng l i ne and
val ve shoul d be drai ned before the sampl e i s
taken.
2. I deal l y, the sampl e shoul d be taken from
a val ve i nstal l ed speci fi cal l y for sampl i ng. When
sampl i ng val ves are not i nstal l ed, the taki ng of
sampl es from l ocati ons where sedi ment or water
can col l ect, such as dead ends of pi pi ng, tank
drai ns, and l ow poi nts of l arge pi pes and fi l ter
bowl s, shoul d be avoi ded i f possi bl e. I f sampl es
are taken from pi pe drai ns, suffi ci ent fl ui d shoul d
be drai ned before the sampl e i s taken to ensure
that the sampl e actual l y represents the system.
Sampl es are not to be taken from the tops of
reservoi rs or other l ocati ons where the contami -
nati on l evel s are normal l y l ow.
3. Unl ess otherwi se speci fi ed, a mi ni mum of
one sampl e shoul d be taken for each system
l ocated whol l y wi thi n one compar tment. For
shi p’s systems extendi ng i nto two or mor e
compartments, a second sampl e i s requi red. An
excepti on to thi s r equi r ement i s submar i ne
external hydraul i c systems, whi ch requi re onl y one
sampl e. Ori gi nal sampl e poi nts shoul d be l abel ed
and the same sampl e poi nts used for successi ve
sampl i ng. I f possi bl e, the fol l owi ng sampl i ng
l ocati ons shoul d be sel ected:
a. A l ocati on that provi des a sampl e
representati ve of fl ui d bei ng suppl i ed
to system components
b. A return l i ne as cl ose to the suppl y tank
as practi cal but upstream of any return
l i ne fi l ter
c. For systems requi ri ng a second sampl e,
a l ocati on as far from the pump as
practi cal
Operati on of the sampl i ng poi nt shoul d not
i ntroduce any si gni fi cant amount of external
contami nants i nto the col l ected fl ui d. Addi ti onal
i nformati on on hydraul i c fl ui d sampl i ng can be
found i n NAVAI R 01-1A-17.
Most fl ui d sampl es are submi tted to shore
l aboratori es for anal ysi s. NAVAI R 17-15-50-1
and NSTM, chapter 556, contai n detai l s on
col l ecti ng, l abel i ng, and shi ppi ng sampl es.
NAVAI R 01-1A-17 contai ns procedures for
uni t l evel , both aboard shi p and ashore, testi ng
of avi ati on hydraul i c fl ui ds for water, parti cul ate,
and chl ori nated sol vent contami nati on.
3-11
CHAPTER 4
PUMPS
Pumps are used for some essenti al servi ces i n
the Navy. Pumps suppl y water to the boi l ers, draw
condensati on from the condensers, suppl y sea
water to the fi remai n, ci rcul ate cool i ng water for
cool ers and condensers, pump out bi l ges, transfer
fuel , suppl y water to the di sti l l i ng pl ants, and
serve many other purposes. Al though the pumps
di scussed i n thi s chapter are used pri mari l y i n
hydraul i c systems, the pri nci pl es of operati on
appl y as wel l to the pumps used i n other systems.
PURPOSE
The purpose of a hydraul i c pump i s to suppl y
a fl ow of fl ui d to a hydraul i c system. The pump
does not create system pressure, si nce pressure can
be created onl y by a resi stance to the fl ow. As the
pump provi des fl ow, i t transmi ts a force to the
fl ui d. As the fl ui d fl ow encounters resi stance, thi s
force i s changed i nto a pressure. Resi stance to
fl ow i s the resul t of a restri cti on or obstructi on
i n the path of the fl ow. Thi s restri cti on i s normal l y
the work accompl i shed by the hydraul i c system,
but can al so be restri cti ons of l i nes, fi tti ngs, and
val ves wi thi n the system. Thus, the pressure i s
control l ed by the l oad i mposed on the system or
the acti on of a pressure-regul ati ng devi ce.
OPERATION
A pump must have a conti nuous suppl y of
fl ui d avai l abl e to the i nl et port to suppl y fl ui d to
the system. As the pump forces fl ui d through the
outl et port, a parti al vacuum or l ow-pressure area
i s created at the i nl et port. When the pressure at
the i nl et port of the pump i s l ower than the l ocal
atmospheri c pressure, atmospheri c pressure acti ng
on the fl ui d i n the reservoi r forces the fl ui d i nto
the pump’s i nl et. I f the pump i s l ocated at
a l evel l ower than the reservoi r, the force of
gravi ty suppl ements atmospheri c pressure on the
reservoi r. Ai rcraft and mi ssi l es that operate at
hi gh al ti tudes are equi pped wi th pressuri zed
hydr aul i c r eser voi r s to compensate for l ow
atmospher i c pr essur e encounter ed at hi gh
al ti tudes.
PERFORMANCE
Pumps are normal l y rated by thei r vol umetri c
output and pressure. Vol umetri c output i s the
amount of fl ui d a pump can del i ver to i ts outl et
port i n a certai n peri od of ti me at a gi ven speed.
Vol umetri c output i s usual l y expressed i n gal l ons
per mi nute (gpm). Si nce changes i n pump speed
affect vol umetri c output, some pumps are rated
by thei r di spl acement. Pump di spl acement i s the
amount of fl ui d the pump can del i ver per cycl e.
Si nce most pumps use a rotary dri ve, di spl acement
i s usual l y expressed i n terms of cubi c i nches per
revol uti on.
As we stated previ ousl y, a pump does not
create pressure. However, the pressure devel oped
by the restri cti ons i n the system i s a factor that
affects the vol umetri c output of the pump. As the
system pressure i ncreases, the vol umetri c output
decreases. Thi s drop i n vol umetri c output i s the
resul t of an i ncrease i n the amount of i nternal
l eakage from the outl et si de to the i nl et si de of
the pump. Thi s l eakage i s referred to as pump
sl i ppage and i s a factor that must be consi dered
i n al l pumps. Thi s expl ai ns why most pumps are
rated i n terms of vol umetri c output at a gi ven
pressure.
CLASSIFICATION OF PUMPS
Many di fferent methods are used to cl assi fy
pumps. Terms such as nonpositive displacement,
posi ti ve di spl acement, fi xed di spl acement,
variable displacement, fixed delivery, variable
delivery, constant volume, and others are used to
descri be pumps. The fi rst two of these terms
descri be the fundamental di vi si on of pumps; that
4-1
i s, al l pumps are ei ther nonposi ti ve di spl acement
or posi ti ve di spl acement.
Basi cal l y, pumps that di scharge l i qui d i n a
conti nuous fl ow are referred to as nonposi ti ve
di spl acement, and those that di scharge vol umes
separated by a peri od of no di scharge are referred
to as posi ti ve di spl acement.
Al though the nonposi ti ve-di spl acement pump
normal l y produces a conti nuous fl ow, i t does not
provi de a posi ti ve seal agai nst sl i ppage; therefore,
the output of the pump vari es as system pressure
var i es. I n other wor ds, the vol ume of fl ui d
del i vered for each cycl e depends on the resi stance
to the fl ow. Thi s type of pump produces a force
on the fl ui d that i s constant for each parti cul ar
speed of the pump. Resi stance i n the di scharge
l i ne produces a force i n a di recti on opposi te the
di recti on of the force produced by the pump.
When these forces are equal , the fl ui d i s i n a state
of equi l i bri um and does not fl ow.
I f the outl et of a nonposi ti ve-di spl acement
pump i s compl etel y cl osed, the di scharge pressure
wi l l i ncrease to the maxi mum for that parti cul ar
pump at a speci fi c speed. Nothi ng more wi l l
happen except that the pump wi l l churn the fl ui d
and produce heat.
I n contrast to the nonposi ti ve-di spl acement
pump, the posi ti ve-di spl acement pump provi des
a posi ti ve i nternal seal agai nst sl i ppage. Therefore,
thi s type of pump del i vers a defi ni te vol ume of
fl ui d for each cycl e of pump operati on, regardl ess
of the resi stance offered, provi ded the capaci ty
of the power uni t dr i vi ng the pump i s not
exceeded. I f the outl et of a posi ti ve-di spl acement
pump were compl etel y cl osed, the pressure woul d
i nstantaneousl y i ncrease to the poi nt at whi ch the
uni t dri vi ng the pump woul d stal l or somethi ng
woul d break.
Posi ti ve-di spl acement pumps ar e fur ther
cl assi fi ed as fi xed di spl acement or var i abl e
di spl acement. The fi xed-di spl acement pump
del i vers the same amount of fl ui d on each cycl e.
The output vol ume can be changed onl y by
changi ng the speed of the pump. When a pump
of thi s type i s used i n a hydraul i c system, a
pressure regul ator (unl oadi ng val ve) must be
i ncorporated i n the system. A pressure regul ator
or unl oadi ng val ve i s used i n a hydraul i c system
to control the amount of pressure i n the system
and to unl oad or rel i eve the pump when the
desi red pressure i s reached. Thi s acti on of a
pressure regul ator keeps the pump from worki ng
agai nst a l oad when the hydraul i c system i s at
maxi mum pressure and not functi oni ng. Duri ng
thi s ti me the pressure regul ator bypasses the fl ui d
from the pump back to the reservoi r. (See chapter
6 for mor e detai l ed i nfor mati on concer ni ng
pressure regul ators.) The pump conti nues to
del i ver a fi xed vol ume of fl ui d duri ng each cycl e.
Such terms as fixed delivery, constant delivery,
and constant volume are al l used to i denti fy the
fi xed-di spl acement pump.
The var i abl e-di spl acement pump i s con-
structed so that the di spl acement per cycl e can be
vari ed. The di spl acement i s vari ed through the use
of an i nternal control l i ng devi ce. Some of these
control l i ng devi ces are descri bed l ater i n thi s
chapter.
Pumps may al so be cl assi fi ed accordi ng to the
speci fi c desi gn used to create the fl ow of fl ui d.
Practi cal l y al l hydraul i c pumps fal l wi thi n three
desi gn cl assi fi cati ons-centr i fugal , r otar y, and
reci procati ng. The use of centri fugal pumps i n
hydraul i cs i s l i mi ted and wi l l not be di scussed i n
thi s text.
ROTARY PUMPS
Al l rotary pumps have rotati ng parts whi ch
trap the fl ui d at the i nl et (sucti on) port and force
i t through the di scharge port i nto the system.
Gears, screws, l obes, and vanes are commonl y
used to move the fl ui d. Rotary pumps are posi ti ve
di spl acement of the fi xed di spl acement type.
Rotary pumps are desi gned wi th very smal l
cl earances between rotati ng parts and stati onary
parts to mi ni mi ze sl i ppage from the di scharge
si de back to the sucti on si de. They are desi gned
to oper ate at r el ati vel y moder ate speeds.
Operati ng at hi gh speeds causes erosi on and
excessi ve wear whi ch r esul ts i n i ncr eased
cl earances.
There are numerous types of rotary pumps
and vari ous methods of cl assi fi cati on. They may
be cl assi fi ed by the shaft posi ti on—ei ther
verti cal l y or hori zontal l y mounted; the type of
dri ve—el ectri c motor, gasol i ne engi ne, and so
forth; thei r manufacturer’s name; or thei r servi ce
appl i cati on. However, cl assi fi cati on of rotary
pumps i s general l y made accordi ng to the type of
rotati ng el ement. A few of the most common
types of r otar y pumps ar e di scussed i n the
fol l owi ng paragraphs.
GEAR PUMPS
Gear pumps are cl assi fi ed as ei ther external
or i nternal gear pumps. I n external gear pumps
the teeth of both gears project outward from thei r
4-2
centers (fi g, 4-1). External pumps may use spur
gears, herri ngbone gears, or hel i cal gears to move
the fl ui d. I n an i nternal gear pump, the teeth of
one gear project outward, but the teeth of the
other gear project i nward toward the center of the
pump (fi g. 4-2, vi ew A). I nternal gear pumps may
be ei ther centered or off-centered.
Spur Gear Pump
The spur gear pump (fi g. 4-1) consi sts of two
meshed gears whi ch revol ve i n a housi ng. The
dri ve gear i n the i l l ustrati on i s turned by a dri ve
shaft whi ch i s attached to the power source. The
cl earances between the gear teeth as they mesh and
between the teeth and the pump housi ng are very
smal l .
The i nl et port i s connected to the fl ui d suppl y
l i ne, and the outl et port i s connected to the
pressure l i ne. I n fi gure 4-1 the dri ve gear i s turni ng
i n a countercl ockwi se di recti on, and the dri ven
(i dl e) gear i s turni ng i n a cl ockwi se di recti on. As
Figure 4-2.—Off-centered internal gear pump.
the teeth pass the i nl et port, l i qui d i s trapped
between the teeth and the housi ng. Thi s l i qui d i s
carri ed around the housi ng to the outl et port. As
the teeth mesh agai n, the l i qui d between the teeth
i s pushed i nto the outl et por t. Thi s acti on
produces a posi ti ve fl ow of l i qui d i nto the system.
A shearpi n or shear secti on i s i ncorporated i n the
dri ve shaft. Thi s i s to protect the power source
Figure 4-1.—Gear-type rotary pump.
4-3
or reducti on gears i f the pump fai l s because of
i s pumped i n the same manner as i n the spur gear
excessi ve l oad or jammi ng of parts.
pump. However, i n the herri ngbone pump, each
set of teeth begi ns i ts fl ui d di scharge phase before
the pr evi ous set of teeth has compl eted i ts
Herringbone Gear Pump
di scharge phase. Thi s over l appi ng and the
rel ati vel y l arger space at the center of the gears
The herri ngbone gear pump (fi g. 4-3) i s a
tend to mi ni mi ze pul sati ons and gi ve a steadi er
modi fi cati on of the spur gear pump. The l i qui d
fl ow than the spur gear pump.
Figure 4-3.—Herringbone gear pump.
4-4
He lic al Ge ar Pump
The helical gear pump (fig. 4-4) is still
another modification of the spur gear pump.
Because of the helical gear design, the
overlapping of successive discharges from
spaces between the teeth is even greater than it
is in the herringbone gear pump; therefore, the
discharge flow is smoother. Since the discharge
flow is smooth in the helical pump, the gears
can be designed with a small number of large
teeth—thus allowing increased capacity without
sacrificing smoothness of flow.
The pumping gears of this type of pump are
driven by a set of timing and driving gears that
help maintain the required close clearances
without actual metallic contact of the pumping
gears. (Metallic contact between the teeth of the
pumping gears would provide a tighter seal
against slippage; however, it would cause rapid
wear of the teeth, because foreign matter in the
liquid would be present on the contact
surfaces.)
Roller bearings at both ends of the gear shafts
maintain proper alignment and minimize the
friction loss in the transmission of power. Suitable
packings are used to prevent leakage around the
shaft.
Off-c e nt e re d Int e rnal Ge ar Pump
This pump is illustrated in figure 4-2, view B.
The drive gear is attached directly to the drive shaft
of the pump and is placed off-center in relation to
the internal gear. The two gears mesh on one side
of the pump, between the suction (inlet) and
discharge ports. On the opposite side of the
chamber, a crescent-shaped form fitted to a close
tolerance fills the space between the two gears.
The rotation of the center gear by the drive
shaft causes the outside gear to rotate, since the
two are meshed. Everything in the chamber rotates
except the crescent. This causes liquid to be
trapped in the gear spaces as they pass the
crescent. The liquid is carried from the suction port
to the discharge port where it is forced out of the
pump by the meshing of the gears. The size of the
crescent that separates the internal and external
gears determines the volume delivery of the pump.
A small crescent allows more volume of liquid per
revolution than a larger crescent.
Figure 4 -4 . —He lic al ge ar pump.
4 -5
Centered Internal Gear Pump
Another desi gn of i nter nal gear pump i s
i l l ustrated i n fi gures 4-5 and 4-6. Thi s pump
consi sts of a pai r of gear-shaped el ements, one
wi thi n the other, l ocated i n the pump chamber.
The i nner gear i s connected to the dri ve shaft of
the power source.
The operati on of thi s type of i nternal gear
pump i s i l l ustrated i n fi gure 4-6. To si mpl i fy the
expl anati on, the teeth of the i nner gear and the
spaces between the teeth of the outer gear are
numbered. Note that the i nner gear has one l ess
tooth than the outer gear. The tooth form of each
gear i s rel ated to that of the other i n such a way
that each tooth of the i nner gear i s al ways i n
sl i di ng contact wi th the surface of the outer gear.
Each tooth of the i nner gear meshes wi th the outer
gear at just one poi nt duri ng each revol uti on. I n
the i l l ustrati on, thi s poi nt i s at the X. I n vi ew A,
tooth 1 of the i nner gear i s meshed wi th space 1
of the outer gear. As the gears conti nue to rotate
i n a cl ockwi se di recti on and the teeth approach
poi nt X, tooth 6 of the i nner gear wi l l mesh wi th
space 7 of the outer gear, tooth 5 wi th space 6,
and so on. Duri ng thi s revol uti on, tooth 1 wi l l
mesh wi th space 2; and duri ng the fol l owi ng
revol uti on, tooth 1 wi l l mesh wi th space 3. As a
resul t, the outer gear wi l l rotate at just si x-sevenths
the speed of the i nner gear.
At one si de of the poi nt of mesh, pockets of
i ncreasi ng si ze are formed as the gears rotate,
whi l e on the other si de the pockets decrease i n si ze.
I n fi gure 4-6, the pockets on the ri ght-hand si de
of the drawi ngs are i ncreasi ng i n si ze toward the
bottom of the i l l ustrati on, whi l e those on the
l eft-hand si de are decreasi ng i n si ze toward the
top of the i l l ustr ati on. The i ntak e si de of
the pump woul d therefore be on the ri ght and the
di scharge si de on the l eft. I n fi gure 4-5, si nce the
ri ght-hand si de of the drawi ng was turned over
to show the ports, the i ntake and di scharge appear
Figure 4-5.—Centered internal gear pump.
Figure 4-6.—Principles of operation of the internal gear
pump.
reversed. Actual l y, A i n one drawi ng covers A i n
the other.
LOBE PUMP
The l obe
operati on as
pump uses the same pri nci pl e of
the external gear pump descri bed
4-6
Figure 4-7.—Lobe pump.
previ ousl y. The l obes are consi derabl y l arger than
gear teeth, but there are onl y two or three l obes
on each rotor. A three-l obe pump i s i l l ustrated
i n fi gure 4-7. The two el ements are rotated, one
di rectl y dri ven by the source of power, and the
other through ti mi ng gears. As the el ements
rotate, l i qui d i s trapped between two l obes of each
rotor and the wal l s of the pump chamber and
car r i ed ar ound fr om the sucti on si de to the
di scharge si de of the pump. As l i qui d l eaves the
sucti on chamber, the pressure i n the sucti on
chamber i s l owered, and addi ti onal l i qui d i s forced
i nto the chamber from the reservoi r.
The l obes ar e constr ucted so ther e i s a
conti nuous seal at the poi nts where they meet at
the center of the pump. The l obes of the pump
i l l ustrated i n fi gure 4-7 are fi tted wi th smal l vanes
at the outer edge to i mprove the seal of the pump.
Al though these vanes are mechani cal l y hel d i n
thei r sl ots, they are, to some extent, free to move
outward. Centri fugal force keeps the vanes snug
agai nst the chamber and the other r otati ng
members.
SCREW PUMP
Screw pumps for power transmi ssi on systems
are general l y used onl y on submari nes. Al though
l ow i n effi ci ency and expensi ve, the screw pump
i s sui tabl e for hi gh pressures (3000 psi ), and
del i ver s fl ui d wi th l i ttl e noi se or pr essur e
pul sati on.
Screw pumps are avai l abl e i n several di fferent
desi gns; however, they al l operate i n a si mi l ar
manner. I n a fi xed-di spl acement rotary-type screw
pump (fi g. 4-8, vi ew A), fl ui d i s propel l ed axi al l y
Figure 4-8.—Screw pumps.
4-7
i n a constant, uni form fl ow through the acti on
of just three movi ng parts-a power rotor and two
i dl er rotors. The power rotor i s the onl y dri ven
el ement, extendi ng outsi de the pump casi ng for
power connecti ons to an el ectri cal motor. The
i dl er rotors are turned by the power rotor through
the acti on of the meshi ng threads. The fl ui d
pumped between the meshi ng hel i cal threads of
the i dl er and power rotors provi des a protecti ve
fi l m to prevent metal -to-metal contact. The i dl er
rotors perform no work; therefore, they do not
need to be connected by gears to transmi t power.
The encl osures formed by the meshi ng of the
rotors i nsi de the cl ose cl earance housi ng contai n
the fl ui d bei ng pumped. As the rotors turn, these
encl osures move axi al l y, provi di ng a conti nuous
fl ow. Effecti ve per for mance i s based on the
fol l owi ng factors:
1. The rol l i ng acti on obtai ned wi th the thread
desi gn of the rotors i s responsi bl e for the very
qui et pump operati on. The symmetri cal pressure
l oadi ng around the power rotor el i mi nates the
need for radi al beari ngs because there are no
radi al l oads. The cartri dge-type bal l beari ng i n the
pump posi ti ons the power rotor for proper seal
operati on. The axi al l oads on the rotors created
by di scharge pressure are hydraul i cal l y bal anced.
2. The key to screw pump performance i s the
operati on of the i dl er rotors i n thei r housi ng
bores. The i dl er rotors generate a hydrodynami c
fi l m to support themsel ves i n thei r bores l i ke
journal beari ngs. Si nce thi s fi l m i s sel f-generated,
i t depends on three operati ng characteri sti cs of
the pump—speed, di scharge pressure, and fl ui d
vi scosi ty. The strength of the fi l m i s i ncreased by
i ncreasi ng the operati ng speed, by decreasi ng
pressure, or by i ncreasi ng the fl ui d vi scosi ty. Thi s
i s why screw pump performance capabi l i ti es are
based on pump speed, di scharge pressure, and
fl ui d vi scosi ty.
The suppl y l i ne i s connected at the center of
the pump housi ng i n some pumps (fi g. 4-8, vi ew
B). Fl ui d enters i nto the pump’s sucti on port,
whi ch opens i nto chambers at the ends of the
screw assembl y. As the screws turn, the fl ui d fl ows
between the threads at each end of the assembl y.
The threads carry the fl ui d al ong wi thi n the
housi ng toward the center of the pump to the
di scharge port.
VANE PUMP
Vane-type hydraul i c pumps general l y have
ci rcul arl y or el l i pti cal l y shaped i nteri or and fl at
end pl ates. (Fi gure 4-9 i l l ustrates a vane pump
wi th a ci rcul ar i nteri or.) A sl otted rotor i s fi xed
to a shaft that enters the housi ng cavi ty through
one of the end pl ates. A number of smal l
rectangul ar pl ates or vanes are set i nto the sl ots
of the rotor. As the rotor turns, centri fugal force
causes the outer edge of each vane to sl i de al ong
the surface of the housi ng cavi ty as the vanes sl i de
i n and out of the rotor sl ots. The numerous
cavi ti es, formed by the vanes, the end pl ates, the
housi ng, and the rotor, enl arge and shri nk as the
rotor and vane assembl y rotates. An i nl et port i s
i nstal l ed i n the housi ng so fl ui d may fl ow i nto the
cavi ti es as they enl arge. An outl et port i s provi ded
to al l ow the fl ui d to fl ow out of the cavi ti es as
they become smal l .
The pump shown i n fi gure 4-9 i s referred to
as an unbal anced pump because al l of the
pumpi ng acti on takes pl ace on one si de of the
rotor. Thi s causes a si de l oad on the rotor. Some
vane pumps are constructed wi th an el l i pti cal l y
shaped housi ng that forms two separate pumpi ng
areas on opposi te si des of the rotor. Thi s cancel s
out the si de l oads; such pumps are referred to as
bal anced vane.
Usual l y vane pumps are fi xed di spl acement
and pump onl y i n one di r ecti on. Ther e ar e,
however , some desi gns of vane pumps that
provi de vari abl e fl ow. Vane pumps are general l y
restri cted to servi ce where pressure demand does
not exceed 2000 psi . Wear rates, vi brati on, and
noi se l evel s i ncrease rapi dl y i n vane pumps as
pressure demands exceed 2000 psi .
RECIPROCATING PUMPS
The term reciprocating i s defi ned as back-and-
forth moti on. I n the reci procati ng pump i t i s thi s
Figure 4-9.—Vane pump.
4-8
back -and-for th moti on of pi stons i nsi de of
cyl i nders that provi des the fl ow of fl ui d. Reci pro-
cati ng pumps, l i ke rotary pumps, operate on
the posi ti ve pr i nci pl e—that i s, each str oke
del i ver s a defi ni te vol ume of l i qui d to the
system.
The master cyl i nder of the automobi l e brake
system, whi ch i s descri bed and i l l ustrated i n
chapter 2, i s an exampl e of a si mpl e reci procati ng
pump. Several types of power-operated hydraul i c
pumps, such as the radi al pi ston and axi al pi ston,
are al so cl assi fi ed as reci procati ng pumps. These
pumps are someti mes cl assi fi ed as rotary pumps,
because a rotary moti on i s i mparted to the pumps
by the source of power. However, the actual
pumpi ng i s performed by sets of pi stons reci pro-
cati ng i nsi de sets of cyl i nders.
HAND PUMPS
There are two types of manual l y operated
r eci pr ocati ng pumps—the si ngl e-acti on and
the doubl e-acti on. The si ngl e-acti on pump
provi des fl ow duri ng every other stroke, whi l e the
doubl e-acti on provi des fl ow duri ng each stroke.
Si ngl e-acti on pumps ar e fr equentl y used i n
hydraul i c jacks.
A doubl e-acti on hand pump i s i l l ustrated i n
fi gure 4-10. Thi s type of pump i s used i n some
ai rcraft hydraul i c systems as a source of hydraul i c
power for emer genci es, for testi ng cer tai n
subsystems dur i ng pr eventi ve mai ntenance
i nspecti ons, and for determi ni ng the causes of
mal functi ons i n these subsystems.
Thi s pump (fi g. 4-10) consi sts of a cyl i nder,
a pi ston contai ni ng a bui l t-i n check val ve (A), a
pi ston rod, an operati ng handl e, and a check val ve
(B) at the i nl et port. When the pi ston i s moved
Figure 4-10.—Hydraulic hand pump.
to the l eft, the force of the l i qui d i n the outl et
chamber and spri ng tensi on cause val ve A to cl ose.
Thi s movement causes the pi ston to force the
l i qui d i n the outl et chamber through the outl et
por t and i nto the system. Thi s same pi ston
movement causes a l ow-pressure area i n the i nl et
chamber. The di fference i n pressure between the
i nl et chamber and the l i qui d (at atmospheri c
pressure) i n the reservi or acti ng on check val ve
B causes i ts spri ng to compress; thus, openi ng the
check val ve. Thi s al l ows l i qui d to enter the i nl et
chamber.
When the pi ston compl etes thi s stroke to the
l eft, the i nl et chamber i s ful l of l i qui d. Thi s
el i mi nates the pressure di fference between the i nl et
chamber and the r eser vi or , ther eby al l owi ng
spri ng tensi on to cl ose check val ve B.
When the pi ston i s moved to the ri ght, the
force of the confi ned l i qui d i n the i nl et chamber
acts on check val ve A. Thi s acti on compresses
the spr i ng and opens check val ve A whi ch
al l ows the l i qui d to fl ow fr om the i ntak e
chamber to the outl et chamber. Because of the
ar ea occupi ed by the pi ston r od, the outl et
chamber cannot contai n al l the l i qui d di scharged
from the i nl et chamber. Si nce l i qui ds do not
compress, the extra l i qui d i s forced out of the
outl et port i nto the system.
PISTON PUMPS
Pi ston pumps ar e made i n a var i ety of
types and confi gurati ons. A basi c di sti ncti on
i s made between axi al and radi al pumps. The
axi al pi ston pump has the cyl i nders paral l el
to each other and the dri ve shaft. The radi al
pi ston desi gn has the cyl i nder s extendi ng
r adi al l y outwar d fr om the dr i ve shaft l i ke
the spokes of a wheel . A fur ther di sti ncti on
i s made between pumps that provi de a fi xed
del i very and those abl e to vary the fl ow of the
fl ui d. Vari abl e del i very pumps can be further
di vi ded i nto those abl e to pump fl ui d from zero
to ful l del i very i n one di recti on of fl ow and those
abl e to pump from zero the ful l del i very i n ei ther
di recti on.
Al l pi ston pumps used i n Navy shi pboard
systems have the cyl i nders bored i n a cyl i nder
bl ock that i s mounted on bear i ngs wi thi n a
housi ng. Thi s cyl i nder bl ock assembl y rotates wi th
the pump dri ve shaft.
4-9
Radial Piston Pumps
Fi gure 4-11 i l l ustrates the operati on of the
radi al pi ston pump. The pump consi sts of a pi ntl e,
whi ch remai ns stati onary and acts as a val ve; a
Figure 4-11.—Principles of operation of the radial piston
pump.
cyl i nder bl ock, whi ch revol ves around the pi ntl e
and contai ns the cyl i nders i n whi ch the pi stons
operate; a rotor, whi ch houses the reacti on ri ng
of hardened steel agai nst whi ch the pi ston heads
press; and a sl i de bl ock, whi ch i s used to control
the l ength of the pi ston strokes. The sl i de bl ock
does not revol ve but houses and supports the
rotor, whi ch does revol ve due to the fri cti on set
up by the sl i di ng acti on between the pi ston heads
and the r eacti on r i ng. The cyl i nder bl ock i s
attached to the dri ve shaft.
Referri ng to vi ew A of fi gure 4-11, assume that
space X i n one of the cyl i nders of the cyl i nder
bl ock contai ns l i qui d and that the respecti ve pi ston
of thi s cyl i nder i s at posi ti on 1. When the cyl i nder
bl ock and pi ston ar e r otated i n a cl ockwi se
di recti on, the pi ston i s forced i nto i ts cyl i nder as
i t approaches posi ti on 2. Thi s acti on reduces the
vol umetr i c si ze of the cyl i nder and for ces a
quanti ty of l i qui d out of the cyl i nder and i nto the
outl et port above the pi ntl e. Thi s pumpi ng acti on
i s due to the rotor bei ng off-center i n rel ati on to
the center of the cyl i nder bl ock.
I n fi gure 4-11 vi ew B, the pi ston has reached
posi ti on 2 and has forced the l i qui d out of the
open end of the cyl i nder through the outl et above
the pi ntl e and i nto the system. Whi l e the pi ston
moves from posi ti on 2 to posi ti on 3, the open end
of the cyl i nder passes over the sol i d part of the
pi ntl e; therefore, there i s no i ntake or di scharge
of l i qui d duri ng thi s ti me. As the pi ston and
cyl i nder move from posi ti on 3 to posi ti on 4,
centr i fugal for ce causes the pi ston to move
outward agai nst the reacti on ri ng of the rotor.
Duri ng thi s ti me the open end of the cyl i nder i s
open to the i ntake si de of the pi ntl e and, therefore,
fi l l s wi th l i qui d. As the pi ston moves fr om
posi ti on 4 to posi ti on 1, the open end of the
cyl i nder i s agai nst the sol i d si de of the pi ntl e and
no i ntake or di scharge of l i qui d takes pl ace. After
the pi ston has passed the pi ntl e and starts toward
posi ti on 2, another di scharge of l i qui d takes pl ace.
Al ternate i ntake and di scharge conti nues as the
rotor revol ves about i ts axi s-i ntake on one si de
of the pi ntl e and di scharge on the other, as the
pi ston sl i des i n and out.
Noti ce i n vi ews A and B of fi gure 4-11 that
the center poi nt of the rotor i s di fferent from the
center poi nt of the cyl i nder bl ock. The di fference
of these centers produces the pumpi ng acti on. I f
the rotor i s moved so that i ts center poi nt i s the
same as that of the cyl i nder bl ock, as shown i n
fi gure 4-11, vi ew C, there i s no pumpi ng acti on,
si nce the pi ston does not move back and forth i n
the cyl i nder as i t rotates wi th the cyl i nder bl ock.
4-10
The fl ow i n thi s pump can be reversed by
movi ng the sl i de bl ock, and therefore the rotor,
to the ri ght so the rel ati on of the centers of the
rotor and the cyl i nder bl ock i s reversed from the
posi ti on shown i n vi ews A and B of fi gure 4-11.
Vi ew D shows thi s arrangement. Li qui d enters the
cyl i nder as the pi ston travel s from posi ti on 1 to
posi ti on 2 and i s di scharged from the cyl i nder as
the pi ston travel s from posi ti on 3 to 4.
I n the i l l ustrati ons the rotor i s shown i n the
center, the extreme ri ght, or the extreme l eft i n
rel ati on to the cyl i nder bl ock. The amount of
adjustment i n di stance between the two centers
determi nes the l ength of the pi ston stroke, whi ch
control s the amount of l i qui d fl ow i n and out of
the cyl i nder. Thus, thi s adjustment determi nes the
di spl acement of the pump; that i s, the vol ume of
l i qui d the pump del i vers per revol uti on. Thi s
adjustment may be control l ed i n di fferent ways.
Manual control by a handwheel i s the si mpl est.
The pump i l l ustrated i n fi gure 4-11 i s control l ed
i n thi s way. For automati c control of del i very
to accommodate varyi ng vol ume requi rements
dur i ng the oper ati ng cycl e, a hydr aul i cal l y
control l ed cyl i nder may be used to posi ti on the
sl i de bl ock. A gear-motor control l ed by a push
button or a l i mi t swi tch i s someti mes used for thi s
purpose.
Fi gure 4-11 i s shown wi th four pi stons for the
sake of si mpl i ci ty. Radi al pumps are actual l y
desi gned wi th an odd number of pi stons (fi g.
4-12). Thi s i s to ensure that no more than one
cyl i nder i s compl etel y bl ocked by the pi ntl e at any
one ti me. I f there were an even number of pi stons
spaced evenl y around the cyl i nder bl ock (for
exampl e, ei ght), there woul d be occasi ons when
two of the cyl i nders woul d be bl ocked by the
pi ntl e, whi l e at other ti mes none woul d be
bl ocked. Thi s woul d cause three cyl i nders to di s-
charge at one ti me and four at one ti me, causi ng
pul sati ons i n fl ow. Wi th an odd number of pi stons
spaced evenl y around the cyl i nder bl ock, onl y one
cyl i nder i s compl etel y bl ocked by the pi ntl e at any
one ti me. Thi s reduces pul sati ons of fl ow.
Figure 4-12.—Nine-piston radial piston pump.
4-11
Axial Piston Pumps
I n axi al pi ston pumps of the i n-l i ne type,
where the cyl i nders and the dri ve shaft are paral l el
(fi g. 4-13), the reci procati ng moti on i s created by
a cam pl ate, al so known as a wobbl e pl ate, ti l ti ng
pl ate, or swash pl ate. Thi s pl ate l i es i n a pl ane
that cuts across the center l i ne of the dri ve shaft
and cyl i nder barrel and does not rotate. I n a
fi xed-di spl acement pump, the cam pl ate wi l l be
ri gi dl y mounted i n a posi ti on so that i t i ntersects
the center l i ne of the cyl i nder barrel at an angl e
approxi matel y 25 degrees from perpendi cul ar.
Vari abl e-del i very axi al pi ston pumps are desi gned
so that the angl e that the cam pl ate makes wi th
a perpendi cul ar to the center l i ne of the cyl i nder
barrel may be vari ed from zero to 20 or 25 degrees
to one or both si des. One end of each pi ston rod
i s hel d i n contact wi th the cam pl ate as the cyl i nder
bl ock and pi ston assembl y rotates wi th the dri ve
shaft. Thi s causes the pi stons to reci procate wi thi n
the cyI i nders. The l ength of the pi ston stroke i s
proporti onal to the angl e that the cam pl ate i s set
from perpendi cul ar to the center l i ne of the
cyl i nder barrel .
A var i ati on of axi al pi ston pump i s the
bent-axi s type shown i n fi gure 4-14. Thi s type does
not have a ti l ti ng cam pl ate as the i n-l i ne pump
does. I nstead, the cyl i nder bl ock axi s i s vari ed
fr om the dr i ve shaft axi s. The ends of the
Figure 4-14.—Bent-axis axial piston pump.
connecti ng rods are retai ned i n sockets on a di sc
that turns wi th the dri ve shaft. The cyl i nder bl ock
i s turned wi th the dri ve shaft by a uni versal joi nt
assembl y at the i ntersecti on of the dri ve shaft and
the cyl i nder bl ock shaft. I n order to vary the pump
di spl acement, the cyl i nder bl ock and val ve pl ate
are mounted i n a yoke and the enti re assembl y
i s swung i n an are around a pai r of mounti ng
pi ntl es attached to the pump housi ng.
The pumpi ng acti on of the axi al pi ston pump
i s made possi bl e by a uni versal joi nt or l i nk.
Figure 4-13.—In-line axial piston pump.
4-12
Fi gure 4-15 i s a seri es of drawi ngs that i l l ustrates
how the uni versal joi nt i s used i n the operati on
of thi s pump.
Fi rst, a rocker arm i s i nstal l ed on a hori zontal
shaft. (See fi g. 4-15, vi ew A.) The arm i s joi ned
to the shaft by a pi n so that i t can be swung back
and forth, as i ndi cated i n vi ew B. Next, a ri ng i s
pl aced around the shaft and secured to the rocker
arm so the ri ng can turn from l eft to ri ght as
shown i n vi ew C. Thi s pr ovi des two r otar y
moti ons i n di fferent pl anes at the same ti me and
i n varyi ng proporti ons as may be desi red. The
rocker arm can swi ng back and forth i n one arc,
and the ri ng can si mul taneousl y move from l eft
Figure 4-15.–Relationship of the universal joint in operation
of the axial piston pump.
to ri ght i n another arc, i n a pl ane at ri ght angl es
to the pl ane i n whi ch the rocker arm turns.
Next, a ti l ti ng pl ate i s added to the assembl y.
The ti l ti ng pl ate i s pl aced at a sl ant to the axi s
of the shaft, as depi cted i n fi gure 4-15, vi ew D.
The rocker arm i s then sl anted at the same angl e
as the ti l ti ng pl ate, so that i t l i es paral l el to the
ti l ti ng pl ate. The ri ng i s al so paral l el to, and i n
contact wi th, the ti l ti ng pl ate. The posi ti on of the
ri ng i n rel ati on to the rocker arm i s unchanged
from that shown i n fi gure 4-15, vi ew C.
Fi gure 4-15, vi ew E, shows the assembl y after
the shaft, sti l l i n a hori zontal posi ti on, has been
rotated a quarter turn. The rocker arm i s sti l l i n
the same posi ti on as the ti l ti ng pl ate and i s now
perpendi cul ar to the axi s of the shaft. The ri ng
has turned on the rocker pi ns, so that i t has
changed i ts posi ti on i n rel ati on to the rocker arm,
but i t remai ns paral l el to, and i n contact wi th, the
ti l ti ng pl ate.
Vi ew F of fi gure 4-15 shows the assembl y after
the shaft has been rotated another quarter turn.
The parts are now i n the same posi ti on as shown
i n vi ew D, but wi th the ends of the rocker arm
reversed. The ri ng sti l l bears agai nst the ti l ti ng
pl ate.
As the shaft conti nues to rotate, the rocker
arm and the ri ng turn about thei r pi vots, wi th each
changi ng i ts rel ati on to the other and wi th the ri ng
al ways beari ng on the pl ate.
Fi gure 4-15, vi ew G, shows a wheel added to
the assembl y. The wheel i s pl aced upri ght and
fi xed to the shaft, so that i t rotates wi th the shaft.
I n addi ti on, two r ods, A and B, ar e l oosel y
connected to the ti l ti ng ri ng and extend through
two hol es standi ng opposi te each other i n the fi xed
wheel . As the shaft i s rotated, the fi xed wheel
turns perpendi cul ar to the shaft at al l ti mes. The
ti l ti ng ri ng rotates wi th the shaft and al ways
remai ns ti l ted, si nce i t remai ns i n contact wi th the
ti l ti ng pl ate. Referri ng to vi ew G, the di stance
al ong rod A, from the ti l ti ng ri ng to the fi xed
wheel , i s greater than the di stance al ong rod B.
As the assembl y i s rotated, however, the di stance
al ong rod A decreases as i ts poi nt of attachment
to the ti l ti ng ri ng moves cl oser to the fi xed wheel ,
whi l e the di stance al ong rod B i ncreases. These
changes conti nue unti l after a hal f revol uti on, at
whi ch ti me the i ni ti al posi ti ons of the rods have
been reversed. After another hal f revol uti on, the
two rods wi l l agai n be i n thei r ori gi nal posi ti ons.
As the assembl y rotates, the rods move i n and
out through the hol es i n the fi xed wheel . Thi s i s
the way the axi al pi ston pump works. To get a
pumpi ng acti on, pl ace pi stons at the ends of the
4-13
rods, beyond the fi xed wheel , and i nsert them i nto
cyl i nders. The rods must be connected to the
pi stons and to the wheel by bal l and socket joi nts.
As the assembl y rotates, each pi ston moves back
and forth i n i ts cyl i nder. Sucti on and di scharge
l i nes can be arranged so that l i qui d enters the
cyl i nders whi l e the spaces between the pi ston
heads and the bases of the cyl i nders are i ncreasi ng,
and l eaves the cyl i nders duri ng the other hal f of
each revol uti on when the pi stons are movi ng i n
the opposi te di recti on.
The mai n parts of the pump are the dri ve
shaft, pi stons, cyl i nder bl ock, and val ve and swash
pl ates. There are two ports i n the val ve pl ate.
These ports connect di rectl y to openi ngs i n the
face of the cyl i nder bl ock. Fl ui d i s drawn i nto one
por t and for ced out the other por t by the
reci procati ng acti on of the pi stons.
IN-LINE VARIABLE-DISPLACEMENT
AXIAL PISTON PUMP.— When the dri ve shaft
i s rotated, i t rotates the pi stons and the cyl i nder
bl ock wi th i t. The swash pl ate pl aced at an angl e
causes the pi stons to move back and forth i n the
cyl i nder bl ock whi l e the shaft, pi ston, cyl i nder
bl ock, and swash pl ate rotate together. (The shaft,
pi ston, cyl i nder bl ock, and swash pl ate together
i s someti mes referred to as the rotati ng group or
assembl y.) As the pi stons r eci pr ocate i n the
cyl i nder bl ock, fl ui d enters one port and i s forced
out the other.
Fi gure 4-13 shows pi ston A at the bottom of
i ts stroke. When pi ston A has rotated to the
posi ti on hel d by pi ston B, i t wi l l have moved
upward i n i ts cyl i nder, forci ng fl ui d through the
outl et port duri ng the enti re di stance. Duri ng the
remai nder of the rotati on back to i t ori gi nal
posi ti on, the pi ston travel s downward i n the
cyl i nder. Thi s acti on creates a l ow-pressure area
i n the cyl i nder. The di fference i n pressure between
the cyl i nder i nl et and the reservoi r causes fl ui d
to fl ow i nto the i nl et port to the cyl i nder. Si nce
each one of the pi stons per for ms the same
operati on i n successi on, fl ui d i s constantl y bei ng
taken i nto the cyl i nder bores through the i nl et port
and di schar ged fr om the cyl i nder bor es i nto
the system. Thi s acti on pr ovi des a steady,
nonpul sati ng fl ow of fl ui d.
The ti l t or angl e of the swash pl ate determi nes
the di stance the pi stons move back and forth i n
thei r cyl i nders; thereby, control l i ng the pump
output.
When the swash pl ate i s at a ri ght angl e to the
shaft, and the pump i s rotati ng, the pi stons do
not reci procate; therefore, no pumpi ng acti on
takes pl ace. When the swash pl ate i s ti l ted away
from a ri ght angl e, the pi stons reci procate and
fl ui d i s pumped.
Si nce the di spl acement of thi s type of pump
i s vari ed by changi ng the angl e of the ti l ti ng box,
some means must be used to control the changes
of thi s angl e. Vari ous methods are used to control
thi s movement—manual , el ectri c, pneumati c, or
hydraul i c.
STRATOPOWER PUMP.— Another type of
axi al pi ston pump, someti mes referred to as an
i n-l i ne pump, i s commonl y r efer r ed to as a
Str atopower pump. Thi s pump i s avai l abl e
i n ei ther the fi xed-di spl acement type or the
vari abl e-di spl acement type.
Two major functi ons are performed by the
i nternal parts of the fi xed-di spl acement Strato-
power pump. These functi ons are mechani cal
dri ve and fl ui d di spl acement.
The mechani cal dri ve mechani sm i s shown i n
fi gure 4-16. I n thi s type of pump, the pi stons and
bl ock do not rotate. Pi ston moti on i s caused by
rotati ng the dri ve cam di spl aci ng each pi ston the
ful l hei ght of the dri ve cam duri ng each revol uti on
of the shaft. The ends of the pi stons are attached
to a wobbl e pl ate supported by a freed center pi vot
and are hel d i nconstant contact wi th the cam face.
As the hi gh si de of the r otati ng dr i ve cam
depr esses one si de of the wobbl e pl ate, the other
si de of the wobbl e pl ate i s wi thdr awn an equal
amount, movi ng the pi stons wi th i t. The two creep
pl ates are provi ded to decrease wear on the
revol vi ng cam.
A schemati c di agram of the di spl acement of
fl ui d i s shown i n fi gure 4-17. Fl ui d i s di spl aced
by axi al moti on of the pi stons. As each pi ston
advances i n i ts respecti ve cyl i nder bl ock bore,
pressure opens the check val ve and a quanti ty of
fl ui d i s forced past i t. Combi ned back pressure
and check val ve spri ng tensi on cl ose the check
Figure 4-16.—Mechanical drive—Stratopower pump.
4-14
Figure 4-17.—Fluid displacement—Stratopower pump.
val ve when the pi ston advances to i ts foremost
posi ti on. The l ow-pressure area occurri ng i n the
cyl i nder duri ng the pi ston return causes fl ui d to
fl ow from the reservoi r i nto the cyl i nder.
The i nter nal featur es of the var i abl e-
di spl acement Stratopower pump are i l l ustrated i n
fi gure 4-18. Thi s pump operates si mi l arl y to the
fi xed-di spl acement Stratopower pump; however,
thi s pump provi des the addi ti onal functi on of
automati cal l y varyi ng the vol ume output.
Thi s functi on i s control l ed by the pressure i n
the hydraul i c system. For exampl e, l et us take a
pump rated at 3000 psi , and provi di ng fl ow to a
3000 psi system. As system pressure approaches,
say 2850 psi , the pump begi ns to unl oad (del i ver
l ess fl ow to the system) and i s ful l y unl oaded (zero
fl ow) at 3000 psi .
Th e pr es s u r e r egu l ati on an d fl ow ar e
control l ed by i nternal bypasses that automati cal l y
adjust fl ui d del i very to system demands.
The bypass system i s pr ovi ded to suppl y
sel f-l ubri cati on, parti cul arl y when the pump i s i n
nonfl ow operati on. The ri ng of bypass hol es i n
the pi stons are al i gned wi th the bypass passage
each ti me a pi ston reaches the very end of i ts
forward travel . Thi s pumps a smal l quanti ty of
fl ui d out of the bypass passage back to the suppl y
reservoi r and provi des a constant changi ng of
fl ui d i n the pump. The bypass i s desi gned to pump
agai nst a consi derabl e back pressure for use wi th
pressuri zed reservoi rs.
Figure 4-18.—Internal features of Stratopower variable-displacement pump.
4-15
CHAPTER 5
FLUID LINES AND FITTINGS
The control and appl i cati on of fl ui d power
woul d be i mpossi bl e wi thout sui tabl e means of
transferri ng the fl ui d between the reservoi r, the
power source, and the poi nts of appl i cati on. Fl ui d
l i nes are used to transfer the fl ui d, and fi tti ngs
are used to connect the l i nes to the power source
and the poi nts of appl i cati on.
Thi s chapter i s devoted to fl ui d l i nes and
fi tti ngs. After studyi ng thi s chapter, you shoul d
have the knowl edge to i denti fy the
monl y used l i nes and fi tti ngs, and
expl ai n the procedure for fabri cati ng,
l abel i ng the l i nes.
TYPES OF LINES
The three types of l i nes used i n
systems ar e pi pe (r i gi d), tubi ng
and hose (fl exi bl e). A number of
consi dered when the type of l i ne i s
most com-
be abl e to
testi ng, and
fl ui d power
(semi ri gi d),
factors are
sel ected for
a parti cul ar fl ui d system. These factors i ncl ude
the type of fl ui d, the requi red system pressure,
and the l ocati on of the system. For exampl e,
heavy pi pe mi ght be used for a l arge stati onary
fl ui d power system, but comparati vel y l i ghtwei ght
tubi ng must be used i n ai r cr aft and mi ssi l e
systems because wei ght and space are cri ti cal
factors. Fl exi bl e hose i s requi red i n i nstal l ati ons
where uni ts must be free to move rel ati ve to each
other.
PIPES AND TUBING
There are three i mportant di mensi ons of any
tubul ar product—outsi de di ameter (OD), i nsi de
di ameter (I D), and wal l thi ckness. Si zes of pi pe
are l i sted by the nomi nal (or approxi mate) I D and
the wal l thi ckness. Si zes of tubi ng are l i sted by
the actual OD and the wal l thi ckness.
SELECTION OF PIPES AND TUBING
The materi al , I D, and wal l thi ckness are
the three pri mary consi derati ons i n the sel ec-
ti on of l i nes for a par ti cul ar fl ui d power
system.
The I D of a l i ne i s i mpor tant, si nce i t
determi nes how much fl ui d can pass through the
l i ne i n a gi ven ti me per i od (r ate of fl ow)
wi thout l oss of power due to excessi ve fri cti on
and heat. The vel oci ty of a gi ven fl ow i s l ess
through a l arge openi ng than through a smal l
openi ng. I f the I D of the l i ne i s too smal l for the
amount of fl ow, excessi ve turbul ence and fri cti on
heat cause unnecessary power l oss and overheated
fl ui d.
Sizing of Pipes and Tubing
Pi pes are avai l abl e i n three di fferent wei ghts:
standard (STD), or Schedul e 40; extra strong
(XS), or Schedul e 80; and doubl e extra strong
(XXS). The schedul e numbers range from 10
to 160 and cover 10 di sti nct sets of wal l
thi ckness. (See tabl e 5-1.) Schedul e 160 wal l
thi ckness i s sl i ghtl y thi nner than the doubl e extra
strong.
As menti oned earl i er, the si ze of pi pes i s
determi ned by the nomi nal (approxi mate) I D. For
exampl e, the I D for a 1/4-i nch Schedul e 40 pi pe
i s 0.364 i nch, and the I D for a 1/2-i nch Schedul e
40 pi pe i s 0.622 i nch.
I t i s i mportant to note that the I Ds of al l pi pes
of the same nomi nal si ze are not equal . Thi s i s
because the OD remai ns constant and the wal l
thi ckness i ncr eases as the schedul e number
i ncreases. For exampl e, a nomi nal si ze 1-i nch
Schedul e 40 pi pe has a 1.049 I D. The same si ze
Schedul e 80 pi pe has a 0.957 I D, whi l e Schedul e
5-1
Table 5-1.—Wall Thickness Schedule Designations for Pipe
160 pi pe has a 0.815 I D. I n each case the OD i s
1.315 (tabl e 5-1) and the wal l thi cknesses are
0.133 0.179
and 0.250 respecti vel y. Note
that the di ffer ence between the OD and I D
i ncl udes two wal l thi cknesses and must be di vi ded
by 2 to obtai n the wal l thi ckness.
Tubi ng di ffers from pi pe i n i ts si ze cl assi -
fi cati on. Tubi ng i s desi gnated by i ts actual OD.
(See tabl e 5-2.) Thus, 5/8-i nch tubi ng has an OD
of 5/8 i nch. As i ndi cated i n the tabl e, tubi ng i s
avai l abl e i n a vari ety of wal l thi cknesses. The
di ameter of tubi ng i s often measur ed and
i ndi cated i n 16ths. Thus, No. 6 tubi ng i s 6/16 or
3/8 i nch, No. 8 tubi ng i s 8/16 or 1/2 i nch, and
so forth.
The wal l thi ckness, materi al used, and I D
determi ne the bursti ng pressure of a l i ne or fi tti ng.
The greater the wal l thi ckness i n rel ati on to the
I D and the stronger the metal , the hi gher the
bursti ng pressure. However, the greater the I D for
a gi ven wal l thi ckness, the l ower the bursti ng
pressure, because force i s the product of area and
pressure.
Materials
The pi pe and tubi ng used i n fl ui d power
systems are commonl y made from steel , copper,
brass, al umi num, and stai nl ess steel . Each of these
metal s has i ts own di sti nct advantages or
di sadvantages i n certai n appl i cati ons.
Steel pi pe and tubi ng are rel ati vel y i nexpensi ve
and are used i n many hydraul i c and pneumati c
systems. Steel i s used because of i ts strength,
sui tabi l i ty for bendi ng and fl angi ng, and
adaptabi l i ty to hi gh pressures and temperatures.
I ts chi ef di sadvantage i s i ts comparati vel y l ow
resi stance to corrosi on.
Copper pi pe and tubi ng are someti mes used
for fl ui d power l i nes. Copper has hi gh resi stance
to corrosi on and i s easi l y drawn or bent. However,
i t i s unsati sfactory for hi gh temperatures and has
a tendency to harden and break due to stress and
vi brati on.
Al umi num has many of the characteri sti cs and
qual i ti es requi red for fl ui d power l i nes. I t has hi gh
resi stance to corrosi on and i s easi l y drawn or bent.
I n addi ti on, i t has the outstandi ng characteri sti c
of l i ght wei ght. Si nce wei ght el i mi nati on i s a vi tal
factor i n the desi gn of ai rcraft, al umi num al l oy
tubi ng i s used i n the majori ty of ai rcraft fl ui d
power systems.
Stai nl ess-steel tubi ng i s used i n certai n areas
of many ai rcraft fl ui d power systems. As a general
rul e, exposed l i nes and l i nes subject to abrasi on
or i ntense heat are made of stai nl ess steel .
An i mpr oper l y pi ped system can l ead to
seri ous power l oss and possi bl e harmful fl ui d
5-2
Table 5-2.—Tubing Size Designation
contami nati on. Therefore i n mai ntenance and PREPARATION OF PIPES
repai r of fl ui d power system l i nes, the basi c desi gn AND TUBING
requi rements must be kept i n mi nd. Two pri mary
requi rements are as fol l ows:
1. The l i nes must have the correct I D to
provi de the requi red vol ume and vel oci ty of fl ow
wi th the l east amount of turbul ence duri ng al l
demands on the system.
2. The l i nes must be made of the proper
materi al and have the wal l thi ckness to provi de
suffi ci ent strength to both contai n the fl ui d at the
requi red pressure and wi thstand the surges of
pressure that may devel op i n the system.
Fl ui d power systems are desi gned as compactl y
as possi bl e, to keep the connecti ng l i nes short.
Every secti on of l i ne shoul d be anchored securel y
i n one or more pl aces so that nei ther the wei ght
of the l i ne nor the effects of vi brati on are carri ed
on the joi nts. The ai m i s to mi ni mi ze stress
throughout the system.
Li nes shoul d normal l y be kept as short and
free of bends as possi bl e. However, tubi ng shoul d
not be assembl ed i n a strai ght l i ne, because a bend
tends to el i mi nate strai n by absorbi ng vi brati on
and al so compensates for thermal expansi on and
5-3
contr acti on. Bends ar e pr efer r ed to el bows,
because bends cause l ess of a power l oss. A few
of the correct and i ncorrect methods of i nstal l i ng
tubi ng are i l l ustrated i n fi gure 5-1.
Bends are descri bed by thei r radi us measure-
ments. The i deal bend radi us i s 2 1/2 to 3 ti mes
the I D, as shown i n fi gure 5-2. For exampl e, i f
the I D of a l i ne i s 2 i nches, the radi us of the bend
shoul d be between 5 and 6 i nches.
Whi l e fri cti on i ncreases markedl y for sharper
curves than thi s, i t al so tends to i ncrease up to
a certai n poi nt for gentl er curves. The i ncreases
i n fri cti on i n a bend wi th a radi us of more than
3 pi pe di ameters resul t from i ncreased turbul ence
near the outsi de edges of the fl ow. Parti cl es of
fl ui d must travel a l onger di stance i n maki ng the
change i n di recti on. When the radi us of the bend
i s l ess than 2 1/2 pi pe di ameters, the i ncreased
pressure l oss i s due to the abrupt change i n the
di recti on of fl ow, especi al l y for parti cl es near the
i nsi de edge of the fl ow.
Duri ng your career i n the Navy, you may be
r equi r ed to fabr i cate new tubi ng to r epl ace
damaged or fai l ed l i nes. Fabri cati on of tubi ng
consi sts of four basi c oper ati ons: cutti ng,
deburri ng, bendi ng, and joi nt preparati on.
Tube Cutting and Deburring
The objecti ve of cutti ng tubi ng i s to produce
a square end that i s free from burrs. Tubi ng may
be cut usi ng a standard tube cutter (fi g. 5-3), a
chi pl ess cutter (fi g. 5-4), or a fi ne-toothed
hacksaw i f a tube cutter i s not avai l abl e.
When you use the standard tube cutter, pl ace
the tube i n the cutter wi th the cutti ng wheel at the
poi nt where the cut i s to be made. Appl y l i ght
pressure on the tube by ti ghteni ng the adjusti ng
Figure 5-2.—Ideal bend radius.
knob. Too much pressure appl i ed to the cutti ng
wheel at oneti me may deform the tubi ng or cause
excessi ve burrs. Rotate the cutter toward i ts open
si de (fi g. 5-3). As you rotate the cutter, adjust the
ti ghteni ng knob after each compl ete turn to
mai ntai n l i ght pressure on the cutti ng wheel .
When you use the chi pl ess cutter, take the
fol l owi ng steps:
1. Sel ect the chi pl ess cutter accordi ng to
tubi ng si ze.
2. Rotate the cutter head to accept the tubi ng
i n the cutti ng posi ti on. Check that the cutter
ratchet i s operati ng freel y and that the cutter wheel
i s cl ear of the cutter head openi ng (fi g. 5-4).
3. Center the tubi ng on two rol l ers and the
cutti ng bl ade.
4. Use the hex key provi ded wi th the
turn the dri ve screw i n unti l the cutter
touches the tube.
Figure 5-1.—Correct and incorrect methods of installing tubing.
5-4
ki t to
wheel
Figure 5-3.—Tube cutting.
5. Ti ghten the dri ve screw 1/8 to 1/4 turn. Do
not overti ghten the dri ve screw. Overti ghteni ng
can damage soft tubi ng or cause excessi ve wear
or breakage of the cutter wheel i n hard tubi ng.
6. Swi ng the ratchet handl e back and forth
through the avai l abl e cl earance unti l there i s a
noti ceabl e ease of rotati on. Avoi d putti ng si de
force on the cutter handl e. Si de force wi l l cause
the cutter wheel to break.
7. Ti ghten the dri ve screw an addi ti onal 1/8
to 1/4 turn and swi ng the ratchet handl e back and
forth, reti ghteni ng the dri ve screw as needed unti l
the cut i s compl eted. The compl eted cut shoul d
be 1/2 degree square to the tube centerl i ne.
Figure 5-4.—Chipless cutter.
After the tubi ng i s cut, remove al l burrs and
sharp edges from i nsi de and outsi de of the tube
(fi g. 5-5) wi th deburri ng tool s. Cl ean out the
tubi ng. Make sure no forei gn parti cl es remai n.
A conveni ent method for cutti ng tubi ng wi th
a hacksaw i s to pl ace the tube i n a fl ari ng bl ock
and cl amp the bl ock i n a vi ce. After cutti ng the
tubi ng wi th a hacksaw, remove al l saw marks by
fi l i ng.
Tube Bending
The objecti ve i n tube bendi ng i s to obtai n a
smooth bend wi thout fl atteni ng the tube. Tube
bendi ng i s usual l y done wi th ei ther a hand tube
bender or a mechani cal l y operated bender.
Figure 5-5.—Properly burred tubing.
5-5
Figure 5-6.—Bending tubing with hand-operated tube bender.
HAND TUBE BENDER.— The hand tube
tubi ng. The radi us bl ock i s marked i n degrees of
bender shown i n fi gure 5-6 consi sts of a handl e,
bend rangi ng from 0 to 180 degrees. The sl i de bar
a radi us bl ock, a cl i p, and a sl i de bar. The handl e
has a mark whi ch i s l i ned up wi th the zero mark
and sl i de bar are used as l evers to provi de the
on the radi us bl ock. The tube i s i nserted i n the
mechani cal advantage necessary to bend the
tube bender, and after the marks are l i ned up, the
5-6
Figure 5-7.—Mechanically operated tube bender.
sl i de bar i s moved around unti l the mark on the
sl i de bar reaches the desi red degree of bend on
the r adi us bl ock. See fi gur e 5-6 for the si x
pr ocedur al steps i n
tube bendi ng wi th the
hand-operated tube bender.
MECHANICAL TUBE BENDER.— The
tube bender shown i n fi gure 5-7 i s i ssued as a ki t.
The ki t contai ns the equi pment necessary for
bendi ng tubi ng fr om 1/4 i nch to 3/4 i nch i n
di ameter .
Thi s tube bender i s desi gned for use wi th
ai r cr aft gr ade, hi gh-str engths stai nl ess-steel
tubi ng, as wel l as al l other metal tubi ng. I t i s
desi gned to be fastened to a bench or tri pod. The
base i s formed to provi de a secure gri p i n a vi se.
Thi s type of tube bender uses a hand crank
and gears. The formi ng di e i s keyed to the dri ve
gear and i s secured by a screw.
The for mi ng di e on the mechani cal tube
bender i s cal i brated i n degrees, si mi l arl y to the
radi us bl ock of the hand bender. A l ength of
repl acement tubi ng may be bent to a speci fi ed
number of degrees or i t may be bent to dupl i cate
a bend ei ther i n a damaged tube or i n a pattern.
Dupl i cati ng a bend of a damaged tube or of a
pattern i s done by l ayi ng the sampl e or pattern
on top of the tube bei ng bent and sl owl y bendi ng
the new tube to the requi red bend.
Tube Flaring
Tube fl ari ng i s a method of formi ng the end
of a tube i nto a funnel shape so i t can be hel d by
a threaded fi tti ng. When a fl ared tube i s prepared,
a fl are nut i s sl i pped onto the tube and the end
of the tube i s fl ared. Duri ng tube i nstal l ati on, the
fl are i s seated to a fi tti ng wi th the i nsi de of the
fl are agai nst the cone-shaped end of the fi tti ng,
and the fl are nut i s screwed onto the fi tti ng,
pul l i ng the i nsi de of the fl are agai nst the seati ng
surface of the fi tti ng.
Ei ther of two fl ari ng tool s (fi g. 5-8) may be
used. One gi ves a si ngl e fl are and the other gi ves
a doubl e fl are. The fl ari ng tool consi sts of a spl i t
di e bl ock that has hol es for vari ous si zes of tubi ng,
Figure 5-8.—Flaring tools.
5-7
a cl amp to l ock the end of the tubi ng i nsi de the
di e bl ock, and a yoke wi th a compressor screw
and cone that sl i ps over the di e bl ock and forms
the 45-degree fl are on the end of the tube. The
screw has a T-handl e. A doubl e fl ari ng tube has
adaptors that turn i n the edge of the tube before
a regul ar 45-degree doubl e fl are i s made.
To use the si ngl e fl ari ng tool , fi rst check to
see that the end of the tubi ng has been cut off
squarel y and has had the burrs removed from
both i nsi de and outsi de. Sl i p the fl are nut onto
the tube before you make the fl are. Then, open
the di e bl ock. I nsert the end of the tubi ng i nto
the hol e correspondi ng to the OD of the tubi ng
so that the end protrudes sl i ghtl y above the top
face of the di e bl ocks. The amount by whi ch the
tubi ng extends above the bl ocks determi nes the
fi ni shed di ameter of the fl are. The fl are must be
l arge enough to seat properl y agai nst the fi tti ng,
but smal l enough that the threads of the fl are nut
wi l l sl i de over i t. Cl ose the di e bl ock and secure
the tool wi th the wi ng nut. Use the handl e of the
yoke to ti ghten the wi ng nut. Then pl ace the yoke
over the end of the tubi ng and ti ghten the handl e
to force the cone i nto the end of the tubi ng. The
compl eted fl are shoul d be sl i ghtl y vi si bl e above
the face of the di e bl ocks.
FLEXIBLE HOSE
Shock-resi stant, fl exi bl e hose assembl i es are
requi red to absorb the movements of mounted
equi pment under both normal operati ng condi -
ti ons and extr eme condi ti ons. They ar e al so
used for thei r noi se-attenuati ng properti es and
to connect movi ng parts of certai n equi pment.
The two basi c hose types are syntheti c rubber
and pol ytetr afl uor oethyl ene (PTFE), such as
Du Pont’s Tefl on
®
fl uorocarbon resi n.
Figure 5-9.—Synthetic rubber hoses.
pressure ranges: l ow, medi um, and hi gh. The
outer cover i s desi gned to wi thstand external abuse
and contai ns i denti fi cati on marki ngs.
Syntheti c rubber hoses wi th rubber covers are
i denti fi ed wi th the mi l i tary speci fi cati on number,
the si ze by dash number, the quarter and year of
cure or manufacture, and the manufacturer’s code
i denti fi cati on number or federal suppl y code
number pri nted al ong thei r l ayl i ne (fi g. 5-10, vi ew
A). The l ayl i ne i s a l egi bl e marki ng paral l el to the
l ongi tudi nal axi s of a hose used i n determi ni ng
the strai ghtness or l ay of the hose.
Syntheti c rubber hoses wi th wi re brai d cover
are i denti fi ed by bands (fi g. 5-10, vi ew B) wrapped
around the hose ends and at i nterval s al ong the
l ength of the hose.
Sizing
Rubber hoses are desi gned for speci fi c fl ui d,
temperature, and pr essur e r anges and ar e
provi ded i n vari ous speci fi cati ons. Rubber hoses
(fi g. 5-9) consi st of a mi ni mum three l ayers; a
seaml ess syntheti c rubber tube rei nforced wi th one
or more l ayers of brai ded or spi ral ed cotton, wi re,
or syntheti c fi ber; and an outer cover. The i nner
tube i s desi gned to wi thstand the attack of the
fl ui d that passes through i t. The brai ded or
spi ral ed l ayers determi ne the strength of the hose.
The greater the number of these l ayers, the greater
i s the pressure rati ng. Hoses are provi ded i n three
5-8
The si ze of a fl exi bl e hose i s i denti fi ed by the
dash (-) number, whi ch i s the I D of the hose
expressed i n 16ths of an i nch. For exampl e, the
I D of a -64 hose i s 4 i nches. For a few hose styl es
thi s i s the nomi nal and not the true I D.
Cure Date
Syntheti c rubber hoses wi l l deteri orate from
agi ng. A cure date i s used to ensure that they do
not deteri orate beyond materi al and performance
speci fi cati ons. The cure date i s the quarter and
year the hose was manufactured. For exampl e,
Techni cal Di recti ve for Pi pi ng Devi ces and
Flexible Hose Assemblies, NAVSEA S6430-AE-
TED-010. vol ume 1. provi de detai l ed i nstructi ons
on di scardi ng and downgradi ng of rubber hoses
exceedi ng thei r shel f l i fe.
PFTE
1Q89 or
the fi rst
Figure 5-10.—Hose identification.
1/89 means the hose was made duri ng
quarter (1 Jan to 31 Mar) of 1989.
The cure date l i mi ts the l ength of ti me a rubber
hose can be stored, i n bul k or as an assembl y,
pri or to bei ng pl aced i nto servi ce. The storage or
shel f l i fe for rubber hose i s 4 years. For the hose
manufactured i n 1Q89, the storage or shel f l i fe
wi l l end on the 31st of March 1993. At thi s poi nt,
the hose i s no l onger consi dered usabl e and shoul d
be di scarded or downgraded. The Aviation Hose
and Tube Manual, NAVAI R 01-1A-20, and the
5-9
PFTE hose i s a fl exi bl e hose desi gned to meet
the requi rements of hi gher operati ng pressures and
temperatures i n present fl ui d power systems. Thi s
type of hose i s made from a chemi cal resi n, whi ch
i s processed and extruded i nto a tube shaped to
a desi red si ze. I t i s rei nforced wi th one or more
l ayers of brai ded stai nl ess-steel wi re or wi th an
even number of spi ral wrap l ayers wi th an outer
wi re brai d l ayer.
PTFE hose i s unaffected by al l fl ui ds presentl y
used i n fl ui d power systems. I t i s i nert to aci ds,
both concentrated and di l uted. Certai n PFTE
hose may be used i n systems where operati ng
temper atur es r ange fr om –100°F to +500°F.
PTFE i s nonfl ammabl e; however , wher e the
possi bi l i ty of open fl ame exi sts, a speci al asbestos
fi re sl eeve shoul d be used.
PFTE hose wi l l not absorb moi sture. Thi s,
together wi th i ts chemi cal i nertness and anti -
adhesi ve characteri sti cs, makes i t i deal for mi ssi l e
fl ui d power systems where noncontami nati on and
cl eanl i ness are essenti al .
I n l i eu of l ayl i ne marki ng, PTFE hoses are
i denti fi ed by metal or pl i abl e pl asti c bands at thei r
ends and at i nterval s al ong thei r l ength. Fi gure
5-10, vi ew C, shows a hose l abel for a PTFE hose.
Usual l y the onl y condi ti on that wi l l shorten the
l i fe of PTFE hose i s excessi ve temperature. For
thi s reason there i s no manufacture date l i sted on
the i denti fi cati on tag.
APPLICATION
As menti oned earl i er, fl exi bl e hose i s avai l abl e
i n three pressure ranges: l ow, medi um, and hi gh.
When repl aci ng hoses, i t i s i mportant to ensure
that the repl acement hose i s a dupl i cate of the one
r emoved i n l ength, OD, mater i al , type and
contour, and associ ated marki ngs. I n sel ecti ng
hose, several precauti ons must be observed. The
sel ected hose must
1.
2.
be compati bl e wi th the system fl ui d,
have a rated pressure greater than the desi gn
pressure of the system,
3. be desi gned to gi ve adequate performance and
servi ce for i nfrequent transi ent pressure peaks
up to 150 percent of the worki ng pressure of
the hose, and
4. have a safety factor wi th a burst pressure at
a mi ni mum of 4 ti mes the rated worki ng
pressure.
There are temperature restri cti ons appl i ed to
the use of hoses. Rubber hose must not be used
where the operati ng temperature exceeds 200°F.
PTFE hoses i n hi gh-pressure ai r systems must not
be used where the temperature exceeds 350°F.
PTFE hoses i n water and steam drai n appl i cati ons
must not be used where the operati ng temperature
exceeds 380°F.
FABRICATION AND TESTING
The fabri cati on of fl exi bl e hose assembl i es i s
covered i n appl i cabl e trai ni ng manual s, techni cal
publ i cati ons, and NAVAI R 01-1A-20. After a
hose assembl y has been compl etel y fabri cated i t
must be cl eaned, vi sual l y i nspected for forei gn
materi al s, and proof tested.
A hose assembl y i s pr oof tested by the
appl i cati on of a nondestructi ve pressure for a
mi ni mum of 1 mi nute but not l onger than 5
mi nutes to ensure that i t wi l l wi thstand normal
worki ng pressures. The test pressure, known as
normal proof pressure, i s twi ce the rated worki ng
pressure. Whi l e the test pressure i s bei ng appl i ed,
the hose must not burst, l eak, or show si gns
of fi tti ng separ ati on. NAVAI R 01-1A-20 and
NAVSEA S6430-AE-TED-010, vol ume 1, provi de
detai l ed i nstructi ons on cl eani ng of hoses, cl eani ng
and test medi a, proof pressure and proof testi ng.
After proof testi ng i s compl eted, the hose must
be fl ushed and dr i ed and the ends capped or
pl ugged to keep di rt and other contami nants out
of the hose.
IDENTIFICATION
The fi nal step after fabri cati on and sati sfac-
tory testi ng of a hose assembl y i s the attachment
of i denti fi cati on tags as shown i n fi gure 5-11 (for
shi ps) and i n fi gure 5-12 (for ai rcraft). The tag
shown i n fi gure 5-12, vi ew B, i s used i n areas
where a tag maybe drawn i nto an engi ne i ntake.
Hose assembl i es to be i nstal l ed i n ai rcraft fuel and
oi l tanks are marked wi th an approved el ectri c
engraver on the socket-wrench fl ats wi th the
requi red i nformati on.
Figure 5-11.—Hose assembly identification tags (ships).
5-10
Figure 5-12.—Hose assembly
INSTALLATION
Fl exi bl e hose must
identification tags (aircraft).
not be twi sted duri ng
i nstal l ati on, si nce thi s reduces the l i fe of the hose
consi derabl y and may cause the fi tti ngs to l oosen
as wel l . You can determi ne whether or not a hose
i s twi sted by l ooki ng at the l ayl i ne that runs al ong
the l ength of the hose. I f the l ayl i ne does not spi ral
around the hose, the hose i s not twi sted. I f the
l ayl i ne does spi ral around the hose, the hose i s
twi sted (fi g. 5-13, vi ew B) and must be untwi sted.
Fl exi bl e hose shoul d be protected from chafi ng
by usi ng a chafe-resi stant coveri ng wherever
necessar y.
The mi ni mum bend radi us for fl exi bl e hose
vari es accordi ng to the si ze and constructi on of
the hose and the pr essur e under whi ch the
system operates. Current appl i cabl e techni cal
publ i cati ons contai n tabl es and graphs showi ng
mi ni mum bend radi i for the di fferent types of
i nstal l ati ons. Bends that are too sharp wi l l reduce
the bursti ng pressure of fl exi bl e hose consi derabl y
bel ow i ts rated val ue.
Fl exi bl e hose shoul d be i nstal l ed so that i t wi l l
be subjected to a mi ni mum of fl exi ng duri ng
operati on. Support cl amps are not necessary wi th
short i nstal l ati ons; but for hose of consi derabl e
l ength (48 i nches for exampl e), cl amps shoul d be
pl aced not more than 24 i nches apart. Cl oser
5-11
Figure 5-13.—Correct and incorrect installation of flexible
hose.
supports are desi rabl e and i n some cases may be
requi red.
A fl exi bl e hose must never be stretched ti ghtl y
between two fi tti ngs. About 5 to 8 percent of the
total l ength must be al l owed as sl ack to provi de
freedom of movement under pressure. When
under pressure, fl exi bl e hose contracts i n l ength
and expands i n di ameter. Exampl es of correct and
i ncor r ect i nstal l ati ons of fl exi bl e hose ar e
i l l ustrated i n fi gure 5-13.
PFTE hose shoul d be handl ed careful l y duri ng
removal and i nstal l ati on. Some PFTE hose i s pre-
formed duri ng fabri cati on. Thi s type of hose tends
to form i tsel f to the i nstal l ed posi ti on i n the sys-
tem. To ensure i ts sati sfactory functi on and reduce
the l i kel i hood of fai l ure, anyone who works wi th
PFTE hose shoul d observe the fol l owi ng rul es:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Do not exceed recommended bend l i mi ts.
Do not exceed twi sti ng l i mi ts.
Do not strai ghten a bent hose that has
taken a permanent set.
Do not hang, l i ft, or support objects from
PFTE hose.
Once fl exi bl e hose assembl i es are i nstal l ed,
there are no servi ci ng or mai ntenance requi re-
ments other than peri odi c i nspecti ons. These
i nspecti ons are conducted accordi ng to mai nte-
nance i nstructi on manual s (MI Ms), mai ntenance
r equi r ement car ds (MRCs), and depot-l evel
speci fi cati ons.
TYPES OF FITTINGS
AND CONNECTORS
Some type of connector or fi tti ng must be
provi ded to attach the l i nes to the components of
the system and to connect secti ons of l i ne to
each other. There are many di fferent types of
connectors and fi tti ngs provi ded for thi s purpose.
The type of connector or fi tti ng requi red for a
speci fi c system depends on several factors. One
determi ni ng factor, of course, i s the type of fl ui d
l i ne (pi pe, tubi ng, or fl exi bl e hose) used i n
the system. Other determi ni ng factors are the
type of fl ui d medi um and the maxi mum operati ng
pressure of the system. Some of the most common
types of fi tti ngs and connectors are descri bed i n
the fol l owi ng paragraphs.
THREADED CONNECTORS
There are several di fferent types of threaded
connectors. I n the type di scussed i n thi s secti on,
both the connector and the end of the fl ui d l i ne
(pi pe) are threaded. These connectors are used i n
some l ow-pressure fl ui d power systems and are
usual l y made of steel , copper, or brass, and are
avai l abl e i n a vari ety of desi gns.
Threaded connectors are made wi th standard
pi pe threads cut on the i nsi de surface. The end
of the pi pe i s threaded wi th outsi de threads.
Standard pi pe threads are tapered sl i ghtl y to
ensure ti ght connecti ons. The amount of taper i s
approxi matel y 3/4 i nch i n di ameter per foot of
thread.
Metal i s removed when a pi pe i s threaded,
thi nni ng the pi pe and exposi ng new and rough
surfaces. Corrosi on agents work more qui ckl y at
such poi nts than el sewhere. I f pi pes are assembl ed
wi th no protecti ve compound on the threads,
corrosi on sets i n at once and the two secti ons
sti ck together so that the threads sei ze when
di sassembl y i s attempted. The resul t i s damaged
threads and pi pes.
To prevent sei zi ng, a sui tabl e pi pe thread
compound i s someti mes appl i ed to the threads.
The two end thr eads must be kept fr ee of
5-12
compound so that i t wi l l not contami nate the
fl ui d. Pi pe compound, when i mproperl y appl i ed,
may get i nsi de the l i nes and components and
damage pumps and control equi pment.
Another materi al used on pi pe threads i s
seal ant tape. Thi s tape, whi ch i s made of PTFE,
pr ovi des an effecti ve means of seal i ng pi pe
connecti ons and el i mi nates the necessi ty of
torqui ng connecti ons to excessi vel y hi gh val ues
i n order to prevent pressure l eaks. I t al so provi des
for ease of mai ntenance whenever i t i s necessary
to di sconnect pi pe joi nts. The tape i s appl i ed over
the mal e threads, l eavi ng the fi rst thread exposed.
After the tape i s pressed fi rml y agai nst the
threads, the joi nt i s connected.
FLANGE CONNECTORS
Bol ted fl ange connector s (fi g. 5-14) ar e
sui tabl e for most pressures now i n use. The
fl anges are attached to the pi pi ng by wel di ng,
brazi ng, tapered threads (for some l ow-pressure
systems), or rol l i ng and bendi ng i nto recesses.
Those i l l ustrated are the most common types of
fl ange joi nts used. The same types of standard
fi tti ng shapes (tee, cross, el bow, and so forth) are
manufactured for fl ange joi nts. Sui tabl e gasket
materi al must be used between the fl anges.
WELDED CONNECTORS
The subassembl i es of some fl ui d power
systems are connected by wel ded joi nts, especi al l y
i n hi gh-pressure systems whi ch use pi pe for fl ui d
l i nes. The wel di ng i s done accordi ng to standard
Figure 5-14.—Four types of bolted flange connectors.
speci fi cati ons whi ch defi ne the materi al s and
techni ques.
BRAZED CONNECTORS
Si l ver-brazed connectors are commonl y used
for joi ni ng nonferrous (copper, brass, and soon)
pi pi ng i n the pressure and temperature range
where thei r use i s practi cal . Use of thi s type of
connector i s l i mi ted to i nstal l ati ons i n whi ch the
pi pi ng temperature wi l l not exceed 425°F and the
pressure i n col d l i nes wi l l not-exceed 3,000 psi .
The al l oy i s mel ted by heati ng the joi nt wi th an
oxyacetyl ene torch. Thi s causes the al l oy i nsert
to mel t and fi l l the few thousandths of an i nch
annul ar space between the pi pe and the fi tti ng.
A fi tti ng of thi s type whi ch has been removed
from a pi pi ng system can be rebrazed i nto a
system, as i n most cases suffi ci ent al l oy remai ns
i n the i nsert groove for a second joi nt. New al l oy
i nserts may be obtai ned for fi tti ngs whi ch do not
have suffi ci ent al l oy remai ni ng i n the i nsert for
maki ng a new joi nt.
FLARED CONNECTORS
Fl ared connectors are commonl y used i n fl ui d
power systems contai ni ng l i nes made of tubi ng.
These connectors provi de safe, strong, dependabl e
connecti ons wi thout the need for thr eadi ng,
wel di ng, or sol deri ng the tubi ng. The connector
consi sts of a fi tti ng, a sl eeve, and a nut (fi g. 5-15).
The fi tti ngs are made of steel , al umi num al l oy,
or bronze. The fi tti ng used i n a connecti on shoul d
be made of the same materi al as that of the sl eeve,
the nut, and the tubi ng. For exampl e, use steel
connectors wi th steel tubi ng and al umi num al l oy
Figure 5-15.—Flared-tube fitting.
connectors wi th al umi num al l oy tubi ng. Fi tti ngs
are made i n uni on, 45-degree and 90-degree
el bow, tee, and vari ous other shapes (fi g. 5-16).
Tees, crosses, and el bows are sel f-expl anatory.
Uni versal and bul khead fi tti ngs can be mounted
sol i dl y wi th one outl et of the fi tti ng extendi ng
through a bul khead and the other outl et(s) posi -
ti oned at any angl e. Uni versal means the fi tti ng
can assume the angl e requi red for the speci fi c
i nstal l ati on. Bul khead means the fi tti ng i s l ong
enough to pass thr ough a bul khead and i s
desi gned so i t can be secur ed sol i dl y to the
bul khead.
For connecti ng to tubi ng, the ends of the
fi tti ngs are threaded wi th strai ght machi ne threads
to correspond wi th the femal e threads of the nut.
I n some cases, however, one end of the fi tti ng may
be thr eaded wi th taper ed pi pe thr eads to fi t
Figure 5-16.—Flared-tube fittings.
5-13
thr eaded por ts i n pumps, val ves, and other
components. Several of these thread combi nati ons
are shown i n fi gure 5-16.
Tubi ng used wi th fl are connectors must be
fl ared pri or to assembl y. The nut fi ts over the
sl eeve and when ti ghtened, i t draws the sl eeve and
tubi ng fl are ti ghtl y agai nst the mal e fi tti ng to form
a seal .
The mal e fi tti ng has a cone-shaped surface
wi th the same angl e as the i nsi de of the fl are. The
sl eeve supports the tube so vi brati on does not
concentrate at the edge of the fl are, and di stri butes
the sheari ng acti on over a wi der area for added
strength. Tube fl ari ng i s covered i n Tools and
Their Uses, NAVEDTRA 10085 (ser i es), and
other appl i cabl e trai ni ng manual s.
Correct and i ncorrect methods of i nstal l i ng
fl ared-tube connectors are i l l ustrated i n fi gure
5-17. Tubi ng nuts shoul d be ti ghtened wi th a
torque wrench to the val ue speci fi ed i n appl i cabl e
techni cal publ i cati ons.
I f an al umi num al l oy fl ared connector l eaks
after bei ng ti ghtened to the requi red torque, i t
must not be ti ghtened further. Overti ghteni ng may
severel y damage or compl etel y cut off the tubi ng
fl are or may resul t i n damage to the sl eeve or nut.
The l eaki ng connecti on must be di sassembl ed and
the faul t corrected.
I f a steel tube connecti on l eaks, i t may be
ti ghtened 1/6 turn beyond the speci fi ed torque i n
an attempt to stop the l eakage; then i f i t sti l l l eaks,
i t must be di sassembl ed and repai red.
Under ti ghteni ng of connecti ons may be
seri ous, as thi s can al l ow the tubi ng to l eak at the
connector bemuse of i nsuffi ci ent gri p on the fl are
by the sl eeve. The use of a torque wrench wi l l
prevent underti ghteni ng.
CAUTION
A nut shoul d never be ti ghtened when
there i s pressure i n the l i ne, as thi s wi l l tend
to damage the connecti on wi thout addi ng
any appreci abl e torque to the connecti on.
Figure 5-17.—Correct and incorrect methods of installing flared fittings.
5-14
FLARELESS-TUBE CONNECTORS
Thi s type of connector el i mi nates al l tube
fl ari ng, yet provi des a safe, strong, and depend-
abl e tube connecti on. Thi s connector consi sts
of a fi tti ng, a sl eeve or fer r ul e, and a nut.
(See fi g. 5-18.)
NOTE
Al though the use of fl ar el ess tube
connectors i s wi despread, NAVSEA pol i cy
i s to reduce or el i mi nate use of fl arel ess
fi tti ngs i n newl y desi gned shi ps; the extent
to whi ch fl arel ess fi tti ngs are approved for
use i n a parti cul ar shi p i s refl ected i n
appl i cabl e shi p drawi ngs.
Fl arel ess-tube fi tti ngs are avai l abl e i n many
of the same shapes and thread combi nati ons as
fl ared-tube fi tti ngs. (See fi g. 5-16.) The fi tti ng has
a counterbore shoul der for the end of the tubi ng
to rest agai nst. The angl e of the counterbore
causes the cutti ng edge of the sl eeve or ferrul e to
cut i nto the outsi de surface of the tube when the
two are assembl ed.
The nut presses on the bevel of the sl eeve and
causes i t to cl amp ti ghtl y to the tube. Resi stance
to vi brati on i s concentrated at thi s poi nt rather
than at the sl eeve cut. When ful l y ti ghtened, the
sl eeve or ferrul e i s bowed sl i ghtl y at the mi dsecti on
and acts as a spri ng. Thi s spri ng acti on of the
sl eeve or ferrul e mai ntai ns a constant tensi on
between the body and the nut and thus prevents
the nut from l ooseni ng.
Pri or to the i nstal l ati on of a new fl arel ess-tube
connector, the end of the tubi ng must be square,
Figure 5-18.—Flareless-tube connector.
concentri c, and free of burrs. For the connecti on
to be effecti ve, the cutti ng edge of the sl eeve or
ferrul e must bi te i nto the peri phery of the tube
(fi g. 5-19). Thi s i s ensured by presetti ng the sl eeve
or ferrul e on the tube.
Presetting
Presetti ng consi sts of deformi ng the ferrul e to
bi te i nto the tube OD and deformi ng the end of
the tube to form a shal l ow coni cal ri ng seati ng
surface. The tube and ferrul e assembl y shoul d be
preset i n a presetti ng tool that has an end secti on
i denti cal to a fi tti ng body but whi ch i s made of
speci al l y hardened steel . Thi s tool hardness i s
needed to ensure that al l deformati on at the tube
end seat goes i nto the tube.
Presetti ng i s done wi th a hydraul i c presetti ng
tool or a manual presetti ng tool , ei ther i n the shop
or aboard shi p. The tool vendor’s i nstructi ons
must be fol l owed for the hydraul i c presetti ng tool .
I f a presetti ng tool i s not avai l abl e, the fi tti ng
body i ntended for i nstal l ati on i s used i n the same
manner as the manual presetti ng tool . (I f an
al umi num fi tti ng i s used, i t shoul d not be reused
i n the system.) The manual tool i s used as fol l ows:
WARNING
Fai l ure to fol l ow these i nstructi ons may
resul t i n i mproperl y preset ferrul es wi th
i nsuffi ci ent bi te i nto the tube. I mproperl y
preset ferrul es have resul ted i n joi nts that
passed hydrostati c testi ng and operated for
weeks or years, then fai l ed catastrophi cal l y
under shock, vi brati on, or normal operat-
i ng l oads. Fl arel ess fi tti ng fai l ures have
Figure 5-19.—Unused ferrules.
5-15
caused personnel i njury, damage to equi p-
ment, and unnecessary i nterrupti on of
propul si on power.
1. Cut the tubi ng square and l i ghtl y deburr
the i nsi de and outsi de corners. For corrosi on
resi sti ng steel (CRES) tubi ng, use a hacksaw rather
than a tubi ng cutter to avoi d work hardeni ng the
tube end. For CRES, and i f necessary for other
materi al s, dress the tube end smooth and square
wi th a fi l e. Tube ends wi th i rregul ar cutti ng marks
wi l l not pr oduce sati sfactor y seati ng sur face
i mpressi ons.
2. Test the hardness of the ferrul e by maki ng
a l i ght scratch on the tubi ng at l east 1/2 i nch back
from the tube end, usi ng a sharp corner on the
ferrul e. I f the ferrul e wi l l not scratch the tube,
no bi te wi l l be obtai ned. Thi s test maybe omi tted
for fl ush-type ferrul es where the bi te wi l l be
vi si bl e. Moderate hand pressure i s suffi ci ent for
produci ng the scratch.
3. Lubr i cate the nut thr eads, the fer r ul e
l eadi ng and trai l i ng edges, and the preset tool
threads wi th a thread l ubri cant compati bl e wi th
the system. Sl i de the nut onto the tubi ng so the
threads face the tube end. Note whether the
ferrul e i s a fl ush type or recessed type (fi g. 5-19),
and sl i de the ferrul e onto the tube so the cutti ng
edge i s toward the tube end (l arge end toward the
nut).
4. Bottom the end of the tubi ng i n the
presetti ng tool . Sl i de the ferrul e up i nto the
presetti ng tool , and confi rm that the nut can be
moved down the tube suffi ci entl y to expose at
l east 1/8 i nch of tubi ng past the ferrul e after the
pr esetti ng oper ati on (fi g. 5-20) to al l ow for
i nspecti on of the ferrul e.
5. Whi l e keepi ng the tube bottomed i n the
presetti ng tool , ti ghten the nut onto the fi tti ng
body unti l the ferrul e just gri ps the tube by
fri cti on. Thi s ri ng gri p poi nt may be i denti fi ed by
l i ghtl y turni ng the tube or the presetti ng tool and
sl owl y ti ghteni ng the nut unti l the tube cannot
be tur ned i n the pr esetti ng tool by hand.
Mark the nut and the presetti ng tool at thi s
posi ti on.
6. Ti ghten the nut accordi ng to the number
of turns gi ven i n tabl e 5-3, dependi ng on tube
si ze.
5-16
Figure 5-20.—Tube and ferrule assembled for preset-
ting, showing nut position required for inspecting
ferrule.
Inspection
Di sassembl e and i nspect the fi tti ng as fol l ows
(mandatory):
1. Ensure that the end of the tubi ng has an
i mpressi on of the presetti ng tool seat surface
(ci rcul ar appeari ng ri ng) for 360 degrees. A parti al
ci rcl e, a vi si bl y off-center ci rcl e, or a ci rcl e broken
by the roughness of the tube end i s unsati sfactory.
2. Check for proper bi te:
a. For fl ush-type ferrul es, a rai sed ri dge
(fi g. 5-21) of tube metal must be vi si bl e compl etel y
around the tube at the l eadi ng edge of the ferrul e.
The best practi ce i s to obtai n a ri dge about 50
percent of the ferrul e edge thi ckness.
Table 5-3.—Number of Turns
Figure 5-21.—Ferrules installed on tube, preset and removed
for inspection.
b. For recessed-type ferrul es, the l eadi ng
edge must be snug agai nst the tube OD. Determi ne
thi s vi sual l y and by attempti ng to rock the ferrul e
on the tube.
3. Ensure that the nut end of the ferrul e (both
types) i s col l apsed around the tube to provi de
support agai nst bendi ng l oads and vi brati on.
4. The ferrul e (both types) must have l i ttl e or
no pl ay al ong the di recti on of the tube run. Check
thi s by tryi ng to move the ferrul e back and forth
by hand. The ferrul e wi l l often be free to rotate
on the tubi ng; thi s does not affect i ts functi on.
5. For fl ush-type ferrul es, check that the gap
between the rai sed metal ri dge and the cutti ng end
of the ferrul e stays the same whi l e the ferrul e i s
rotated. (Omi t thi s check for recessed-type ferrul es
or i f the fl ush-type ferrul e wi l l not rotate on the
tube).
6. Check that the mi ddl e porti on of the ferrul e
(both types) i s bowed or sprung i nto an arc. The
l eadi ng edge of the ferrul e may appear fl attened
i nto a cone shape; thi s i s acceptabl e as l ong as
there i s a bowed secti on near the mi ddl e of the
ferrul e. I f the whol e l eadi ng secti on of the ferrul e
i s fl attened i nto a cone wi th no bowed secti on,
the ferrul e (and possi bl y the fi tti ng body, i f used)
has been damaged by overti ghteni ng and wi l l not
seal rel i abl y.
Final Assembly
When you make a fi nal assembl y i n the
system, use the fol l owi ng i nstal l ati on procedure:
1. Lubri cate al l threads wi th a l i qui d that i s
compati bl e wi th the fl ui d to be used i n the system.
2. Pl ace the tube assembl y i n posi ti on and
check for al i gnment.
3. Ti ghten the nut by hand unti l you feel an
i ncrease i n resi stance to turni ng. Thi s i ndi cates
that the sl eeve or ferrul e pi l ot has contacted the
fi tti ng.
4. I f possi bl e, use a torque wrench to ti ghten
fl arel ess tubi ng nuts. Torque val ues for speci fi c
i nstal l ati ons are usual l y l i sted i n the appl i cabl e
techni cal publ i cati ons. I f i t i s not possi bl e to use
a torque wrench, use the fol l owi ng procedures for
ti ghteni ng the nuts:
After the nut i s handti ght, turn the nut 1/6
turn (one fl at on a hex nut) wi th a wrench. Use
a wrench on the connector to prevent i t from
turni ng whi l e ti ghteni ng the nut. After you i nstal l
the tube assembl y, have the system pressure tested.
Shoul d a connecti on l eak, you may ti ghten the
nut an addi ti onal 1/6 turn (maki ng a total of 1/3
turn). I f, after ti ghteni ng the nut a total of 1/3
turn, l eakage sti l l exi sts, remove the assembl y and
i nspect the components of the assembl y for scores,
cracks, presence of forei gn materi al , or damage
from overti ghteni ng.
NOTE: Overti ghteni ng a fl arel ess-tube nut
dri ves the cutti ng edge of the sl eeve or ferrul e
deepl y i nto the tube, causi ng the tube to be
weakened to the poi nt where normal vi brati on
coul d cause the tube to shear. After you compl ete
the i nspecti on (i f you do not fi nd any di s-
crepanci es), reassembl e the connecti on and repeat
the pressure test procedures.
CAUTION: Do not i n any case ti ghten the
nut beyond 1/3 turn (two fl ats on the hex nut);
thi s i s the maxi mum the fi tti ng may be ti ghtened
wi thout the possi bi l i ty of permanentl y damagi ng
the sl eeve or the tube.
CONNECTORS FOR
FLEXIBLE HOSE
As stated previ ousl y, the fabri cati on of fl exi bl e
hose assembl i es i s covered i n appl i cabl e trai ni ng
manual s, techni cal publ i cati ons, and NAVAI R
01-1A-20. There are vari ous types of end fi tti ngs
for both the pi pi ng connecti on si de and the hose
5-17
connecti on si de of hose fi tti ngs. Fi gure 5-22 shows
commonl y used fi tti ngs.
Piping Connection Side of Hose Fitting
The pi pi ng si de of an end fi tti ng comes wi th
several connecti ng vari ati ons: fl ange, JI C 37°
fl are, O-ri ng uni on, and spl i t cl amp, to name a
few. Not al l vari eti es are avai l abl e for each hose.
Therefore, i nstal l ers must consul t the mi l i tary
s peci fi cati on an d man u factu r er ’s data to
determi ne the speci fi c end fi tti ngs avai l abl e.
Hose Connection Side of Hose Fitting
Hose fi tti ngs are attached to the hose by
several methods. Each method i s determi ned by
the fi tti ng manufacturer and takes i nto con-
si derati on such thi ngs as si ze, constructi on, wal l
thi ckness, and pressure rati ng. Hoses used for
fl exi bl e connecti ons use one of the fol l owi ng
methods for attachment of the fi tti ng to the
hose.
ONE-PIECE REUSABLE SOCKET.— The
socket component of the fi tti ng i s fabri cated as
a si ngl e pi ece. One-pi ece reusabl e sockets are
screwed or rocked onto the hose OD, fol l owed
by i nserti on of the ni ppl e component.
SEGMENTED, BOLTED SOCKET.— The
segmented, bol ted socket consi sts of two or more
segments whi ch are bol ted together on the hose
after i nserti on of the ni ppl e component.
Figure 5-22.—End fittings and hose fittings.
5-18
SEGMENTED SOCKET, RI NG AND
BAND ATTACHED.— The segmented, ri ng and
band attached socket consi sts of three or more
segments. As wi th the bol t-together segments, the
segments, ri ng and band are put on the hose after
i nserti on of the ni ppl e. A speci al tool i s requi red
to compress the segments.
SEGMENTED SOCKET, RING AND BOLT
ATTACHED.— The segmented, ri ng and bol t
attached sock et consi sts of thr ee or mor e
segments. As wi th other segmented socket-type
fi tti ngs, the segments, ri ng, and nuts and bol ts
are put on the hose after i nserti on of the ni ppl e.
SOL I D SOCKET, PERMANENTL Y
ATTACHED.— Thi s type of socket i s perma-
nentl y attached to the hose by cr i mpi ng or
swagi ng. I t i s not reusabl e and i s onl y found
on hose assembl i es where operati ng condi ti ons
precl ude the use of other fi tti ng types. Hose
assembl i es wi th thi s type of fi tti ng attachment are
purchased as compl ete hose assembl i es from the
manufacturer.
QUICK-DISCONNECT COUPLINGS
Sel f-seal i ng, qui ck-di sconnect coupl i ngs are
used at var i ous poi nts i n many fl ui d power
systems. These coupl i ngs are i nstal l ed at l ocati ons
where frequent uncoupl i ng of the l i nes i s requi red
for i nspecti on, test, and mai ntenance. Qui ck-
di sconnect coupl i ngs are al so commonl y used i n
pneumati c systems to connect secti ons of ai r hose
and to connect tool s to the ai r pressure l i nes. Thi s
provi des a conveni ent method of attachi ng and
detachi ng tool s and secti ons of l i nes wi thout l osi ng
pressure.
Qui ck-di sconnect coupl i ngs provi de a means
for qui ckl y di sconnecti ng a l i ne wi thout the l oss
of fl ui d fr om the system or the entr ance of
forei gn matter i nto the system. Several types of
qui ck-di sconnect coupl i ngs have been desi gned for
use i n fl ui d power systems. Fi gure 5-23 i l l ustrates
Figure 5-23.—Quick-disconnect coupling for air lines.
a coupl i ng that i s used wi th portabl e pneumati c
tool s. The mal e secti on i s connected to the tool
or to the l i ne l eadi ng from the tool . The femal e
secti on, whi ch contai ns the shutoff val ve, i s
i nstal l ed i n the pneumati c l i ne l eadi ng from
the pressure source. These connectors can be
separated or connected by very l i ttl e effort on the
part of the operator.
The most common qui ck-di sconnect coupl i ng
for hydraul i c systems consi sts of two parts, hel d
together by a uni on nut. Each part contai ns a
val ve whi ch i s hel d open when the coupl i ng i s
connected, al l owi ng fl ui d to fl ow i n ei ther
di r ecti on thr ough the coupl i ng. When the
coupl i ng i s di sconnected, a spri ng i n each part
cl oses the val ve, preventi ng the l oss of fl ui d and
entrance of forei gn matter.
MANIFOLDS
Some fl ui d power systems are equi pped wi th
mani fol ds i n the pressure suppl y and/or return
l i nes. A mani fol d i s a fl ui d conductor that
provi des mul ti pl e connecti on ports. Mani fol ds
el i mi nate pi pi ng, reduce joi nts, whi ch are often
a source of l eakage, and conserve space. For
exampl e, mani fol ds may be used i n systems that
contai n several subsystems. One common l i ne
connects the pump to the mani fol d. There are
outl et por ts i n the mani fol d to pr ovi de con-
necti ons to each subsystem. A si mi l ar mani fol d
may be used i n the return system. Li nes from the
control val ves of the subsystem connect to the i nl et
ports of the mani fol d, where the fl ui d combi nes
i nto one outl et l i ne to the r eser voi r . Some
mani fol ds are equi pped wi th the check val ves,
rel i ef val ves, fi l ters, and so on, requi red for the
system. I n some cases, the control val ves are
mounted on the mani fol d i n such a manner that
the ports of the val ves are connected di rectl y to
the mani fol d.
Mani fol ds are usual l y one of three types—
sandwi ch, cast, or dri l l ed. The sandwi ch type i s
constructed of three or more fl at pl ates. The
center pl ate (or pl ates) i s machi ned for passages,
and the requi red i nl et and outl et ports are dri l l ed
i nto the outer pl ates. The pl ates are then bonded
together to provi de a l eakproof assembl y. The cast
type of mani fol d i s desi gned wi th cast passages
and dri l l ed ports. The casti ng may be i ron, steel ,
bronze, or al umi num, dependi ng upon the type
of system and fl ui d medi um. I n the dri l l ed type
of mani fol d, al l ports and passages are dri l l ed i n
a bl ock of metal .
5-19
A si mpl e mani fol d i s i l l ustrated i n fi gure 5-24.
Thi s mani fol d contai ns one pressure i nl et port and
several pressure outl et ports that can be bl ocked
off wi th threaded pl ugs. Thi s type of mani fol d
can be adapted to systems contai ni ng vari ous
numbers of subsystems. A thermal rel i ef val ve
may be i ncorporated i n thi s mani fol d. I n thi s case,
the port l abel ed T i s connected to the return l i ne
to pr ovi de a passage for the r el i eved fl ui d to fl ow
to the reservoi r.
Fi gur e 5-25 shows a fl ow di agr am i n a
mani fol d whi ch provi des both pressure and return
passages. One common l i ne provi des pressuri zed
fl ui d to the mani fol d, whi ch di stri butes the fl ui d
to any one of fi ve outl et ports. The return si de
of the mani fol d i s si mi l ar i n desi gn. Thi s mani fol d
i s provi ded wi th a rel i ef val ve, whi ch i s connected
to the pressure and return passages. I n the event
of excessi ve pressure, the rel i ef val ve opens and
al l ows the fl ui d to fl ow from the pressure si de of
the mani fol d to the return si de.
Figure 5-25.—Fluid manifold—flow diagram.
PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES
The fabri cati on, i nstal l ati on, and mai ntenance
of al l fl ui d l i nes and connectors are beyond the
scope of thi s trai ni ng manual . However, there are
some general precauti onary measures that appl y
to the mai ntenance of al l fl ui d l i nes.
Regardl ess of the type of l i nes or connectors
used to make up a fl ui d power system, make
certai n they are the correct si ze and strength and
perfectl y cl ean on the i nsi de. Al l l i nes must be
absol utel y cl ean and free from scal e and other
forei gn matter. I ron or steel pi pes, tubi ng, and
fi tti ngs can be cl eaned wi th a boi l er tube
wi re brush or wi th commerci al pi pe cl eani ng
apparatus. Rust and scal e can be removed from
short, strai ght pi eces by sandbl asti ng, provi ded
there i s no danger that sand parti cl es wi l l remai n
l odged i n bl i nd hol es or pockets after the pi ece
Figure 5-24.—Fluid manifold.
5-20
i s fl ushed. I n the case of l ong pi eces or pi eces bent Open ends of pi pes, tubi ng, hose, and fi tti ngs
to compl ex shapes, rust and scal e can be removed shoul d be capped or pl ugged when they are to be
by pi ckl i ng (cl eani ng metal i n a chemi cal bath). stored for any consi derabl e peri od. Rags or waste
Parts must be degreased pri or to pi ckl i ng. The must not be used for thi s purpose, because they
manufactur er of the par ts shoul d pr ovi de deposi t harmful l i nt whi ch can cause severe
compl ete pi ckl i ng i nstructi ons. damage to the fl ui d power system.
5-21
CHAPTER 6
VALVES
I t i s al l but i mpossi bl e to desi gn a practi cal
fl ui d power system wi thout some means of
control l i ng the vol ume and pressure of the fl ui d
and di recti ng the fl ow of fl ui d to the operati ng
uni ts. Thi s i s accompl i shed by the i ncorporati on
of di fferent types of val ves. A val ve i s defi ned as
any devi ce by whi ch the fl ow of fl ui d may be
started, stopped, or regul ated by a movabl e part
that opens or obstr ucts passage. As appl i ed
i n fl ui d power systems, val ves ar e used for
contr ol l i ng the fl ow, the pr essur e, and the
di recti on of the fl ui d fl ow.
Val ves must be accurate i n the control of fl ui d
fl ow and pressure and the sequence of operati on.
Leakage between the val ve el ement and the val ve
seat i s r educed to a negl i gi bl e quanti ty by
preci si on-machi ned surfaces, resul ti ng i n careful l y
control l ed cl earances. Thi s i s one of the very
i mportant reasons for mi ni mi zi ng contami nati on
i n fl ui d power systems. Contami nati on causes
val ves to sti ck, pl ugs smal l ori fi ces, and causes
abrasi ons of the val ve seati ng surfaces, whi ch
resul ts i n l eakage between the val ve el ement and
val ve seat when the val ve i s i n the cl osed posi ti on.
Any of these can resul t i n i neffi ci ent operati on
or compl ete stoppage of the equi pment.
Val ves may be control l ed manual l y, el ectri -
cal l y, pneumati cal l y, mechani cal l y, hydraul i cal l y,
or by combi nati ons of two or mor e of these
methods. Factors that determi ne the method of
control i ncl ude the purpose of the val ve, the
desi gn and purpose of the system, the l ocati on of
the val ve wi thi n the system, and the avai l abi l i ty
of the source of power.
The di fferent types of val ves used i n fl ui d
power systems, thei r cl assi fi cati on, and thei r
appl i cati on are di scussed i n thi s chapter.
CLASSIFICATIONS
Val ves are cl assi fi ed accordi ng to thei r use:
fl ow control , pressure control , and di recti onal
control . Some val ves have mul ti pl e functi ons that
fal l i nto more than one cl assi fi cati on.
FLOW CONTROL VALVES
Fl ow control val ves are used to regul ate the
fl ow of fl ui ds i n fl ui d-power systems. Control of
fl ow i n fl ui d-power systems i s i mportant because
the rate of movement of fl ui d-powered machi nes
depends on the r ate of fl ow of the pr essur i zed
fl ui d. These val ves may be manual l y, hydrau-
l i cal l y, el ectri cal l y, or pneumati cal l y operated.
Some of the di fferent types of fl ow control
val ves are di scussed i n the fol l owi ng paragraphs.
BALL VALVES
Bal l val ves, as the name i mpl i es, are stop
val ves that use a bal l to stop or start a fl ow of
fl ui d. The bal l , shown i n fi gure 6-1, performs the
Figure 6-1.—Typical ball valve.
6-1
same functi on as the di sk i n other val ves. As the
val ve handl e i s turned to open the val ve, the bal l
rotates to a poi nt where part or al l of the hol e
through the bal l i s i n l i ne wi th the val ve body i nl et
and outl et, al l owi ng fl ui d to fl ow through the
val ve. When the bal l i s rotated so the hol e i s
perpendi cul ar to the fl ow openi ngs of the val ve
body, the fl ow of fl ui d stops.
Most bal l val ves are the qui ck-acti ng type.
They requi re onl y a 90-degree turn to ei ther
compl etel y open or cl ose the val ve. However,
many are operated by pl anetary gears. Thi s type
of geari ng al l ows the use of a rel ati vel y smal l
handwheel and operati ng force to operate a fai rl y
l arge val ve. The geari ng does, however, i ncrease
the operati ng ti me for the val ve. Some bal l val ves
al so contai n a swi ng check l ocated wi thi n the bal l
to gi ve the val ve a check val ve feature. Fi gure 6-2
shows a bal l -stop, swi ng-check val ve wi th a
pl anetary gear operati on.
I n addi ti on to the bal l val ves shown i n fi gures
6-1 and 6-2, there are three-way bal l val ves that
are used to suppl y fl ui d from a si ngl e source to
one component or the other i n a two-component
system (fi g. 6-3).
Figure 6-2.—Typical ball-stop, swing-check valve.
6-2
Figure 6-3.—Three-way ball valve.
GATE VALVES
Gate val ves are used when a strai ght-l i ne fl ow
of fl ui d and mi ni mum fl ow restri cti on are needed.
Gate val ves are so-named because the part that
ei ther stops or al l ows fl ow through the val ve
acts somewhat l i ke a gate. The gate i s usual l y
wedge-shaped. When the val ve i s wi de open the
gate i s ful l y drawn up i nto the val ve bonnet. Thi s
l eaves an openi ng for fl ow through the val ve the
same si ze as the pi pe i n whi ch the val ve i s i nstal l ed
(fi g. 6-4). Therefore, there i s l i ttl e pressure drop
or fl ow restri cti on through the val ve.
Gate val ves are not sui tabl e for throttl i ng
purposes. The control of fl ow i s di ffi cul t because
of the val ve’s desi gn, and the fl ow of fl ui d
sl appi ng agai nst a par ti al l y open gate can
cause extensi ve damage to the val ve. Except as
speci fi cal l y authori zed, gate val ves shoul d not be
used for throttl i ng.
Gate val ves are cl assi fi ed as ei ther ri si ng-stem
or nonri si ng-stem val ves. The nonri si ng-stem
val ve i s shown i n fi gure 6-4. The stem i s threaded
i nto the gate. As the handwheel on the stem i s
rotated, the gate travel s up or down the stem on
the threads whi l e the stem remai ns verti cal l y
stati onary. Thi s type of val ve wi l l al most al ways
have a poi nter i ndi cator threaded onto the upper
end of the stem to i ndi cate the posi ti on of the gate.
Val ves wi th ri si ng stems (fi g. 6-5) are used
when i t i s i mportant to know by i mmedi ate
i nspecti on whether the val ve i s open or cl osed and
when the threads (stem and gate) exposed to the
fl ui d coul d become damaged by fl ui d contami -
nants. I n thi s val ve, the stem ri ses out of the val ve
when the val ve i s opened.
GLOBE VALVES
Gl obe val ves are probabl y the most common
val ves i n exi stence. The gl obe val ve gets i ts name
Figure 6-4.—Operation of a gate valve.
6-3
Figure 6-5.—Rising stem gate valve.
Figure 6-6.—Types of globe valve bodies.
from the gl obul ar shape of the val ve body. Other
types of val ves may al so have gl obul ar-shaped
bodi es. Thus, i t i s the i nternal structure of the
val ve that i denti fi es the type of val ve.
The i nl et and outl et openi ngs for gl obe val ves
ar e ar r anged i n a way to sati sfy the fl ow
requi rements. Fi gure 6-6 shows strai ght-, angl e-,
and cross-fl ow val ves.
The movi ng parts of a gl obe val ve consi st of
the di sk, the val ve stem, and the handwheel . The
stem connects the handwheel and the di sk. I t i s
threaded and fi ts i nto the threads i n the val ve
bonnet.
The part of the gl obe val ve that control s fl ow
i s the di sk, whi ch i s attached to the val ve stem.
(Di sks are avai l abl e i n vari ous desi gns.) The val ve
i s cl osed by turni ng the val ve stem i n unti l the di sk
i s seated i nto the val ve seat. Thi s prevents fl ui d
from fl owi ng through the val ve (fi g. 6-7, vi ew A).
The edge of the di sk and the seat are very
accuratel y machi ned so that they forma ti ght seal
when the val ve i s cl osed. When the val ve i s open
(fi g. 6-7, vi ew B), the fl ui d fl ows through the space
between the edge of the di sk and the seat. Si nce
the fl ui d fl ows equal l y on al l si des of the center
of support when the val ve i s open, there i s no
unbal anced pressure on the di sk to cause uneven
wear. The rate at whi ch fl ui d fl ows through the
val ve i s regul ated by the posi ti on of the di sk i n
rel ati on to the seat. The val ve i s commonl y used
as a ful l y open or ful l y cl osed val ve, but i t may
be used as a throttl e val ve. However, si nce the
seati ng surface i s a rel ati vel y l arge area, i t i s not
sui tabl e as a throttl e val ve, where fi ne adjustments
are requi red i n control l i ng the rate of fl ow.
The gl obe val ve shoul d never be jammed i n
the open posi ti on. After a val ve i s ful l y opened,
the handwheel shoul d be turned toward the cl osed
posi ti on approxi matel y one-hal f turn. Unl ess thi s
i s done, the val ve i s l i kel y to sei ze i n the open
posi ti on, maki ng i t di ffi cul t, i f not i mpossi bl e, to
cl ose the val ve. Many val ves are damaged i n thi s
Figure 6-7.—Operation of a globe valve.
6-4
manner. Another reason for not l eavi ng gl obe
val ves i n the ful l y open posi ti on i s that i t i s
someti mes di ffi cul t to determi ne i f the val ve i s
open or cl osed. I f the val ve i s jammed i n the open
posi ti on, the stem may be damaged or broken by
someone who thi nks the val ve i s cl osed, and
attempts to open i t.
I t i s i mportant that gl obe val ves be i nstal l ed
wi th the pressure agai nst the face of the di sk to
keep the system pressure away from the stem
packi ng when the val ve i s shut.
NEEDLE VALVES
Needl e val ves ar e si mi l ar i n desi gn and
operati on to the gl obe val ve. I nstead of a di sk,
a needl e val ve has a l ong tapered poi nt at the end
of the val ve stem. A cross-secti onal vi ew of a
needl e val ve i s i l l ustrated i n fi gure 6-8.
The l ong taper of the val ve el ement permi ts
a much smal l er seati ng surface area than that of
the gl obe val ve; therefore, the needl e val ve i s more
sui tabl e as a throttl e val ve. Needl e val ves are used
to contr ol fl ow i nto del i cate gauges, whi ch
mi ght be damaged by sudden surges of fl ui d under
pressure. Needl e val ves are al so used to control
the end of a work cycl e, where i t i s desi rabl e for
moti on to be brought sl owl y to a hal t, and at other
poi nts where preci se adjustments of fl ow are
necessary and where a smal l rate of fl ow i s
desi r ed.
Al though many of the needl e val ves used i n
fl ui d power systems are the manual l y operated
type (fi g. 6-8), modi fi cati ons of thi s type of val ve
are often used as vari abl e restri ctors. Thi s val ve i s
constructed wi thout a handwheel and i s adjusted
to provi de a speci fi c rate of fl ow. Thi s rate of fl ow
wi l l provi de a desi red ti me of operati on for a
parti cul ar subsystem. Si nce thi s type of val ve can
be adjusted to conform to the requi rements of a
parti cul ar system, i t can be used i n a vari ety of
systems. Fi gure 6-9 i l l ustrates a needl e val ve that
was modi fi ed as a vari abl e restri ctor.
HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC
GLOBE VALVES
The val ve consi sts of a val ve body and a stem
cartri dge assembl y. The stem cartri dge assembl y
i ncl udes the bonnet, gl and nut, packi ng, packi ng
retai ner, handl e, stem, and seat. On smal l val ves
(1/8 and 1/4 i nch) the stem i s made i n one pi ece,
but on l arger si zes i t i s made of a stem, gui de,
and stem retai ner. The val ve di sk i s made of nyl on
and i s swaged i nto ei ther the stem, for 1/8- and
1/4-i nch val ves, or the gui de, for l arger val ves.
The bonnet screws i nto the val ve body wi th
l eft-hand threads and i s seal ed by an O-ri ng
(i ncl udi ng a back-up ri ng).
Figure 6-8.—Cross-sectional view of a needle valve. Figure 6-9.—Variable restrictor.
6-5
The val ve i s avai l abl e wi th ei ther a ri si ng stem
or a non-ri si ng stem. The ri si ng stem val ve uses
the same port body desi gn as does the non-ri si ng
stem val ve. The stem i s threaded i nto the gl and
nut and screws outward as the val ve i s opened.
Thi s val ve does not i ncorporate provi si ons for
ti ghteni ng the stem packi ng nor repl aci ng the
packi ng whi l e the val ve i s i n servi ce; therefore,
compl ete val ve di sassembl y i s r equi r ed for
mai ntenance. Fi gure 6-10 i l l ustrates a ri si ng stem
hydraul i c and pneumati c gl obe val ve. Addi ti onal
i nformati on on thi s val ve i s avai l abl e i n Standard
Navy Valves, NAVSHI PS 0948-012-5000.
PRESSURE CONTROL VALVES
The safe and effi ci ent oper ati on of fl ui d
power systems, system components, and rel ated
equi pment r equi r es a means of contr ol l i ng
pressure. There are many types of automati c
pressure control val ves. Some of them merel y
provi de an escape for pressure that exceeds a set
pressure; some onl y reduce the pressure to a l ower
pressure system or subsystem; and some keep the
pressure i n a system wi thi n a requi red range.
RELIEF VALVES
Some fl ui d power systems, even when operat-
i ng normal l y, may temporari l y devel op excessi ve
pressure; for exampl e, when an unusual l y strong
work resi stance i s encountered. Rel i ef val ves are
used to control thi s excess pressure.
Rel i ef val ves are automati c val ves used on
system l i nes and equi pment to prevent over-
pressuri zati on. Most rel i ef val ves si mpl y l i ft (open)
at a preset pressure and reset (shut) when the
pressure drops sl i ghtl y bel ow the l i fti ng pressure.
They do not mai ntai n fl ow or pressure at a gi ven
amount, but prevent pressure from ri si ng above
a speci fi c l evel when the system i s temporari l y
over l oaded.
Mai n system r el i ef val ves ar e gener al l y
i nstal l ed between the pump or pressure source and
the fi rst system i sol ati on val ve. The val ve must
be l arge enough to al l ow the ful l output of the
hydr aul i c pump to be del i ver ed back to the
reservoi r. I n a pneumati c system, the rel i ef val ve
control s excess pressure by di schargi ng the excess
gas to the atmosphere.
Figure 6-10.—Hydraulic and pneumatic globe valve (rising stem).
6-6
Smal l er rel i ef val ves, si mi l ar i n desi gn and
operati on to the mai n system rel i ef val ve, are often
used i n i sol ated parts of the system where a check
val ve or di recti onal control val ve prevents pressure
from bei ng rel i eved through the mai n system rel i ef
val ve and where pressures must be rel i eved at a
set poi nt l ower than that provi ded by the mai n
system rel i ef. These smal l rel i ef val ves are al so
used to rel i eve pressures caused by thermal
expansi on (see gl ossary) of the fl ui ds.
Fi gure 6-11 shows a typi cal rel i ef val ve. System
pressure si mpl y acts under the val ve di sk at the
i nl et to the val ve. When the system pressure
exceeds the force exerted by the val ve spri ng, the
val ve di sk l i fts off of i ts seat, al l owi ng some of
the system fl ui d to escape through the val ve outl et
unti l the system pressure i s reduced to just bel ow
the rel i ef set poi nt of the val ve.
Al l r el i ef val ves have an adjustment for
i ncreasi ng or decreasi ng the set rel i ef pressure.
Some rel i ef val ves are equi pped wi th an adjusti ng
screw for thi s purpose. Thi s adjusti ng screw i s
usual l y cover ed wi th a cap, whi ch must be
removed before an adjustment can be made. Some
type of l ocki ng devi ce, such as a l ock nut, i s
usual l y provi ded to prevent the adjustment from
changi ng through vi brati on. Other types of rel i ef
val ves are equi pped wi th a handwheel for maki ng
adjustments to the val ve. Ei ther the adjusti ng
screw or the handwheel i s turned cl ockwi se to
i ncrease the pressure at whi ch the val ve wi l l open.
I n addi ti on, most rel i ef val ves are al so provi ded
Figure 6-11.—Relief valve.
wi th an operati ng l ever or some type of devi ce to
al l ow manual cycl i ng or gaggi ng the val ve open
for certai n tasks.
Var i ous modi fi cati ons of the r el i ef val ve
shown i n fi gure 6-11 are used to effi ci entl y serve
the requi rements of some fl ui d power systems;
however, thi s rel i ef val ve i s unsati sfactory for
some appl i cati ons. To gi ve you a better under-
standi ng of the operati on of rel i ef val ves, we wi l l
di scuss some of the undesi rabl e characteri sti cs of
thi s val ve.
A si mpl e r el i ef val ve, such as the one
i l l ustrated i n fi gure 6-11, wi th a sui tabl e spri ng
adjustment can be set so that i t wi l l open when
the system pressure reaches a certai n l evel , 500
psi for exampl e. When the val ve does open, the
vol ume of fl ow to be handl ed may be greater than
the capaci ty of the val ve; therefore, pressure i n
the system may i ncrease to several hundred psi
above the set pressure before the val ve bri ngs the
pressure under control . A si mpl e rel i ef val ve wi l l
be effecti ve under these condi ti ons onl y i f i t i s very
l arge. I n thi s case, i t woul d operate sti ffl y and the
val ve el ement woul d chatter back and forth. I n
addi ti on, the val ve wi l l not cl ose unti l the system
pressure decreases to a poi nt somewhat bel ow the
openi ng pressure.
The surface area of the val ve el ement must be
l arger than that of the pressure openi ng i f the
val ve i s to seat sati sfactori l y as shown i n fi gure
6-12. The pressure i n the system acts on the val ve
el ement open to i t. I n each case i n fi gure 6-12,
the force exerted di rectl y upward by system
pressure when the val ve i s cl osed depends on the
area (A) across the val ve el ement where the
el ement seats agai nst the pressure tube. The
moment the val ve opens, however, the upward
for ce exer ted depends on the hor i zontal ar ea (B)
of the enti re val ve el ement, whi ch i s greater than
area A. Thi s causes an upward jump of the val ve
el ement i mmedi atel y after i t opens, because the
Figure 6-12.—Pressure acting on different areas.
6-7
same pressure acti ng over di fferent areas produces
forces proporti onal to the areas. I t al so requi res
a greater force to cl ose the val ve than was requi red
to open i t. As a resul t, the val ve wi l l not cl ose unti l
the system pressure has decreased to a certai n
poi nt bel ow the pressure requi red to open i t.
Let us assume that a val ve of thi s type i s set
to open at 500 psi . (Refer to fi g. 6-12.) When the
val ve i s cl osed, the pressure acts on area A. I f thi s
area i s 0.5 square i nch, an upward force of 250
pounds (500 0.5) wi l l be exerted on the val ve
at the moment of openi ng. Wi th the val ve open,
however, the pressure acts on area B. I f area B
i s 1 square i nch, the upward force i s 500 pounds,
or doubl e the force at whi ch the val ve actual l y
opened. For the val ve to cl ose, pressure i n the
system woul d have to decrease wel l bel ow the
poi nt at whi ch the val ve opened. The exact
pressure woul d depend on the shape of the val ve
el ement.
I n some hydraul i c systems, there i s a pressure
i n the return l i ne. Thi s back pressure i s caused
by restri cti ons i n the return l i ne and wi l l vary i n
rel ati on to the amount of fl ui d fl owi ng i n the
return l i ne. Thi s pressure creates a force on the
back of the val ve el ement and wi l l i ncrease the
force necessary to open the val ve and rel i eve
system pressure.
I t fol l ows that si mpl e rel i ef val ves have a
tendency to open and cl ose rapi dl y as they “hunt”
above and bel ow the set pr essur e, causi ng
pressure pul sati ons and undesi rabl e vi brati ons
and produci ng a noi sy chatter. Because of the
unsati sfactory performance of the si mpl e rel i ef
val ve i n some appl i cati ons, compound rel i ef val ves
wer e devel oped.
Compound rel i ef val ves use the pri nci pl es of
operati on of si mpl e rel i ef val ves for one stage of
thei r acti on—that of the pi l ot val ve. Provi si on i s
made to l i mi t the amount of fl ui d that the pi l ot
val ve must handl e, and ther eby avoi d the
weaknesses of si mpl e r el i ef val ves. (A pi l ot
val ve i s a smal l val ve used for operati ng another
val ve.)
The operati on of a compound rel i ef val ve i s
i l l ustrated i n fi gure 6-13. I n vi ew A, the mai n
val ve, whi ch consi sts of a pi ston, stem, and spri ng,
i s cl osed, bl ocki ng fl ow from the hi gh-pressure
l i ne to the reservoi r. Fl ui d i n the hi gh-pressure l i ne
fl ows around the stem of the mai n val ves as i t
fl ows to the actuati ng uni t. The stem of the mai n
val ve i s hol l ow (the stem passage) and contai ns
the mai n val ve spri ng, whi ch forces the mai n val ve
agai nst i ts seat. When the pi l ot val ve i s open the
stem passage al l ows fl ui d to fl ow from the pi l ot
Figure 6-13.—Operation of compound relief valve,
6-8
val ve, around the mai n val ve spri ng, and down
to the return l i ne.
There i s al so a narrow passage (pi ston passage)
through the mai n val ve pi ston. Thi s passage
connects the hi gh-pr essur e l i ne to the val ve
chamber.
The pi l ot val ve i s a smal l , bal l -type, spri ng-
l oaded check val ve, whi ch connects the top of the
passage from the val ve chamber wi th the passage
through the mai n val ve stem. The pi l ot val ve i s
the control uni t of the rel i ef val ve because the
pressure at whi ch the rel i ef val ve wi l l open
depends on the tensi on of the pi l ot val ve spri ng.
The pi l ot val ve spri ng tensi on i s adjusted by
turni ng the adjusti ng screw so that the bal l wi l l
unseat when system pressure reaches the preset
l i mi t.
Fl ui d at l i ne pr essur e fl ows thr ough the
nar r ow pi ston passage to fi l l the chamber .
Because the l i ne and the chamber are connected,
the pressure i n both are equal . The top and
bottom of the mai n pi ston have equal areas;
therefore, the hydraul i c forces acti ng upward
and downward are equal , and there i s no tendency
for the pi ston to move i n ei ther di r ecti on.
The onl y other force acti ng on the mai n val ve
i s that of the mai n val ve spri ng, whi ch hol ds i t
cl osed.
When the pressure i n the hi gh-pressure l i ne
i ncreases to the poi nt at whi ch the pi l ot val ve
i s set, the bal l unseats (fi g. 6-13, vi ew B).
Thi s opens the val ve chamber thr ough the
val ve stem passage to the l ow-pressure return
l i ne. Fl ui d i mmedi atel y begi ns to fl ow out of the
chamber, much faster than i t can fl ow through
the nar r ow pi ston passage. As a r esul t the
chamber pressure i mmedi atel y drops, and the
pi l ot val ve begi ns to cl ose agai n, r estr i cti ng
the outward fl ow of fl ui d. Chamber pressure
therefore i ncreases, the val ve opens, and the cycl e
repeats.
So far, the onl y part of the val ve that has
moved appreci abl y i s the pi l ot, whi ch functi ons
just l i ke any other si mpl e spri ng-l oaded rel i ef
val ve. Because of the smal l si ze of the pi ston
passage, there i s a severe l i mi t on the amount
of overpressure protecti on the pi l ot can provi de
the system. Al l the pi l ot val ve can do i s l i mi t
fl ui d pressure i n the val ve chamber above the
mai n pi ston to a pr eset maxi mum pr essur e,
by al l owi ng excess fl ui d to fl ow through the
pi ston passage, through the stem passage, and
i nto the return l i ne. When pressure i n the system
i ncreases to a val ue that i s above the fl ow capaci ty
of the pi l ot val ve, the mai n val ve opens,
permi tti ng excess fl ui d to fl ow di rectl y to the
return l i ne. Thi s i s accompl i shed i n the fol l owi ng
manner.
As system pressure i ncreases, the upward force
on the mai n pi ston overcomes the downward
force, whi ch consi sts of the tensi on of the mai n
pi ston spri ng and the pressure of the fl ui d i n the
val ve chamber (fi g. 6-13, vi ew C). The pi ston then
ri ses, unseati ng the stem, and al l ows the fl ui d to
fl ow from the system pressure l i ne di rectl y i nto
the return l i ne. Thi s causes system pressure to
decrease rapi dl y, si nce the mai n val ve i s desi gned
to handl e the compl ete output of the pump. When
the pressure returns to normal , the pi l ot spri ng
forces the bal l onto the seat. Pressures are equal
above and bel ow the mai n pi ston, and the mai n
spri ng forces the val ve to seat.
As you can see, the compound val ve over-
comes the greatest l i mi tati on of a si mpl e rel i ef
val ve by l i mi ti ng the fl ow through the pi l ot val ve
to the quanti ty i t can sati sfactori l y handl e. Thi s
l i mi ts the pressure above the mai n val ve and
enabl es the mai n l i ne pressure to open the mai n
val ve. I n thi s way, the system i s rel i eved when an
overl oad exi sts.
PRESSURE REGULATORS
Pressure regul ators, often r efer r ed to as
unl oadi ng val ves, are used i n fl ui d power systems
to regul ate pressure. I n pneumati c systems, the
val ve, commonl y r efer r ed to as a pr essur e
regul ator, si mpl y reduces pressure. Thi s type of
val ve i s di scussed l ater i n thi s chapter under
pressure-reduci ng val ves. I n hydraul i c systems the
pressure regul ator i s used to unl oad the pump and
to mai ntai n and regul ate system pressure at the
desi red val ues. Al l hydraul i c systems do not
r equi r e pr essur e r egul ator s. The open-center
system (di scussed i n chapter 12) does not requi re
a pressure regul ator. Many systems are equi pped
wi th vari abl e-di spl acement pumps (di scussed i n
chapter 4), whi ch contai n a pressure-regul ati ng
devi ce.
Pressure regul ators are made i n a vari ety of
types and by vari ous manufacturers; however, the
6-9
basi c operati ng pri nci pl es of al l regul ators are
si mi l ar to the one i l l ustrated i n fi gure 6-14.
A regul ator i s open when i t i s di recti ng fl ui d
under pressure i nto the system (fi g. 6-14, vi ew A).
I n the cl osed posi ti on (fi g. 6-14, vi ew B), the fl ui d
i n the part of the system beyond the regul ator i s
trapped at the desi red pressure, and the fl ui d from
the pump i s bypassed i nto the return l i ne and back
to the reservoi r. To prevent constant openi ng and
cl osi ng (chatter), the regul ator i s desi gned to open
at a pressure somewhat l ower than the cl osi ng
pressure. Thi s di fference i s known as di fferenti al
or operati ng range. For exampl e, assume that a
pressure regul ator i s set to open when the system
pressure drops bel ow 600 psi , and cl ose when the
pressure ri ses above 800 psi . The di fferenti al or
operati ng range i s 200 psi .
Referri ng to fi gure 6-14, assume that the
pi ston has an area of 1 square i nch, the pi l ot val ve
has a cross-secti onal area of one-fourth square
i nch, and the pi ston spri ng provi des 600 pounds
of force pushi ng the pi ston down. When the
pressure i n the system i s l ess than 600 psi , fl ui d
from the pump wi l l enter the i nl et port, fl ow to
the top of the regul ator, and then to the pi l ot
val ve. When the pressure of the fl ui d at the i nl et
i ncreases to the poi nt where the force i t creates
agai nst the front of the check val ve exceeds the
force created agai nst the back of the check val ve
by system pressure and the check val ve spri ng, the
check val ve opens. Thi s al l ows fl ui d to fl ow i nto
the system and to the bottom of the regul ator
agai nst the pi ston. When the force created by the
system pressure exceeds the force exerted by the
spri ng, the pi ston moves up, causi ng the pi l ot
val ve to unseat. Si nce the fl ui d wi l l take the path
of l east r esi stance, i t wi l l pass thr ough the
regul ator and back to the reservoi r through the
return l i ne.
When the fl ui d from the pump i s suddenl y
al l owed a free path to return, the pressure on the
i nput si de of the check val ve drops and the check
val ve cl oses. The fl ui d i n the system i s then
trapped under pressure. Thi s fl ui d wi l l remai n
pressuri zed unti l a power uni t i s actuated, or unti l
pressure i s sl owl y l ost through normal i nternal
l eakage wi thi n the system.
When the system pressure decreases to a poi nt
sl i ghtl y bel ow 600 psi , the spri ng forces the pi ston
down and cl oses the pi l ot val ve. When the pi l ot
val ve i s cl osed, the fl ui d cannot fl ow di rectl y to
the return l i ne. Thi s causes the pressure to i ncrease
i n the l i ne between the pump and the regul ator.
Thi s pressure opens the check val ve, causi ng the
fl ui d to enter the system.
I n summar y, when the system pr essur e
decreases a certai n amount, the pressure regul ator
wi l l open, sendi ng fl ui d to the system. When the
system pr essur e i ncr eases suffi ci entl y, the
regul ator wi l l cl ose, al l owi ng the fl ui d from the
pump to fl ow through the regul ator and back to
the reservoi r. The pressure regul ator takes the l oad
off of the pump and regul ates system pressure.
Figure 6-14.—Hydraulic pressure regulator.
6-10
Figure 6-15.—Installation
SEQUENCE VALVES
of sequence valves.
Sequence val ves contr ol the sequence of
operati on between two branches i n a ci rcui t; that
i s, they enabl e one uni t to automati cal l y set
another uni t i nto moti on. An exampl e of the use
of a sequence val ve i s i n an ai rcraft l andi ng gear
actuati ng system.
I n a l andi ng gear actuati ng system, the l andi ng
gear doors must open before the l andi ng gear
starts to extend. Conversel y, the l andi ng gear must
be compl etel y retracted before the doors cl ose. A
sequence val ve i nstal l ed i n each l andi ng gear
actuati ng l i ne performs thi s functi on.
A sequence val ve i s somewhat si mi l ar to a
rel i ef val ve except that, after the set pressure has
been reached, the sequence val ve di verts the fl ui d
to a second actuator or motor to do work i n
another part of the system. Fi gure 6-15 shows an
i nstal l ati on of two sequence val ves that control
the sequence of operati on of three actuati ng
cyl i nders. Fl ui d i s free to fl ow i nto cyl i nder A.
The fi rst sequence val ve (1) bl ocks the passage of
fl ui d unti l the pi ston i n cyl i nder A moves to the
end of i ts stroke. At thi s ti me, sequence val ve 1
opens, al l owi ng fl ui d to enter cyl i nder B. Thi s
acti on conti nues unti l al l three pi stons compl ete
thei r strokes.
There are vari ous types of sequence val ves.
Some are control l ed by pressure and some are
control l ed mechani cal l y.
Pressure-Controlled Sequence Valve
The operati on of a typi cal pressure-control l ed
sequence val ve i s i l l ustrated i n fi gure 6-16. The
openi ng pressure i s obtai ned by adjusti ng the
tensi on of the spri ng that normal l y hol ds the
pi ston i n the cl osed posi ti on. (Note that the top
part of the pi ston has a l arger di ameter than the
l ower part.) Fl ui d enters the val ve through the
i nl et port, fl ows around the l ower part of the
pi ston and exi ts the outl et port, where i t fl ows to
the pri mary (fi rst) uni t to be operated (fi g. 6-16,
vi ew A). Thi s fl ui d pressure al so acts agai nst the
l ower surface of the pi ston.
Figure 6-16.—Operation of a pressure-controlled sequence valve.
6-11
When the pri mary actuati ng uni t compl etes i ts
operati on, pressure i n the l i ne to the actuati ng uni t
i ncreases suffi ci entl y to overcome the force of the
spri ng, and the pi ston ri ses. The val ve i s then i n
the open posi ti on (fi g. 6-16, vi ew B). The fl ui d
enteri ng the val ve takes the path of l east resi stance
and fl ows to the secondary uni t.
A drai n passage i s provi ded to al l ow any fl ui d
l eaki ng past the pi ston to fl ow from the top of
the val ve. I n hydraul i c systems, thi s drai n l i ne i s
usual l y connected to the mai n return l i ne.
Mechanically Operated Sequence Valve
The mechani cal l y operated sequence val ve
(fi g. 6-17) i s operated by a pl unger that extends
thr ough the body of the val ve. The val ve i s
mounted so that the pl unger wi l l be operated by
the pri mary uni t.
A check val ve, ei ther a bal l or a poppet, i s
i nstal l ed between the fl ui d ports i n the body. I t
can be unseated by ei ther the pl unger or fl ui d
pr essur e.
Port A (fi g. 6-17) and the actuator of the
pri mary uni t are connected by a common l i ne.
Port B i s connected by a l i ne to the actuator of
the secondary uni t. When fl ui d under pressure
fl ows to the pri mary uni t, i t al so fl ows i nto the
sequence val ve through port A to the seated check
val ve i n the sequence val ve. I n order to operate
the secondary uni t, the fl ui d must fl ow through
the sequence val ve. The val ve i s l ocated so that
the pri mary uni t depresses the pl unger as i t
compl etes i ts operati on. The pl unger unseats
the check val ve and al l ows the fl ui d to fl ow
Figure 6-17.—Mechanically operated sequence valve.
thr ough the val ve, out por t B, and to the
secondary uni t.
Thi s type of sequence val ve permi ts fl ow i n
the opposi te di recti on. Fl ui d enters port B and
fl ows to the check val ve. Al though thi s i s return
fl ow from the actuati ng uni t, the fl ui d overcomes
spri ng tensi on, unseats the check val ve, and fl ows
out through port A.
PRESSURE-REDUCING VALVES
Pressure-reduci ng val ves provi de a steady
pressure i nto a system that operates at a l ower
pressure than the suppl y system. A reduci ng val ve
can normal l y be set for any desi red downstream
pressure wi thi n the desi gn l i mi ts of the val ve. Once
the val ve i s set, the reduced pressure wi l l be
mai ntai ned r egar dl ess of changes i n suppl y
pressure (as l ong as the suppl y pressure i s at l east
as hi gh as the reduced pressure desi red) and
regardl ess of the system l oad, provi di ng the l oad
does not exceed the desi gn capaci ty of the reducer.
Figure 6-18.—Spring-loaded pressure-reducing valve.
6-12
Ther e ar e var i ous desi gns and types of
pr essur e-r educi ng val ves. The spr i ng-l oaded
r educer and the pi l ot-contr ol l ed val ve ar e
di scussed i n thi s text.
Spring-Loaded Reducer
The spri ng-l oaded pressure-reduci ng val ve
(fi g. 6-18) i s commonl y used i n pneumati c
systems. I t i s often referred to as a pressure
regul ator.
The val ve si mpl y uses spri ng pressure agai nst
a di aphragm to open the val ve. On the bottom
of the di aphragm, the outl et pressure (the pressure
i n the reduced-pressure system) of the val ve forces
the di aphragm upward to shut the val ve. When
the outl et pressure drops bel ow the set poi nt of
the val ve, the spri ng pressure overcomes the outl et
pressure and forces the val ve stem downward,
openi ng the val ve. As the outl et pressure i ncreases,
appr oachi ng the desi r ed val ue, the pr essur e
under the di aphragm begi ns to overcome spri ng
pressure, forci ng the val ve stem upwards, shutti ng
the val ve. You can adjust the downstr eam
pressure by turni ng the adjusti ng screw, whi ch
vari es the spri ng pressure agai nst the di aphragm.
Thi s parti cul ar spri ng-l oaded val ve wi l l fai l i n the
open posi ti on i f a di aphragm rupture occurs.
Pilot-Controlled Pressure-Reducing Valve
Fi gure 6-19 i l l ustrates the operati on of a
pi l ot-control l ed pressure-reduci ng val ve. Thi s
val ve consi sts of an adjustabl e pi l ot val ve, whi ch
control s the operati ng pressure of the val ve, and
a spool val ve, whi ch reacts to the acti on of the
pi l ot val ve.
The pi l ot val ve consi sts of a poppet (1), a
spri ng (2), and an adjusti ng screw (3). The val ve
Figure 6-19.—Pilot-controlled pressure-reducing valve.
6-13
spool assembl y consi sts of a val ve spool (10) and
a spri ng (4).
Fl ui d under mai n pressure enters the i nl et port
(11) and under al l condi ti ons i s free to fl ow
through the val ve and the outl et port (5). (Ei ther
port 5 or port 11 maybe used as the hi gh-pressure
por t.)
Fi gure 6-19, vi ew A, shows the val ve i n the
open posi ti on. I n thi s posi ti on, the pressure i n the
reduced-pressure outl et port (6) has not reached
the preset operati ng pressure of the val ve. The
fl ui d al so fl ows through passage 8, through smal l er
passage 9 i n the center of the val ve spool , and i nto
chamber 12. The fl ui d pressure at outl et port 6
i s therefore di stri buted to both ends of the spool .
When these pressures are equal the spool i s hydrau-
l i cal l y bal anced. Spri ng 4 i s a l ow-tensi on spri ng
and appl i es onl y a sl i ght downward force on the
spool . I ts mai n purpose i s to posi ti on the spool
and to mai ntai n openi ng 7 at i ts maxi mum si ze.
As the pressure i ncreases i n outl et port 6 (fi g.
16, vi ew B), thi s pressure i s transmi tted through
passages 8 and 9 to chamber 12. Thi s pressure al so
acts on the pi l ot val ve poppet (1). When thi s
pressure i ncreases above the preset operati ng
pressure of the val ve, i t overcomes the force of
pi l ot val ve spri ng 2 and unseats the poppet. Thi s
al l ows fl ui d to fl ow through the drai n port (15).
Because the smal l passage (9) restri cts fl ow i nto
chamber 12, the fl ui d pressure i n the chamber
drops. Thi s causes a momentary di fference i n
pressure across the val ve spool (10) whi ch al l ows
fl ui d pressure acti ng agai nst the bottom area of
the val ve spool to overcome the downward force
of spri ng 4. The spool i s then forced upward unti l
the pressures across i ts ends are equal i zed. As the
spool moves upward, i t restri cts the fl ow through
openi ng 7 and causes the pressure to decrease i n
the reduced pressure outl et port 6. I f the pressure
i n the outl et port conti nues to i ncrease to a val ue
above the preset pressure, the pi l ot val ve wi l l open
agai n and the cycl e wi l l repeat. Thi s al l ows the
spool val ve to move up hi gher i nto chamber 12;
thus further reduci ng the si ze of openi ng 7.
These cycl es repeat unti l the desi red pressure i s
mai ntai ned i n outl et 6.
When the pressure i n outl et 6 decreases to a
val ue bel ow the preset pressure, spri ng 4 forces
the spool downward, al l owi ng more fl ui d to fl ow
through openi ng 7.
COUNTERBALANCE VALVE
The counterbal ance val ve i s normal l y l ocated
i n the l i ne between a di recti onal control val ve and
the outl et of a ver ti cal l y mounted actuati ng
cyl i nder whi ch supports wei ght or must be hel d
6-14
i n posi ti on for a peri od of ti me. Thi s val ve serves
as a hydraul i c resi stance to the actuati ng cyl i nder.
For exampl e, counterbal ance val ves are used i n
some hydraul i cal l y operated forkl i fts. The val ve
offers a resi stance to the fl ow from the actuati ng
cyl i nder when the fork i s l owered. I t al so hel ps
to support the fork i n the UP posi ti on.
Counterbal ance val ves are al so used i n ai r-
l aunched weapons l oaders. I n thi s case the val ve
i s l ocated i n the top of the l i ft cyl i nder. The val ve
requi res a speci fi c pressure to l ower the l oad. I f
adequate pressure i s not avai l abl e, the l oad cannot
be l owered. Thi s prevents col l apse of the l oad due
to any mal functi on of the hydraul i c system.
One type of counterbal ance val ve i s i l l ustrated
i n fi gure 6-20. The val ve el ement i s a bal anced
spool (4). The spool consi sts of two pi stons
permanentl y fi xed on ei ther end of a shaft. The
i nner surface areas of the pi stons are equal ;
therefore, pressure acts equal l y on both areas
regardl ess of the posi ti on of the val ve and has no
effect on the movement of the val ve—hence, the
term balanced. The shaft area between the two
pi stons provi des the area for the fl ui d to fl ow
Figure 6-20.—Counterbalance valve.
when the val ve i s open. A smal l pi ston (9) i s
attached to the bottom of the spool val ve.
When the val ve i s i n the cl osed posi ti on, the
top pi ston of the spool val ve bl ocks the di scharge
port (8). Wi th the val ve i n thi s posi ti on, fl ui d
fl owi ng from the actuati ng uni t enters the i nl et
port (5). The fl ui d cannot fl ow through the val ve
because di scharge port 8 i s bl ocked. However,
fl ui d wi l l fl ow through the pi l ot passage (6) to the
smal l pi l ot pi ston. As the pressure i ncreases, i t acts
on the pi l ot pi ston unti l i t overcomes the preset
pressure of spri ng 3. Thi s forces the val ve spool
(4) up and al l ows the fl ui d to fl ow around the
shaft of the val ve spool and out di scharge port
8. Fi gure 6-20 shows the val ve i n thi s posi ti on.
Duri ng reverse fl ow, the fl ui d enters port 8. The
spri ng (3) forces val ve spool 4 to the cl osed
posi ti on. The fl ui d pressure overcomes the spri ng
tensi on of the check val ve (7). The check val ve
opens and al l ows free fl ow around the shaft of
the val ve spool and out through port 5.
The operati ng pressure of the val ve can be
adjusted by turni ng the adjustment screw (1),
whi ch i ncreases or decreases the tensi on of the
spri ng. Thi s adjustment depends on the wei ght
that the val ve must support.
I t i s normal for a smal l amount of fl ui d to l eak
around the top pi ston of the spool val ve and i nto
the area around the spri ng. An accumul ati on
woul d cause addi ti onal pressure on top of the
spool val ve. Thi s woul d r equi r e addi ti onal
pressure to open the val ve. The drai n (2) provi des
a passage for thi s fl ui d to fl ow to port 8.
DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVES
Di recti onal control val ves are desi gned to
di rect the fl ow of fl ui d, at the desi red ti me, to the
poi nt i n a fl ui d power system where i t wi l l do
work. The dri vi ng of a ram back and forth i n i ts
cyl i nder i s an exampl e of when a di recti onal
control val ve i s used. Vari ous other terms are used
to i denti fy di recti onal val ves, such as sel ector
val ve, transfer val ve, and control val ve. Thi s
manual wi l l use the term di recti onal control val ve
to i denti fy these val ves.
Di r ecti onal contr ol val ves for hydr aul i c
and pneumati c systems are si mi l ar i n desi gn
and oper ati on. However , ther e i s one major
di fference. The return port of a hydraul i c val ve
i s ported through a return l i ne to the reservoi r,
whi l e the si mi l ar port of a pneumati c val ve,
commonl y referred to as the exhaust port, i s
usual l y vented to the atmosphere. Any other
di fferences are poi nted out i n the di scussi on of
the val ves.
Di recti onal control val ves may be operated by
di fferences i n pressure acti ng on opposi te si des
of the val vi ng el ement, or they maybe posi ti oned
manual l y, mechani cal l y, or el ectri cal l y. Often two
or more methods of operati ng the same val ve wi l l
be used i n di fferent phases of i ts acti on.
CLASSIFICATION
Di recti onal control val ves may be cl assi fi ed i n
several ways. Some of the di fferent ways are by
the type of control , the number of ports i n the
val ve housi ng, and the speci fi c functi on of the
val ve. The most common method i s by the type
of val vi ng el ement used i n the constructi on of the
val ve. The most common types of val vi ng
el ements are the bal l , cone or sl eeve, poppet,
r otar y spool , and sl i di ng spool . The basi c
operati ng pri nci pl es of the poppet, rotary spool ,
and sl i di ng spool val vi ng el ements are di scussed
i n thi s text.
Poppet
The poppet fi ts i nto the center bore of the seat
(fi g. 6-21). The seati ng surfaces of the poppet and
the seat are l apped or cl osel y machi ned so that
the center bore wi l l be seal ed when the poppet i s
Figure 6-21.—Operation of a simple poppet valve.
6-15
seated (shut). The acti on of the poppet i s si mi l ar
to that of the val ves i n an automobi l e engi ne. I n
most val ves the poppet i s hel d i n the seated
posi ti on by a spri ng.
The val ve consi sts pri mari l y of a movabl e
poppet whi ch cl oses agai nst the val ve seat. I n the
cl osed posi ti on, fl ui d pressure on the i nl et si de
tends to hol d the val ve ti ghtl y cl osed. A smal l
amount of movement from a force appl i ed to the
top of the poppet stem opens the poppet and
al l ows fl ui d to fl ow through the val ve.
The use of the poppet as a-val vi ng el ement i s
not l i mi ted to di recti onal control val ves.
Rotary Spool
The rotary spool di recti onal control val ve
(fi g. 6-22) has a round core wi th one or more
passages or recesses i n i t. The core i s mounted
wi thi n a stati onary sl eeve. As the core i s rotated
wi thi n the stati onary sl eeve, the passages or
recesses connect or bl ock the ports i n the sl eeve.
The ports i n the sl eeve are connected to the
appropri ate l i nes of the fl ui d system.
Sliding spool
The oper ati on of a si mpl e sl i di ng spool
di recti onal control val ve i s shown i n fi gure 6-23.
The val ve i s so-named because of the shape of the
val vi ng el ement that sl i des back and forth to bl ock
and uncover ports i n the housi ng. (The sl i di ng
el ement i s al so referred to as a pi ston.) The i nner
pi ston areas (l ands) are equal . Thus fl ui d under
pressure whi ch enters the val ve from the i nl et ports
CHECK VALVE
Figure 6-22.—Parts of a rotary spool directional control
valve.
Figure 6-23.—Two-way, sliding spool directional control
valve.
acts equal l y on both i nner pi ston areas regardl ess
of the posi ti on of the spool . Seal i ng i s usual l y
accompl i shed by a ver y cl osel y machi ned fi t
between the spool and the val ve body or sl eeve.
For val ves wi th more ports, the spool i s desi gned
wi th more pi stons or l ands on a common shaft.
The sl i di ng spool i s the most commonl y used type
of val vi ng el ement used i n di recti onal control
val ves.
Check val ves are used i n fl ui d systems to
permi t fl ow i n one di recti on and to prevent fl ow
i n the other di recti on. They are cl assi fi ed as
one-way di recti onal control val ves.
The check val ve may be i nstal l ed i nde-
pendentl y i n a l i ne to al l ow fl ow i n one di recti on
onl y, or i t may be used as an i ntegral part of
gl obe, sequence, counterbal ance, and pressure-
reduci ng val ves.
Check val ves are avai l abl e i n vari ous desi gns.
They are opened by the force of fl ui d i n moti on
fl owi ng i n one di recti on, and are cl osed by fl ui d
attempti ng to fl ow i n the opposi te di recti on. The
force of gravi ty or the acti on of a spri ng ai ds i n
cl osi ng the val ve.
6-16
Figure 6-24.—Swing check valve.
Fi gure 6-24 shows a swi ng check val ve. I n the
open posi ti on, the fl ow of fl ui d forces the hi nged
di sk up and al l ows free fl ow through the val ve.
Fl ow i n the opposi te di recti on wi th the ai d of
gravi ty, forces the hi nged di sk to cl ose the passage
and bl ocks the fl ow. Thi s type of val ve i s
someti mes desi gned wi th a spri ng to assi st i n
cl osi ng the val ve.
The most common type of check val ve,
i nstal l ed i n fl ui d-power systems, uses ei ther a bal l
or cone for the seal i ng el ement (fi g. 6-25). As fl ui d
pressure i s appl i ed i n the di recti on of the arrow,
the cone (vi ew A) or bal l (vi ew B) i s forced off
i ts seat, al l owi ng fl ui d to fl ow freel y through the
val ve. Thi s val ve i s known as a spri ng-l oaded
check val ve.
The spri ng i s i nstal l ed i n the val ve to hol d the
cone or bal l on i ts seat whenever fl ui d i s not
fl owi ng. The spri ng al so hel ps to force the cone
or bal l on i ts seat when the fl ui d attempts to fl ow
i n the opposi te di recti on. Si nce the openi ng and
cl osi ng of thi s type of val ve i s not dependent on
gravi ty, i ts l ocati on i n a system i s not l i mi ted to
the verti cal posi ti on.
A modi fi cati on of the spri ng-l oaded check
val ve i s the ori fi ce check val ve (fi g. 6-26). Thi s
Figure 6-25.—Spring-loaded check valves. Figure 6-26.—Typical orifice check valves.
6-17
val ve al l ows normal fl ow i n one di recti on and
restri cted fl ow i n the other. I t i s often referred
to as a one-way restri ctor.
Fi gure 6-26, vi ew A, shows a cone-type ori fi ce
check val ve. When suffi ci ent fl ui d pressure i s
appl i ed at the i nl et port, i t overcomes spri ng
tensi on and moves the cone off of i ts seat. The
two ori fi ces (2) i n the i l l ustrati on represent several
openi ngs l ocated around the sl anted ci rcumference
of the cone. These ori fi ces al l ow free fl ow of fl ui d
through the val ve whi l e the cone i s off of i ts seat.
When fl ui d pressure i s appl i ed through the outl et
port, the force of the fl ui d and spri ng tensi on
move the cone to the l eft and onto i ts seat. Thi s
acti on bl ocks the fl ow of fl ui d through the val ve,
except through the ori fi ce (1) i n the center of the
cone. The si ze of the ori fi ce (i n the center of the
cone) determi nes the rate of fl ow through the
val ve as the fl ui d fl ows from ri ght to l eft.
Fi gure 6-26, vi ew B, shows a bal l -type ori fi ce
check val ve. Fl ui d fl ow through the val ve from
l eft to ri ght forces the bal l off of i ts seat and
al l ows normal fl ow. Fl ui d fl ow through the val ve
i n the opposi te di recti on forces the bal l onto i ts
seat. Thus, the fl ow i s restri cted by the si ze of the
ori fi ce l ocated i n the housi ng of the val ve.
NOTE: The di recti on of free fl ow through the
or i fi ce check val ve i s i ndi cated by an ar r ow
stamped on the housi ng.
SHUTTLE VALVE
I n certai n fl ui d power systems, the suppl y of
fl ui d to a subsystem must be from more than one
source to meet system requi rements. I n some
systems an emergency system i s provi ded as a
source of pressure i n the event of normal system
fai l ure. The emergency system wi l l usual l y actuate
onl y essenti al components.
The mai n purpose of the shuttl e val ve i s to
i sol ate the normal system from an al ternate or
emergency system. I t i s smal l and si mpl e; yet, i t
i s a very i mportant component.
Fi gure 6-27 i s a cutaway vi ew of a typi cal
shuttl e val ve. The housi ng contai ns three ports—
normal system i nl et, al ternate or emergency
system i nl et, and outl et. A shuttl e val ve used to
operate more than one actuati ng uni t may contai n
addi ti onal uni t outl et ports. Encl osed i n the
housi ng i s a sl i di ng part cal l ed the shuttl e. I ts
purpose i s to seal off ei ther one or the other i nl et
ports. There i s a shuttl e seat at each i nl et port.
6-18
Figure 6-27.—Shuttle valve.
When a shuttl e val ve i s i n the nor mal
operati on posi ti on, fl ui d has a free fl ow from the
normal system i nl et port, through the val ve, and
out through the outl et port to the actuati ng uni t.
The shuttl e i s seated agai nst the al ternate system
i nl et por t and hel d ther e by nor mal system
pressure and by the shuttl e val ve spri ng. The
shuttl e remai ns i n thi s posi ti on unti l the al ternate
system i s acti vated. Thi s acti on di rects fl ui d under
pressure from the al ternate system to the shuttl e
val ve and forces the shuttl e from the al ternate
system i nl et port to the normal system i nl et port.
Fl ui d from the al ternate system then has a free
fl ow to the outl et port, but i s prevented from
enteri ng the normal system by the shuttl e, whi ch
seal s off the normal system port.
The shuttl e may be one of four types: (1)
sl i di ng pl unger, (2) spri ng-l oaded pi ston, (3)
spri ng-l oaded bal l , or (4) spri ng-l oaded poppet.
I n shuttl e val ves that are desi gned wi th a spri ng,
the shuttl e i s normal l y hel d agai nst the al ternate
system i nl et port by the spri ng.
TWO-WAY VALVES
The term two-way i ndi cates that the val ve
contai ns and control s two functi onal fl ow control
ports-an i nl et and an outl et. A two-way, sl i di ng
spool di recti onal control val ve i s shown i n fi gure
6-23. As the spool i s moved back and forth, i t
ei ther al l ows fl ui d to fl ow through the val ve or
prevents fl ow. I n the open posi ti on, the fl ui d
enters the i nl et port, fl ows around the shaft of
the spool , and through the outl et port. The spool
cannot move back and forth by di fference of
forces set up wi thi n the cyl i nder, si nce the forces
there are equal . As i ndi cated by the arrows agai nst
the pi stons of the spool , the same pressure acts
on equal areas on thei r i nsi de surfaces. I n the
cl osed posi ti on, one of the pi stons of the spool
si mpl y bl ocks the i nl et port, thus preventi ng fl ow
through the val ve.
A number of features common to most sl i di ng
spool val ves are shown i n fi gure 6-23. The smal l
ports at ei ther end of the val ve housi ng provi de
a path for any fl ui d that l eaks past the spool to
fl ow to the reservoi r. Thi s prevents pressure from
bui l di ng up agai nst the ends of the pi stons, whi ch
woul d hi nder the movement of the spool . When
spool val ves become worn, they may l ose bal ance
because of greater l eakage on one si de of the spool
than on the other. I n that event, the spool woul d
tend to sti ck when i t i s moved back and forth.
Smal l grooves are therefore machi ned around the
sl i di ng surface of the pi ston; and i n hydraul i c
val ves, l eaki ng l i qui d wi l l enci rcl e the pi stons and
keep the contacti ng sur faces l ubr i cated and
center ed.
THREE-WAY VALVES
Three-way val ves contai n a pressure port, a
cyl i nder port, and a return or exhaust port. The
three-way di recti onal control val ve i s desi gned to
operate an actuati ng uni t i n one di recti on; i t
permi ts ei ther the l oad on the actuati ng uni t or
a spri ng to return the uni t to i ts ori gi nal posi ti on.
Cam-Operated Three-Way Valves
Fi gure 6-28 shows the operati on of a cam-
oper ated, thr ee-way, poppet-type di r ecti onal
control val ve. Vi ew A shows fl ui d under pressure
forci ng the pi ston outward agai nst a l oad. The
upper poppet (2) i s unseated by the i nsi de cam
(5), permi tti ng fl ui d to fl ow from the l i ne (3) i nto
the cyl i nder to actuate the pi ston. The l ower
poppet (1) i s seated, seal i ng off the fl ow i nto the
return l i ne (4). As the force of the pressuri zed fl ui d
extends the pi ston rod, i t al so compresses the
spri ng i n the cyl i nder.
Vi ew B shows the val ve wi th the control
handl e turned to the opposi te posi ti on. I n thi s
posi ti on, the upper poppet (2) i s seated, bl ocki ng
the fl ow of fl ui d from the pressure l i ne (3). The
l ower poppet (1) i s unseated by the outsi de cam
(6). Thi s rel eases the pressure i n the cyl i nder and
al l ows the spri ng to expand, whi ch forces the
pi ston rod to retract. The fl ui d from the cyl i nder
fl ows through the control val ve and out the return
Figure 6-28.—Three-way, poppet-type directional control
valve (cam-operated).
6-19
port (4). I n hydraul i c systems, the return port i s
connected by a l i ne to the reservoi r. I n pneumati c
systems, the return port i s usual l y open to the
atmosphere.
Pilot-Operated Three-Way Valves
A pi l ot-oper ated, poppet-type, thr ee-way
di recti onal control val ve i s shown i n fi gure 6-29.
Val ves of thi s desi gn are often used i n pneumati c
systems. Thi s val ve i s normal l y cl osed and i s
for ced open by fl ui d pr essur e enter i ng the
pi l ot chamber. The val ve contai ns two poppets
connected to each other by a common stem. The
poppets are connected to di aphragms whi ch hol d
them i n a centered posi ti on.
The movement of the poppet i s control l ed by
the pressure i n the pi l ot port and the chamber
above the upper di aphr agm. When the pi l ot
chamber i s not pressuri zed, the l ower poppet i s
seated agai nst the l ower val ve seat. Fl ui d can fl ow
from the suppl y l i ne through the i nl et port and
through the hol es i n the l ower di aphragm to fi l l
the bottom chamber. Thi s pressure hol ds the
l ower poppet ti ghtl y agai nst i ts seat and bl ocks
fl ow from the i nl et port through the val ve. At the
same ti me, due to the common stem, the upper
poppet i s forced off of i ts seat. Fl ui d from the
actuati ng uni t fl ows through the open passage,
around the stem, and through the exhaust port
to the atmosphere.
When the pi l ot chamber i s pressuri zed, the
force acti ng agai nst the di aphragm forces the
poppet down. The upper poppet cl oses agai nst i ts
seat, bl ocki ng the fl ow of fl ui d from the cyl i nder
to the exhaust port. The l ower poppet opens, and
the passage from the suppl y i nl et port to the
cyl i nder port i s open so that the fl ui d can fl ow
to the actuati ng uni t.
The val ve i n fi gure 6-29 i s a normal l y cl osed
val ve. Normal l y open val ves are si mi l ar i n desi gn.
When no pressure i s appl i ed to the pi l ot chamber,
the upper poppet i s for ced off of i ts seat and the
l ower poppet i s cl osed. Fl ui d i s fr ee to fl ow fr om
the i nl et port through the cyl i nder to the actuati ng
uni t. When pi l ot pressure i s appl i ed, the poppets
are forced downward, cl osi ng the upper poppet
and openi ng the l ower poppet. Fl ui d can now fl ow
from the cyl i nder through the val ve and out the
exhaust port to the atmosphere.
FOUR-WAY VALVES
Most actuati ng devi ces requi re system pressure
for operati on i n ei ther di recti on. The four-way
di recti onal control val ve, whi ch contai ns four
ports, i s used to control the operati on of such
devi ces. The four-way val ve i s al so used i n some
systems to control the operati on of other val ves.
I t i s one of the most wi del y used di recti onal
control val ves i n fl ui d power systems.
The typi cal four-way di recti onal control val ve
has four ports: a pressure port, a return or exhaust
port, and two cyl i nder or worki ng ports. The
pressure port i s connected to the mai n system
pressure l i ne and the return l i ne i s connected to
the reservoi r i n hydraul i c systems. I n pneumati c
systems the return port i s usual l y vented to the
atmosphere. The two cyl i nder ports are connected
by l i nes to the actuati ng uni ts.
Poppet-Type Four-Way Valves
Fi gure 6-30 shows atypi cal four-way, poppet-
type di recti onal control val ve. Thi s i s a manual l y
oper ated val ve and consi sts of a gr oup of
conventi onal spri ng-l oaded poppets. The poppets
ar e encl osed i n a common housi ng and ar e
i nterconnected by ducts to di rect the fl ow of fl ui d
i n the desi red di recti on.
Figure 6-29.—Three-way, poppet-type, normally closed directional control valve (pilot-operated).
6-20
The poppets ar e actuated by cams on a
camshaft (fi g. 6-30). The camshaft i s control l ed
by the movement of the handl e. The val ve may
be operated by manual l y movi ng the handl e, or,
i n some cases, the handl e may be connected by
mechani cal l i nkage to a control handl e whi ch i s
l ocated i n a conveni ent pl ace for the operator
some di stance from the val ve.
The camshaft may be rotated to any one
of thr ee posi ti ons (neutr al and two wor ki ng
posi ti ons). I n the neutral posi ti on the camshaft
l obes are not contacti ng any of the poppets. Thi s
assures that the poppet spri ngs wi l l hol d al l four
poppets fi rml y seated. Wi th al l poppets seated,
there i s no fl ui d fl ow through the val ve. Thi s al so
bl ocks the two cyl i nder ports; so when the val ve
i s i n neutral , the fl ui d i n the actuati ng uni t i s
tr apped. Rel i ef val ves ar e i nstal l ed i n both
worki ng l i nes to prevent overpressuri zati on caused
by thermal expansi on.
NOTE: I n some versi ons of thi s type of val ve,
the cam l obes ar e desi gned so that the two
return/exhaust poppets are open when the val ve
i s i n the neutral posi ti on. Thi s compensates for
thermal expansi on, because both worki ng l i nes are
open to the return/exhaust when the val ve i s i n
the neutral posi ti on.
The poppets are arranged so that rotati on of
the camshaft wi l l open the proper combi nati on
of poppets to di rect the fl ow of fl ui d through the
desi red worki ng l i ne to an actuati ng uni t. At the
same ti me, fl ui d wi l l be di r ected fr om the
actuati ng uni t through the opposi te worki ng l i ne,
through the val ve, and back to the reservoi r
(hydr aul i c) or exhausted to the atmospher e
(pneumati c).
To stop rotati on of the camshaft at an exact
posi ti on, a stop pi n i s secured to the body and
extends through a cutout secti on of the camshaft
fl ange. Thi s stop pi n prevents overtravel by
ensuri ng that the camshaft stops rotati ng at the
poi nt wher e the cam l obes have moved the
poppets the greatest di stance from thei r seats and
wher e any fur ther r otati on woul d al l ow the
poppets to start returni ng to thei r seats.
O-ri ngs are spaced at i nterval s al ong the l ength
of the shaft to prevent external l eakage around
the ends of the shaft and i nternal l eakage from
one of the val ve chamber s to another . The
camshaft has two l obes, or rai sed porti ons. The
shape of these l obes i s such that when the shaft
i s pl aced i n the neutral posi ti on the l obes wi l l not
contact any of the poppets.
When the handl e i s moved i n ei ther di recti on
from neutral , the camshaft i s rotated. Thi s rotates
Figure 6-30.—Cutaway view of poppet-type, four-way directional control valve.
6-21
the l obes, whi ch unseat one pressure poppet and
one return/exhaust poppet (fi g. 6-31). The val ve
i s now i n the worki ng posi ti on. Fl ui d under
pressure, enteri ng the pressure port, fl ows through
the verti cal fl ui d passages i n both pressure poppets
seats. Si nce onl y one pressure poppet, I N (2), i s
unseated by the cam l obe, the fl ui d fl ows past the
open poppet to the i nsi de of the poppet seat. From
there i t fl ows through the di agonal passages, out
one cyl i nder port, C2, and to the actuati ng uni t.
Return fl ui d from the actuati ng uni t enters the
other cyl i nder port, C1. I t then fl ows through the
correspondi ng fl ui d passage, past the unseated
return poppet, OUT (1), through the verti cal fl ui d
passages, and out the return/exhaust port. When
the camshaft i s rotated i n the opposi te di recti on
to the neutral posi ti on, the two poppets seat and
the fl ow stops. When the camshaft i s further
rotated i n thi s di recti on unti l the stop pi ns hi ts,
the opposi te pressure and return poppets are
unseated. Thi s reverses the fl ow i n the worki ng
l i nes, causi ng the actuati ng uni t to move i n the
opposi te di recti on.
Rotary Spool Valve
Four-way di recti onal control val ves of thi s
type are frequentl y used as pi l ot val ves to di rect
fl ow to and from other val ves (fi g. 6-32). Fl ui d
i s di rected from one source of suppl y through the
rotary val ve to another di recti onal control val ve,
where i t posi ti ons the val ve to di rect fl ow from
another source to one si de of an actuati ng uni t.
Fl ui d from the other end of the mai n val ve fl ows
through a return l i ne, through the rotary val ve
to the return or exhaust port.
The pri nci pal parts of a rotary spool di rec-
ti onal control val ve are shown i n fi gure 6-22.
Figure 6-31.—Working view of a poppet-type, four-way
directional control valve.
Figure 6-32.—Sliding spool valve controlled by a rotary spool
valve.
Fi gure 6-33 shows the operati on of a rotary spool
val ve. Vi ews A and C show the val ve i n a posi ti on
to del i ver fl ui d to another val ve, whi l e vi ew B
shows the val ve i n the neutral posi ti on, wi th al l
passages through the val ve bl ocked.
Rotary spool val ves can be operated manual l y,
el ectri cal l y, or by fl ui d pressure.
Sliding Spool Valve
The sl i di ng spool four-way di recti onal control
val ve i s si mi l ar i n operati on to the two-way
val ve previ ousl y descri bed i n thi s chapter. I t i s
si mpl e i n i ts pri nci pl e of operati on and i s the
most durabl e and troubl e-free of al l four-way
di recti onal control val ves.
The val ve descri bed i n the fol l owi ng para-
graphs i s a manual l y operated type. The same
pri nci pl e i s used i n many remotel y control l ed
di recti onal control val ves.
The val ve (fi g. 6-34) consi sts of a val ve body
contai ni ng four fl ui d por ts—pr essur e (P),
Figure 6-33.—Operation of a rotary spool, four-way
directional control valve.
6-22
Figure 6-34.—Operation of a sliding spool, four-way directional control valve.
6-23
return/exhaust (R), and two cyl i nder ports (C/1
and C2). A hol l ow sl eeve fi ts i nto the mai n bore
of the body. There are O-ri ngs pl aced at i nterval s
around the outsi de di ameter of the sl eeve. These
O-ri ngs form a seal between the sl eeve and the
body, creati ng chambers around the sl eeve. Each
of the chambers i s l i ned up wi th one of the fl ui d
ports i n the body. The dri l l ed passage i n the body
accounts for a fi fth chamber whi ch resul ts i n
havi ng the two outboard chambers connected to
the return/exhaust port. The sl eeve has a pattern
of hol es dri l l ed through i t to al l ow fl ui d to fl ow
from one port to another. A seri es of hol es are
dri l l ed i nto the hol l ow center sl eeve i n each
chamber.
The sl eeve i s prevented from turni ng by a
sl eeve retai ner bol t or pi n whi ch secures i t to the
val ve body.
The sl i di ng spool fi ts i nto the hol l ow center
sl eeve. Thi s spool i s si mi l ar to the spool i n the
two-way val ve, except that thi s spool has three
pi stons or l ands. These l ands ar e l apped or
machi ne fi tted to the i nsi de of the sl eeve.
One end of the sl i di ng spool i s connected to
a handl e ei ther di rectl y or by mechani cal l i nkage
to a more desi rabl e l ocati on. When the control
handl e i s moved, i t wi l l posi ti on the spool wi thi n
the sl eeve. The l ands of the spool then l i ne up
di ffer ent combi nati ons of fl ui d por ts thus
di recti ng a fl ow of fl ui d through the val ve.
The detent spri ng i s a cl othespi n-type spri ng,
secur ed to the end of the body by a spr i ng
retai ni ng bol t. The two l egs of the spri ng extend
down through sl ots i n the sl eeve and fit i nto the
detents. The spool i s gri pped between the two l egs
of the spri ng. To move the spool , enough force
must be appl i ed to spread the two spri ng l egs and
al l ow them to snap back i nto the next detent,
whi ch woul d be for another posi ti on.
Fi gur e 6-34, vi ew A, shows a manual l y
oper ated sl i di ng spool val ve i n the neutr al
posi ti on. The detent spri ng i s i n the center detent
of the sl i di ng spool . The center l and i s l i ned up
wi th the pressure port (P) preventi ng fl ui d from
fl owi ng i nto the val ve through thi s port. The
return/exhaust port i s al so bl ocked, preventi ng
fl ow through that port. Wi th both the pressure
and return ports bl ocked, fl ui d i n the actuati ng
l i nes i s trapped. For thi s reason, a rel i ef val ve i s
usual l y i nstal l ed i n each actuati ng l i ne when thi s
type of val ve i s used.
Fi gure 6-34, vi ew B, shows the val ve i n the
worki ng posi ti on wi th the end of the sl i di ng spool
retracted. The detent spri ng i s i n the outboard
detent, l ocki ng the sl i di ng spool i n thi s posi ti on.
The l ands have shi fted i nsi de the sl eeve, and the
ports are opened. Fl ui d under pressure enters the
sl eeve, passes through i t by way of the dri l l ed
hol es, and l eaves through cyl i nder port C2. Return
fl ui d, fl owi ng from the actuator enters port C1,
fl ows through the sl eeve, and i s di rected out the
return port back to the reservoi r or exhausted to
the atmosphere. Fl ui d cannot fl ow past the spool
l ands because of the l apped surfaces.
Fi gure 6-34, vi ew C, shows the val ve i n the
opposi te worki ng posi ti on wi th the sl i di ng spool
extended. The detent spri ng i s i n the i nboard
detent. The center l and of the sl i di ng spool i s now
on the other si de of the pressure port, and the
fl ui d under pressure i s di rected through the sl eeve
and out port C1. Return fl ui d fl owi ng i n the other
cyl i nder port i s di rected to the dri l l ed passage i n
the body. I t fl ows al ong thi s passage to the other
end of the sl eeve where i t i s di rected out of the
return/exhaust port.
The di r ecti onal contr ol val ves pr evi ousl y
di scussed are for use i n cl osed-center fl ui d power
systems. Fi gure 6-35 shows the operati on of
Figure 6-35.—Open center, sliding spool directional control
valve.
6-24
a r epr esentati ve open-center , sl i di ng spool When the spool i s moved to the ri ght of the
di recti onal control val ve. neutral posi ti on, vi ew B, one worki ng l i ne (C1)
i s al i gned to system pressure and the other
When thi s type of val ve i s i n the neutral worki ng l i ne (C2) i s open through the hol l ow
posi ti on (fi g. 6-35, vi ew A), fl ui d fl ows i nto the spool to the return port. Vi ew C shows the fl ow
val ve through the pressure port (P) through the of fl ui d through the val ve wi th the spool moved
hol l ow spool , and return to the reservoi r. to the l eft of neutral .
6-25
CHAPTER 7
SEALI NG DEVI CES AND MATERI ALS
Recal l from chapter 1 that Pascal ’s theorem,
from whi ch the fundamental l aw for the sci ence
of hydr aul i cs evol ved, was pr oposed i n the
seventeenth century. One sti pul ati on to make the
l aw effecti ve for practi cal appl i cati ons was a
pi ston that woul d “fi t” the openi ng i n the vessel
“ ex actl y .” However, i t was not unti l the l ate
ei ghteenth century that Joseph Brahmah i nvented
an effecti ve pi ston seal , the cup packi ng. Thi s l ed
to Brahmah's devel opment of the hydraul i c press.
The packi ng was probabl y the most i mportant
i nventi on i n the devel opment of hydraul i cs as a
l eadi ng method of tr ansmi tti ng power . The
devel opment of machi nes to cut and shape cl osel y
fi tted par ts was al so ver y i mpor tant i n the
devel opment of hydraul i cs. However, regardl ess
of how preci se the machi ni ng process i s, some type
of packi ng i s usual l y requi red to make the pi ston,
and many other parts of hydraul i c components,
“fi t exactl y.” Thi s al so appl i es to the components
of pneumati c systems.
Through years of research and experi ments,
many di fferent materi al s and desi gns have been
created i n attempts to devel op sui tabl e packi ng
devi ces. Sui tabl e materi al s must be durabl e, must
provi de effecti ve seal i ng, and must be compati bl e
wi th the fl ui d used i n the system.
The packi ng materi al s are commonl y referred
to as seal s or seal i ng devi ces. The seal s used i n
fl ui d power systems and components are di vi ded
i nto two general cl asses-stati c seal s and dynami c
seal s.
The stati c seal i s usual l y referred to as a gasket.
The functi on of a gasket i s to provi de a materi al
that can fl ow i nto the surface i rregul ari ti es of
mati ng areas that requi re seal i ng. To do thi s, the
gasket materi al must be under pressure. Thi s
r equi r es that the joi nt be ti ghtl y bol ted or
otherwi se hel d together.
The dynami c seal , commonl y referred to as
a packi ng, i s used to provi de a seal between two
parts that move i n rel ati on to each other.
These two cl assi fi cati ons of seal s—gaskets
and packi ng—appl y i n most cases; however ,
devi ati ons are found i n some techni cal publ i -
cati ons. Certai n types of seal s (for exampl e, the
O-ri ng, whi ch i s di scussed l ater) may be used
ei ther as a gasket or a packi ng.
Many of the seal s i n fl ui d power systems
prevent external l eakage. These seal s serve two
purposes—to seal the fl ui d i n the system and to
keep forei gn matter out of the system. Other seal s
si mpl y prevent i nternal l eakage wi thi n a system.
NOTE: Al though l eakage of any ki nd resul ts
i n a l oss of effi ci ency, some l eakage, especi al l y
i nternal l eakage, i s desi red i n hydraul i c systems
to provi de l ubri cati on of movi ng parts. Thi s al so
appl i es to some pneumati c systems i n whi ch drops
of oi l are i ntroduced i nto the fl ow of ai r i n the
system.
The fi rst part of thi s chapter deal s pri mari l y
wi th the di fferent types of materi al s used i n the
constructi on of seal s. The next secti on i s devoted
to the di fferent shapes and desi gns of seal s and
thei r appl i cati on as gaskets and/or packi ngs i n
fl ui d power systems. Al so i ncl uded i n thi s chapter
are secti ons concerni ng the functi ons of wi pers
and backup washers i n fl ui d power systems and
the sel ecti on, storage, and handl i ng of seal i ng
devi ces.
SEAL MATERIALS
As menti oned pr evi ousl y, many di ffer ent
materi al s have been used i n the devel opment of
seal i ng devi ces. The materi al used for a parti cul ar
appl i cati on depends on sever al factor s: fl ui d
compati bi l i ty, resi stance to heat, pressure, wear
resi stance, hardness, and type of moti on.
The sel ecti on of the correct packi ngs and
gaskets and thei r proper i nstal l ati on are i mportant
factors i n mai ntai ni ng an effi ci ent fl ui d power
system. The types of seal s to be used i n a
parti cul ar pi ece of equi pment i s speci fi ed by the
equi pment manufacturer.
7-1
Often the sel ecti on of seal s i s l i mi ted to seal s
covered by mi l i tary speci fi cati ons. However, there
are occasi ons when nonstandard or propri etary
seal s refl ecti ng the advanci ng state of the art may
be approved. Thus, i t i s i mportant to fol l ow the
manufacturer’s i nstructi ons when you repl ace
seal s. I f the proper seal i s not avai l abl e, you
shoul d gi ve careful consi derati on i n the sel ecti on
of a sui tabl e substi tute. Consul t the Naval Ships’
Technical Manual, mi l i tary standards, mi l i tary
standardi zati on handbooks, and other appl i cabl e
techni cal manual s i f you have any doubts i n
sel ecti ng the proper seal .
Seal s ar e made of mater i al s that have
been car eful l y chosen or devel oped for spe-
ci fi c appl i cati ons. These mater i al s i ncl ude
tetr afl uor oethyl ene (TFE), commonl y cal l ed
Tefl on; syntheti c r ubber (el astomer s); cor k;
l eather; metal ; and asbestos. Some of the most
common materi al s used to make seal s for fl ui d
power systems are di scussed i n the fol l owi ng
paragraphs.
CORK
Cork has several of the requi red properti es,
whi ch makes i t i deal l y sui ted as a seal i ng materi al
i n certai n appl i cati ons. The compressi bi l i ty of
cork seal s makes them wel l sui ted for confi ned
appl i cati ons i n whi ch l i ttl e or no spread of the
materi al i s al l owed. The compressi bi l i ty of cork
al so makes a good seal that can be cut to any
desi red thi ckness and shape to fi t any surface and
sti l l provi de an excel l ent seal .
One of the undesi rabl e characteri sti cs of cork
i s i ts tendency to crumbl e. I f cork i s used as
packi ng or i n areas where there i s a hi gh fl ui d
pressure and/or hi gh fl ow vel oci ty, smal l parti cl es
wi l l be cast off i nto the system. Cork use i n fl ui d
power systems i s therefore l i mi ted. I t i s someti mes
used as gasket materi al s for i nspecti on pl ates of
hydraul i c reservoi rs.
Cork i s general l y recommended for use where
sustai ned temperatures do not exceed 275
0
F.
CORK AND RUBBER
Cork and rubber seal s are made by combi ni ng
syntheti c rubber and cork. Thi s combi nati on has
the properti es of both of the two materi al s.
Thi s means that seal s can be made wi th the
compressi bi l i ty of cork, but wi th a resi stance to
fl ui d comparabl e to the syntheti c rubber on whi ch
they are based. Cork and rubber composi ti on i s
someti mes used to make gaskets for appl i cati ons
si mi l ar to those descri bed for cork gaskets.
LEATHER
Leather i s a cl osel y kni t materi al that i s
general l y tough, pl i abl e, and rel ati vel y resi stant
to abr asi on, wear , str ess, and the effects of
temperature changes. Because i t i s porous, i t i s
abl e to absorb l ubri cati ng fl ui ds. Thi s porosi ty
makes i t necessary to i mpregnate l eather for most
uses. I n general , l eather must be tanned and
treated i n order to make i t useful as a gasket
mater i al . The tanni ng pr ocesses ar e those
normal l y used i n the l eather i ndustry.
Leather i s general l y resi stant to abrasi on
regardl ess of whether the grai n si de or the fl esh
si de i s exposed to abrasi ve acti on. Leather remai ns
fl exi bl e at l ow temperatures and can be forced
wi th comparati ve ease i nto contact wi th metal
fl anges. When pr oper l y i mpr egnated, i t i s
i mpermeabl e to most l i qui ds and some gases,
and capabl e of wi thstandi ng the effects of
temperatures rangi ng from –70
0
F to +220
0
F.
Leather has four basi c l i mi tati ons. Fi rst, the
si ze of the typi cal hi de l i mi ts the si ze of the seal s
that can be made fr om l eather . A second
l i mi tati on i s the number of seal s that ar e
acceptabl e. Another l i mi tati on i s that under heavy
mechani cal pressures l eather tends to extrude.
Fi nal l y, many of the pr oper ti es (such as
i mper meabi l i ty, tensi l e str ength, hi gh- and
l ow-temper atur e r esi stance, pl i abi l i ty, and
compati bi l i ty wi th envi ronment) depend upon the
type of l eather and i mpregnati on. Leathers not
tanned and i mpregnated for speci fi c condi ti ons
and properti es wi l l become bri ttl e, dry, and
compl etel y degreased by exposure to parti cul ar
chemi cal s. Leather i s never used wi th steam
pressure of any type, nor wi th aci d or al kal i
sol uti ons.
Leather may be used as packi ng. When
mol ded i nto V’s and U’s, and cups, and other
shapes, i t can be appl i ed as dynami c packi ng,
whi l e i n i ts fl at form i t can be used as strai ght
compressi on packi ng.
METAL
One of the most common metal seal s used i n
Navy equi pment i s copper. Fl at copper ri ngs are
someti mes used as gaskets under adjusti ng screws
to provi de a fl ui d seal . Mol ded copper ri ngs are
someti mes used as packi ng wi th speed gears
operati ng under hi gh pressures. Ei ther type i s
7-2
Figure 7-1.—Spiral-wouna metallic-asbestos gasket.
easi l y bent and requi res careful handl i ng. I n
addi ti on, copper becomes hard when used over
l ong peri ods and when subjected to compressi on.
Whenever a uni t or component i s di sassembl ed,
the copper seal i ng ri ngs shoul d be repl aced.
However, i f new ri ngs are not avai l abl e and the
part must be repai red, the ol d ri ng shoul d be
softened by anneal i ng. (Anneal i ng i s the process
of heati ng a metal , then cool i ng i t, to make i t
more pl i abl e and l ess bri ttl e.)
Metal l i c pi ston ri ngs are used as packi ng i n
some fl ui d power actuati ng cyl i nders. These ri ngs
ar e si mi l ar i n desi gn to the pi ston r i ngs i n
automobi l e engi nes.
Metal i s al so used wi th asbestos to form
spi ral -wound metal l i c-asbestos gaskets (fi g. 7-1).
These gaskets are composed of i nterl ocked pl i es
of pr efor med cor r ugated metal and asbestos
stri ps, cal l ed a fi l l er.
The fi l l er may or may not be encased i n a sol i d
metal outer ri ng. These gaskets are used i n fl anged
connecti ons and for connecti ng the body to the
bonnet i n some val ves, and are usual l y requi red
i n speci fi c hi gh-pr essur e, hi gh-temper atur e
appl i cati ons.
RUBBER
The ter m r ubber
and syntheti c rubbers,
cover s many natur al
each of whi ch can be
compounded i nto numer ous var i eti es. The
characteri sti cs of these vari eti es have a wi de range,
as shown i n tabl e 7-1. The tabl e shows, wi th the
excepti on of a few basi c si mi l ari ti es, that rubbers
have di verse properti es and l i mi tati ons; therefore,
speci fi c appl i cati ons requi re careful study before
the seal i ng materi al i s sel ected.
Natural rubbers have many of the charac-
teri sti cs requi red i n an effecti ve seal . However,
thei r very poor resi stance to petrol eum fl ui ds and
rapi d agi ng when exposed to oxygen or ozone l i mi t
thei r use. Today thei r use has al most ceased.
There are two general cl asses of syntheti c
rubber seal s. One cl ass i s made enti rel y of a certai n
syntheti c rubber. The term homogeneous, whi ch
means havi ng uni form structure or composi ti on
throughout, i s frequentl y used to descri be thi s
cl ass of seal . The other cl ass of seal i s made by
i mpregnati ng woven cotton duck or fi ne-weave
asbestos wi th syntheti c rubber. Thi s cl ass i s
someti mes referred to as fabri cated seal s.
Addi ti onal i nformati on on seal i ng materi al s
i s provi ded i n the Military Handbook, Gasket
Materials (Nonmetalic), MI L-HDBK-212; and
the Naval Ships’ Technical Manual, chapter 078.
TYPES OF SEALS
Fl ui d power seal s are usual l y typed accordi ng
to thei r shape or desi gn. These types i ncl ude
T-seal s, V-ri ngs, O-ri ngs, U-cups and so on. Some
of the most commonl y used seal s are di scussed
i n the remai nder of thi s chapter.
T-SEALS
The T-seal has an el astomeri c bi di recti onal
seal i ng el ement resembl i ng an i nverted l etter T.
Thi s seal i ng el ement i s al ways pai red wi th two
speci al extrusi on-resi sti ng backup ri ngs, one on
each si de of the T. The basi c T-seal confi gurati on
i s shown i n fi gure 7-2, vi ew A. The backup ri ngs
Fi gur e7-2.– T-seal s.
7-3
Table 7-l.—Comparison of Physical Properties for Some Hydraulic Fluid Seal Materials
Figure 7-3.—V-rings.
7-4
are si ngl e turn, bi as cut, and usual l y made of TFE,
mol ybdenum-di sul fi de-i mpregnated nyl on, or a
combi nati on of TFE and nyl on. Nyl on i s wi del y
used for T-seal backup ri ngs because i t provi des
excel l ent resi stance to extrusi on and has l ow
fri cti on characteri sti cs.
The speci al T-ri ng confi gurati on adds stabi l i ty
to the seal , el i mi nati ng spi ral i ng and rol l i ng.
T-seal s are used i n appl i cati ons where l arge
cl earances coul d occur as a resul t of the expansi on
of the thi n-wal l ed hydraul i c cyl i nder. The T-ri ng
i s i nstal l ed under radi al compressi on and provi des
a posi ti ve seal at zero or l ow pressure. Backup
ri ngs, one on each si de, ri de free of T-ri ng fl anges
and the rod or cyl i nder wal l (fi g. 7-2, vi ew B).
These cl earances keep seal fri cti on to a mi ni mum
at l ow pressure. When pressure i s appl i ed (fi g. 7-2,
vi ew C), the T-ri ng acts to provi de posi ti ve seal i ng
acti on as fl ui d pressure i ncreases. One frequentl y
used T-ri ng, manufactured by Greene, Tweed and
Company, (cal l ed a G-Tri ng
®1
), i ncorporates a
uni que, patented backup ri ng feature. One corner
on the I D of each radi us-styl ed backup ri ng on
the G-Tri ng
®
set has been rounded to mate wi th
the i nsi de corner of the rubber T. Fi gure 7-2, vi ews
B and C, shows the G-Tri ng
®
.
There i s no mi l i tary standard part numberi ng
system by whi ch T-seal s can be i denti fi ed. I n
general , each manufacturer i ssues propri etary part
numbers to i denti fy seal s. However, i t i s common
practi ce to i denti fy T-seal si zes by the same
dash numbers used for equi val ent O-ri ng si zes
(di scussed l ater i n thi s chapter) as defi ned by
AS568 and MS28775 di mensi on standar ds.
Typi cal l y, an O-ri ng groove that accepts a certai n
O-ri ng dash number wi l l accept the same dash
number T-seal .
I n the absence of an exi sti ng mi l i tary standard
for i denti fyi ng T-seal s, a new and si mpl e
1
G-Tring
®
is a Greene, Tweed Trademark,
numberi ng system was created to i denti fy T-seal s
requi red for hydraul i c actuators (pi ston seal s onl y)
wi thout reference to a parti cul ar manufacturer’s
part number. The Navy number i s composed of
the l etters G-T fol l owed by a dash number of three
di gi ts and one l etter, R, S, or T (for exampl e,
G-T-217T). The three di gi ts are the appropri ate
O-ri ng si ze dash number accordi ng to AS568 or
MS28775. The l etters R, S, and T desi gnate the
number of backup ri ngs that the groove of the
T-seal i s desi gned to accommodate: none, one,
or two, respecti vel y.
V-RINGS
The V-ri ng i s one of the most frequentl y used
dynami c seal s i n shi p ser vi ce al though i ts
i denti fi cati on, i nstal l ati on, and performance are
probabl y most mi sunderstood. Properl y sel ected
and i nstal l ed, V-ri ngs can provi de excel l ent servi ce
l i fe; otherwi se, probl ems associ ated wi th fri cti on,
rod and seal wear, noi se, and l eakage can be
expected.
The V-ri ng i s the part of the packi ng set that
does the seal i ng. I t has a cross secti on resembl i ng
the l etter V, (fi g. 7-3) from whi ch i ts name i s
deri ved. To achi eve a seal , the V-ri ng must be
i nstal l ed as part of a packi ng set or stack, whi ch
i ncl udes one mal e adapter, one femal e adapter,
and several V-ri ngs (fi g. 7-4). The mal e adapter
i s the fi rst ri ng on the pressure end of the packi ng
stack and i s fl at on one si de and wedge-shaped
on the other to contai n the V of the adjacent
V-ri ng. The femal e adapter, the l ast ri ng of the
Figure 7-4.—Outside packed V-ring installations.
7-5
packi ng stack, i s fl at on one si de and V-shaped
on the other to properl y support the adjacent
V-ri ng. Proper desi gn and i nstal l ati on of the
femal e adapter has si gni fi cant i mpact on the
ser vi ce l i fe and per for mance of the V-r i ngs
because the femal e adapter bri dges the cl earance
gap between the movi ng surfaces and resi sts
extrusi on.
The packi ng set i s i nstal l ed i n a cavi ty that i s
sl i ghtl y deeper than the free stack hei ght (the
nomi nal overal l hei ght of a V-ri ng packi ng set,
i ncl udi ng the mal e and femal e adapter s as
measured before i nstal l ati on) and as wi de as the
nomi nal cross secti on of the V-ri ngs. Thi s cavi ty,
cal l ed a packi ng gl and or stuffi ng box, contai ns
and supports the packi ng around the shaft, rod,
or pi ston. Adjustment of the packi ng gl and depth
through the use of shi ms or spacers i s usual l y
necessar y to obtai n the cor r ect squeeze or
cl earance on the packi ng stack for good servi ce
l i fe.
Two basi c i nstal l ati ons appl y to V-r i ng
packi ngs. The more common i s referred to as an
outsi de packed i nstal l ati on, i n whi ch the packi ng
seal s agai nst a shaft or rod, as shown i n fi gure
7-4. The i nsi de packed i nstal l ati on, i s shown as
a pi ston seal i n fi gure 7-5. When V-ri ng packi ng
i s to be used i n an i nsi de packed i nstal l ati on, onl y
endl ess ri ng packi ng shoul d be used. Where
pr essur es exi st i n both di r ecti ons, as on a
doubl e-acti ng pi ston, opposi ng sets of packi ng
Figure 7-5.—Inside packed V-ring installation.
shoul d al ways be i nstal l ed so the seal i ng l i ps face
away from each other as i n fi gure 7-5. Thi s
prevents trappi ng pressure between the sets of
packi ngs. The femal e adapters i n i nsi de packed
i nstal l ati ons shoul d al ways be l ocated adjacent to
a fi xed or ri gi d part of the pi ston.
O-RINGS
An O-ri ng i s doughnut-shaped. O-ri ngs are
usual l y mol ded from rubber compounds; how-
ever, they can be mol ded or machi ned from pl asti c
materi al s. The O-ri ng i s usual l y fi tted i nto a
r ectangul ar gr oove (usual l y cal l ed a gl and)
machi ned i nto the mechani sm to be seal ed. An
O-r i ng seal consi sts of an O-r i ng mounted
i n the gl and so that the O-ri ng’s cross secti on
i s compr essed (squeezed) when the gl and i s
assembl ed (fi g. 7-6).
An O-ri ng seal i ng system i s often one of the
fi rst seal i ng systems consi dered when a fl ui d
cl osur e i s desi gned because of the fol l owi ng
advantages of such a system:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Si mpl i ci ty
Ruggedness
Low cost
Ease of i nstal l ati on
Ease of mai ntenance
No adjustment requi red
No cri ti cal torque i n cl ampi ng
Figure 7-6.—O-ring installed in a gland.
7-6
8.
9.
10.
11.
Low di storti on of structure
Smal l space requi rement
Rel i abi l i ty
Effecti veness over wi de pr essur e and
temperature ranges
As stated previ ousl y, O-ri ngs are used i n both
stati c (as gaskets) and dynami c (as packi ng)
appl i cati ons. An O-ri ng wi l l al most al ways be the
most sati sfactor y choi ce of seal s i n stati c
appl i cati ons i f the fl ui ds, temperatures, pressure,
and geometry permi t.
Standard O-ri ng packi ngs are not speci fi cal l y
desi gned to be used as r otar y seal s. When
i nfr equent r otar y moti on or l ow per i pher al
vel oci ty i s i nvol ved standard O-ri ng packi ngs may
be used, provi ded consi stent surface fi ni shes over
the enti re gl and are used and eccentri ci ti es are
accuratel y control l ed. O-ri ngs cannot compensate
for out-of-round or eccentri cal l y rotati ng shafts.
As rotary seal s, O-ri ngs perform sati sfactori l y
i n two appl i cati on areas:
1. I n l ow-speed appl i cati ons where the surface
speed of the shaft does not exceed 200 ft/mi n
2. I n hi gh-speed moderate-pressure appl i -
cati ons, between 50 and 800 psi
The use of l ow-fri cti on extrusi on-resi stant
devi ces i s hel pful i n prol ongi ng the l i fe and
i mprovi ng the performance of O-ri ngs used as
rotary seal s.
O-ri ngs are often used as reci procati ng seal s
i n hydraul i c and pneumati c systems. Whi l e best
sui ted for short-stroke, rel ati vel y smal l di ameter
appl i cati ons, O-ri ngs have been used successful l y
i n l ong-str oke, l ar ge di ameter appl i cati ons.
Gl ands for O-ri ngs used as reci procati ng seal s are
usual l y desi gned accordi ng to MI L-G-5514 to
provi de a squeeze that vari es from 8 to 10 percent
mi ni mum and 13.5 to 16 percent maxi mum. A
squeeze of 20 percent i s al l owed on O-ri ngs wi th
a cross secti on of 0.070-i nch or l ess. I n some
reci procati ng pneumati c appl i cati ons, a fl oati ng
O-ri ng desi gn may si mul taneousl y reduce fri cti on
and wear by mai ntai ni ng no squeeze by the gl and
on the O-ri ng. When ai r pressure enters the
cyl i nder, the ai r pressure fl attens the O-ri ng,
causi ng suffi ci ent squeeze to seal duri ng the
stroke. I f the return stroke does not use pneumati c
power, the O-ri ng returns to i ts round cross
secti on, mi ni mi zi ng drag and wear on the return
stroke.
Identification
As a mai ntenance per son or super vi sor
worki ng wi th fl ui d power systems, you must be
abl e to posi ti vel y i denti fy, i nspect, and i nstal l the
correct si ze and type of O-ri ng to ensure the best
possi bl e servi ce. These tasks can be di ffi cul t si nce
part numbers cannot be put di rectl y on the seal s
and because of the conti nual i ntroducti on of new
types of seal s and obsol escence of others. (Naval
Ships’ Technical Manual, chapter 078, contai ns
a tabl e that cross-references obsol ete and current
O-ri ng speci fi cati ons for shi p appl i cati ons.)
O-ri ngs are packaged i n i ndi vi dual l y seal ed
envel opes. O-ri ng seal s manufactured to govern-
ment speci fi cati ons are marked accordi ng to the
requi rements of the speci fi c mi l i tary speci fi cati on
and standard. The requi red marki ng for each
package i s as fol l ows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Nati onal stock number (NSN)
Nomencl ature
Mi l i tary part number
Materi al speci fi cati on
Manufacturer’s
Manufacturer’s
Manufactur er ’s
name
compound number
batch number
Contract number
Cur e date
NOTE: Keep preformed packi ngs i n thei r
ori gi nal envel opes, whi ch provi de preservati on,
protecti on, i denti fi cati on, and cure date.
When you sel ect an O-ri ng for i nstal l ati on,
careful l y observe the i nformati on on the package.
I f you cannot posi ti vel y i denti fy an O-r i ng,
di scar d i t. The par t number on the seal ed
package provi des the most rel i abl e and compl ete
i denti fi cati on.
7-7
Sizes
A standar di zed dash number system for
O-ri ng si zes i s used i n many mi l i tary and i ndustri al
speci fi cati ons. The O-ri ng si ze i s i denti fi ed by a
dash number rather than the actual di mensi ons
for conveni ence. The basi s for the dash numbers
i s contai ned i n Aerospace Standard AS568. For
nongasket O-ri ngs (packi ng), the dash numbers
are di vi ded i nto groups of one hundred. Each
hundred group i denti fi es the cross secti on si ze of
the O-ri ngs wi thi n the group (tabl e 7-2).
The 900 seri es dash numbers contai ned i n
AS568 i denti fy al l the presentl y standardi zed
strai ght thread tube fi tti ng boss gaskets. Wi th the
excepti on of -901, the l ast two di gi ts of the dash
desi gnate the tube si ze i n 16ths of an i nch. For
exampl e, the -904 si ze i s for a 1/4-i nch tube.
Dimensions
The cri ti cal di mensi ons of an O-ri ng are i ts I D,
i ts cross secti onal di ameter (W), and the hei ght
and wi dth of the resi dual mol di ng fl ash (see
fi g. 7-7).
Nomi nal di mensi ons have been used to
descri be O-ri ng si zes, al though thi s practi ce i s
rapi dl y bei ng repl aced by the use of dash numbers.
The actual i nsi de di ameter of a seal wi l l be sl i ghtl y
l ess than the nomi nal I D, but the actual OD wi l l
Table 7-2.—O-Ring Dash Numbers Versus Cross Section
Sizes
be sl i ghtl y l arger than the nomi nal OD. For
exampl e, an AS568-429 O-ri ng i s descri bed i n
nomi nal di mensi ons as 5 i nches I D by 5-1/2 i nches
OD by 1/4-i nch W. Actual di mensi ons are 4.975
i nches I D by 5.525 i nches OD by 0.275 i nches W.
Specifications
Mater i al and per for mance r equi r ements
for O-r i ngs ar e often i denti fi ed i n mi l i tar y
speci fi cati ons. The di mensi ons of these O-ri ngs
wi l l usual l y be found i n accompanyi ng sl ash sheets
(whi ch bear the speci fi cati on number and are a
part of the speci fi cati on) or wi l l be i denti fi ed by
vari ous drawi ngs and standards that rel ate to the
speci fi cati on. I ncl uded among the speci fi cati ons
ar e Ai r For ce-Navy Standar ds (AN), Mi l i -
tary Standards (MS), and Nati onal Aerospace
Standards (NAS). I f the speci fi cati on does not
i denti fy si zes, the si zes shoul d be i denti fi ed by the
AS568 dash number . Usual l y, you can use
drawi ngs, techni cal manual s, and al l owance parts
l i sts (APLs) to i denti fy repl acement O-ri ngs.
(Notes 2 and 3 of tabl e 7-1 l i st some of the
frequentl y used mi l i tary speci fi cati ons).
Cure Date
A cure date i s as appl i cabl e to natural or
syntheti c O-ri ngs as i t i s to rubber hoses. Thi s date
i s the basi s for determi ni ng the age of O-ri ngs.
I t i s extremel y i mportant that the cure date be
noted on al l packages.
Shelf Life and Expiration Date
Al l el astomers change gradual l y wi th age;
some change mor e r api dl y than other s. The
shel f l i fe for rubber products i s contai ned i n
MI L-HDBK-695.
Check the age of natural or syntheti c rubber
pr efor med pack i ngs befor e i nstal l ati on to
determi ne whether they are acceptabl e for use.
Make a posi ti ve i denti fi cati on, i ndi cati ng the
source, cure date, and expi rati on date. Ensure that
thi s i nformati on i s avai l abl e for al l packi ng used.
Shel f l i fe requi rements do not appl y once the
packi ng i s i nstal l ed i n a component.
The expi rati on date i s the date after whi ch
packi ng shoul d not be i nstal l ed. The expi rati on
date of al l packi ngs can be determi ned by addi ng
the shel f l i fe to the cure date.
7-8
Replacement
Fi gure 7-8 shows a typi cal O-ri ng i nstal l ati on.
When such an i nstal l ati on shows si gns of i nternal
or exter nal l eakage, the component must be
di sassembl ed and the seal s repl aced. Someti mes
components must be reseal ed because of the age
l i mi tati ons of the seal s. The O-ri ng shoul d al so
be repl aced whenever a gl and that has been i n
servi ce i s di sassembl ed and reassembl ed.
Often a poor O-ri ng i nstal l ati on begi ns when
an ol d seal i s removed. O-ri ng removal i nvol ves
worki ng wi th parts that have cri ti cal surface
fi ni shes. I f hardened-steel , poi nted, or sharp-
edged tool s are used for removal of O-ri ngs or
backup ri ngs, scratches, abrasi ons, dents, and
other deformi ti es on cri ti cal seal i ng surfaces can
resul t i n seal fai l ure whi ch, i n turn, can resul t i n
Figure 7-7.—Critical dimensions of an O-ring.
mi ght scratch or mar component surfaces or
damage the O-r i ng. An O-r i ng tool k i t i s
avai l abl e i n the suppl y system for O-ri ng i n-
stal l ati on or removal . I f these tool s are not on
hand, speci al tool s can be made for thi s purpose.
A few exampl es of tool s used i n the removal
and i nstal l ati on of O-ri ngs are i l l ustrated i n
functi onal fai l ure of
When r emovi ng
not use poi nted or
the equi pment.
or i nstal l i ng O-r i ngs, do
sharp-edged tool s whi ch
Figure 7-8.–Typical O-ring instalation.
7-9
fi gure 7-9. These tool s shoul d be fabri cated from
soft metal such as brass or al umi num; however,
tool s made from phenol i c rod, wood, or pl asti c
may al so be used.
Tool surfaces must be wel l rounded, pol i shed,
and free of burrs. Check the tool s often, especi al l y
the surfaces that come i n contact wi th O-ri ng
grooves and cri ti cal pol i shed surfaces.
Noti ce i n fi gur e 7-9, vi ew A, how the
hook-type removal tool i s posi ti oned under the
O-ri ng and then l i fted to al l ow the extractor tool ,
as wel l as the removal tool , to pul l the O-ri ng from
i ts cavi ty. Vi ew B shows the use of another type
of extractor tool i n the removal of i nternal l y
i nstal l ed O-ri ngs.
I n vi ew C, noti ce the extractor tool posi ti oned
under both O-ri ngs at the same ti me. Thi s method
of mani pul ati ng the tool posi ti ons both O-ri ngs,
whi ch al l ows the hook-type r emoval tool to
extract both O-ri ngs wi th mi ni mum effort. Vi ew
D shows practi cal l y the same removal as vi ew C,
except for the use of a di fferent type of extractor
tool .
The removal of external O-ri ngs i s l ess di ffi cul t
than the removal of i nternal l y i nstal l ed O-ri ngs.
Vi ews E and F show the use of a spoon-type
extractor, whi ch i s posi ti oned under the seal . After
the O-r i ng i s di sl odged fr om i ts cavi ty, the
spoon i s hel d stati onary whi l e the pi ston i s
si mul taneousl y rotated and wi thdrawn. Vi ew F
i s si mi l ar to vi ew E, except that onl y one O-ri ng
i s i nstal l ed, and a di fferent type of extractor tool
i s used. The wedge-type extractor tool i s i nserted
beneath the O-ri ng; the hook-type removal tool
hooks the O-ri ng. A sl i ght pul l on the l atter tool
removes the O-ri ng from i ts cavi ty.
After removi ng al l O-ri ngs, cl eani ng of the
affected parts that wi l l recei ve new O-ri ngs i s
Figure 7-9.—O-ring tools and O-ring removal.
7-10
mandatory. Ensure that the area used for such
i n s tal l ati on s i s cl ean an d fr ee fr om al l
contami nati on.
Remove each O-ri ng that i s to be i nstal l ed
from i ts seal ed package and i nspect i t for defects
such as bl emi shes, abrasi ons, cuts, or punctures.
Al though an O-ri ng may appear perfect at fi rst
gl ance, sl i ght surface fl aws may exi st. These are
often capabl e of preventi ng sati sfactory O-ri ng
performance. O-ri ngs shoul d be rejected for fl aws
that wi l l affect thei r performance.
By rol l i ng the ri ng on an i nspecti on cone or
dowel , the i nner di ameter surface can be checked
for smal l cracks, parti cl es of forei gn materi al , and
other i rregul ari ti es that wi l l cause l eakage or
shorten i ts l i fe. The sl i ght stretchi ng of the ri ng
when i t i s rol l ed i nsi de out wi l l hel p to reveal some
defects not otherwi se vi si bl e. A further check of
each O-ri ng shoul d be made by stretchi ng i t
between the fi ngers, but care must be taken not to
exceed the el asti c l i mi ts of the rubber. Fol l owi ng
these i nspecti on practi ces wi l l prove to be a
mai ntenance economy. I t i s far more desi rabl e to
take care i denti fyi ng and i nspecti ng O-ri ngs than to
repeatedl y overhaul components wi th faul ty seal s.
After i nspecti on and pri or to i nstal l ati on,
l ubri cate the O-ri ng, and al l the surfaces that i t
must sl i de over wi th a l i ght coat of the system fl ui d
or a l ubri cant approved for use i n the system.
Consul t the appl i cabl e techni cal i nstructi on or
Naval Ships’ Technical Manual for the correct
l ubri cant for pneumati c systems.
Assembl y must be made wi th care so that the
O-ri ng i s properl y pl aced i n the groove and not
damaged as the gl and i s cl osed. Duri ng some
i nstal l ati ons, such as on a pi ston, i t wi l l be
necessary to stretch the O-ri ng. Stretch the O-ri ng
as l i ttl e and as uni forml y as possi bl e. Avoi d rol l i ng
or twi sti ng the O-ri ng when maneuveri ng i t i nto
pl ace. Keep the posi ti on of the O-ri ng mol d l i ne
constant. O-ri ngs shoul d not be l eft i n a twi sted
condi ti on after i nstal l ati on.
I f the O-ri ng i nstal l ati on requi res spanni ng or
i nserti ng through sharp-threaded areas, ri dges,
sl ots, and edges, use protecti ve measures, such as
the O-ri ng enteri ng sl eeve (fi g. 7-10, vi ew A). I f
Figure 7-10.–O-ring installation.
7-11
the recommended O-ri ng enteri ng sl eeve (a soft,
thi n wal l , metal l i c sl eeve) i s not avai l abl e, paper
sl eeves and covers may be fabri cated by usi ng the
seal package (gl ossy si de out) or l i nt-free bond
paper (see vi ews B and C of fi g. 7-10).
After you pl ace the O-r i ng i n the cavi ty
provi ded, gentl y rol l the O-ri ng wi th your fi ngers
to remove any twi st that mi ght have occurred
duri ng the i nstal l ati on. After i nstal l ati on, an
O-ri ng shoul d seat snugl y but freel y i n i ts groove.
I f backup ri ngs are i nstal l ed i n the groove, be
certai n the backup ri ngs are i nstal l ed on the
correct si de of the ri ng.
BACKUP RINGS
Backup ri ngs, al so referred to as retai ner ri ngs,
anti extrusi on devi ces, and nonextrusi on ri ngs, are
washer-l i ke devi ces that are i nstal l ed on the
l ow-pressure si de of packi ng to prevent extrusi on
of the packi ng materi al . Backup ri ngs i n dynami c
seal s mi ni mi ze erosi on of the packi ng materi al s
and subsequent fai l ure of the seal . At l ower
pressures, backup ri ngs wi l l prol ong the normal
wear l i fe of the packi ng. At hi gher pressures,
backup ri ngs permi t greater cl earances between
the movi ng parts. Normal l y, backup ri ngs are
requi red for operati ng pressures over 1500 psi .
Backup r i ngs can be made of pol ytetr a-
fl uoroethyl ene, hard rubber, l eather, and other
materi al s. The most common materi al currentl y
used i s tetrafl uoroethyl ene (TFE). Backup ri ngs
are avai l abl e as si ngl e-turn conti nuous (uncut or
sol i d), si ngl e-turn (bi as) cut, and spi ral cut. See
fi gure 7-11. Leather ri ngs are al ways furni shed i n
sol i d r i ng for m (unspl i t). Ri ngs of TFE ar e
avai l abl e i n al l three types.
Packaging and Storing
Backup ri ngs are not col or-coded or otherwi se
marked and must be i denti fi ed from the packagi ng
l abel s. The dash number fol l owi ng the mi l i tary
standard number found on the package i ndi cates
the si ze, and usual l y rel ates di rectl y to the dash
number of the O-ri ngs for whi ch the backup ri ng
i s di mensi onal l y sui ted. Backup ri ngs made of
TFE do not deteri orate wi th age and do not have
shel f l i fe l i mi tati ons. TFE backup r i ngs ar e
provi ded by manufacturer ei ther i n i ndi vi dual l y
seal ed packages or on mandrel s. I f unpackaged
ri ngs are stored for a l ong ti me wi thout the use
of mandrel s, a condi ti on of overl ap may devel op.
Overl ap occurs when the I D of the backup ri ng
becomes smal l er and i ts ends overl ap each other.
To correct thi s overl ap condi ti on, stack TFE ri ngs
on a mandrel of the correct di ameter, and cl amp
the ri ngs wi th thei r coi l s fl at and paral l el . Pl ace
the ri ngs i n an oven at a maxi mum temperature
of 177
0
C (350
0
F) for approxi matel y 10 mi nutes.
Do not over heat them because fumes fr om
decompos i n g TFE ar e tox i c. Remov e an d
water-quench the ri ngs. Store the ri ngs at room
temperature before you use them (preferabl y for
48 hours).
Installation
Care must be taken i n handl i ng and i nstal l i ng
backup ri ngs. Do not i nsert them wi th sharp
tool s. Backup r i ngs must be i nspected pr i or
to usi ng them for evi dence of compr essi on
damage, scratches, cuts, ni cks, or frayed con-
di ti ons. I f O-ri ngs are to be repl aced where
backup ri ngs are i nstal l ed i n the same groove,
never r epl ace the O-r i ng wi thout r epl aci ng
the backup ri ngs, or vi ce versa. Many seal s
use two backup ri ngs, one on ei ther si de of the
O-ri ng (fi g. 7-12). Two backup ri ngs are used
pri mari l y i n si tuati ons (such as a reci procati ng
pi ston seal ) where al ternati ng pressure di recti on
can cause packi ng to be extruded on both si des
of the gl and.
Figure 7-11.—Types of backup rings.
7-12
Figure 7-12.—Backup ring configuration.
I f onl y one backup ri ng i s used, pl ace the
backup r i ng on the l ow-pr essur e si de of the
packi ng (fi g. 7-13, vi ew A). When a backup ri ng
i s pl aced on the hi gh-pressure si de of the packi ng,
the pressure agai nst the rel ati vel y hard surface of
the backup ri ng forces the softer packi ng agai nst
the l ow-pressure si de of the gl and, resul ti ng i n a
rapi d fai l ure due to extrusi on (fi g. 7-13, vi ew B).
When dual backup ri ngs are i nstal l ed, stagger
the spl i t scarfed ends as shown i n fi gure 7-14.
When i nstal l i ng a spi ral cut backup ri ng (MS28782
or MS28783), be sure to wi nd the ri ng correctl y
to ease i nstal l ati on and ensure opti mum per-
for mance.
When TFE spi ral ri ngs are bei ng i nstal l ed i n
i nternal grooves, the ri ng must have a ri ght-hand
Figure 7-13.–Location of a single backup ring.
Figure 7-14.—Installation of cut dual backup rings.
7-13
Figure 7-15.–Installation of TFE back up rings (internal).
7-14
spi ral . Fi gure 7-15, vi ew A, shows how to change
the di recti on of the spi ral . The ri ng i s then
stretched sl i ghtl y, as shown i n vi ew B pri or to
i nstal l ati on i nto the groove. Whi l e the TFE ri ng
i s bei ng i nserted i nto the groove, rotate the
component i n a cl ockwi se di recti on. Thi s wi l l tend
to expand the ri ng di ameter and reduce the
possi bi l i ty of damagi ng the ri ng.
When TFE spi ral ri ngs are bei ng i nstal l ed i n
external grooves, the ri ng shoul d have a l eft-hand
spi ral . As the ri ng i s bei ng i nserted i nto the
gr oove, r otate the component i n a cl ockwi se
di recti on. Thi s acti on wi l l tend to contract the ri ng
di ameter and reduce the possi bi l i ty of damagi ng
the ri ng.
I n appl i cati ons where a l eather backup ri ng
i s cal l ed for, pl ace the smooth-grai ned si de of the
l eather next to the ri ng. Do not cut l eather backup
ri ngs. Use a l eather backup ri ng as one conti nuous
ri ng and l ubri cate the ri ng pri or to i nstal l i ng i t,
parti cul arl y the smal l er si zes. I f stretchi ng i s
necessary for proper i nstal l ati on, soak the backup
ri ng i n the system fl ui d or i n an acceptabl e
l ubri cant at room temperature for at l east 30
mi nutes.
or two backup ri ngs, dependi ng upon the speci fi c
seal groove appl i cati on and wi dth. The Quad-
Ri ng®seal works wel l i n, both hydraul i c and
pneumati c systems.
Many Quad-Ri ng® seal si zes have been
assi gned NSNs and are stocked i n the Federal
Suppl y System. Quad-Ri ng®seal s i n manu-
facturer’s si zes desi gnated as Q1 through Q88 are
i nter changeabl e wi th O-r i ngs confor mi ng to
AN6227. Li kewi se, Quad-Ri ng®seal s i n com-
mer ci al si zes Q101 thr ough Q152 ar e i nter -
changeabl e wi th O-ri ngs conformi ng to AN6230
i n the respecti ve dash si zes from –1 through–52.
Ther efor e, the Quad-Ri ng® seal stock par t
number uses the AN standard O-ri ng desi gnati ons
AN6227 and AN6230 and the commerci al Q dash
number desi gnati on. For exampl e, NSNs are
found under such reference part numbers as
AN6227Q10 and AN6230Q103. I f the l etter Q
does not fol l ow AN6227 or AN6230, the part
number i s an O-ri ng not a Quad-Ri ng®seal .
I f Quad-Ri ng®seal s are not avai l abl e for
mai ntenance acti ons, appropri ate si zed O-ri ngs
can be i nstal l ed and they work sati sfactori l y.
QUAD-O-DYN® SEALS
QUAD-RINGS
The Quad-Ri ng®seal i s a speci al confi gura-
ti on ri ng packi ng, manufactured by the Mi nnesota
Rubber . As opposed to an O-r i ng, a Quad-
Ri ng®seal has a more square cross-secti onal
shape wi th rounded corners (fi g. 7-16). The Quad-
Ri ng®seal desi gn offers more stabi l i ty than the
O-r i ng desi gn and pr acti cal l y el i mi nates the
spi ral i ng or twi sti ng that i s someti mes encountered
wi th the O-ri ng.
Quad-Ri ngs® seal s ar e compl etel y i nter -
changeabl e wi th O-ri ngs i n the si zes offered by
the manufacturer. They may be i nstal l ed wi th one
The Quad-O-Dyn®, al so manufactur ed by
Mi nnesota Rubber , i s a speci al for m of the
Quad-Ri ng. The Quad-O-Dyn di ffers from the
Quad-Ri ng i n confi gurati on (fi g. 7-17), i s harder,
i s subject to greater squeeze, and i s made of a
di fferent materi al . The Quad-O-Dyn®seal al so
works wel l i n O-ri ngs gl ands.
The Quad-O-Dyn®i s used i n rel ati vel y few
appl i cati ons. However , for di ffi cul t dynami c
seal i ng appl i cati ons, the Quad-O-Dyn® can
perform better than the Quad-Ri ng. Quad-O-
Dyn®ri ngs are i nstal l ed i n submari ne hydraul i c
systems pl ant accumul ators.
Figure 7-16.—Quad-Ring.
7-15
Figure 7-17.—Quad-O-Dyn® seal.
U-CUPS AND U-PACKINGS
Th e di s ti n cti on between U -cu ps a n d
U-packi ngs resul ts from the di fference i n materi al s
used i n thei r fabri cati on. The U-cup i s usual l y
made of h omogen eou s s y n th eti c r u bber ;
U-packi ngs are usual l y made of l eather or fabri c-
rei nforced rubber. Speci al aspects of each type wi l l
be di scussed separatel y. However, al l U-cups and
U-packi ngs have cross secti ons resembl i ng the
l etter U. Both types are bal anced packi ngs, both
seal on the I D and the OD, and both are appl i ed
i ndi vi dual l y, not i n stacks l i ke V-ri ngs. Si ze
di fferences between U-cups and U-packi ngs are
usual l y substanti al enough to pr event i nter -
changeabi l i ty. There are a few si zes wi th smal l er
di ameters and cross secti ons that may appear
to be di mensi onal l y equi val ent but ar e not.
Therefore, U-packi ngs shoul d not be substi tuted
for U-cups (or vi ce versa) i n any i nstal l ati on.
U-CUPS
The U-cup (fi g. 7-18) has been a popul ar
packi ng i n the past because of i nstal l ati on ease
and l ow fri cti on. U-cups are used pri mari l y for
pressures bel ow 1500 psi , but hi gher pressures are
possi bl e wi th the use of anti extrusi on ri ngs. For
doubl e-acti ng pi stons, two U-cups are i nstal l ed
i n separate grooves, back-to-back or heel -to-heel .
Two U-cups are never used i n the same groove.
Thi s heel -to-heel type of i nstal l ati on i s common
for si ngl e-acti ng (monodi recti onal ) seal s, such as
U-cups and V-ri ngs, and i s necessary to prevent
a pressure trap (hydraul i c l ock) between two
packi ngs. I nstal l ati on of two U-cups wi th seal i ng
l i ps faci ng each other can resul t i n hydraul i c l ock
and must be avoi ded.
Leather U-Packings
As a rul e, l eather U-packi ngs are made wi th
strai ght si de wal l s (no fl ared seal i ng l i ps). See
fi gure 7-19. The l eather may be chemi cal l y treated
or otherwi se i mpregnated to i mprove i ts per-
formance. Leather U-packi ngs are avai l abl e i n
standard si zes conformi ng to i ndustri al speci fi ca-
ti ons. For support, the cavi ty of the U-packi ng
shoul d contai n a metal pedestal ri ng or shoul d be
fi l l ed wi th a sui tabl e materi al . Leather U-packi ngs
wi th an i ntegral pedestal support have been
i nstal l ed i n some submari ne steeri ng and di vi ng
ram pi ston seal s.
CUP PACKINGS
Cup packi ngs resembl e a cup or deep di sh wi th
a hol e i n the center for mounti ng (fi g. 7-20). Cup
seal s are used excl usi vel y to seal pi stons i n both
l ow- and hi gh-pr essur e hydr aul i c and pneu-
mati c servi ce. They are produced i n l eather,
homogeneous syntheti c r ubber , and fabr i c-
rei nforced syntheti c rubber. Al though the cup
packi ng l i p fl ares outward, the rubbi ng contact
i s made at the l i p onl y when the fl ui d pressure i s
l ow. As the fl ui d pressure i ncreases, the cup heel
expands outward unti l i t contacts the cyl i nder
wal l , at whi ch poi nt hi gh-pressure seal i ng i s i n
effect. As the pressure l oadi ng shi fts the seal i ng
l i ne to the cup heel , the l i p i s actual l y pul l ed i nto
the cup and away from the cyl i nder wal l . On the
return stroke when the pressure i s rel axed, the heel
wi l l shri nk sl i ghtl y, l eavi ng onl y the l i p i n contact
wi th the wal l , avoi di ng unnecessary wear at the
heel .
For reci procati ng pi stons, two cups i nstal l ed
back-to-back i n separate gl ands are requi red.
FLANGE PACKINGS
Fl ange packi ngs are used excl usi vel y i n l ow-
pressure, outsi de-packed i nstal l ati ons, such as rod
Figure 7-18.—Typical U-cup seal. Figure 7-19.—U-packing.
7-16
Figure 7-20.–Cup packing.
seal s. The fl ange
made of l eather,
(someti mes cal l ed
fabri c-rei nforced
the hat) i s
r ubber , or
homogeneous rubber. Li p seal i ng occurs onl y on
the packi ng I D (fi g. 7-21). Fl ange packi ngs are
general l y used onl y for rod seal s when other
packi ngs such as V-ri ngs or U-seal s cannot be
used.
DIRT EXCLUSION SEALS
(WIPERS AND SCRAPERS)
Di r t excl usi on devi ces ar e essenti al i f a
sati sfactory l i fe i s to be obtai ned from most rod
seal s. The smooth fi ni shed movi ng rod surface,
i f not encl osed or protected by some sort of
coveri ng, wi l l accumul ate a coati ng of dust or
abrasi ve materi al that wi l l be dragged or carri ed
i nto the packi ng assembl y area on the return rod
stroke. Excl usi on devi ces cal l ed wi pers or scrapers
are desi gned to remove thi s coati ng. Whi l e the
ter ms wi per an d scr aper ar e often u s ed
i nterchangeabl y, i t i s useful to reserve scraper
Figure 7-21.—Typical flange packing cross section.
for metal l i p-type devi ces that remove heavi l y
encr usted deposi ts of di r t or other abr asi ve
materi al that woul d merel y defl ect a softer l i p and
be carri ed i nto the cyl i nder. Someti mes a rod wi l l
have both a scraper and a wi per, the former to
remove heavy deposi ts and the l atter to excl ude
any dust parti cl es that remai n. Whenever metal l i c
scrapers are used wi th fel t wi pers i n the same
groove, the fel t wi per must not be compressed nor
restri cted i n any way that affects i ts functi on as
a l ubri cator. A wi per i nstal l ed i n a seal assembl y
i n a pneumati c appl i cati on may remove too much
oi l fr om the r od, r equi r i ng some method of
repl aci ng the oi l . A common remedy i s to provi de
a peri odi cal l y oi l ed fel t ri ng between the wi per
and the seal . Fel t wi pers provi de l ubri cati on
to extended oper ati ng r ods, thus i ncr easi ng
component wear l i fe. These wi pers are onl y used
to provi de l ubri cati on to parts.
Much l onger l i fe coul d be obtai ned from most
seal s i f proper attenti on were gi ven to wi pers and
scrapers. Often, wi per or scraper fai l ure i s not
noti ced when a seal packi ng fai l s. As a resul t, onl y
the packi ng i s repl aced, and the same worn wi per
or scr aper i s r ei nstal l ed to destr oy another
packi ng. Check the wi per or scraper condi ti on
upon i ts removal . I f the wi per i s worn, di rty, or
embedded wi th metal l i c parti cl es, repl ace i t wi th
a new one. I t i s usual l y good practi ce to repl ace
the wi per every ti me you repl ace the seal and even
more frequentl y i f the wi per i s readi l y accessi bl e
wi thout component di sassembl y. I f repl acements
are not avai l abl e, wash di rty wi pers that are sti l l
i n good condi ti on wi th sui tabl e sol vent and
rei nstal l them. Remember that a wi per or scraper
i s del i ber atel y i nstal l ed as a sacr i fi ci al par t
to protect and preserve the seal i ng packi ng.
Therefore, from a user’s standpoi nt, wi pers and
scrapers shoul d be i nspected and repl aced as
necessary.
STORAGE OF SEALS
Proper storage practi ces must be observed to
prevent deformati on and deteri orati on of seal s.
Most syntheti c r ubber s ar e not damaged by
storage under i deal condi ti ons. However, most
syntheti c rubbers wi l l deteri orate when exposed
to heat, l i ght, oi l , grease, fuel s, sol vents, thi nners,
moi sture, strong drafts, or ozone (form of oxygen
formed from an el ectri cal di scharge). Damage by
exposure i s magni fi ed when rubber i s under
tensi on, compressi on, or stress. There are several
7-17
condi ti ons to be avoi ded, whi ch i ncl ude the
fol l owi ng:
1. Defor mati on as a r esul t of i mpr oper
stacki ng of parts and storage contai ners.
2. Creasi ng caused by force appl i ed to corners
and edges, and by squeezi ng between boxes and
storage contai ners.
3. Compressi on and fl atteni ng, as a resul t of
storage under heavy parts.
4. Punctures caused by stapl es used to attach
i denti fi cati on.
5. Deformati on and contami nati on due to
hangi ng the seal s from nai l s or pegs. Seal s shoul d
be kept i n thei r ori gi nal envel opes, whi ch provi de
preservati on, protecti on, i denti fi cati on, and cure
date.
6. Contami nati on by pi er ci ng the seal ed
envel ope to store O-ri ngs on rods, nai l s, or wi re
hangi ng devi ces.
7. Contami nati on by fl ui ds l eaki ng from parts
stored above and adjacent to the seal surfaces.
8. Contami nati on caused by adhesi ve tapes
appl i ed to seal surfaces. A torn seal package
shoul d be secur ed wi th a pr essur e-sensi ti ve
moi stureproof tape, but the tape must not contact
the seal surfaces.
9. Retenti on of overage parts as a resul t
of i mproper storage arrangement or i l l egi bl e
i denti fi cati on. Seal s shoul d be arranged so the
ol der seal s are used fi rst.
7-18
CHAPTER 8
MEASUREMENT AND PRESSURE
CONTROL DEVICES
For safe and effi ci ent operati on, fl ui d power
systems are desi gned to operate at a speci fi c
pressure and/or temperature, or wi thi n a pressure
and/or temperature range.
You have l earned that the l ubri cati ng power
of hydraul i c fl ui ds vari es wi th temperature and
that excessi vel y hi gh temperatures reduce the l i fe
of hydr aul i c fl ui ds. Addi ti onal l y, you have
l ear ned that the mater i al s, di mensi ons, and
method of fabri cati on of fl ui d power components
l i mi t the pressure and temperature at whi ch a
system operates. You have al so l earned of means
of automati cal l y control l i ng pressure i n both
hydraul i c and pneumati c systems.
Most fl ui d power systems are provi ded wi th
pressure gauges and thermometers for measuri ng
and i ndi cati ng the pressure and/or the tempera-
ture i n the system. Addi ti onal l y, vari ous tempera-
ture and pressure swi tches are used to warn of an
adverse pressure or temperature condi ti on. Some
swi tches wi l l even shut the system off when an
adverse condi ti on occurs. These devi ces wi l l be
di scussed i n thi s chapter.
PRESSURE GAUGES
Many pressure-measuri ng i nstruments are
cal l ed gauges. However , thi s secti on wi l l be
restri cted to two mechani cal i nstruments that
contai n el asti c el ements that respond to pressures
found i n fl ui d power systems—the Bourdon-tube
and bel l ows gauges.
BOURDON TUBE GAUGES
The majori ty of pressure gauges i n use have
a Bourdon-tube as a measuri ng el ement. (The
gauge i s named for i ts i nventor, Eugene Bourdon,
a French engi neer.) The Bourdon tube i s a devi ce
that senses pressure and converts the pressure to
di spl acement. Si nce the Bourdon-tube di spl ace-
ment i s a functi on of the pressure appl i ed, i t may
be mechani cal l y ampl i fi ed and i ndi cated by a
poi nter. Thus, the poi nter posi ti on i ndi rectl y
i ndi cates pressure.
The Bour don-tube gauge i s avai l abl e i n
vari ous tube shapes: curved or C-shaped, hel i cal ,
and spi ral . The si ze, shape, and materi al of the
tube depend on the pressure range and the type
of gauge desi red. Low-pressure Bourdon tubes
(pressures up to 2000 psi ) are often made of
phosphor bronze. Hi gh-pressure Bourdon tubes
(pressures above 2000 psi ) are made of stai nl ess
steel or other hi gh-strength materi al s. Hi gh-
pressure Bourdon tubes tend to have more ci rcul ar
cross secti ons than thei r l ower-range counterparts,
whi ch tend to have oval cr oss secti ons. The
Bour don tube most commonl y used i s the
C-shaped metal tube that i s seal ed at one end and
open at the other (fi g. 8-1).
Figure 8-1.—Simplex Bourdon-tube pressure gauge.
8-1
C-shaped Bourdon Tube
The C-shaped Bourdon tube has a hol l ow,
el l i pti cal cross secti on. I t i s cl osed at one end and
i s connected to the fl ui d pressure at the other end.
When pr essur e i s appl i ed, i ts cr oss secti on
becomes mor e ci r cul ar , causi ng the tube to
strai ghten out, l i ke a garden hose when the water
i s fi rst turned on, unti l the force of the fl ui d
pressure i s bal anced by the el asti c resi stance of
the tube materi al . Si nce the open end of the tube
i s anchored i n a fi xed posi ti on, changes i n pressure
move the cl osed end. A poi nter i s attached to the
cl osed end of the tube through a l i nkage arm and
a gear and pi ni on assembl y, whi ch rotates the
poi nter around a graduated scal e.
Bour don-tube pr essur e gauges ar e often
cl assi fi ed as si mpl ex or dupl ex, dependi ng upon
whether they measur e one pr essur e or two
pressures. A si mpl ex gauge has onl y one Bourdon
tube and measures onl y one pressure. The pressure
gauge shown i n fi gure 8-1 i s a si mpl ex gauge. A
red hand i s avai l abl e on some gauges. Thi s hand
i s manual l y posi ti oned at the maxi mum operati ng
pressure of the system or porti on of the system
i n whi ch the gauge i s i nstal l ed.
When two Bourdon tubes are mounted i n
a si ngl e case, wi th each mechani sm acti ng
i ndependentl y but wi th the two poi nters mounted
on a common di al , the assembl y i s cal l ed a dupl ex
gauge. Fi gure 8-2 shows a dupl ex gauge wi th vi ews
of the di al and the operati ng mechani sm. Note
that each Bourdon tube has i ts own pressure
connecti on and i ts own poi nter. Dupl ex gauges
are used to gi ve a si mul taneous i ndi cati on of the
pr essur e fr om two di ffer ent l ocati ons. For
exampl e, i t may be used to measure the i nl et and
outl et pr essur es of a str ai ner to obtai n the
di fferenti al pressure across i t.
Di fferenti al pressure may al so be measured
wi th Bourdon-tube gauges. One ki nd of Bourdon-
tube di fferenti al pressure gauge i s shown i n
fi gure 8-3. Thi s gauge has two Bourdon tubes
but onl y one poi nter. The Bourdon tubes are
connected i n such a way that they i ndi cate the
pressure di fference, rather than ei ther of two
actual pressures.
As menti oned earl i er, Bourdon-tube pressure
gauges are used i n many hydraul i c systems. I n thi s
appl i cati on they ar e usual l y r efer r ed to as
hydraul i c gauges. Bourdon-tube hydraul i c gauges
are not parti cul arl y di fferent from other types of
Bour don-tube gauges i n how they oper ate;
however, they do someti mes have speci al desi gn
features because of the extremel y hi gh system
pressures to whi ch they may be exposed. For
Figure 8-2.—Duplex Bourdon-tube pressure gauge.
8-2
Figure 8-3.—Bourdon-tube differential pressure gauge.
exampl e, some hydraul i c gauges have a speci al
type of spri ng-l oaded l i nkage that i s capabl e of
taki ng overpressure and underpressure wi thout
damage to the movement and that keeps the
poi nter from sl ammi ng back to zero when the
pressure i s suddenl y changed. A hydraul i c gauge
that does not have such a devi ce must be protected
by a sui tabl e check val ve. Some hydraul i c gauges
may al so have speci al di al s that i ndi cate both the
pressure (i n psi ) and the correspondi ng total force
bei ng appl i ed, for exampl e tons of force produced
by a hydraul i c press.
Spiral and Helical Bourdon Tubes
Spi ral and hel i cal Bourdon tubes (fi gs. 8-4 and
8-5) are made from tubi ng wi th a fl attened cross
Figure 8-4.—Spiral Bourdon tube.
secti on. Both were desi gned to provi de more travel
of the tube ti p, pri mari l y for movi ng the recordi ng
pen of pressure recorders.
BELLOWS ELASTIC ELEMENTS
A bel l ows el asti c el ement i s a convol uted uni t
that expands and contracts axi al l y wi th changes
i n pressure. The pressure to be measured can be
appl i ed to ei ther the outsi de or the i nsi de of the
bel l ows; i n practi ce, most bel l ows measuri ng
Figure 8-5.—Helical Bourdon tube.
8-3
Figure 8-6.—Simple bellows gauge.
devi ces have the pressure appl i ed to the outsi de
of the bel l ows (fi g. 8-6).
Simple Bellows Elements
Bel l ows el asti c el ements are made of brass,
phosphor br onze, stai nl ess steel , beryl l i um-
copper, or other metal sui tabl e for the i ntended
servi ce of the gauge. Moti on of the el ement
(bel l ows) i s transmi tted by sui tabl e l i nkage and
gears to a di al poi nter. Most bel l ows gauges are
spr i ng-l oaded—that i s, a spr i ng opposes the
bel l ows and thus prevents ful l expansi on of the
bel l ows. Li mi ti ng the expansi on of the bel l ows i n
thi s way protects the bel l ows and prol ongs i ts l i fe.
Because of the el asti ci ty i n both the bel l ows and
the spri ng i n a spri ng-l oaded bel l ows el ement, the
rel ati onshi p between the appl i ed pressure and
bel l ows movement i s l i near.
Dual Bellows Indicators
Another type of bel l ows el ement i s the dual -
bel l ows el ement. Fi gure 8-7 i s a schemati c di agram
of thi s i ndi cator. Dual -bel l ows el ement pressure
i ndi cators are used throughout the Navy as fl ow-
measuri ng, l evel -i ndi cati ng, or pressure-i ndi cati ng
devi ces.
Figure 8-7.–Differential pressure sensor dual bellows.
8-4
Figure 8-8.–Dual bellows assembly.
When i n operati on, the bel l ows wi l l move i n
proporti on to the di fference i n pressure appl i ed
across the bel l ows uni t assembl y. The l i near
moti on of the bel l ows i s pi cked up by a dri ve arm
and transmi tted as a rotary moti on through a
torque tube assembl y (fi g. 8-8). The i ndi cati ng
mechani sm mul ti pl i es rotati on of the torque tube
through a gear and pi ni on to the i ndi cati ng
poi nter.
Bel l ows el ements are used i n vari ous appl i -
cati ons where the pressure-sensi ti ve devi ce must
be power ful enough to oper ate not onl y the
i ndi cati ng poi nter but al so some type of recordi ng
devi ce.
PRESSURE SWITCHES
Often when a measured pressure reaches a
certai n maxi mum or mi ni mum val ue, i t i s desi r-
abl e to have an al arm sound a warni ng, a l i ght
to gi ve a si gnal , or an auxi l i ary control system to
energi ze or de-energi ze. A pressure swi tch i s the
devi ce commonl y used for thi s purpose.
One of the si mpl est pressure swi tches i s the
si ngl e-pol e, si ngl e-throw, qui ck-acti ng type shown
i n fi gure 8-9. Thi s swi tch i s contai ned i n a metal
Figure 8-9.—Typical pressure switch.
8-5
case that has a removabl e cover, an el ectri cal
connecti on, and a pressure-sensi ng connecti on.
The swi tch contai ns a seaml ess metal l i c bel l ows
l ocated i n i ts housi ng. Changes i n the measured
pressure causes the bel l ows to work agai nst an
adjustabl e spri ng. Thi s spri ng determi nes the
pressure requi red to actuate the swi tch. Through
sui tabl e l i nkage, the spri ng causes the contacts to
open or cl ose the el ectri cal ci rcui t automati cal l y
when the operati ng pressure fal l s bel ow or ri ses
above a speci fi ed val ue. A permanent magnet i n
the swi tch mechani sm provi des a posi ti ve snap on
both the openi ng and cl osi ng of the contacts. The
swi tch i s constantl y energi zed. However, i t i s the
cl osi ng of the contacts that energi zes the enti re
el ectri cal ci rcui t.
Another pr essur e swi tch i s an el ectr i c-
hydraul i c assembl y that i s used for shutti ng off
the pump’s motor whenever the system pressure
exceeds a pre-determi ned maxi mum val ue (fi g.
8-10). The swi tch i s mounted on the pump housi ng
so that the former’s l ow pressure ports drai n
di rectl y i nto the pump housi ng.
Thi s pressure swi tch pri nci pal l y consi sts of a
fl ange-mounted hydraul i c val ve to whi ch i s fi xed
a normal l y cl osed el ectri cal l i mi t swi tch.
The val ve consi sts of two hydr aul i cal l y
i nterconnected components, the pi l ot val ve sub-
assembl y, whi ch bol ts on the bottom of the
body (l ), functi ons to sense system pr essur e
conti nuousl y and i ni ti ates pressure swi tch acti on
whenever thi s pressure exceeds the adjusted setti ng
of the pi l ot adjustment. System pr essur e i s
di rected i nto the bottom port and i s appl i ed
agai nst the exposed ti p of the pi l ot pi ston (5). Thi s
pi ston i s hel d on i ts seat by compressi on from the
pi ston spri ng (6) whi ch i s dependent on the
posi ti on of the adjusti ng screw (8). Whenever the
pressure causes a force suffi ci entl y l arge enough
to rai se the pi l ot pi ston from i ts seat, fl ui d
fl ows through an i nterconnecti ng passage to the
actuati ng pi ston (2) chamber. The accompanyi ng
fl ui d force rai ses the actuati ng pi ston agai nst the
for ce of spr i ng 3 and causes depr essi on of
the extended swi tch pl unger . Thi s, i n tur n,
di sconnects the contai ned el ectri cal swi tch, whi ch
may be connected i nto the pump motor’s el ectri c
suppl y system.
Pressure swi tches come i n many si zes and
confi gurati ons dependi ng on how they wi l l be
used.
Figure 8-10.—Electric-hydraulic pressure switch.
TEMPERATURE-MEASURING
INSTRUMENTS
Temper atur e i s the degr ee of hotness or
col dness of a substance measured on a defi ni te
scal e. Temperature i s measured when a measuri ng
i nstrument, such as a thermometer, i s brought
i nto contact wi th the medi um bei ng measured.
Al l temperature-measuri ng i nstruments use
some change i n a materi al to i ndi cate temperature.
Some of the effects that are used to i ndi cate
temperature are changes i n physi cal properti es and
al tered physi cal di mensi ons. One of the more
i mportant physi cal properti es used i n temperature-
measuri ng i nstruments i s the change i n the l ength
of a mater i al i n the for m of expansi on and
contracti on.
Consi der the uni for m homogeneous bar
i l l ustrated i n fi gure 8-11. I f the bar has a gi ven
8-6
Figure 8-11.—Expansion of a bar.
l ength (L
O
) at some temperature and i s heated, i t
wi l l expand (L
f
). The amount of expansi on
i s a functi on of the or i gi nal l ength and the
temperature i ncrease. The amount a materi al
changes i n l ength wi th temperature i s cal l ed the
l i near coeffi ci ent of expansi on.
The l i near coeffi ci ent of expansi on for a
materi al i s a physi cal property of that materi al
and descr i bes i ts behavi or wi th r espect to
temper atur e.
BIMETALLIC EXPANSION
THERMOMETER
I f two materi al s wi th di fferent l i near coef-
fi ci ents are bonded together, as the temperature
changes thei r rate of expansi on wi l l be di fferent.
Thi s wi l l cause the enti re assembl y to bend i n an
arc as shown i n fi gure 8-12.
When the temperature i s rai sed, an arc i s
formed around the materi al wi th the smal l er
expansi on coeffi ci ent. Si nce thi s assembl y i s
formed by joi ni ng two di ssi mi l ar materi al s, i t i s
known as a bi metal l i c el ement.
A modi fi cati on of thi s bi metal l i c stri p serves
as the basi s for one of the si mpl est and most
commonl y encountered temperature-measuri ng
i nstruments, the bi metal l i c thermometer.
Fi gure 8-13 shows a bi metal l i c thermometer.
I n i t, a bi metal l i c stri p i s wound i n the form of
a l ong hel i x. One end of the hel i x i s hel d ri gi d.
As the temperature vari es, the hel i x tri es to wi nd
or unwi nd. Thi s causes the free end to rotate. The
Figure 8-12.—Effect of unequal expansion of a bimetallic
strip.
free end i s connected to a poi nter. The poi nter
actual l y i ndi cates angul ar rotati on of the hel i x;
however, si nce the rotati on i s l i near and a functi on
of temperature, the scal e i s marked i n uni ts of
temper atur e.
DISTANT-READING THERMOMETERS
Di stant-readi ng di al thermometers are used
when the i ndi cati ng porti on of the i nstrument
must be pl aced at a di stance from where the
temperature i s bei ng measured. The di stant-
readi ng thermometer has a l ong capi l l ary, some
Figure 8-13.—Bimetallic thermometer.
8-7
as l ong as 125 feet, whi ch separates the sensi ng
bul b from the Bourdon tube and di al (fi g. 8-14).
There are three basi c types of di stant-readi ng
thermometers: the l i qui d fi l l ed, the gas fi l l ed,
and the combi nati on l i qui d-vapor fi l l ed. The
thermometers are fi l l ed wi th fl ui d (l i qui d or gas)
at some temperature and seal ed. Al most the enti re
vol ume of the fl ui d i s i n the sensi ng bul b.
As the temperature of the bul b changes, the
vol ume of the fl ui d tr i es to change. Si nce
the vol ume of the thermometer (sensi ng bul b,
capi l l ar y, and Bour don tube) i s constant, a
pressure change occurs wi thi n the thermometer.
Thi s pressure change causes the Bourdon tube to
strai ghten out (wi th an i ncrease i n pressure),
worki ng a system of l evers and gears, whi ch causes
the thermometer poi nter to move over the di al and
regi ster temperature.
TEMPERATURE SWITCHES
Temperature swi tches operate from tempera-
ture changes occurri ng i n an encl osure, or i n the
ai r surroundi ng the temperature-sensi ng el ement.
The operati on of the temperature swi tch i s si mi l ar
to the operati on of the pressure swi tch shown i n
fi gure 8-9; both swi tches are operated by changes
i n pressure. The temperature el ement i s arranged
so a change i n temperature causes a change i n the
i nternal pressure of a seal ed-gas or ai r-fi l l ed bul b
Figure 8-14.—Distant-reading, Bourdon-tube thermometers.
or hel i x, whi ch i s connected to the actuati ng devi ce
by a smal l tube or pi pe. Fi gure 8-15 shows a
temperature swi tch and two types of sensi ng
el ements.
A temperature change causes a change i n the
vol ume of the seal ed-i n gas, whi ch causes
movement of a bel l ows. The movement i s
transmi tted by a pl unger to the swi tch arm. The
movi ng contact i s on the arm. A fi xed contact may
be arranged so the swi tch wi l l open or cl ose on
a temperature ri se. Thi s al l ows the swi tch contacts
to be arranged to cl ose when the temperature
drops to a predetermi ned val ue and to open when
the temperature ri ses to the desi red val ue. The
reverse acti on can be obtai ned by a change i n the
contact posi ti ons.
GAUGE SNUBBERS
The i rregul ari ty of i mpul ses appl i ed to the
fl ui d power system by some pumps or ai r
compressors causes the gauge poi nter to osci l l ate
vi ol entl y. Thi s makes readi ng of the gauge not
onl y di ffi cul t but often i mpossi bl e. Pr essur e
osci l l ati ons and other sudden pressure changes
exi sti ng i n fl ui d power systems wi l l al so affect the
del i cate i nternal mechani sm of gauges and cause
ei ther damage to or compl ete destructi on of the
Figure 8-15.—Temperature switch with two types of sensing
elements. A. Bulb unit. B. Helix unit.
8-8
gauge. A pressure gauge snubber i s therefore
i nstal l ed i n the l i ne that l eads to the pressure
gauge.
The purpose of the snubber i s to dampen the
osci l l ati ons and thus provi de a steady readi ng and
protecti on for the gauge. The basi c components
of a snubber are the housi ng, fi tti ng assembl y wi th
a fi xed ori fi ce di ameter, and a pi n and pl unger
assembl y (fi g. 8-16). The snubbi ng acti on i s
obtai ned by meteri ng fl ui d through the snubber.
The fi tti ng assembl y ori fi ce restri cts the amount
of fl ui d that fl ows to the gauge, thereby snubbi ng
the force of a pressure surge. The pi n i s pushed
and pul l ed through the ori fi ce of the fi tti ng
assembl y by the pl unger, keepi ng i t cl ean and at
a uni form si ze.
Figure 8-16.—Pressure gauge snubber.
8-9
CHAPTER 9
RESERVOIRS, STRAINERS, FILTERS,
AND ACCUMULATORS
Fl ui d power systems must have a suffi ci ent
and conti nuous suppl y of uncontami nated fl ui d
to operate effi ci entl y. As stated i n chapter 3 and
emphasi zed throughout thi s manual , the fl ui d
must be kept free of al l forei gn matter.
Thi s chapter cover s hydr aul i c r eser voi r s,
var i ous types of str ai ner s and fi l ter s, and
accumul ators i nstal l ed i n fl ui d power systems.
RESERVOIRS
A hydraul i c system must have a reserve of
fl ui d i n addi ti on to that contai ned i n the pumps,
actuators, pi pes, and other components of the
system. Thi s reserve fl ui d must be readi l y avai l abl e
to make up l osses of fl ui d from the system, to
make up for compr essi on of the fl ui d under
pr essur e, and to compensate for the l oss of
vol ume as the fl ui d cool s. Thi s extra fl ui d i s
contai ned i n a tank usual l y cal l ed a reservoi r. A
reservoi r may someti mes be referred to as a sump
tank, servi ce tank, operati ng tank, suppl y tank,
or base tank.
I n addi ti on to provi di ng storage for the reserve
fl ui d needed for the system, the reservoi r acts as
a radi ator for di ssi pati ng heat from the fl ui d and
as a settl i ng tank wher e heavy par ti cl es of
contami nati on may settl e out of the fl ui d and
remai n harml essl y on the bottom unti l removed
by cl eani ng or fl ushi ng of the reservoi r. Al so, the
reservoi r al l ows entrai ned ai r to separate from the
fl ui d.
Most reservoi rs have a capped openi ng for
fi l l i ng, an ai r vent, an oi l l evel i ndi cator or di p
sti ck, a return l i ne connecti on, a pump i nl et or
sucti on l i ne connecti on, a drai n l i ne connecti on,
and a drai n pl ug (fi g. 9-1). The i nsi de of the
reservoi r general l y wi l l have baffl es to prevent
excessi ve sl oshi ng of the fl ui d and to put a
parti ti on between the fl ui d return l i ne and the
pump sucti on or i nl et l i ne. The parti ti on forces
the returni ng fl ui d to travel farther around the
tank before bei ng drawn back i nto the acti ve
Figure 9-1.—Nonpressurized reservoir (ground or ship
installation).
system through the pump i nl et l i ne. Thi s ai ds i n
settl i ng the contami nati on and separati ng the ai r
from the fl ui d.
Large reservoi rs are desi rabl e for cool i ng. A
l arge reservoi r al so reduces reci rcul ati on whi ch
hel ps settl e contami nati on and separate ai r. As
a ‘‘thumb rul e,” the i deal reservoi r shoul d be two
to three ti mes the pump output per mi nute.
However, due to space l i mi tati ons i n mobi l e and
aerospace systems, the benefi ts of a l arge reservoi r
may have to be sacri fi ced. But, they must be l arge
enough to accommodate thermal expansi on of the
fl ui d and changes i n fl ui d l evel due to system
operati on. Reservoi rs are of two general types—
nonpressuri zed and pressuri zed.
NONPRESSURIZED RESERVOIRS
Hydr aul i c systems desi gned to oper ate
equi pment at or near sea l evel are normal l y
equi pped wi th nonpressuri zed reservoi rs. Thi s
i ncl udes the hydraul i c systems of ground and shi p
9-1
i nstal l ati ons. A typi cal reservoi r for use wi th
ground and shi p i nstal l ati ons i s shown i n fi gure
9-1. Thi s type of reservoi r i s made of hot rol l ed
steel pl ates and has wel ded seams. The ends extend
bel ow the bottom of the reservoi r and serve as
supports. The bottom of the reservoi r i s convex,
and a drai n pl ug i s i ncorporated at the l owest
poi nt.
Nonpressuri zed reservoi rs are al so used i n
sever al tr anspor t-, patr ol -, and uti l i ty-type
ai rcraft. These ai rcraft are not desi gned for vi ol ent
maneuvers and, i n some cases, do not fl y at hi gh
al ti tude. Those ai rcraft that have nonpressuri zed
reservoi rs i nstal l ed and that fl y at hi gh al ti tudes
have the reservoi rs i nstal l ed wi thi n a pressuri zed
area. (Hi gh al ti tude i n thi s si tuati on means an
al ti tude where atmospheri c pressure i s i nadequate
to mai ntai n suffi ci ent fl ow of fl ui d to the
hydraul i c pumps.)
Most nonpressuri zed ai rcraft reservoi rs are
constructed i n a cyl i ndri cal shape (fi g. 9-2). The
outer housi ng i s manufactured from a strong
corrosi on-resi stant metal . Fi l ter el ements are
normal l y i nstal l ed i nternal l y wi thi n the reservoi r
to cl ean returni ng system hydraul i c fl ui d. Some
of the ol der ai rcraft have a fi l ter bypass val ve
i nstal l ed to al l ow fl ui d to bypass the fi l ter i f the
fi l ter becomes cl ogged. Reservoi rs that are fi l l ed
by pouri ng fl ui d di rectl y i nto them have a fi l l er
(fi nger) strai ner assembl y i nstal l ed i n the fi l l er wel l
to strai n out i mpuri ti es as the fl ui d enters the
reservoi r.
Figure 9-2.—Nonpressurized aircraft reservoir.
The quanti ty of fl ui d i n the r eser voi r i s
i ndi cated by ei ther a gl ass tube, a di recti ng gauge,
or a fl oat-type rod, whi ch i s vi si bl e through a
transparent dome i nstal l ed on the reservoi r.
PRESSURIZED RESERVOIRS
A pressuri zed reservoi r i s requi red i n hydraul i c
systems where atmospheri c pressure i s i nsuffi ci ent
to mai ntai n a net posi ti ve sucti on head (NPSH)
to the pump. There are two common types of
pr essur i zed r eser voi r s—fl ui d-pr essur i zed and
ai r -pr essur i zed.
Fluid-Pressurized Reservoir
Some ai rcraft hydraul i c systems use fl ui d
pr essur e for pr essur i zi ng the r eser voi r . The
reservoi r shown i n fi gure 9-3 i s of thi s type. Thi s
r eser voi r i s di vi ded i nto two chamber s by a
fl oati ng pi ston. The pi ston i s forced downward
i n the reservoi r by a compressi on spri ng wi thi n
the pressuri zi ng cyl i nder and by system pressure
enteri ng the pressuri zi ng port of the cyl i nder.
The pressuri zi ng port i s connected di rectl y to
the pressure l i ne. When the system i s pressuri zed,
pressure enters the pressure port, thus pressuri zi ng
the reservoi r. Thi s pressuri zes the pump sucti on
l i ne and the reservoi r return l i ne to the same
pr essur e.
The reservoi r shown i n fi gure 9-3 has fi ve
por ts—pump sucti on, r etur n, pr essur i zi ng,
overboard drai n, and bl eed. Fl ui d i s suppl i ed to
the pump through the pump sucti on port. Fl ui d
returns to the reservoi r from the system through
the return port. Pressure from the pump enters
the pressuri zi ng cyl i nder i n the top of the reservoi r
through the pressuri zi ng port. The overboard
drai n port i s used to drai n the reservoi r whi l e
performi ng mai ntenance, and the bl eed port i s
used as an ai d when servi ci ng the reservoi r.
Air-Pressurized Reservoirs
Ai r-pressuri zed reservoi rs, such as the one
shown i n fi gure 9-4, are currentl y used i n many
hi gh-performance naval ai rcraft. The reservoi r i s
cyl i ndri cal i n shape and has a pi ston i nstal l ed
i nternal l y to separate the ai r and fl ui d chambers.
Ai r pressure i s usual l y provi ded by engi ne bl eed
ai r. The pi ston rod end protrudes through the
reservoi r end cap and i ndi cates the fl ui d quanti ty.
The quanti ty i ndi cati on may be seen by i nspecti ng
the di stance the pi ston rod protrudes from the
reservoi r end cap. The reservoi r i s provi ded wi th
9-2
Figure 9-3.—Typical fluid-pressurized reservoir.
threaded openi ngs for connecti ng fi tti ngs and
components. Fi gure 9-4 shows several components
i nstal l ed i n l i nes l eadi ng to and from the reservoi r;
however, thi s may not be the case i n actual
i nstal l ati on. The ai r rel i ef val ve, bl eeder val ve, and
soon, may rei nstal l ed di rectl y on the reservoi r.
Because the reservoi r i s pressuri zed, i t can
normal l y be i nstal l ed at any al ti tude and sti l l
mai ntai n a posi ti ve fl ow of fl ui d to the pump.
Figure 9-4.—Air-pressurized reservoir.
Some ai r-pressuri zed reservoi rs al so have
di rect contact of fl ui d to gas. These reservoi rs are
i nstal l ed i n l arge systems and may be cyl i ndri cal
or rectangul ar i n shape. They contai n an oi l l evel
i ndi cator, a pump i nl et or sucti on l i ne connecti on,
a return l i ne, a gas pressuri zati on and venti ng
connecti on, and a drai n l i ne connecti on or a drai n
pl ug. These reservoi rs are pressuri zed by ai r from
the shi p’s servi ce ai r system or ni trogen banks.
These reservoi rs are found on board ai rcraft
carri ers and submari nes.
ACCUMULATORS
An accumul ator i s a pressure storage reservoi r
i n whi ch hydraul i c fl ui d i s stored under pressure
from an external source. The storage of fl ui d
under pressure serves several purposes i n hydraul i c
systems.
I n some hydraul i c systems i t i s necessary to
mai ntai n the system pressure wi thi n a speci fi c
pressure range for l ong peri ods of ti me. I t i s very
di ffi cul t to mai ntai n a cl osed system wi thout some
l eakage, ei ther external or i nternal . Even a smal l
l eak can cause a decrease i n pressure. By usi ng
an accumul ator, l eakage can be compensated for
9-3
Figure 9-5.–Cross-section view of a piston-type accumulator with a tailrod.
9-4
and the system pressure can be mai ntai ned wi thi n
an acceptabl e range for l ong peri ods of ti me.
Accumul ator s al so compensate for ther mal
expansi on and contracti on of the l i qui d due to
vari ati ons i n temperature.
A l i qui d, fl owi ng at a hi gh vel oci ty i n a pi pe
wi l l cr eate a backwar d sur ge when stopped
suddenl y by the cl osi ng of a val ve. Thi s sudden
stoppage causes i nstantaneous pressures two to
three ti mes the operati ng pressure of the system.
These pressures, or shocks, produce objecti onal
noi se and vi brati ons whi ch can cause consi derabl e
damage to pi pi ng, fi tti ngs, and components. The
i ncorporati on of an accumul ator enabl es such
shocks and surges to be absorbed or cushi oned
by the entrapped gas, thereby reduci ng thei r
effects. The accumul ator al so dampens pressure
surges caused by pul sati ng del i very from the
pump.
Ther e ar e ti mes when hydr aul i c systems
requi re l arge vol umes of l i qui d for short peri ods
of ti me. Thi s i s due to ei ther the operati on of l arge
cyl i nders or the necessi ty of operati ng two or more
ci rcui ts si mul taneousl y. I t i s not economi cal to
i nstal l a pump of such l arge capaci ty i n the system
for onl y i ntermi ttent usage, parti cul arl y i f there
i s suffi ci ent ti me duri ng the worki ng cycl e for an
accumul ator to store up enough l i qui d to ai d the
pump duri ng these peak demands.
The energy stored i n accumul ators maybe al so
used to actuate hydraul i cal l y operated uni ts i f
normal hydraul i c system fai l ure occurs.
Four types of accumul ators used i n Navy
hydraul i c systems are as fol l ows:
1. Pi ston type
2. Bag or bl adder type
3. Di rect-contact gas-to-fl ui d type
4. Di aphragm type
PISTON-TYPE ACCUMULATORS
Pi s ton -ty pe accu mu l ator s con s i s t of a
cyl i ndri cal body cal l ed a barrel , cl osures on each
end cal l ed heads, and an i nternal pi ston. The
pi ston may be fi tted wi th a tai l rod, whi ch extends
through one end of the cyl i nder (fi g. 9-5), or i t
may not have a tai l rod at al l (fi g. 9-6). I n the l atter
case, i t i s r efer r ed to as a fl oati ng pi ston.
Hydraul i c fl ui d i s pumped i nto one end of the
cyl i nder and the pi ston i s forced toward the
opposi te end of the cyl i nder agai nst a capti ve
Figure 9-6.—Floating piston-type accumulator.
9-5
charge of ai r or an i nert gas such as ni trogen.
Someti mes the amount of ai r charge i s l i mi ted to
the vol ume wi thi n the accumul ator ; other
i nstal l ati ons may use separate ai r fl asks whi ch are
pi ped to the ai r si de of the accumul ator. Pi ston
accumul ators may be mounted i n any posi ti on.
The gas porti on of the accumul ator may be
l ocated on ei ther si de of the pi ston. For exampl e,
i n submari ne hydraul i c systems wi th tai l rod
pi stons, the gas i s usual l y on the bottom and the
fl ui d on top; i n surface shi ps wi th fl oati ng pi stons,
the gas i s usual l y on the top. The ori entati on of
the accumul ator and the type of accumul ator are
based upon such cri teri a as avai l abl e space,
mai ntenance accessi bi l i ty, si ze, need for external
moni tor i ng of the pi ston’s l ocati on (tai l r od
i ndi cati on), contami nati on tol erance, seal l i fe, and
safety. The purpose of the pi ston seal s i s to keep
the fl ui d and the gas separate.
Usual l y, tai l rod accumul ators use two pi ston
seal s, one for the ai r si de and one for the oi l si de,
wi th the space between them vented to the
atmosphere through a hol e dri l l ed the l ength of
the tai l rod. When the pi ston seal s fai l i n thi s type
of accumul ator, ai r or oi l l eakage i s apparent.
However , seal fai l ur e i n fl oati ng pi ston or
nonvented tai l rod accumul ators wi l l not be as
obvi ous. Therefore, more frequent attenti on to
venti ng or drai ni ng the ai r si de i s necessary. An
i ndi cati on of wor n and l eaki ng seal s can be
detected by the presence of si gni fi cant amounts
of oi l i n the ai r si de.
BLADDER-TYPE ACCUMULATORS
Bl adder- or bag-type accumul ators consi st of
a shel l or case wi th a fl exi bl e bl adder i nsi de the
shel l . See fi gure 9-7. The bl adder i s l arger i n
di ameter at the top (near the ai r val ve) and
gradual l y tapers to a smal l er di ameter at the
bottom. The syntheti c rubber i s thi nner at the top
of the bl adder than at the bottom. The operati on
of the accumul ator i s based on Barl ow’s formul a
for hoop stress, whi ch states: “The stress i n a
ci rcl e i s di rectl y proporti onal to i ts di ameter and
wal l thi ckness.” Thi s means that for a certai n
thi ckness, a l arge di ameter ci rcl e wi l l stretch faster
than a smal l di ameter ci rcl e; or for a certai n
di ameter, a thi n wal l hoop wi l l stretch faster than
a thi ck wal l hoop. Thus, the bl adder wi l l stretch
around the top at i ts l argest di ameter and thi nnest
wal l thi ckness, and then wi l l gradual l y stretch
downward and push i tsel f outward agai nst the
wal l s of the shel l . As a resul t, the bl adder i s
capabl e of squeezi ng out al l the l i qui d from.
Figure 9-7.—Bladder-type accumulator.
the accumul ator . Consequentl y, the bl adder
accumul ator has a very hi gh vol umetri c effi ci ency.
I n other wor ds, thi s type of accumul ator i s
capabl e of suppl yi ng a l arge percentage of the
stored fl ui d to do work.
The bl adder i s precharged wi th ai r or i nert gas
to a speci fi ed pressure. Fl ui d i s then forced i nto
the area around the bl adder, further compressi ng
the gas i n the bl adder. Thi s type of accumul ator
has the advantage that as l ong as the bl adder i s
i ntact there i s no exposure of fl ui d to the gas
charge and therefore l ess danger of an expl osi on.
DIRECT-CONTACT GAS-TO-FLUID
ACCUMULATORS
Di r ect-contact gas-to-fl ui d accumul ator s
general l y are used i n very l arge i nstal l ati ons where
i t woul d be very expensi ve to requi re a pi ston-
or bl adder -type accumul ator . Thi s type of
accumul ator consi sts of a ful l y encl osed cyl i nder,
mounted i n a verti cal posi ti on, contai ni ng a l i qui d
9-6
port on the bottom and a pneumati c chargi ng port
at the top (fi g. 9-8). Thi s type of accumul ator i s
used i n some ai rpl ane el evator hydraul i c systems
where several thousand gal l ons of fl ui d are needed
to suppl ement the output of the hydraul i c pumps
for rai si ng the el evator pl atform. The di rect
contact between the ai r or gas and the hydraul i c
fl ui d tends to entrai n excessi ve amounts of gas
i n the fl ui d. For thi s r eason, di r ect contact
accumul ators are general l y not used for pressures
over 1200 psi . The use of thi s type of accumul ator
wi th fl ammabl e fl ui d i s dangerous because there
i s a possi bi l i ty of expl osi on i f any oxygen i s
present i n the gas, and pressure surges generate
excessi ve heat. For thi s reason, safety fl ui ds are
used i n thi s type of i nstal l ati on.
DIAPHRAGM ACCUMULATORS
The di aphr agm-type accumul ator i s con-
structed i n two hal ves whi ch are ei ther screwed
or bol ted together. A syntheti c rubber di aphragm
i s i nstal l ed between both hal ves, maki ng two
chambers. Two threaded openi ngs exi st i n the
assembl ed component. The openi ng at the top,
as shown i n fi gure 9-9, contai ns a screen di sc
whi ch prevents the di aphragm from extrudi ng
thr ough the thr eaded openi ng when system
pressure i s depl eted, thus rupturi ng the di a-
phragm. On some desi gns the screen i s repl aced
by a button-type protector fastened to the center
Figure 9-8.—Direct-contact gas-to-fluid accumulator.
Figure 9-9.—Diaphragm accumulator.
of the di aphragm. An ai r val ve for pressuri zi ng
the accumul ator i s l ocated i n the gas chamber end
of the sphere, and the l i qui d port to the hydraul i c
system i s l ocated on the opposi te end of the
sphere. Thi s accumul ator operates i n a manner
si mi l ar to that of the bl adder-type accumul ator.
FILTRATION
You have l earned that mai ntai ni ng hydraul i c
fl ui ds wi thi n al l owabl e l i mi ts i s cr uci al to
the care and protecti on of hydraul i c equi pment.
Whi l e every effort must be made to prevent
contami nants from enteri ng the system, con-
tami nants whi ch do fi nd thei r way i nto the system
must be removed. Fi l trati on devi ces are i nstal l ed
at key poi nts i n fl ui d power systems to remove
the contami nants that enter the system al ong
wi th those that are generated duri ng normal
operati ons.
Fi l trati on devi ces for hydraul i c systems di ffer
somewhat from those of pneumati c systems.
Therefore, they wi l l be di scussed separatel y.
The fi l teri ng devi ces used i n hydraul i c systems
are commonl y referred to as strai ners and fi l ters.
Si nce they share a common functi on, the terms
strainer and filter are often used i nterchangeabl y.
As a general rul e, devi ces used to remove l arge
parti cl es of forei gn matter from hydraul i c fl ui ds
are referred to as strai ners, whi l e those used to
remove the smal l est parti cl es are referred to as
fi l ters.
9-7
STRAINERS
Strai ners are used pri mari l y to catch onl y very
l arge parti cl es and wi l l be found i n appl i cati ons
where thi s type of protecti on i s requi red. Most
hydraul i c systems have a strai ner i n the reservoi r
at the i nl et to the sucti on l i ne of the pump. A
strai ner i s used i n l i eu of a fi l ter to reduce i ts
chance of bei ng cl ogged and starvi ng the pump.
However, si nce thi s strai ner i s l ocated i n the
reservoi r, i ts mai ntenance i s frequentl y negl ected.
When heavy di rt and sl udge accumul ate on the
sucti on strai ner, the pump soon begi ns to cavi tate.
Pump fai l ure fol l ows qui ckl y.
FILTERS
Th e mos t common dev i ce i n s tal l ed i n
hydraul i c systems to prevent forei gn parti cl es and
contami nati on from remai ni ng i n the system are
referred to as fi l ters. They may be l ocated i n the
reservoi r, i n the return l i ne, i n the pressure l i ne,
or i n any other l ocati on i n the system where the
desi gner of the system deci des they are needed to
safeguard the system agai nst i mpuri ti es.
Fi l ter s ar e cl assi fi ed as ful l fl ow and
proporti onal or parti al fl ow. I n the ful l -fl ow type
of fi l ter, al l the fl ui d that enters the uni t passes
thr ough the fi l ter i ng el ement, whi l e i n the
proporti onal -fl ow type, onl y a porti on of the fl ui d
passes through the el ement.
Full-Flow Filter
The ful l -fl ow fi l ter provi des a posi ti ve fi l teri ng
acti on; however , i t offer s r esi stance to fl ow,
parti cul arl y when the el ement becomes di rty.
Hydraul i c fl ui d enters the fi l ter through the i nl et
port i n the body and fl ows around the fi l ter
el ement i nsi de the fi l ter bowl . Fi l teri ng takes pl ace
as the fl ui d passes through the fi l teri ng el ement
and i nto the hol l ow core, l eavi ng the di rt and
i mpuri ti es on the outsi de of the fi l ter el ement.
The fi l tered fl ui d then fl ows from the hol l ow
core through the outl et port and i nto the system
(fi g. 9-10).
Some ful l -fl ow fi l ters are equi pped wi th a
contami nati on i ndi cator (fi g. 9-11). These
i ndi cators, al so known as di fferenti al pressure
i ndi cators, are avai l abl e i n three types—gauge
i ndi cators, mechani cal pop-up i ndi cators, and
el ectri cal wi th mechani cal pop-up i ndi cators. As
contami nati ng par ti cl es col l ect on the fi l ter
el ement, the di fferenti al pressure across the
el ement i ncreases. I n some i nstal l ati ons usi ng
Figure 9-10.—Full-flow hydraulic filter.
gauges as i ndi cators, the di fferenti al pressure must
be obtai ned by subtracti ng the readi ngs of two
gauges l ocated somewhere al ong the fi l ter i nl et
and outl et pi pi ng. For pop-up i ndi cators, when
the i ncrease i n pressure reaches a speci fi c val ue,
an i ndi cator (usual l y i n the fi l ter head) pops out,
si gni fyi ng that the fi l ter must be cl eaned or
repl aced. A l ow-temperature l ockout feature i s
i nstal l ed i n most pop-up types of contami nati on
i ndi cators to el i mi nate the possi bi l i ty of fal se
i ndi cati ons due to col d weather because the
pressure di fferenti al may be much hi gher wi th a
col d fl ui d due to i ncreased vi scosi ty.
Fi l ter el ements used i n fi l ters that have a
contami nati on i ndi cator ar e not nor mal l y
r emoved or r epl aced unti l the i ndi cator i s
actuated. Thi s decreases the possi bi l i ty of system
contami nati on fr om outsi de sour ces due to
unnecessary handl i ng.
The use of the nonbypassi ng type of fi l ter
el i mi nates the possi bi l i ty of contami nated fl ui d
bypassi ng the fi l ter el ement and contami nati ng the
enti re system. Thi s type of fi l ter wi l l mi ni mi ze the
necessi ty for fl ushi ng the enti re system and l essen
the possi bi l i ty of fai l ure of pumps and other
components i n the system.
A bypass rel i ef val ve i s i nstal l ed i n some fi l ters.
The bypass rel i ef val ve al l ows the fl ui d to bypass
the fi l ter el ement and pass di rectl y through the
outl et port i n the event that the fi l ter el ement
becomes cl ogged. These fi l ters may or may not
be equi pped wi th the contami nati on i ndi cator.
Fi gur e 9-11 shows a ful l -fl ow bypass-type
9-8
Figure 9-11.—Full-flow bypass-type hydraulic filter (with contamination indicator).
9-9
hydraul i c fi l ter wi th a contami nati on i ndi cator.
Fi gur e 9-12 shows a ful l -fl ow bypass-type
hydraul i c fi l ter wi thout a contami nati on i ndi cator.
A fi l ter bypass i ndi cator provi des a posi ti ve
i ndi cati on, when acti vated, that fl ui d i s bypassi ng
the fi l ter el ement by fl owi ng through the bypass
rel i ef val ve. Thi s i ndi cator shoul d not be confused
wi th the pop-up di fferenti al pressure i ndi cator
previ ousl y di scussed whi ch si mpl y moni tors the
pressure across the el ement. Wi th the bypass
i ndi cator, a si mi l ar pop-up button i s often used
to si gnal that mai ntenance i s needed. However,
the bypass i ndi cators further si gnal that, as a
resul t of the hi gh di fferenti al pressures across the
el ement, an i nternal bypass rel i ef val ve has l i fted
and some of the fl ui d i s bypassi ng the el ement.
I denti fi cati on of the type of i nstal l ed i ndi cator
can be obtai ned from fi l ter mani fol d drawi ngs or
rel ated equi pment manual s. Both a fl ui d bypass
i ndi cator and a di fferenti al pressure i ndi cator or
gauge may be i nstal l ed on the same fi l ter
assembl y.
As wi th di fferenti al pressure i ndi cators, bypass
rel i ef i ndi cators can be acti vated by pressure
surges, such as may devel op duri ng col d starts or
r api d system pr essur i zati on. On some r el i ef
i ndi cators, the pop-up button, or whatever si gnal
devi ce i s used, wi l l return to a normal posi ti on
when the surge passes and pressure i s reduced.
Other rel i ef i ndi cators may conti nue to i ndi cate
a bypass condi ti on unti l they are manual l y reset.
Figure 9-12.—Full-flow bypass-type hydraulic filter.
Befor e cor r ecti ve acti on i s taken based on
i ndi cator readi ngs, the bypass condi ti on shoul d
be veri fi ed at normal operati ng temperature and
fl ow condi ti ons by attempti ng to r eset the
i ndi cator.
Proportional-Flow Filter
Thi s type of fi l ter operates on the venturi
pri nci pl e. (See gl ossary.) As the fl ui d passes
through the venturi throat a drop i n pressure i s
created at the narrowest poi nt. See fi gure 9-13.
A porti on of the fl ui d fl owi ng toward and away
from the throat of the venturi fl ows through the
passages i nto the body of the fi l ter. A fl ui d
passage connects the hol l ow core of the fi l ter wi th
the throat of the venturi . Thus, the l ow-pressure
area at the throat of the venturi causes the fl ui d
under pressure i n the body of the fi l ter to fl ow
through the fi l ter el ement, through the hol l ow
core, i nto the l ow-pressure area, and then return
to the system. Al though onl y a porti on of the fl ui d
i s fi l tered duri ng each cycl e, constant reci rcul ati on
through the system wi l l eventual l y cause al l the
fl ui d to pass through the fi l ter el ement.
Figure 9-13.Proportional-flow filter.
9-10
Filter Rating
Fi l ters are rated i n several ways—absol ute,
mean, and nomi nal . The absol ute fi l trati on rati ng
i s the di ameter i n mi crons of the l argest spheri cal
parti cl e that wi l l pass through the fi l ter under a
certai n test condi ti on. Thi s rati ng i s an i ndi cati on
of the l argest openi ng i n the fi l ter el ement. The
mean fi l trati on rati ng i s the measurement of the
average si ze of the openi ngs i n the fi l ter el ement.
The nomi nal fi l trati on rati ng i s usual l y i nterpreted
to mean the si ze of the smal l est parti cl es of whi ch
90 percent wi l l be trapped i n the fi l ter at each pass
through the fi l ter.
Filter Elements
Fi l ter el ements general l y may be di vi ded i nto
two cl asses—surface and depth. Surface fi l ters are
made of cl osel y woven fabri c or treated paper wi th
a uni form pore si ze. Fl ui d fl ows through the pores
of the fi l ter mater i al and contami nants ar e
stopped on the fi l ter ’s sur face. Thi s type of
el ement i s desi gned to prevent the passage of a
hi gh percentage of sol i ds of a speci fi c si ze. Depth
fi l ters, on the other hand, are composed of l ayers
of fabri c or fi bers whi ch provi de many tortuous
paths for the fl ui d to fl ow through. The pores or
passages must be l arger than the rated si ze of the
fi l ter i f parti cl es are to be retai ned i n the depth
of the medi a r ather than on the sur face.
Consequentl y, there i s a stati sti cal probabi l i ty
that a rather l arge parti cl e may pass through a
depth-type fi l ter.
Fi l ter el ements may be of the 5-mi cron, woven
mesh, mi croni c, porous metal , or magneti c type.
The mi cr oni c and 5-mi cr on el ements have
noncl eanabl e fi l ter medi a and are di sposed of
when they are removed. Porous metal , woven
mesh, and magneti c fi l ter el ements are usual l y
desi gned to be cl eaned and reused.
5-MICRON NONCLEANABLE FILTER
ELEMENTS.— The most common 5-mi cron fi l ter
medi um i s composed of organi c and i norgani c
fi bers i ntegral l y bonded by epoxy resi n and faced
wi th a metal l i c mesh upstream and downstream
for protecti on and added mechani cal strength.
Fi l ters of thi s type are not to be cl eaned under
any ci rcumstances and wi l l be marked Di sposabl e
or Noncl eanabl e.
Another 5-mi cron fi l ter medi um uses l ayers
of very fi ne stai nl ess-steel fi bers drawn i nto a
random but control l ed matri x. Fi l ter el ements
Figure 9-14.—Cross-section of a stainless steel hydraulic filter
element.
of thi s mater i al may be ei ther cl eanabl e or
noncl eanabl e, dependi ng upon thei r constructi on.
WOVEN WI RE-MESH FI LTER ELE-
MENTS.— Fi l ters of thi s type are made of
stai nl ess steel and are general l y rated as 15 or 25
mi cron (absol ute). Fi gure 9-14 shows a magni fi ed
cross secti on of a woven wi re-mesh fi l ter el ement.
Thi s type of fi l ter i s reusabl e.
MICRONIC HYDRAULIC FILTER ELE-
MENT.— The term micronic is deri ved from the
word micron. I t coul d be used to descri be any
fi l ter el ement; however, through usage, thi s term
has become associ ated wi th a speci fi c fi l ter wi th
a fi l teri ng el ement made of a speci al l y treated
cel l ul ose paper (fi g. 9-15). The fi l ter shown i n
fi gure 9-10 i s a typi cal mi croni c hydraul i c fi l ter.
Thi s fi l ter i s desi gned to remove 99 percent of al l
parti cl es 10 to 20 mi crons i n di ameter or l arger.
Figure 9-15.—Micronic filter element.
9-11
&
The repl aceabl e el ement i s made of speci al l y
treated convol uti ons (wri nkl es) to i ncrease i ts
di rt-hol di ng capaci ty. The el ement i s noncl eanabl e
and shoul d be repl aced wi th a new fi l ter el ement
duri ng mai ntenance i nspecti ons.
MAGNETIC FILTERS.— Some hydraul i c
systems have magneti c fi l ters i nstal l ed at strategi c
poi nts. Fi l ters of thi s type are desi gned pri mari l y
to trap any ferrous parti cl es that may be i n the
system.
PNEUMATIC GASES
Cl ean, dry gas i s requi red for the effi ci ent
oper ati on of pneumati c systems. Due to the
normal condi ti ons of the atmosphere, free ai r
sel dom sati sfi es these requi rements adequatel y.
The atmosphere contai ns both dust and i mpuri ti es
i n vari ous amounts and a substanti al amount of
moi sture i n vapor form.
Sol i ds, such as dust, rust, or pi pe scal e i n
pneumati c systems, may l ead to excessi ve wear
and fai l ure of components and, i n some cases,
may prevent the pneumati c devi ces from operati ng.
Moi sture i s al so very harmful to the system. I t
washes l ubri cati on from movi ng parts, thereby
ai di ng corrosi on and causi ng excessi ve wear of
components. Moi sture wi l l al so settl e i n l ow spots
i n the system and freeze duri ng col d weather,
causi ng a stoppage of the system or ruptured l i nes.
An i deal fi l ter woul d remove al l di rt and
moi stur e fr om a pneumati c system wi thout
causi ng a pressure drop i n the process. Obvi ousl y,
such a condi ti on can onl y be appr oached; i t
cannot be attai ned.
Removal of Solids
The r emoval of sol i ds fr om the gas of
pneumati c systems i s general l y done by screeni ng
(fi l teri ng), centri fugal force, or a combi nati on of
the two. I n some cases, the removal of moi sture
i s done i n conjuncti on wi th the removal of sol i ds.
Some types of ai r fi l ters are si mi l ar i n desi gn
and operati on to the hydraul i c fi l ters di scussed
earl i er. Some materi al s used i n the constructi on
of el ements for ai r fi l ters are woven screen wi re,
steel wool , fi ber gl ass, and fel t fabri cs. El ements
made of these materi al s are often used i n the uni t
that fi l ters the ai r as i t enters the compressor.
Por ous metal and cer ami c el ements ar e
commonl y used i n fi l ters that are i nstal l ed i n the
compressed ai r suppl y l i nes. These fi l ters al so use
a control l ed ai r path to provi de some fi l trati on.
I nternal desi gn causes the ai r to fl ow i n a ci rcul ar
path wi thi n the bowl (fi g. 9-16). Heavy parti cl es
and water dropl ets are thrown out of the ai rstream
and drop to the bottom of the bowl . The ai r then
fl ows through the fi l ter el ement, whi ch fi l ters out
most of the smal l er parti cl es. Thi s type of fi l ter
i s desi gned wi th a drai n val ve at the bottom of
the bowl . When the val ve i s opened wi th ai r
pressure i n the system, the accumul ati on of sol i ds
and water wi l l be bl own out of the bowl .
An ai r fi l ter that uses movi ng mechani cal
devi ces as an el ement i s i l l ustrated i n fi gure 9-17.
As compressed ai r passes through the fi l ter the
force revol ves a number of mul ti -bl ade rotors at
hi gh speed. Moi sture and di rt are caught on the
bl ades of the rotors. The whi rl i ng bl ades hurl the
i mpuri ti es by centri fugal force to the outer ri ms
of the rotors and to the i nner wal l s of the fi l ter
housi ng. Here, contami nati ng matter i s out of the
ai rstream and fal l s to the bottom of the bowl
where i t must be drai ned at peri odi c i nterval s.
Removal of Moisture
The removal of moi sture from compressed ai r
i s i mportant for a compressed ai r system. I f ai r
at atmospheri c pressure, even at a very l ow rel ati ve
humi di ty, i s compressed to 3000 or 4500 psi , i t
becomes satur ated wi th water vapor . Some
moi sture i s removed by the i ntercool ers and
after cool er s (see gl ossar y). Al so, ai r fl asks,
recei vers, and banks are provi ded wi th l ow poi nt
drai ns to al l ow peri odi c drai ni ng of any col l ected
moi sture. However, many uses of ai r requi re ai r
wi th an even smal l er moi sture content than can
be obtai ned through these methods. Moi sture i n
Figure 9-16.—Air filter.
9-12
Figure 9-17.—Air filter using rotating blades as element.
ai r l i nes can create probl ems whi ch are potenti al l y
hazardous, such as the freezi ng of val ves and
control s. Thi s can occur, for exampl e, i f very hi gh
pressure ai r i s throttl ed to a very l ow pressure at
a hi gh fl ow rate. The venturi effect of the throttl ed
ai r produces very l ow temperatures whi ch wi l l
cause any moi sture i n the ai r to freeze i nto i ce.
Thi s makes the val ve (especi al l y an automati c
val ve) ei ther ver y di ffi cul t or i mpossi bl e to
operate. Al so, dropl ets of water can cause seri ous
water hammer i n an ai r system whi ch has hi gh
pressure and a hi gh fl ow rate and can cause
corrosi on, rust, and di l uti on of l ubri cants wi thi n
the system. For these r easons, ai r dr i er s
(dehydrator, air purifier, and desiccator are al l
terms used by di fferent manufacturers to i denti fy
these components) are used to dry the compressed
ai r. Some water removal devi ces are si mi l ar i n
desi gn and operati on to the fi l ters shown i n fi gures
9-16 and 9-17. Two basi c types of ai r dehydrators
are the refri gerated-type and the desi ccant-type.
REFRIGERATED-TYPE DEHYDRATORS.–
I n refri gerated-type dehydrators, compressed ai r
i s passed over a set of refri gerated cool i ng coi l s. Oi l
and moi sture vapors condense from the ai r and can
be col l ected and removed vi a a l ow poi nt drai n.
DESICCANT-TYPE DEHYDRATORS.– A
desi ccant i s a chemi cal substance wi th a hi gh
capaci ty to absorb water or moi sture. I t al so has
the capaci ty to gi ve off that moi sture so that the
desi ccant can be reused.
Some compressed ai r system dehydrators use
a pai r of desi ccant towers (fl asks ful l of desi ccant).
One i s kept i n servi ce dehydrati ng the compressed
ai r, whi l e the other one i s bei ng reacti vated. A
desi ccant tower i s normal l y reacti vated by passi ng
dry, heated ai r through i t i n the di recti on opposi te
the normal dehydrati on ai rfl ow.
Another type of chemi cal dri er i s shown i n
fi gure 9-18. Thi s uni t consi sts of the housi ng, a
cartri dge contai ni ng a chemi cal agent, a fi l ter
(si ntered bronze), and a spri ng. Vari ous types of
absorbent chemi cal s are used by the di fferent
manufactur er s i n the constr ucti on of the
cartri dges. To ensure proper fi l teri ng, the ai r must
pass through the dri er i n the proper di recti on. The
correct di recti on of fl ow i s i ndi cated by an arrow
and the word FLOW pri nted on the si de of the
cartri dge.
Figure 9-18.–Chemical drier.
9-13
CHAPTER 10
ACTUATORS
One of the outstandi ng features of fl ui d power
systems i s that force, generated by the power
suppl y, contr ol l ed and di r ected by sui tabl e
val vi ng, and transported by l i nes, can be con-
verted wi th ease to al most any ki nd of mechani cal
moti on desi red at the very pl ace i t i s needed.
Ei ther l i near (strai ght l i ne) or rotary moti on can
be obtai ned by usi ng a sui tabl e actuati ng devi ce.
An actuator i s a devi ce that converts fl ui d
power i nto mechani cal for ce and moti on.
Cyl i nders, motors, and turbi nes are the most
common types of actuati ng devi ces used i n fl ui d
power systems.
Thi s chapter descr i bes var i ous types of
actuati ng cyl i nder s and thei r appl i cati ons,
di fferent types of fl ui d motors, and turbi nes used
i n fl ui d power systems.
CYLINDERS
An actuati ng cyl i nder i s a devi ce that converts
fl ui d power to l i near, or strai ght l i ne, force and
moti on. Si nce l i near moti on i s a back-and-forth
moti on al ong a strai ght l i ne, thi s type of actuator
i s someti mes referred to as a reci procati ng, or
l i near, motor. The cyl i nder consi sts of a ram or
pi ston operati ng wi thi n a cyl i ndri cal bore. Actuat-
i ng cyl i nders may be i nstal l ed so that the cyl i nder
i s anchored to a stati onary structure and the ram
or pi ston i s attached to the mechani sm to be
operated, or the pi ston or ram may be anchored
to the stati onar y str uctur e and the cyl i nder
attached to the mechani sm to be operated.
Actuati ng cyl i nder s for pneumati c and
hydr aul i c systems ar e si mi l ar i n desi gn and
operati on. Some of the vari ati ons of ram- and
pi ston-type actuati ng cyl i nders are descri bed i n
the fol l owi ng paragraphs.
RAM-TYPE CYLINDERS
The terms ram and piston ar e often used
i nterchangeabl y. However, a ram-type cyl i nder i s
usual l y consi dered one i n whi ch the cross-secti onal
area of the pi ston rod i s more than one-hal f the
cross-secti onal area of the movabl e el ement. I n
most actuati ng cyl i nders of thi s type, the rod and
the movabl e el ement have equal areas. Thi s type
of movabl e el ement i s frequentl y referred to as
a pl unger.
The ram-type actuator i s used pri mari l y to
push rather than to pul l . Some appl i cati ons
requi re si mpl y a fl at surface on the external part
of the ram for pushi ng or l i fti ng the uni t to
be operated. Other appl i cati ons requi re some
mechani cal means of attachment, such as a cl evi s
or eyebol t. The desi gn of ram-type cyl i nders vari es
i n many other respects to sati sfy the requi rements
of di fferent appl i cati ons.
Single-Acting Ram
The si ngl e-acti ng ram (fi g. 10-1) appl i es force
i n onl y one di recti on. The fl ui d that i s di rected
i nto the cyl i nder di spl aces the ram and forces i t
outward, l i fti ng the object pl aced on i t. Si nce there
Figure 10-1.—Single-acting ram-type actuating cylinder.
10-1
i s no provi si on for retracti ng the ram by fl ui d
power, when fl ui d pressure i s rel eased, ei ther the
wei ght of the object or some mechani cal means,
such as a spri ng, forces the ram back i nto the
cyl i nder. Thi s for ces the fl ui d back to the
reservoi r.
The si ngl e-acti ng ram-type actuati ng cyl i nder
i s often used i n the hydraul i c jack. The el evators
used to move ai rcraft to and from the fl i ght deck
and hangar deck on ai rcraft carri ers al so use
cyl i nders of thi s type. I n these el evators, the
cyl i nders are i nstal l ed hori zontal l y and operate the
el evator through a seri es of cabl es and sheaves.
Fl ui d pressure forces the ram outward and l i fts
the el evator. When fl ui d pressure i s rel eased from
the ram, the wei ght of the el evator forces the ram
back i nto the cyl i nder. Thi s, i n turn, forces the
fl ui d back i nto the reservoi r.
Double-Acting Ram
A doubl e-acti ng ram-type cyl i nder i s i l l ustrated
i n fi gure 10-2. I n thi s cyl i nder, both strokes of
the ram are produced by pressuri zed fl ui d. There
are two fl ui d ports, one at or near each end of
the cyl i nder. Fl ui d under pressure i s di rected to
the cl osed end of the cyl i nder to extend the ram
and appl y force. To retract the ram and reduce
the force, fl ui d i s di rected to the opposi te end of
the cyl i nder.
A four -way di r ecti onal contr ol val ve i s
normal l y used to control the doubl e-acti ng ram.
When the val ve i s posi ti oned to extend the ram,
pressuri zed fl ui d enters port A (fi g. 10-2), acts on
Figure 10-2.—Double-acting ram-type actuating cylinder.
the bottom surface of the ram, and forces the ram
outward. Fl ui d above the ram l i p i s free to fl ow
out of port B, through the control val ve, and to
the return l i ne i n hydraul i c systems or to the
atmosphere i n pneumati c systems.
Normal l y, the pressure of the fl ui d i s the same
for ei ther stroke of the ram. Recal l from chapter
2 that force i s equal to pressure ti mes area
(F= PA). Noti ce the di fference of the areas upon
whi ch the pr essur e acts i n fi gur e 10-2. The
pressure acts agai nst the l arge surface area on the
bottom of the ram duri ng the extensi on stroke,
duri ng whi ch ti me the ram appl i es force. Si nce
the ram does not requi re a l arge force duri ng the
retracti on stroke, pressure acti ng on the smal l area
on the top surface of the ram l i p provi des the
necessary force to retract the ram.
Telescoping Rams
Fi gure 10-3 shows a tel escopi ng ram-type
actuati ng cyl i nder. A seri es of rams i s nested i n
the tel escopi ng assembl y. Wi th the excepti on of
the smal l est ram, each ram i s hol l ow and serves
as the cyl i nder housi ng for the next smal l er ram.
The ram assembl y i s contai ned i n the mai n
cyl i nder assembl y, whi ch al so provi des the fl ui d
ports. Al though the assembl y requi res a smal l
space wi th al l the rams retracted, the tel escopi ng
acti on of the assembl y provi des a rel ati vel y l ong
stroke when the rams are extended.
An excel l ent exampl e of the appl i cati on of thi s
type of cyl i nder i s i n the dump truck. I t i s used
to l i ft the forward end of the truck bed and dump
the l oad. Duri ng the l i fti ng operati on, the greatest
force i s requi red for the i ni ti al l i fti ng of the l oad.
Figure 10-3.—Telescoping ram-type actuating cylinder.
10-2
As the l oad i s l i fted and begi ns to dump, the
requi red force becomes l ess and l ess unti l the l oad
i s compl etel y dumped. Duri ng the rai se cycl e,
pressuri zed fl ui d enters the cyl i nder through port
A (fi g. 10-3) and acts on the bottom surface of
al l three rams. Ram 1 has a l arger surface area
and, therefore, provi des the greater force for the
i ni ti al l oad, As ram 1 reaches the end of i ts stroke
and the requi red force i s decreased, ram 2 moves,
provi di ng the smal l er force needed to conti nue
rai si ng the l oad. When ram 2 compl etes i ts stroke,
a sti l l smal l er force i s requi red. Ram 3 then moves
outward to fi ni sh rai si ng and dumpi ng the l oad.
Some tel escopi ng ram-type cyl i nders are of the
si ngl e-acti ng type. Li ke the si ngl e-acti ng ram
di scussed previ ousl y, these tel escopi ng ram-type
cyl i nders are retracted by gravi ty or mechani cal
force. Some hydraul i c jacks are equi pped wi th
tel escopi ng rams. Such jacks are used to l i ft
vehi cl es wi th l ow cl earances to the requi red hei ght.
Other types of tel escopi ng cyl i nders, l i ke the
one i l l ustrated i n fi gure 10-3, are of the doubl e-
acti ng type. I n thi s type, fl ui d pressure i s used for
both the extensi on and retracti on strokes. A four-
way di recti onal control val ve i s commonl y used
to control the operati on of the doubl e-acti ng type.
Note the smal l passages i n the wal l s of rams 1 and
2. They provi de a path for fl ui d to fl ow to and
from the chambers above the l i ps of rams 2 and
3. Duri ng the extensi on stroke, return fl ui d fl ows
through these passages and out of the cyl i nder
thr ough por t B. I t then fl ows thr ough the
di recti onal control val ve to the return l i ne or
reservoi r.
To retract the rams, fl ui d under pressure i s
di rected i nto the cyl i nder through port B and acts
agai nst the top surface areas of al l three ram l i ps.
Thi s forces the rams to the retracted posi ti on. The
di spl aced fl ui d from the opposi te si de of the rams
fl ows out of the cyl i nder through port A, through
the di recti onal control val ve to the return l i ne or
reservoi r.
Dual Rams
A dual ram assembl y consi sts of a si ngl e ram
wi th a cyl i nder at ei ther end (fi g. 10-4). Fl ui d can
be di rected to ei ther cyl i nder, forci ng the ram to
move i n the opposi te di r ecti on. The r am i s
connected through mechani cal l i nkage to the uni t
to be operated. A four-way di recti onal control
val ve i s commonl y used to operate the dual ram.
When the control val ve i s posi ti oned to di rect fl ui d
under pressure to one of the cyl i nders (l et’s say
the l eft one), the ram i s forced to the ri ght. Thi s
Figure 10-4.-Dual ram actuating assembly.
acti on di spl aces the fl ui d i n the opposi te cyl i nder.
The di spl aced fl ui d fl ows back thr ough the
di recti onal control val ve to the return l i ne or
r es er v oi r i n h y dr au l i c s y s tems or to th e
atmosphere i n pneumati c systems.
Dual ram actuati ng assembl i es are used i n
steeri ng systems of most shi ps. I n some systems,
one assembl y i s used to actuate the rudder i n ei ther
di recti on; whi l e i n other systems, two assembl i es
are used for the same purpose.
PISTON-TYPE CYLINDERS
An actuati ng cyl i nder i n whi ch the cross-
secti onal area of the pi ston i s l ess than one-hal f
the cross-secti onal area of the movabl e el ement
i s referred to as a pi ston-type cyl i nder. Thi s type
of cyl i nder i s normal l y used for appl i cati ons that
requi re both push and pul l functi ons. The pi ston-
type cyl i nder i s the most common type used i n
fl ui d power systems.
The essenti al parts of a pi ston-type cyl i nder
are a cyl i ndri cal barrel , a pi ston and rod, end caps,
and sui tabl e seal s. The end caps are attached to
the ends of the barrel . These end caps usual l y
contai n the fl ui d ports. The end cap on the rod
end contai ns a hol e for the pi ston rod to pass
through. Sui tabl e seal s are used between the hol e
and the pi ston rod to keep fl ui d from l eaki ng out
and to keep di rt and other contami nants from
enteri ng the barrel . The opposi te end cap of most
cyl i nders i s provi ded wi th a fi tti ng for securi ng
the actuati ng cyl i nder to some structure. Thi s end
cap i s referred to as the anchor end cap.
The pi ston rod may extend through ei ther or
both ends of the cyl i nder. The extended end of
the rod i s normal l y threaded so that some type
of mechani cal connector, such as an eyebol t or
a cl evi s, and a l ocknut can be attached. Thi s
threaded connecti on of the rod and mechani cal
connector provi des for adjustment between the
rod and the uni t to be actuated. After the correct
10-3
adjustment i s made, the l ocknut i s ti ghtened
agai nst the connector to prevent the connector
from turni ng. The other end of the connector i s
attached, ei ther di rectl y or through addi ti onal
mechani cal l i nkage, to the uni t to be actuated.
I n order to sati sfy the many requi rements of
fl ui d power systems, pi ston-type cyl i nders are
avai l abl e i n vari ous desi gns.
Single-Acting Cylinder
The si ngl e-acti ng pi ston-type cyl i nder i s si mi l ar
i n desi gn and oper ati on to the si ngl e-acti ng
ram-type cyl i nder. The si ngl e-acti ng pi ston-type
cyl i nder uses fl ui d pressure to provi de the force
i n one di recti on, and spri ng tensi on, gravi ty,
compressed ai r, or ni trogen i s used to provi de the
force i n the opposi te di recti on. Fi gure 10-5 shows
a si ngl e-acti ng, spr i ng-l oaded, pi ston-type
actuati ng cyl i nder. I n thi s cyl i nder the spri ng i s
l ocated on the rod si de of the pi ston. I n some
spri ng-l oaded cyl i nders the spri ng i s l ocated on
the bl ank si de, and the fl ui d port i s on the rod
si de of the cyl i nder.
A thr ee-way di r ecti onal contr ol val ve i s
normal l y used to control the operati on of the
si ngl e-acti ng pi ston-type cyl i nder. To extend the
pi ston r od, fl ui d under pr essur e i s di r ected
through the port i nto the cyl i nder (fi g. 10-5). Thi s
pressure acts on the surface area of the bl ank si de
of the pi ston and forces the pi ston to the ri ght.
Thi s acti on moves the rod to the ri ght, through
the end of the cyl i nder, thus movi ng the actuated
uni t i n one di recti on. Duri ng thi s acti on, the
spri ng i s compressed between the rod si de of the
pi ston and the end of the cyl i nder. The l ength of
the stroke depends upon the physi cal l i mi ts wi thi n
the cyl i nder and the requi red movement of the
actuated uni t.
To retract the pi ston rod, the di recti onal
control val ve i s moved to the opposi te worki ng
posi ti on, whi ch r el eases the pr essur e i n the
Figure 10-5.—Single-acting, spring-loaded, piston-type
actuating cylinder.
cyl i nder. The spri ng tensi on forces the pi ston to
the l eft, retracti ng the pi ston rod and movi ng the
actuated uni t i n the opposi te di recti on. The fl ui d
i s free to fl ow from the cyl i nder through the port,
back through the control val ve to the return l i ne
i n hydraul i c systems or to the atmosphere i n
pneumati c systems.
The end of the cyl i nder opposi te the fl ui d port
i s vented to the atmosphere. Thi s prevents ai r
from bei ng trapped i n thi s area. Any trapped ai r
woul d compress duri ng the extensi on stroke,
creati ng excess pressure on the rod si de of the
pi ston. Thi s woul d cause sl uggi sh movement of
the pi ston and coul d eventual l y cause a compl ete
l ock, preventi ng the fl ui d pressure from movi ng
the pi ston.
The spri ng-l oaded cyl i nder i s used i n arresti ng
gear systems on some model s of carri er ai rcraft.
To rai se (retract) the arresti ng hook, fl ui d pressure
i s di rected through the arresti ng hook control
val ve to the rod si de of the cyl i nder. Thi s force
moves the pi ston, whi ch, through the rod and
mechani cal l i nkage, retracts the arresti ng hook.
The arresti ng hook extends when fl ui d pressure
i s rel eased from the rod si de of the cyl i nder,
al l owi ng the spri ng to expand.
Leakage between the cyl i nder wal l and pi ston
i s prevented by adequate seal s. The pi ston i n
fi gure 10-5 contai ns V-ri ng seal s.
Double-Acting Cylinder
Most pi ston-type actuati ng cyl i nder s ar e
doubl e-acti ng, whi ch means that fl ui d under
pressure can be appl i ed to ei ther si de of the pi ston
to appl y force and provi de movement.
One desi gn of the doubl e-acti ng cyl i nder i s
shown i n fi gure 10-6. Thi s cyl i nder contai ns one
pi ston and pi ston rod assembl y. The stroke of the
pi ston and pi ston rod assembl y i n ei ther di recti on
i s produced by fl ui d pressure. The two fl ui d ports,
one near each end of the cyl i nder, al ternate as i nl et
and outl et ports, dependi ng on the di recti on of
Figure 10-6.-Doub1e-acting piston-type actuating cylinder.
10-4
fl ow from the di recti onal control val ve. Thi s
actuator (fi g. 10-6) i s referred to as an unbal anced
actuati ng cyl i nder because there i s a di fference i n
the effecti ve worki ng areas on the two si des of
the pi ston. Therefore, thi s type of cyl i nder i s
normal l y i nstal l ed so that the bl ank si de of the
pi ston carri es the greater l oad; that i s, the cyl i nder
carri es the greater l oad duri ng the pi ston rod
extensi on stroke.
A four -way di r ecti onal contr ol val ve i s
normal l y used to control the operati on of thi s type
of cyl i nder. The val ve can be posi ti oned to di rect
fl ui d under pressure to ei ther end of the cyl i nder
and al l ow the di spl aced fl ui d to fl ow from the
opposi te end of the cyl i nder through the control
val ve to the return l i ne i n hydraul i c systems or
to the atmosphere i n pneumati c systems.
There are appl i cati ons where i t i s necessary to
move two mechani sms at the same ti me. I n thi s
case, doubl e-acti ng pi ston-type actuati ng cyl i nders
of di fferent desi gns are requi red. See fi gures 10-7
and 10-8.
Fi gure 10-7 shows a three-port, doubl e-acti ng
pi ston-type actuati ng cyl i nder . Thi s actuator
contai ns two pi stons and pi ston rod assembl i es.
Fl ui d i s di rected through port A by a four-way
di recti onal control val ve and moves the pi stons
outward, thus movi ng the mechani sms attached
to the pi stons’ rods. The fl ui d on the rod si de of
each pi ston i s forced out of the cyl i nder through
ports B and C, whi ch are connected by a common
l i ne to the di recti onal control val ve. The di spl aced
fl ui d then fl ows through the control val ve to the
return l i ne or to the atmosphere.
When fl ui d under pressure i s di rected i nto the
cyl i nder through ports B and C, the two pi stons
move i nwar d, al so movi ng the mechani sms
attached to them. Fl ui d between the two pi stons
i s free to fl ow from the cyl i nder through port A
and through the control val ve to the return l i ne
or to the atmosphere.
The actuati ng cyl i nder shown i n fi gure 10-8
i s a doubl e-acti ng bal anced type. The pi ston rod
extends through the pi ston and out through both
ends of the cyl i nder. One or both ends of the
Figure 10-7.—Three-port, double-acting actuating cylinder.
Figure 10-8.-Balanced, double-acting piston-type actuating
cylinder.
pi ston rod may be attached to a mechani sm to
be operated. I n ei ther case, the cyl i nder provi des
equal areas on each si de of the pi ston. Therefore,
the same amount of fl ui d and force i s used to
move the pi ston a certai n di stance i n ei ther
di recti on.
Tandem Cylinders
A tandem actuati ng cyl i nder consi sts of two
or more cyl i nders arranged one behi nd the other
but desi gned as a si ngl e uni t (fi g. 10-9). Thi s type
of actuati ng cyl i nder i s used i n appl i cati ons that
requi re two or more i ndependent systems; for
exampl e, power-operated fl i ght control systems
i n naval ai rcraft.
The fl ow of fl ui d to and fr om the two
chambers of the tandem actuati ng cyl i nder i s
provi ded from two i ndependent hydraul i c systems
and i s control l ed by two sl i di ng spool di recti onal
control val ves. I n some appl i cati ons, the control
val ves and the actuati ng cyl i nder are two separate
uni ts. I n some uni ts, the pi stons (l ands) of the two
sl i di ng spool s are machi ned on one common shaft.
I n other appl i cati ons, the val ves and the actuator
ar e di r ectl y connected i n one compact uni t.
Al though the two control val ves are hydraul i cal l y
i ndependent, they are i nterconnected mechani cal l y.
I n other uni ts, the two sl i di ng spool s are connected
through mechani cal l i nkages wi th a synchroni zi ng
rod. I n ei ther case, the movement of the two
sl i di ng spool s i s synchroni zed, thus equal i zi ng the
Figure 10-9.—Tandem actuating cylinder.
10-5
fl ow of fl ui d to and from the two chambers of
the actuati ng cyl i nder.
Si n ce th e two con tr ol v al v es oper ate
i ndependentl y of each other as far as hydraul i c
pressure i s concerned, fai l ure of ei ther hydraul i c
system does not render the actuator i noperati ve.
Fai l ure of one system does reduce the output force
by one-hal f; however, thi s force i s suffi ci ent to
permi t operati on of the actuator.
RACK-AND-PINION PISTON-TYPE
ROTARY ACTUATORS
The r ack-and-pi ni on-type actuator s, al so
referred to as l i mi ted rotati on cyl i nders, of the
si ngl e or mul ti pl e, bi di recti onal pi ston are used
for turni ng, posi ti oni ng, steeri ng, openi ng and
cl osi ng, swi ngi ng, or any other mechani cal
functi on i nvol vi ng restri cted rotati on. Fi gure
10-10 shows a typi cal rack-and-pi ni on doubl e-
pi ston actuator.
The actuator consi sts of a body and two
reci procati ng pi stons wi th an i ntegral rack for
rotati ng the shaft mounted i n rol l er or journal
beari ngs. The shaft and beari ngs are l ocated i n
a central posi ti on and are encl osed wi th a beari ng
cap. The pi stons, one on each si de of the rack,
are encl osed i n cyl i nders machi ned or sl eeved i nto
the body. The body i s encl osed wi th end caps and
stati c seal s to pr event exter nal l eakage of
pressuri zed fl ui d.
Onl y a few of the many appl i cati ons of
actuati ng cyl i nders were di scussed i n the precedi ng
paragraphs. Fi gure 10-11 shows addi ti onal types
of force and moti on appl i cati ons.
I n addi ti on to i ts versati l i ty, the cyl i nder-type
actuator i s pr obabl y the most tr oubl e-fr ee
component of fl ui d power systems. However, i t
i s very i mportant that the cyl i nder, mechani cal
l i nkage, and actuati ng uni t are correctl y al i gned.
Any mi sal i gnment wi l l cause excessi ve wear of the
pi ston, pi ston r od, and seal s. Al so, pr oper
adjustment between the pi ston r od and the
actuati ng uni t must be mai ntai ned.
Figure 10-10.—Rack-and-pinion double-piston rotary actuator.
10-6
Figure 10-11.—Applications of actuating cylinders.
10-7
MOTORS
control l ed by ei ther a four-way di recti onal control
val ve or a vari abl e-di spl acement pump.
A fl ui d power motor i s a devi ce that converts
fl ui d power energy to rotary moti on and force.
The functi on of a motor i s opposi te that of a
pump. However, the desi gn and operati on of
fl ui d power motors are very si mi l ar to pumps.
Therefore, a thorough knowl edge of the pumps
descri bed i n chapter 4 wi l l hel p you understand
the operati on of fl ui d power motors.
Motor s have many uses i n fl ui d power
systems. I n hydraul i c power dri ves, pumps and
motors are combi ned wi th sui tabl e l i nes and val ves
to for m hydr aul i c tr ansmi ssi ons. The pump,
commonl y referred to as the A-end, i s dri ven by
some outsi de source, such as an el ectri c motor.
The pump del i vers fl ui d to the motor. The motor,
referred to as the B-end, i s actuated by thi s fl ow,
and through mechani cal l i nkage conveys rotary
moti on and force to the work. Thi s type of power
dri ve i s used to operate (trai n and el evate) many
of the Navy’s guns and r ock et l auncher s.
Hydraul i c motors are commonl y used to operate
the wi ng fl aps, radomes, and radar equi pment i n
ai rcraft. Ai r motors are used to dri ve pneumati c
tool s. Ai r motors are al so used i n mi ssi l es to
convert the ki neti c energy of compressed gas i nto
el ectr i cal power , or to dr i ve the pump of a
hydraul i c system.
Fl ui d motors may be ei ther fi xed or vari abl e
di spl acement. Fi xed-di spl acement motors provi de
constant torque and vari abl e speed. The speed i s
vari ed by control l i ng the amount of i nput fl ow.
Vari abl e-di spl acement motors are constructed so
that the worki ng rel ati onshi p of the i nternal parts
can be var i ed to change di spl acement. The
major i ty of the motor s used i n fl ui d power
systems are the fi xed-di spl acement type.
Al though most fl ui d power motors are capabl e
of provi di ng rotary moti on i n ei ther di recti on,
some appl i cati ons requi re rotati on i n onl y one
di recti on. I n these appl i cati ons, one port of the
motor i s connnected to the system pressure l i ne and
the other port to the return l i ne or exhausted to
the atmosphere. The fl ow of fl ui d to the motor
i s control l ed by a fl ow control val ve, a two-way
di r ecti onal contr ol val ve, or by star ti ng and
stoppi ng the power suppl y. The speed of the
motor may be control l ed by varyi ng the rate of
fl ui d fl ow to i t.
I n most fl ui d power systems, the motor i s
requi red to provi de actuati on power i n ei ther
di recti on. I n these appl i cati ons the ports are
referred to as worki ng ports, al ternati ng as i nl et
and outl et ports. The fl ow to the motor i s usual l y
Fl ui d motors are usual l y cl assi fi ed accordi ng
to the type of i nternal el ement, whi ch i s di rectl y
actuated by the fl ow. The most common types of
el ements are the gear, the vane, and the pi ston,
AU three of these types are adaptabl e for hydraul i c
systems, whi l e onl y the vane type i s used i n
pneumati c systems.
GEAR-TYPE MOTORS
The spur, hel i cal , and herri ngbone desi gn
gears are used i n gear-type motors. The motors
use external -type gears, as di scussed i n chapter 4.
The operati on of a gear-type motor i s shown
i n fi gure 10-12. Both gears are dri ven gears;
however, onl y one i s connected to the output
shaft. As fl ui d under pressure enters chamber A,
i t takes the path of l east resi stance and fl ows
around the i nsi de surface of the housi ng, forci ng
the gear s to r otate as i ndi cated. The fl ow
conti nues through the outl et port to the return.
Thi s rotary moti on of the gears i s transmi tted
through the attached shaft to the work uni t.
The motor shown i n fi gure 10-12 i s operati ng
i n one di recti on; however, the gear-type motor i s
capabl e of provi di ng rotary moti on i n ei ther
di recti on. To reverse the di recti on of rotati on, the
ports may be al ternated as i nl et and outl et. When
fl ui d i s di rected through the outl et port (fi g. 10-12)
i nto chamber B, the gears rotate i n the opposi te
di recti on.
Figure 10-12.—Gear-type motor.
10-8
VANE-TYPE MOTORS
A typi cal vane-type ai r motor i s shown i n
fi gur e 10-13. Thi s par ti cul ar motor pr ovi des
r otati on i n onl y one di r ecti on. The r otati ng
el ement i s a sl otted rotor whi ch i s mounted on
a dri ve shaft. Each sl ot of the rotor i s fi tted wi th
a freel y sl i di ng rectangul ar vane. The rotor and
vanes are encl osed i n the housi ng, the i nner
surface of whi ch i s offset from the dri ve shaft axi s.
When the rotor i s i n moti on, the vanes tend to
sl i de outwar d due to centr i fugal for ce. The
di stance the vanes sl i de i s l i mi ted by the shape of
the rotor housi ng.
Thi s motor oper ates on the pr i nci pl e of
di fferenti al areas. When compressed ai r i s di rected
i nto the i nl et port, i ts pressure i s exerted equal l y
i n al l di recti ons. Si nce area A (fi g. 10-13) i s greater
than area B, the rotor wi l l turn countercl ockwi se.
Each vane, i n turn, assumes the No. 1 and No.
2 posi ti ons and the rotor turns conti nuousl y. The
potenti al energy of the compressed ai r i s thus
converted i nto ki neti c energy i n the form of rotary
moti on and force. The ai r at reduced pressure i s
exhausted to the atmosphere. The shaft of the
motor i s connected to the uni t to be actuated.
Many vane-type motor s ar e capabl e of
provi di ng rotati on i n ei ther di recti on. A motor
of thi s desi gn i s shown i n fi gure 10-14. Thi s motor
operates on the same pri nci pl e as the vane motor
shown i n fi gure 10-13. The two ports may be
al ternatel y used as i nl et and outl et, thus provi di ng
rotati on i n ei ther di recti on. Note the spri ngs i n
the sl ots of the rotor. Thei r purpose i s to hol d the
vanes agai nst the housi ng duri ng the i ni ti al
Figure 10-13.—Vane-type air motor.
Figure 10-14.—Vane-type motor.
starti ng of the motor, si nce centri fugal force does
not exi st unti l the rotor begi ns to rotate.
PISTON-TYPE MOTORS
Pi ston-type motors are the most commonl y
used i n hydraul i c systems. They are basi cal l y the
same as hydraul i c pumps except they are used to
convert hydraul i c energy i nto mechani cal (rotary)
ener gy.
The most commonl y used hydraul i c motor i s
the fi xed-di spl acement pi ston type. Some
equi pment uses a vari abl e-di spl acement pi ston
motor where very wi de speed ranges are desi red.
Al though some pi ston-type motor s ar e
control l ed by di recti onal control val ves, they
are often used i n combi nati on wi th vari abl e-
di spl acement pumps. Thi s pump-motor combi na-
ti on i s used to provi de a transfer of power between
a dri vi ng el ement and a dri ven el ement. Some
appl i cati ons for whi ch hydraul i c transmi ssi ons
may be used are speed reducers, vari abl e speed
dri ves, constant speed or constant torque dri ves,
and tor que conver ter s. Some advantages of
hydraul i c transmi ssi on of power over mechani cal
transmi ssi on of power are as fol l ows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Qui ck, easy speed adjustment over a wi de
range whi l e the power source i s operati ng
at a constant (most effi ci ent) speed. Rapi d,
smooth accel erati on or decel erati on.
Control over maxi mum torque and power.
Cushi oni ng effect to reduce shock l oads.
Smoother reversal of moti on.
10-9
Radial-Piston Motor conti nues as l ong as fl ui d under pressure enters
the cyl i nders.
The radi al -pi ston motor operates i n reverse of
the radi al -pi ston pump. I n the radi al -pi ston pump,
as the cyl i nder bl ock rotates, the pi stons press
agai nst the rotor and are forced i n and out of the
cyl i nders, thereby recei vi ng fl ui d and pushi ng i t
out i nto the system. I n the radi al motor, fl ui d i s
forced i nto the cyl i nders and dri ves the pi stons
outward. The pi stons pushi ng agai nst the rotor
cause the cyl i nder bl ock to rotate.
The operati on of a radi al -pi ston motor i s
shown i n fi gure 10-15. Thi s motor i s shown wi th
three pi stons for si mpl i ci ty. Normal l y i t contai ns
seven or ni ne pi stons. When l i qui d i s forced i nto
the cyl i nder bore contai ni ng pi ston 1, the pi ston
moves outwar d si nce the l i qui d cannot be
compressed. Thi s causes the cyl i nder to rotate i n
a cl ockwi se di recti on. As the force acti ng on
pi ston 1 causes the cyl i nder bl ock to rotate, pi ston
2 starts to rotate and approach the posi ti on of
pi ston 3. (Note that the di stance between the
cyl i nder bl ock and the reacti on ri ng of the rotor
gets progressi vel y shorter on the top and ri ght hal f
of the rotor.)
As pi ston 2 rotates, i t i s forced i nward and,
i n turn, forces the fl ui d out of the cyl i nder. Si nce
there i s l i ttl e or no pressure on thi s si de of the
pi ntl e val ve, the pi ston i s easi l y moved i n by i ts
contact wi th the reacti on ri ng of the rotor. The
fl ui d i s easi l y forced out of the cyl i nder and back
to the reservoi r or to the i nl et si de of the pump.
As the pi ston moves past the mi dpoi nt, or past
the shortest di stance between the cyl i nder bl ock
and the rotor, i t enters the pressure si de of the
pi ntl e val ve and fl ui d i s forced i nto the cyl i nder.
Pi ston 3 then becomes the pushi ng pi ston and i n
tur n r otates the cyl i nder bl ock. Thi s acti on
Figure 10-15.—Operation of a radial-piston motor.
The di recti on of rotati on of the motor (fi g.
10-15) i s changed by reversi ng the fl ow of fl ui d
to i t. Admi tti ng fl ui d under pressure on the top
si de of the pi ntl e val ve forces pi ston 3 out of the
cyl i nder bl ock. Thi s causes the cyl i nder to rotate
i n the countercl ockwi se di recti on.
Axial-Piston Motor
The vari abl e-stroke axi al -pi ston pump i s often
used as a part of vari abl e speed gear, such as
el ectr ohydr aul i c anchor wi ndl asses, cr anes,
wi nches, and the power transmi tti ng uni t i n
el ectrohydraul i c steeri ng engi nes. I n those cases,
the ti l ti ng box i s arranged so that i t maybe ti l ted
i n ei ther di recti on. Thus i t maybe used to transmi t
bi di recti onal power hydraul i cal l y to pi stons or
rams, or i t may be used to dri ve a hydraul i c
motor. I n the l atter use, the pump i s the A-end
of the vari abl e speed gear and the hydraul i c motor
i s the B-end.
The B-end of the hydr aul i c uni t of the
hydraul i c speed gear i s exactl y the same as the
A-end of the vari abl e-stroke pump menti oned
previ ousl y. However, i t general l y does not have
a var i abl e-str oke featur e. The ti l ti ng box i s
i nstal l ed at a permanentl y fi xed angl e. Thus, the
B-end becomes a fi xed-stroke axi al -pi ston motor.
Fi gure 10-16 i l l ustrates an axi al -pi ston hydraul i c
speed gear wi th the A-end and B-end as a si ngl e
uni t. I t i s used i n turrets for trai n and el evati on
dri vi ng uni ts. For el ectrohydraul i c wi nches and
cranes, the A-end and B-end are i n separate
housi ngs connected by hydraul i c pi pi ng.
Hydraul i c fl ui d i ntroduced under pressure to
a cyl i nder (B-end) tri es to push the pi ston out of
the cyl i nder. I n bei ng pushed out, the pi ston,
through i ts pi ston rod, wi l l seek the poi nt of
greatest di stance between the top of the cyl i nder
and the socket ri ng. The resul tant pressure of the
pi ston agai nst the socket ri ng wi l l cause the
cyl i nder barrel and the socket ri ng to rotate. Thi s
acti on occurs duri ng the hal f revol uti on whi l e the
pi ston i s passi ng the i ntake port of the motor,
whi ch i s connected to the pressure port of the
pump. After the pi ston of the motor has taken
al l the hydraul i c fl ui d i t can from the pump, the
pi ston passes the val ve pl ate l and and starts to
di scharge oi l through the outl et ports of the motor
10-10
Figure 10-16.—Exploded view of a axial-piston hydraulic speed gear.
to the sucti on pi stons of the pump. The pump i s
constantl y putti ng pressure on one si de of the
motor and recei vi ng hydraul i c fl ui d from the other
si de. The fl ui d i s merel y ci rcul ated from pump
to motor and back agai n.
Both of the axi al -pi ston motors descri bed i n
thi s secti on may be operated i n ei ther di recti on.
The di recti on of rotati on i s control l ed by the
di recti on of fl ui d fl ow to the val ve pl ate. The
di r ecti on of fl ow may be i nstantl y r ever sed
wi thout damage to the motor.
TURBINES
Turbi nes are used i n pneumati c systems to
convert ki neti c energy of gases to mechani cal
ener gy. Tur bi nes ar e used to dr i ve el ectr i c
generators, to convert mechani cal energy i nto
el ectri cal energy, and to dri ve pumps to suppl y
fl ui d fl ow i n hydraul i c systems.
The basi c parts of a turbi ne are the rotor,
whi ch has bl ades projecti ng radi al l y from i ts
peri phery; and nozzl es, through whi ch the gas i s
expanded and di rected. The conversi on of ki neti c
energy to mechani cal energy occurs on the bl ades.
The basi c di sti ncti on between types of turbi nes
i s the manner i n whi ch the gas causes the turbi ne
rotor to move. When the rotor i s moved by a
di rect push or “i mpul se” from the gas i mpi ngi ng
upon the bl ades, the turbi ne i s sai d to be an
i mpul se turbi ne. When the rotor i s moved by force
of reacti on, the turbi ne i s sai d to be a reacti on
turbi ne.
Al though the di sti ncti on between i mpul se
turbi nes and reacti on turbi nes i s a useful one,
i t shoul d not be consi der ed as an absol ute
di sti ncti on i n real turbi nes. An i mpul se turbi ne
uses both the i mpul se of the gas j et and,
to a l esser extent, the reacti ve force that resul ts
when the curved bl ades cause the gas to change
di recti on. A reacti on turbi ne i s moved pri mari l y
by reacti ve force, but some moti on of the rotor
i s caused by the i mpact of the gas agai nst the
bl ades.
IMPULSE TURBINE
The i mpul se turbi ne consi sts essenti al l y of a
rotor mounted on a shaft that i s free to rotate i n
a set of beari ngs. The outer ri m of the rotor carri es
a set of curved bl ades, and the whol e assembl y
i s encl osed i n an ai rti ght case. Nozzl es di rect the
10-11
rapi dl y movi ng fl ui d agai nst the bl ades and turn
the rotor (fi g. 10-17).
REACTION TURBINE
The reacti on turbi ne, as the name i mpl i es, i s
turned by reacti ve force rather than by a di rect
push or i mpul se. I n reacti on turbi nes, there are
no nozzl es as such. I nstead, the bl ades that project
r adi al l y fr om the per i pher y of the r otor ar e
formed and mounted so that the spaces between
the bl ades have, i n cross secti on, the shape of
nozzl es. Si nce these bl ades are mounted on the
revol vi ng rotor, they are cal l ed movi ng bl ades.
Fi xed or stati onary bl ades of the same shape
as the movi ng bl ades (fi g. 10-18) are fastened to
the stator (casi ng) i n whi ch the rotor revol ves. The
fi xed bl ades gui de the gas i nto the movi ng bl ade
system and, si nce they are al so shaped and
mounted to provi de nozzl e-shaped spaces between
the bl ades, the freed bl ades al so act as nozzl es.
A reacti on turbi ne i s moved by three mai n
forces: (1) the reacti ve force produced on the
movi ng bl ades as the gas i ncreases i n vel oci ty as
i t expands through the nozzl e-shaped spaces
between the bl ades; (2) the reacti ve force produced
on the movi ng bl ades when the gas changes
di recti on; and (3) the push or i mpul se of the gas
i mpi ngi ng upon the bl ades. Thus, as previ ousl y
noted, a reacti on turbi ne i s moved pri mari l y by
reacti ve force but al so to some extent by di rect
i mpul se.
I mpul se and reacti on bl ades can be combi ned
to form an i mpul se-reacti on turbi ne. Thi s turbi ne
combi nes the rotati onal forces of the previ ousl y
descri bed turbi nes; that i s, i t deri ves i ts rotati on
from both the i mpul se of the gas stri ki ng the
turbi ne bl ades and the reacti ve force of the gas
changi ng di recti on.
Figure 10-17.—Impulse turbine. Figure 10-18.—Reaction turbine blading.
10-12
CHAPTER 11
PNEUMATICS
The word pneumatics i s a deri vati ve of the
Greek word pneuma, whi ch means ai r, wi nd, or
br eath. I t can be defi ned as that br anch of
engi neeri ng sci ence that pertai ns to gaseous
pr essur e and fl ow. As used i n thi s manual ,
pneumati cs i s the porti on of fl ui d power i n whi ch
compressed ai r, or other gas, i s used to transmi t
and control power to actuati ng mechani sms.
Thi s chapter di scusses the ori gi n of pneu-
mati cs. I t di scusses the characteri sti cs of gases and
compares them wi th those of l i qui ds. I t al so
expl ai ns factors whi ch affect the properti es of
gases, i denti fi es and expl ai ns the gas l aws, and
i denti fi es gases commonl y used i n pneumati cs and
thei r pressure ranges. I t al so di scusses hazards of
pneumati c gases, methods of control l i ng contami -
nati on, and safety precauti ons associ ated wi th
compressed gases.
DEVELOPMENT OF PNEUMATICS
There i s no record of man’s fi rst uses of ai r
to do work. Probabl y the earl i est uses were to
separate chaff from grai n and to move shi ps. One
of the fi rst pneumati c devi ces was the bl ow gun
used by pri mi ti ve man. I n the l atter part of the
ei ghteenth century, heated ai r was used to carry
the fi rst bal l oon al oft. The heated ai r, bei ng
l i ghter than the surroundi ng ai r, caused the
bal l oon to ri se.
Every age of man has wi tnessed the devel op-
ment of devi ces whi ch used ai r to do wor k.
However, man used ai r to do work l ong before
he understood i t.
Many of the pri nci pl es of hydraul i cs appl y to
pneumati cs. For exampl e, Pascal ’s l aw appl i es to
gases as wel l as l i qui ds. Al so, l i ke hydraul i cs, the
devel opment of pneumati cs depended on cl osel y
fi tted parts and the devel opment of gaskets and
packi ngs. Si nce the i nventi on of the ai r com-
pressor, pneumati cs has become a very rel i abl e
way to transmi t power.
Probabl y one of the most common uses of
pneumati c power i s i n the operati on of pneumati c
tool s. However , you shoul d under stand that
pneumati cs i s al so of great i mportance i n l arge
and compl ex systems such as the control s of vi tal
propul si on and weapon systems.
CHARACTERISTICS OF GASES
Recal l from chapter 1 that gas i s one of the
three states of matter. I t has characteri sti cs si mi l ar
to those of l i qui ds i n that i t has no defi ni te shape
but conforms to the shape of i ts contai ner and
readi l y transmi ts pressure.
Gases di ffer from l i qui ds i n that they have no
defi ni te vol ume. That i s, regardl ess of the si ze or
shape of the contai ni ng vessel , a gas wi l l
compl etel y fi l l i t. Gases are hi ghl y compressi bl e,
whi l e l i qui ds are onl y sl i ghtl y so. Al so, gases are
l i ghter than equal vol umes of l i qui ds, maki ng
gases l ess dense than l i qui ds.
DENSITY
Earl y experi ments were conducted concerni ng
the behavi or of ai r and si mi l ar gases. These
experi ments were conducted by sci enti sts such as
Boyl e and Charl es (di scussed l ater i n thi s chapter).
The resul ts of thei r experi ments i ndi cated that the
gases’ behavi or fol l ows the l aw known as the
ideal-gas law. I t states as fol l ows: For a given
weight of any gas, the product of the absolute
pressure and the volume occupied, divided by the
absolute temperature, is constant. I n equati on
form, i t i s expressed as fol l ows:
Equati on 11-1
For 1 pound of gas,
Equati on 11-2
11-1
The speci fi c vol ume (v) i s expressed i n cubi c feet
per pound.
For any wei ght of a gas thi s equati on maybe
modi fi ed as fol l ows:
W = wei ght of the gas i n pounds,
V = vol ume of W pounds of the gas i n cubi c feet.
The vol ume of 1 pound woul d then be V/W.
I f we substi tute thi s for v i n equati on 11-3, i t then
becomes
Sol vi ng equati on 11-4 for pressure,
I n chapter 2 we defi ned densi ty as the mass
per uni t vol ume. I n equati on 11-5,
represents densi ty. (Noti ce that thi s i s the reverse
of the speci fi c vol ume.) We can now say that
pressure i s equal to the densi ty of the gas ti mes
the gas constant ti mes the absol ute temperature
of the gas. (The gas constant vari es for di fferent
gases.) From thi s equati on we can show how
densi ty vari es wi th changes i n pressure and
temperature. Decreasi ng the vol ume, wi th the
wei ght of the gas and the temperature hel d
constant, causes the pressure to i ncrease.
NOTE: Duri ng the compressi on of the gas,
the temperature wi l l actual l y i ncrease; however,
the expl anati on i s beyond the scope of thi s text.
a decrease i n vol ume wi th the wei ght hel d constant
wi l l cause densi ty to i ncrease.
TEMPERATURE
As i ndi cated previ ousl y, temperature i s a
domi nant factor affecti ng the physi cal properti es
of gases. I t i s of parti cul ar concern i n cal cul ati ng
changes i n the states of gases.
Three temperature scal es are used extensi vel y
i n gas cal cul ati ons. They are the Cel si us (C), the
Fahrenhei t (F), and the Kel vi n (K) scal es. The
Cel si us (or centi grade) scal e i s constructed by
i denti fyi ng the freezi ng and boi l i ng poi nts of
water, under standard condi ti ons, as fi xed poi nts
of 0° and 100°, respecti vel y, wi th 100 equal
di vi si ons between. The Fahrenhei t scal e i denti fi es
32° as the freezi ng poi nt of water and 212° as the
boi l i ng poi nt, and has 180 equal di vi si ons
between. The Kel vi n scal e has i ts zero poi nt equal
to –273°C, or –460°F.
Absol ute zer o, one of the fundamental
constants of physi cs, i s commonl y used i n the
study of gases. I t i s usual l y expressed i n terms of
the Cel si us scal e. I f the heat energy of a gas
sampl e coul d be progressi vel y reduced, some
temperature shoul d be reached at whi ch the
moti on of the mol ecul es woul d cease enti rel y. I f
accuratel y determi ned, thi s temperature coul d
then be taken as a natural reference, or as a true
absol ute zero val ue.
Experi ments wi th hydrogen i ndi cated that i f
a gas were cool ed to –273.16°C (–273° for most
cal cul ati ons), al l mol ecul ar moti on woul d cease
and no addi ti onal heat coul d be extracted. Si nce
thi s i s the col dest temperature to whi ch an i deal
gas can be cool ed, i t i s consi dered to be absol ute
zero. Absol ute zero may be expressed as 0°K,
–273°C, or –459.69° F (–460° F for mos t
cal cul ati ons).
When you work wi th temperatures, al ways be
sure whi ch system of measurement i s bei ng used
and how to convert from one to another. The
conversi on formul as are shown i n fi gure 11-1. For
purposes of cal cul ati ons, the Ranki ne (R) scal e
i l l ustrated i n fi gure 11-1 i s commonl y used to
11-2
Figure 11-1.-Comparison of Kelvin, Celsius, Fahrenheit, and Rankine temperature.
convert Fahrenhei t to absol ute. For Fahrenhei t
readi ngs above zero, 460° i s added. Thus, 72°F
equal s 460° pl us 72°, or 532° absol ute (532°R).
I f the Fahrenhei t readi ng i s bel ow zero, i t i s
subtracted from 460°. Thus, -40°F equal s 460°
mi nus 40°, or 420° absol ute (420°R).
The Kel vi n and Cel si us scal es ar e used
i nternati onal l y i n sci enti fi c measurements; there-
fore, some techni cal manual s may use these scal es
i n di recti ons and operati ng i nstructi ons. The
Fahrenhei t scal e i s commonl y used i n the Uni ted
States; therefore, i t i s used i n most areas of thi s
manual .
PRESSURE
We defi ned pressure i n chapter 2 as force per
uni t area. Remember, l i qui ds exert pressure on
al l surfaces wi th whi ch they come i n contact.
Gases, because of thei r abi l i ty to compl etel y fi l l
contai ner s, exer t pr essur e on al l si des of a
contai ner.
I n practi ce, we maybe i nterested i n ei ther of
two pressure readi ngs. We may desi re ei ther the
gauge pressure or the absol ute pressure.
Absol ute pressure i s measured from absol ute
zer o pr essur e r ather than fr om nor mal or
atmospheri c pressure (approxi matel y 14.7 psi ).
Gauge pressure i s used on al l ordi nary gauges, and
i ndi cates pr essur e i n excess of atmospher i c
pressure. Therefore, absol ute pressure i s equal to
atmospheri c pressure pl us gauge pressure. For
exampl e, 100 psi gauge pressure (psi g) equal s 100
psi pl us 14.7 psi or 114.7 psi absol ute pressure
(psi a). Whenever gas l aws are appl i ed, absol ute
pressures
Gases
are requi red.
COMPRESSIBILITY AND
EXPANSION OF GASES
can be readi l y compressed and are
assumed to be perfectl y el asti c. Thi s combi nati on
of properti es gi ves a gas the abi l i ty to yi el d to a
11-3
force and return promptl y to i ts ori gi nal condi ti on
when the for ce i s r emoved. These ar e the
properti es of ai r that i s used i n pneumati c ti res,
tenni s bal l s and other deformabl e objects whose
shapes are mai ntai ned by compressed ai r.
KINETIC THEORY OF GASES
I n an attempt to expl ai n the compressi bi l i ty
of gases, Bernoul l i proposed the hypothesi s that
i s accepted as the ki neti c theory of gases.
Accordi ng to thi s theory, the pressure exerted by
a gas on the wal l s of a cl osed contai ner i s caused
by conti nual bombar dment of the wal l s by
mol ecul es of the gas.
Consi der the contai ner shown i n fi gure 11-2
as contai ni ng a gas. At any gi ven ti me, some
mol ecul es are movi ng i n one di recti on, some are
travel i ng i n other di recti ons; some are travel i ng
fast, some sl ow, and some may even be i n a state
of r est. The aver age effect of the mol ecul es
bombardi ng each contai ner wal l corresponds to
the pressure of the gas.
As more gas i s pumped i nto the contai ner,
more mol ecul es are avai l abl e to bombard the
wal l s; thus the pressure i n the contai ner i ncreases.
The gas pressure i n a contai ner can al so be
i ncreased by i ncreasi ng the speed wi th whi ch the
mol ecul es hi t the wal l s. I f the temperature of the
gas i s rai sed, the mol ecul es move faster causi ng
an i ncrease i n pressure. Thi s can be shown by
consi deri ng the automobi l e ti re. When you take
a l ong dri ve on a hot day, the pressure i n the ti res
i ncr eases and a ti r e whi ch appear ed to be
somewhat “soft” i n cool morni ng temperature
may appear normal at a hi gher mi dday tempera-
tur e.
BOYLE’S LAW
When the automobi l e ti re i s i ni ti al l y i nfl ated,
ai r whi ch normal l y occupi es a speci fi c vol ume i s
compressed i nto a smal l er vol ume i nsi de the ti re.
Thi s i ncreases the pressure on the i nsi de of the ti re.
Charl es Boyl e, an Engl i sh sci enti st, was among
the fi rst to experi ment wi th the pressure-vol ume
rel ati onshi p of gas. Duri ng an experi ment when
he compressed a vol ume of ai r he found that the
vol ume decreased as the pressure i ncreased, and
by doubl i ng the force exerted on the ai r he coul d
decrease the vol ume of the ai r by hal f. See fi gure
11-3. Recal l from the exampl e of the automobi l e
ti re that changes i n temperature of a gas al so
change the pressure and vol ume. Therefore, the
experi ment must be performed at a constant
temperature. The rel ati onshi p between pressure
and vol ume i s known as Boyle’s law. I t states:
When the temperature of a gas is kept constant,
the volume of an enclosed gas varies inversely with
its pressure.
I n equati on form, thi s rel ati onshi p may be
expressed as ei ther

or Equati on 11-6

wher e V
1
and P
1
are the ori gi nal vol ume and
pr essur e, and V
2
and P
2
are the fi nal vol ume
and pressure (P
1
and P
2
are absol ute pressures).
Figure 11-3.-Gas compressed to half its original volume by
Figure 11-2.—Molecular bombardment creating pressure.
11-4
a doubled force.
Exampl e of Boyl e’s l aw: 4 cubi c feet of
ni trogen are under a pressure of 100 psi (gauge).
The ni trogen i s al l owed to expand to a vol ume
of 6 cubi c feet. What i s the new gauge pressure?
Remember to convert gauge pressure to absol ute
pressure by addi ng 14.7.
Usi ng equati on 11-6, V
1
P
1
= V
2
P
2
, where V
1
i s
4 ft
3
, V
2
i s 6 ft, and P
1
i s 100 psi g:
CHARLES’S LAW
Boyl e’s l aw assumes condi ti ons of constant
temperature. I n actual si tuati ons thi s i s rarel y the
case. Temperature changes conti nual l y and affects
the vol ume of a gi ven mass of gas.
Jacques Charl es, a French physi ci st, provi ded
much of the foundati on for the modern ki neti c
theory of gases. Through experi ments, he found
that al l gases expand and contract proporti onal l y
to the change i n the absol ute temper atur e,
provi di ng the pressure remai ns constant. The
rel ati onshi p between vol ume and temperature i s
known as Charles’s law. I t states: The volume of
a gas is proportional to its absolute temperature,
if constant pressure is maintained. I n equati on
form, thi s rel ati onshi p may be expressed as
Equati on 11-7
wh er e V
1
and V
2
ar e the or i gi nal and fi nal
vol umes, and T
1
and T
2
are the ori gi nal and fi nal
absol ute temperatures.
Si nce an i ncrease i n the temperature of a gas
causes i t to expand i f the pressure i s kept constant,
i t i s reasonabl e to expect that i f a gi ven sampl e
i s heated wi thi n a cl osed contai ner and i ts vol ume
remai ns constant, the pressure of the gas wi l l
i ncrease. Experi ments have proven thi s to be true.
I n equati on form, thi s becomes
P
1
T
2
= P
2
T
1
Equati on 11-8
or
Thi s equati on states that for a constant vol ume,
the absol ute pressure of a gas vari es di rectl y wi th
the absol ute temperature.
Exampl e: A cyl i nder of gas under a pressure
of 1800 psi g at 70°F i s l eft out i n the sun i n the
tropi cs and heats up to a temperature of 130°F.
What i s the new pressure wi thi n the cyl i nder?
(Remember that both pressure and temperature
must be conver ted to absol ute pr essur e and
absol ute temperature.)
Converti ng absol ute pressure to gauge pressure:
11-5
GENERAL GAS LAW
We have l earned that Boyl e’s l aw pertai ns to
si tuati ons i n whi ch the temperature remai ns
constant (fi g. 11-4), and that Char l es’s l aw
pertai ns to si tuati ons i n whi ch pressure remai ns
constant (fi g. 11-4). I t i s usual l y not possi bl e to
control pressure or temperature i n tanks or bottl es
of gas subject to the weather and shi pboard
demands. Boyl e’s and Charl es’s l aws are com-
bi ned to form the general gas law. Thi s l aw states:
The product of the initial pressure, initial volume,
and new temperature (absolute scale) of an
enclosed gas is equal to the product of the new
pressure, new volume, and initial temperature. I t
i s a mathemati cal statement whi ch al l ows many
gas probl ems to be sol ved by usi ng the pri nci pl es
of Boyl e’s l aw and/or Charl es’s l aw. The equati on
i s expressed as
or
(P and T represent absol ute pressure and absol ute
temperature, respecti vel y.)
You can see by exami ni ng fi gure 11-4 that the
three equati ons are speci al cases of the general
equati on. Thus, i f the temper atur e r emai ns
constant, T
1
equal s T
2
and both can be el i mi nated
from the general formul a, whi ch then reduces to
the form shown i n part A. When the vol ume
remai ns constant, V
1
equal s V
2
, thereby reduci ng
Figure 11-4.—The general gas law.
the general equati on to the form gi ven i n part B.
Si mi l ar l y , P
1
i s equated to P
2
for con s tan t
pressure, and the equati on then takes the form
gi ven i n part C.
The general gas l aw appl i es wi th exactness onl y
to “ i deal ” gases i n whi ch the mol ecul es ar e
assumed to be perfectl y el asti c. However, i t
descr i bes the behavi or of actual gases wi th
suffi ci ent accuracy for most practi cal purposes.
Two exampl es of the general equati on fol l ow:
1. Two cubi c feet of a gas at 75 psi g and 80°F
are compressed to a vol ume of 1 cubi c foot and
then heated to a temperature of 300°F. What i s
the new gauge pressure?
Usi ng equati on 11-9, P
1
V
1
T
2
= P
2
V
2
T
1
, wher e
V
1
i s 2 ft
3
, P
1
i s 75 psi g, T
1
i s 80°F, V
2
i s 1 ft
3
and T
2
i s 300°F:
Sol uti on:
Substi tuti ng:
Converti ng absol ute pressure to gauge pressure:
2. Four cubi c feet of a gas at 75 psi g and 80°F
are compressed to 237.8 psi g and heated to a
temperature of 300°F. What i s the vol ume of the
gas resul ti ng from these changes? Usi ng equati on
11-9, P
1
V
1
T
2
= P
2
V
2
T
1
, where V
1
i s 4 ft
3
, P
2
i s
11-6
75 psi g, T
1
i s 800, P
1
i s 237.8 psi g, and T
2
i s
300°F:
Sol uti on:
Substi tuti ng:
PNEUMATIC GASES
I n chapter 1, you l earned that many factors
are consi dered i n determi ni ng whether to use
hydraul i cs or pneumati cs as a power source i n a
fl ui d power system. Once i t i s determi ned that
pneumati cs wi l l be used as the source of power,
some of the same factor s ar e consi der ed i n
sel ecti ng the pneumati c gas.
QUALITIES
The i deal fl ui d medi um for a pneumati c
system i s a r eadi l y avai l abl e gas that i s
nonpoi sonous (nontoxi c), chemi cal l y stabl e, free
from any aci ds that cause corrosi on of system
components, and nonfl ammabl e. I t al so wi l l not
support combusti on of other el ements.
Gases that have these desi red qual i ti es may not
have the requi red l ubri cati ng power. Therefore,
l ubri cati on of the components of some pneumati c
systems must be arranged by other means. For
exampl e, some ai r compressors are provi ded wi th
a l ubr i cati ng system, some components ar e
l ubri cated upon i nstal l ati on or, i n some cases,
l ubri cati on i s i ntroduced i nto the ai r suppl y l i ne.
Two gases meeti ng these qual i ti es and most
commonl y used i n pneumati c systems are com-
pressed ai r and ni trogen.
COMPRESSED AIR
Compressed ai r i s a mi xture of al l gases
contai ned i n the atmosphere. I n thi s manual ,
compressed ai r i s referred to as a gas when i t i s
used as a fl ui d medi um.
The unl i mi ted suppl y of ai r and the ease of
compressi on make compressed ai r the most wi del y
used fl ui d for pneumati c systems. Al though
moi sture and sol i d parti cl es must be removed
from the ai r, i t does not requi re the extensi ve
di sti l l ati on or separati on process requi red i n the
producti on of other gases.
Compr essed ai r has most of the desi r ed
pr oper ti es and char acter i sti cs of a gas for
pneumati c systems. I t i s nonpoi sonous and
nonfl ammabl e but does contai n oxygen, whi ch
supports combusti on. One of the most undesi rabl e
qual i ti es of compressed ai r as a fl ui d medi um for
pneumati c systems i s moi stur e content. The
atmosphere contai ns varyi ng amounts of moi sture
i n vapor form. Changes i n the temperature of
compr essed ai r wi l l cause condensati on of
moi sture i n the pneumati c system. Thi s condensed
moi sture can be very harmful to the system, as
i t i ncreases corrosi on, di l utes l ubri cants, and may
fr eeze i n l i nes and components dur i ng col d
weather . Moi stur e separ ator s and ai r dr i er s
(dehydrators) are i nstal l ed i n the compressed ai r
l i nes to mi ni mi ze or el i mi nate moi stur e i n
systems where moi sture woul d deteri orate system
per for mance.
The suppl y of compressed ai r at the requi red
vol ume and pr essur e i s pr ovi ded by an ai r
compressor. (For i nformati on on ai r compressors,
refer to Naval Ships’ Technical Manual, chapter
551.) I n most systems the compressor i s part of
the system wi th di stri buti on l i nes l eadi ng from the
compressor to the devi ces to be operated. I n these
systems a recei ver i s i nstal l ed i n-l i ne between the
compressor and the devi ce to be operated to hel p
el i mi nate pul sati ons i n the compressor di scharge
l i ne, to act as a storage tank duri ng i nterval s when
the demand for ai r exceeds the compressor’s
capaci ty, and to enabl e the compressor to shut
down duri ng peri ods of l i ght l oad. Other systems
recei ve thei r suppl y from cyl i nders whi ch must be
fi l l ed at a central l y l ocated ai r compressor and
then connected to the system.
Compressed ai r systems are categori zed by
thei r operati ng pressures as fol l ows: hi gh-pressure
(HP) ai r, medi um-pressure (MP) ai r, and l ow-
pressure (LP) ai r.
High-Pressure Air Systems
HP ai r systems provi de compressed ai r at a
nomi nal operati ng pressure of 3000 psi or 5000
psi and are i nstal l ed whenever pressure i n excess
11-7
of 1000 psi i s requi red. HP compressed ai r pl ants
support functi ons whi ch requi re hi gh pressures
and hi gh fl ow rates of compressed ai r by the
addi ti on of HP storage fl asks to the system. An
exampl e of such a system i s one that provi des ai r
for star ti ng di esel and gas tur bi ne engi nes.
Reducti on i n pr essur e, i f r equi r ed, i s done
by usi ng speci al l y desi gned pressure-reduci ng
stati ons.
Medium-Pressure Air
MP ai r systems provi de compressed ai r at a
nomi nal operati ng pressure of 151 psi to 1000 psi .
These pressures are provi ded ei ther by an MP ai r
compressor or by the HP ai r system suppl yi ng ai r
thr ough an ai r bank and pr essur e-r educi ng
stati ons.
Low-Pressure Air
LP ai r systems provi de compressed ai r at a
nomi nal operati ng pressure of 150 psi and bel ow.
The LP ai r system i s suppl i ed wi th LP ai r by LP
ai r compressors or by the HP ai r system suppl yi ng
ai r through an ai r bank and pressure-reduci ng
stati ons. LP ai r i s the most extensi ve and vari ed
ai r system used i n the Navy,
I n addi ti on to bei n g u s ed for v ar i ou s
pneumati c appl i cati ons, LP and HP compressed
ai r are used i n the producti on of ni trogen.
NI TROGEN
For al l pr acti cal pur poses, ni tr ogen i s
consi dered to be an i nert gas. I t i s nonfl ammabl e,
does not form expl osi ve mi xtures wi th ai r or
oxygen, and does not cause rust or decay. Due
to these qual i ti es, i ts use i s pr efer r ed over
compr essed ai r i n many pneumati c systems,
especi al l y ai r cr aft and mi ssi l e systems, and
wherever an i nert gas bl anket i s requi red.
Ni tr ogen i s obtai ned by the fr acti onal
di sti l l ati on of ai r. Oxygen/ni trogen-produci ng
pl ants expand compressed ai r unti l i ts temperature
decreases to –196°C (–320°F), the boi l i ng poi nt
of ni trogen at atmospheri c pressure. The l i qui d
ni trogen i s then di rected to a storage tank. A
l i qui d ni trogen pump pumps the l ow-pressure
l i qui d ni tr ogen fr om the stor age tank and
di scharges i t as a hi gh-pressure (5000 psi ) l i qui d
to the vapori zer where i t i s converted to a gas at
5000 psi . Oxygen/ni trogen-produci ng pl ants are
l ocated at many naval i nstal l ati ons and on
submari ne tenders and ai rcraft carri ers.
CONTAMINATION CONTROL
As i n hydraul i c systems, fl ui d contami nati on
i s al so a l eadi ng cause of mal functi ons i n
pneumati c systems. I n addi ti on to the sol i d
parti cl es of forei gn matter whi ch fi nd a way to
enter the system, there i s al so the probl em of
moi sture. Most systems are equi pped wi th one or
more devi ces to remove thi s contami nati on. These
i ncl ude fi l ters, water separators, ai r dehydrators,
and chemi cal dr i er s, whi ch ar e di scussed i n
chapter 9 of thi s manual . I n addi ti on, most
systems contai n drai n val ves at cri ti cal l ow poi nts
i n the system. These val ves are opened peri odi cal l y
to al l ow the escapi ng gas to pur ge a l ar ge
percentage of the contami nants, both sol i ds and
moi sture, from the system. I n some systems these
val ves are opened and cl osed automati cal l y, whi l e
i n others they must be operated manual l y.
Compl ete purgi ng i s done by removi ng l i nes
from vari ous components throughout the system
and then attempti ng to pressuri ze the system,
causi ng a hi gh rate of ai rfl ow through the system.
The ai rfl ow wi l l cause the forei gn matter to be
di sl odged and bl own from the system.
NOTE: I f an excessi ve amount of forei gn
matter, parti cul arl y oi l , i s bl own from any one
system, the l i nes and components shoul d be
removed and cl eaned or repl aced.
I n addi ti on to moni tori ng the devi ces i nstal l ed
to remove contami nati on, i t i s your responsi bi l i ty
as a mai ntenance person or supervi sor to control
the contami nati on. You can do thi s by usi ng the
fol l owi ng mai ntenance practi ces:
1. Keep al l tool s and the work area i n a cl ean,
di rt-free condi ti on.
2. Cap or pl u g al l l i n es an d fi tti n gs
i mmedi atel y after di sconnecti ng them.
3. Repl ace al l packi ng and gaskets duri ng
assembl y procedures.
4. Connect al l par ts wi th car e to avoi d
stri ppi ng metal sl i vers from threaded areas. I nstal l
and torque al l fi tti ngs and l i nes accordi ng to
appl i cabl e techni cal i nstructi ons.
5. Compl ete pr eventi ve mai ntenance as
speci fi ed by MRCs.
Al so, you must take care to ensure that the
proper cyl i nders are connected to systems bei ng
suppl i ed from cyl i nders.
Cyl i nders for compressed ai r are pai nted
bl ack. Cyl i nders contai ni ng oi l -pumped ai r have
11-8
two green stri pes pai nted around the top of the
cyl i nder, whi l e cyl i nders contai ni ng water-pumped
ai r have one green stri pe. Oi l -pumped ai r i ndi cates
that the ai r or ni trogen i s compressed by an
oi l -l ubri cated compressor. Ai r or ni trogen com-
pressed by a water-l ubri cated (or nonl ubri cated)
compr essor i s r efer r ed to as water pumped.
Oi l -pumped ni trogen can be very dangerous i n
cer tai n si tuati ons. For exampl e, ni tr ogen i s
commonl y used to purge oxygen systems. Oxygen
wi l l not burn, but i t supports and accel erates
combusti on and wi l l cause oi l to burn easi l y and
wi th gr eat i ntensi ty. Ther efor e, oi l -pumped
ni trogen must never be used to purge oxygen
systems. When the smal l amount of oi l remai ni ng
i n the ni trogen comes i n contact wi th the oxygen,
an expl osi on may resul t. I n al l si tuati ons, use
onl y the gas speci fi ed by the manufacturer or
recommended by the Navy. Ni trogen cyl i nders are
pai nted gray. One bl ack stri pe i denti fi es cyl i nders
for oi l -pumped ni trogen, and two bl ack stri pes
i denti fy cyl i nders for water-pumped ni trogen. I n
addi ti on to these col or codes, the exact i denti -
fi cati on of the contents i s pri nted i n two l ocati ons
di ametri cal l y opposi te one another al ong the
l ongi tudi nal axi s of the cyl i nder. For compressed
ai r and ni trogen cyl i nders, the l etteri ng i s whi te.
POTENTIAL HAZARDS
Al l compressed gases are hazardous. Com-
pressed ai r and ni trogen are nei ther poi sonous nor
fl ammabl e, but shoul d not be handl ed carel essl y.
Some pneumati c systems operate at pressures
exceedi ng 3000 psi . Li nes and fi tti ngs have
expl oded, i njur i ng per sonnel and pr oper ty.
Li teral l y thousands of carel ess workers have
bl own dust or harmful parti cl es i nto thei r eyes by
the carel ess handl i ng of compressed ai r outl ets.
Ni trogen gas wi l l not support l i fe, and when
i t i s rel eased i n a confi ned space, i t wi l l cause
asphyxi a (the l oss of consci ousness as a resul t of
too l i ttl e oxygen and too much carbon di oxi de i n
the bl ood). Al though compressed ai r and ni trogen
seem so safe i n compari son wi th other gases, do
not l et overconfi dence l ead to personal i njury.
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
To mi ni mi ze personal i njury and equi pment
damage when usi ng compressed gases, observe al l
practi cal operati ng safety precauti ons, i ncl udi ng
the fol l owi ng:
1. Do not use compressed ai r to cl ean parts
of your body or cl othi ng, or to perform general
space cl eanup i n l i eu of vacuumi ng or sweepi ng.
2. Never attempt to stop or repai r a l eak whi l e
the l eaki ng porti on i s sti l l under pressure. Al ways
i sol ate, repressuri ze and danger tag out the
porti on of the system to be repai red. For pressures
of 1000 psi or greater, doubl e val ve protecti on i s
requi red to prevent i njury i f one of the val ves
shoul d fai l .
3. Avoi d the appl i cati on of heat to the ai r
pi pi ng system or components, and avoi d stri ki ng
a sharp or heavy bl ow on any pressuri zed part of
the pi pi ng system.
4. Avoi d rapi d operati on of manual val ves.
The heat of compressi on caused by a sudden hi gh-
-pressure fl ow i nto an empty l i ne or vessel can
cause an expl osi on i f oi l i s present. Val ves shoul d
be sl owl y cracked open unti l ai rfl ow i s noted and
shoul d be kept i n thi s posi ti on unti l pressures on
both si des of the val ve have equal i zed. The rate
of pressure ri se shoul d be kept under 200 psi
per second, i f possi bl e. Val ves may then be opened
ful l y.
5. Do not di schar ge l ar ge quanti ti es of
ni tr ogen i nto cl osed compar tments unl ess
adequate venti l ati on i s provi ded.
6. Do not subject compressed gas cyl i nders
to temperatures greater than 130°F.
Remember, any pressuri zed system can be
hazardous to your heal th i f i t i s not mai ntai ned
and operated careful l y and safel y.
11-9
CHAPTER 12
BASIC DIAGRAMS AND SYSTEMS
I n the precedi ng chapters, you l earned about
hydraul i c and pneumati c fl ui ds and components
of fl ui d power systems. Whi l e havi ng a knowl edge
of system components i s essenti al , i t i s di ffi cul t
to under stand the i nter r el ati onshi p of these
components by si mpl y watchi ng the system
operate. The knowl edge of system i nterrel ati on
i s r equi r ed to effecti vel y tr oubl eshoot and
mai ntai n a fl ui d power system. Di agrams pro-
vi ded i n appl i cabl e techni cal publ i cati ons or
drawi ngs are a val uabl e ai d i n understandi ng the
operati on of the system and i n di agnosi ng the
causes of mal functi ons.
Thi s chapter expl ai ns the di fferent types of
di agrams used to i l l ustrate fl ui d power ci rcui ts,
i ncl udi ng some of the symbol s that depi ct fl ui d
power components. I ncl uded i n thi s chapter
are descri pti ons and i l l ustrati ons denoti ng the
di fferences between open-center and cl osed-center
fl ui d power systems. The l ast part of the chapter
descri bes and i l l ustrates some appl i cati ons of basi c
fl ui d power systems.
DIAGRAMS
As menti oned ear l i er i n thi s chapter , to
troubl eshoot fl ui d power systems i ntel l i gentl y, a
mechani c or techni ci an must be fami l i ar wi th the
system on whi ch he or she i s wor ki ng. The
mechani c must k now the functi on of each
component i n the system and have a mental
pi ctur e of i ts l ocati on i n r el ati on to other
components. Thi s can best be done by studyi ng
the di agrams of the system.
A di agr am may be defi ned as a gr aphi c
representati on of an assembl y or system that
i ndi cates the vari ous parts and expresses the
methods or pri nci pl es of operati ons. The abi l i ty
to read di agrams i s a basi c requi rement for
under standi ng the oper ati on of fl ui d power
systems. Understandi ng the di agrams of a system
requi res havi ng a knowl edge of the symbol s used
i n the schemati c di agrams.
SYMBOLS
The Navy uses two mi l i tary standards that
l i st mechani cal symbol s that must be used i n
prepari ng drawi ngs that wi l l contai n symbol i c
representati on. These standards are as fol l ows:
1. Military Standard, Mechanical Symbols
(Other than Aeronautical, Aerospacecraft, and
Spacecraft Use), Part 1, MI L-STD-17B-1.
2. Military Standard, Mechanical Symbols for
Aeronautical, Aerospacecraft, and Spacecraft
Use, Part 2, MI L-STD-17B-2.
Some of the symbol s frequentl y used i n fl ui d
power systems have been sel ected from these
two standards and are shown i n Appendi xes I I
and I I I . Appendi x I I contai ns symbol s fr om
MI L-STD-17B-1. Appendi x I I I contai ns symbol s
fr om MI L-STD-17B-2.
Whi l e the symbol s shown i n the appendi xes
are not al l encompassi ng, they do provi de a basi s
for an i ndi vi dual wor ki ng wi th fl ui d power
systems to bui l d upon. Some rul es appl i cabl e to
gr aphi cal symbol s for fl ui d di agr ams ar e as
fol l ows:
1. Symbol s show connecti ons, fl ow paths,
and the functi on of the component represented
onl y. They do not i ndi cate condi ti ons occurri ng
duri ng transi ti on from one fl ow path to another;
nor do they i ndi cate component constructi on or
val ues, such as pressure or fl ow rate.
2. Symbol s do not i ndi cate the l ocati on of
ports, di recti on of shi fti ng of spool s, or posi ti on
of control el ements on actual components.
3. Symbol s may be r otated or r ever sed
wi thout al teri ng thei r meani ng except i n cases of
l i nes to reservoi rs and vented mani fol ds.
4. Symbol s may be drawn i n any si ze.
5. Each symbol i s drawn to show the normal
or neutral condi ti on of each component unl ess
mul ti pl e ci rcui t di agrams are furni shed showi ng
vari ous phases of ci rcui t operati on.
12-1
For more detai l ed i nformati on concerni ng the
symbol s used i n fl ui d power di agrams, consul t the
above-menti oned mi l i tary standards. Addi ti onal
i nformati on concerni ng symbol s and the readi ng
of di agrams i s contai ned i n BI ueprint Reading and
Sketching, NAVEDTRA 10077-F1.
TYPES OF DIAGRAMS
There are many types of di agrams. Those that
are most perti nent to fl ui d power systems are
di scussed i n thi s text.
Pictorial Diagrams
Pi ctor i al di agr ams (fi g. 12-1) show the
general l ocati on and actual appearance of each
component, al l i nterconnecti ng pi pi ng, and the
general pi pi ng arrangement. Thi s type of di agram
i s someti mes r efer r ed to as an i nstal l ati on
di agram. Di agrams of thi s type are i nval uabl e to
mai ntenance personnel i n i denti fyi ng and l ocati ng
components of a system.
Cutaway Diagrams
Cutaway di agrams (fi g. 12-2) show the i nternal
worki ng parts of al l fl ui d power components i n
a system. Thi s i ncl udes control s and actuati ng
mechani sms and al l i nter connecti ng pi pi ng.
Cutaway di agrams do not normal l y use symbol s.
Figure 12-1.—Hydraulic system pictorial diagram.
12-2
Figure 12-2.—Cutaway diagram—pneumatic.
12-3
Graphic Diagrams
The pri mary purpose of a graphi c (schemati c)
di agram i s to enabl e the mai ntenance person to
tr ace the fl ow of fl ui d fr om component to
component wi thi n the system. Thi s type of
di agram uses standard symbol s to show each
component and i ncl udes al l i nter connecti ng
pi pi ng. Addi ti onal l y, the di agr am contai ns a
component l i st, pi pe si ze, data on the sequence
of operati on, and other perti nent i nformati on.
The graphi c di agram (fi g. 12-3) does not i ndi -
cate the physi cal l ocati on of the vari ous com-
ponents, but i t does show the rel ati on of each
component to the other components wi thi n the
system.
,
Figure 12-3.—Graphic diagram of LST 1182 class hydraulic steering gear.
12-4
Noti ce that fi gure 12-3 does not i ndi cate the
physi cal l ocati on of the i ndi vi dual components
wi th respect to each other i n the system. For
exampl e, the 3/4-i nch, sol enoi d-operated, 4-way
val ve (10) i s not necessari l y l ocated di rectl y above
the rel i ef val ve (26). The di agram does i ndi cate,
however, that the 4-way val ve i s l ocated i n the
worki ng l i ne, between the vari abl e-di spl acement
pump and the 1-i nch rotary sel ector val ve, and
that the val ve di rects fl ui d to and from the rotary
actuator.
Combination Diagrams
A combi nati on drawi ng uses a combi nati on
of graphi c, cutaway, and pi ctori al symbol s. Thi s
drawi ng al so i ncl udes al l i nterconnecti ng pi pi ng.
FLUID POWER SYSTEMS
A fl ui d power system i n whi ch the fl ui d i n the
system remai ns pressuri zed from the pump (or
regul ator) to the di recti onal control val ve whi l e
the pump i s operati ng i s referred to as a cl osed-
center system. I n thi s type of system, any number
of subsystems may be i ncor por ated, wi th a
separ ate di r ecti onal contr ol val ve for each
subsystem. The di recti onal control val ves are
arranged i n paral l el so that system pressure acts
equal l y on al l control val ves.
Another type of system that i s someti mes used
i n hydraul i cal l y operated equi pment i s the open-
center system. An open-center system has fl ui d
fl ow but no i nternal pressure when the actuati ng
mechani sms are i dl e. The pump ci rcul ates the fl ui d
from the reservoi r, through the di recti onal control
val ves, and back to the reservoi r. (See fi g. 12-4,
vi ew A.) Li ke the cl osed-center system, the open-
center system may have any number of subsystems,
wi th a di recti onal control val ve for each subsystem.
Unl i ke the cl osed-center system, the di recti onal
control val ves of an open-center system are al ways
connected i n seri es wi th each other, an arrange-
ment i n whi ch the system pressure l i ne goes
through each di recti onal control val ve. Fl ui d i s
al ways al l owed free passage through each control
val ve and back to the reservoi r unti l one of the con-
trol val ves i s posi ti oned to operate a mechani sm.
When one of the di recti onal control val ves i s
posi ti oned to operate an actuati ng devi ce, as
shown i n vi ew B of fi gure 12-4, fl ui d i s di rected
from the pump through one of the worki ng l i nes
to the actuator. Wi th the control val ve i n thi s
posi ti on, the fl ow of fl ui d through the val ve to
the reservoi r i s bl ocked. Thus, the pressure bui l ds
up i n the system and moves the pi ston of the
Figure 12-4.—Open-center hydraulic system.
actuati ng cyl i nder. The fl ui d from the other end
of the actuator r etur ns to the contr ol val ve
through the opposi te worki ng l i ne and fl ows back
to the reservoi r.
Several di fferent types of di recti onal control
val ves are used i n the open-center system. One
type i s the manual l y engaged and manual l y
di sengaged. After thi s type of val ve i s manual l y
moved to the operati ng posi ti on and the actuati ng
mechani sm reaches the end of i ts operati ng cycl e,
pump output conti nues unti l the system rel i ef
val ve setti ng i s reached. The rel i ef val ve then
unseats and al l ows the fl ui d to fl ow back to the
reservoi r. The system pressure remai ns at the
pressure setti ng of the rel i ef val ve unti l the
di recti onal control val ve i s manual l y returned to
the neutral posi ti on. Thi s acti on reopens the
open-center fl ow and al l ows the system pressure
to drop to l i ne resi stance pressure.
Another type of open-center di r ecti onal
control val ve i s manual l y engaged and pressure
di sengaged. Thi s type of val ve i s si mi l ar to the
val ve di scussed i n the pr ecedi ng par agr aph;
however, when the actuati ng mechani sm reaches
the end of i ts cycl e and the pressure conti nues to
12-5
r i se to a pr edeter mi ned pr essur e, the val ve
automati cal l y returns to the neutral posi ti on and,
consequentl y, to open-center fl ow.
One of the advantages of the open-center
system i s that the conti nuous pressuri zati on of the
system i s el i mi nated. Si nce the pr essur e i s
gradual l y bui l t up after the di recti onal control
val ve i s moved to an operati ng posi ti on, there i s
ver y l i ttl e shock fr om pr essur e sur ges. Thi s
provi des a smooth operati on of the actuati ng
mechani sms; however, the operati on i s sl ower
than the cl osed-center system i n whi ch the pressure
i s avai l abl e the moment the di recti onal control
val ve i s posi ti oned. Si nce most appl i cati ons
requi re i nstantaneous operati on, cl osed-center
systems are the most wi del y used.
HYDRAULIC POWER DRIVE SYSTEM
The hydraul i c power dri ve has been used
i n the Navy for many year s. Pr oof of i ts
effecti veness i s that i t has been used to trai n and
el evate nearl y al l cal i ber guns, from the 40-mm
gun mount to the 16-i nch turret. I n addi ti on to
gun mounts and turrets, hydraul i c power dri ves
ar e used to posi ti on r ock et l auncher s and
mi ssi l e l aunchers, and to dri ve and control such
equi pment as wi ndl asses, capstans, and wi nches.
I n i ts si mpl est form, the hydraul i c power dri ve
consi sts of the fol l owi ng:
1. The pri me mover, whi ch i s the outsi de
source of power used to dri ve the hydraul i c pump
2. A vari abl e-di spl acement hydraul i c pump
3. A hydraul i c motor
4. A means of i ntroduci ng a si gnal to the
hydraul i c pump to control i ts output
5. Mechani cal shafti ng and gear i ng that
transmi ts the output of the hydraul i c motor to the
equi pment bei ng operated
Hydr aul i c power dr i ves di ffer i n some
respects, such as si ze, method of control , and so
for th. However , the fundamental oper ati ng
pr i nci pl es ar e si mi l ar . The uni t used i n the
fol l owi ng di scussi on of fundamental operati ng
pri nci pl es i s representati ve of the hydraul i c power
dri ves used to operate the 5"/38 twi n mounts.
Fi gure 12-5 shows the basi c components of
the tr ai n power dr i ve. The el ectr i c motor i s
constructed wi th dri ve shafts at both ends. The
forward shaft dri ves the A-end pump through
reducti on gears, and the after shaft dri ves the
auxi l i ary pumps through the auxi l i ary reducti on
gears. The reducti on gears are i nstal l ed because
Figure 12-5.-Train power drive—components.
the pumps are desi gned to operate at a speed much
sl ower than that of the motor.
The repl eni shi ng pump i s a spur gear pump.
I ts purpose i s to repl eni sh fl ui d to the acti ve
system of the power dri ve. I t recei ves i ts suppl y
of fl ui d from the reservoi r and di scharges i t to
the B-end val ve pl ate. Thi s di scharge of fl ui d from
the pump i s hel d at a constant pressure by the
acti on of a pressure rel i ef val ve. (Because the
capaci ty of the pump exceeds r epl eni shi ng
demands, the rel i ef val ve i s conti nuousl y al l owi ng
some of the fl ui d to fl ow back to the reservoi r.)
The sump pump and osci l l ator has a twofol d
purpose. I t pumps l eakage, whi ch col l ects i n the
sump of the i ndi cator regul ator, to the expansi on
tank. Addi ti onal l y, i t transmi ts a pul sati ng effect
to the fl ui d i n the response pressure system.
Osci l l ati ons i n the hydraul i c response system hel p
el i mi nate stati c fr i cti on of val ves, al l owi ng
hydraul i c control to respond faster.
The control pressure pump suppl i es hi gh-
pressure fl ui d for the hydraul i c control system,
br ak e pi stons, l ock pi ston, and the hand-
control l ed cl utch operati ng pi ston. The control
pressure pump i s a fi xed-di spl acement, axi al -
pi ston type. An adjustabl e rel i ef val ve i s used to
l i mi t the operati ng pressure at the outl et of the
pump.
Control
For the purpose of thi s text, control consti tutes
the rel ati onshi p between the stroke control shaft
and the ti l ti ng box. The stroke control shaft i s one
of the pi ston rods of a doubl e-acti ng pi ston-type
actuati ng cyl i nder. Thi s actuati ng cyl i nder and i ts
di rect means of control are referred to as the mai n
cyl i nder assembl y (fi g. 12-6). I t i s the l i nk between
the hydraul i c fol l owup system and the power dri ve
i tsel f.
I n hand control , the ti l ti ng box i s mechani cal l y
posi ti oned by gear i ng fr om the handwheel
through the A-end control uni t. I n l ocal and
automati c control , the ti l ti ng box i s posi ti oned by
the stroke control shaft. As shown i n fi gure 12-6,
the extended end of the control shaft i s connected
to the ti l ti ng box. Movement of the shaft wi l l pi vot
the ti l ti ng box one way or the other; whi ch, i n
turn, control s the output of the A-end of the
tr ansmi ssi on. The other end of the shaft i s
attached to the mai n pi ston. A shorter shaft i s
attached to the opposi te si de of the pi ston. Thi s
shaft i s al so smal l er i n di ameter. Thus the worki ng
area of the l eft si de of the pi ston i s twi ce that of the
area of the ri ght si de, as i t appears i n fi gure 12-6.
Figure 12–6.–Main cylinder assembly.
I ntermedi ate hi gh-pressure fl ui d (I HP) i s
transmi tted to the l eft si de of the pi ston, whi l e
hi gh-pressure hydraul i c fl ui d (HPC) i s transmi tted
to the ri ght si de. The HPC i s hel d constant at 1000
psi . Si nce the area of the pi ston upon whi ch HPC
acts i s exactl y one-hal f the area upon whi ch I HP
acts, the mai n pi ston i s mai ntai ned i n a fi xed
posi ti on when I HP i s one-hal f HPC (500 psi ).
Whenever I HP vari es from i ts normal val ue of
500 psi , the mai n pi ston wi l l move, thus movi ng
the ti l ti ng box.
Operation
Assume that a ri ght trai n order si gnal i s
recei ved. Thi s wi l l cause the pi l ot val ve to be
pul l ed upward. The fl ui d i n the upper chamber
of the ampl i fi er pi ston can now fl ow through the
l ower l and chamber of the fi ne pi l ot to exhaust.
Thi s wi l l cause the ampl i fi er pi ston to move
upward, and the fl ui d i n the ri ght-hand chamber
of the mai n control val ve can fl ow i nto the l ower
chamber of the ampl i fi er val ve.
The mai n control val ve wi l l now move to the
ri ght, I HP wi l l drop bel ow 500 psi , and the stroke
pi ston wi l l move to the l eft. Movement of the
12-7
stroke pi ston wi l l cause ti l t to be put on the ti l t
pl ate, and the A-end wi l l cause the mount to trai n
ri ght.
Fi gure 12-7 i s a si mpl i fi ed bl ock di agram
showi ng the mai n el ement of the hydraul i c power
dr i ve system under automati c contr ol for
cl ockwi se and countercl ockwi se rotati on.
There are two pri nci pal probl ems i n posi -
ti oni ng a gun to fi re. One i s to get an accurate
gun-order si gnal . Thi s probl em i s sol ved by the
di r ector -computer combi nati on. The other
probl em i s to transmi t the di rector si gnal promptl y
to the gun so that the posi ti on and movements
of the gun wi l l be synchroni zed wi th the si gnal s
from the di rector.
The pr obl em of tr ansfor mi ng gun-or der
si gnal s to mount movements i s sol ved by the
power dr i ve and i ts contr ol —the i ndi cator
regul ator. The i ndi cator regul ator control s the
power dr i ve, and thi s, i n tur n, contr ol s the
movement of the gun.
The i ndi cator regul ator recei ves an i ni ti al
el ectri cal gun-order from the di rector-computer,
compares i t to the exi sti ng mount posi ti on, and
sends an error si gnal to the hydraul i c control
mechani sm i n the regul ator. The hydraul i c control
mechani sm control s the fl ow to the stroke control
shaft, whi ch posi ti ons the ti l ti ng box i n the A-end
of the transmi ssi on. I ts ti l t control s the vol ume
and di recti on of fl ui d pumped to the B-end and,
therefore, the speed and di recti on of the dri ve
shaft of the B-end. Through mechani cal l i nkage,
the B-end output shaft moves the gun i n the
di recti on determi ned by the si gnal . At the same
ti me, B-end r esponse i s tr ansmi tted to the
i ndi cator regul ator and conti nuousl y combi nes
wi th i ncomi ng gun-or der si gnal s to gi ve the
error between the two. Thi s error i s modi fi ed
hydr aul i cal l y, accor di ng to the system of
mechani cal l i nkages and val ves i n the regul ator.
When the gun i s l aggi ng behi nd the si gnal , i ts
movement i s accel erated; and when i t begi ns to
catch up, i ts movement i s sl owed down so that
i t wi l l not overrun excessi vel y.
LANDING GEAR EMERGENCY
SYSTEM
I f the l andi ng gear i n a naval ai rcraft fai l s to
extend to the down and l ocked posi ti on, the
ai rcraft has an emergency method to extend the
l andi ng gear. Thi s text wi l l cover the ni trogen
system.
The ni tr ogen stor age bottl e system i s a
one-shot system powered by ni trogen pressure
stor ed i n four compr essed ni tr ogen bottl es
(fi g. 12-8). When the l andi ng gear control handl e
i s used to actuate the emergency l andi ng gear
system, a cabl e between the control and the
manual l y operated ni trogen bottl e opens the
emergency gear down rel ease val ve on the bottl e.
Ni trogen from thi s bottl e actuates the rel ease
val ves on the other three bottl es so that they
di scharge. Ni trogen fl ows from the manual l y
operated bottl e, actuates the dump val ves, and
causes the shuttl es wi thi n the shuttl e val ves on the
Figure 12-7.—Operation of the hydraulic power drive.
12-8
12-9
aft doors’ cyl i nders and the shuttl e val ve on the
nose gear cyl i nder to cl ose off the normal port
and operate these cyl i nders. The nose gear cyl i nder
extends; thi s unl ocks the upl ock and extends the
nose gear. The ni trogen fl owi ng i nto the aft door
cyl i nders opens the aft doors. Fl ui d on the cl ose
si de of the door cyl i nder i s vented to return
through the actuated dump val ves. Ni trogen from
another bottl e actuates the shuttl e val ves on the
upl ock cyl i nders. Ni trogen fl ows i nto the upl ock
cyl i nder s and causes them to di sengage the
upl ocks. As soon as the upl ocks are di sengaged,
the mai n gear extends by the force of gravi ty.
Fl ui d on the up si de of the mai n gear cyl i nders
i s vented to return through the actuated dump
val ves, preventi ng a fl ui d l ock.
J ET BLAST DEFLECTORS
Jet bl ast defl ectors (JBD) onboard ai rcraft
carri ers are rai sed and l owered by hydraul i c
cyl i nder s thr ough mechani cal l i nk age. Two
hydraul i c cyl i nders are attached to each JBD panel
shaft by crank assembl i es. (See fi g. 12-9.) The
shaft i s rotated by the push and pul l operati on
of the hydraul i c cyl i nders. Shaft rotati on extends
or retracts the l i nkage to rai se or l ower the JBD
panel s. Thi s operati on i s desi gned so that i n the
event of a fai l ure of one of the hydraul i c cyl i nders,
the other one wi l l rai se or l ower the panel s.
Fi gure 12-10 i s a di agram of the hydraul i c
control system of a JBD duri ng the rai se cycl e.
Hydraul i c fl ui d from the catapul t hydraul i c suppl y
system i s suppl i ed to the JBD hydraul i c system
through an i sol ati on val ve and a fi l ter to the 4-way
control val ve assembl y. (The 4-way control val ve
assembl y consi sts of a pi l ot-operated control
val ve, a di rect- or sol enoi d-operated control val ve,
and a sequence val ve, whi ch i s not shown.)
To rai se the JBD, sol enoi d B of the 4-way
control val ve assembl y i s energi zed. The spool s
of the 4-way val ve assembl y shi ft, al l owi ng
medi um-pressure hydraul i c fl ui d to fl ow i nto port
A of the hydraul i c cyl i nder. The cyl i nders extend,
Figure 12-9.—Operating gear assembly (panels raised).
12-10
I
I
I
I
I
I
12-11
12-12
pushi ng the crank assembl y aft and rotati ng the
shaft. The r otati on of the shaft extends the
oper ati ng gear l i nkage and r ai ses the panel
assembl i es. Fl ui d from port B of the pi ston i s
di rected through the 4-way val ve assembl y and
back to the gravi ty tank.
To l ower the JBD (fi g. 12-11), sol enoi d A of
the 4-way control val ve assembl y i s energi zed. The
spool s of the 4-way val ve assembl y shi ft, al l ow
medi um-pressure hydraul i c fl ui d to fl ow i nto port
B of the hydraul i c cyl i nder. The cyl i nders retract,
pul l i ng the crank assembl y forward and rotati ng
the shaft. The rotati on of the shaft retracts the
operati ng gear l i nkage and l owers the panel
assembl i es. Fl ui d from port A of the pi ston i s
di rected through the 4-way val ve assembl y and
back to the gravi ty tank.
To l ower the JBD i n the event of hydraul i c
control fai l ure, each JBD panel i s equi pped wi th
a manual bypass val ve, whi ch al l ows bypassi ng
the 4-way control val ve. Thi s al l ows venti ng the
hydraul i c pressure from the “rai se” si de of the
cyl i nder back to the gravi ty tank.
The three l i nes to port A of the hydraul i c
cyl i nders have ori fi ce assembl i es i n them. These
ori fi ce assembl i es control the fl ow of hydraul i c
fl ui d i n both the rai se and l ower operati ons.
12-13
APPENDIX I
GLOSSARY
A part of thi s gl ossary has been extracted from
the American Standard Glossary of Terms for
Fluid Power (ASA B93.2-1965) wi th permi ssi on
of the publ i sher , The Nati onal Fl ui d Power
Associ ati on.
ABSOLUTE TEMPERATURE—The tempera-
ture measured usi ng absol ute zero as a reference.
Absol ute zero i s –273.16°C or –459.69°F.
ACCELERATI ON—Ti me rate of change of
vel oci ty.
ACCUMULATOR—A devi ce for stor i ng
l i qui d under pressure. I t usual l y consi sts of a
chamber separated i nto a gas compartment and
a l i qui d compartment by a pi ston or di aphragm.
An accumul ator al so ser ves to smooth out
pressure surges i n a hydraul i c system.
ACTUATOR—A devi ce that converts fl ui d
power i nto mechani cal force and moti on.
ADDI TI VE—A ch emi cal compou n d or
compounds added to a fl ui d to change i ts
properti es.
AI R, COMPRESSED—Ai r at any pressure
greater than atmospheri c pressure.
AMBI ENT—Surroundi ng, such as ambi ent
ai r, meani ng surroundi ng ai r.
BAROMETER—An i nstr ument that mea-
sures atmospheri c pressure.
BERNOULLI ’S PRI NCI PLE—I f a fl ui d
fl owi ng through a tube reaches a constri cti on, or
narrowi ng of the tube, the vel oci ty of the fl ui d
fl owi ng through the constri cti on i ncreases and the
pressure decreases.
BLEEDER, AI R—A bl eeder for the removal
of ai r.
BOYLE’S LAW—The absol ute pressure of a
fi xed mass of gas vari es i nversel y as the vol ume,
provi ded the temperature remai ns constant.
CAVI TATI ON —A l oca l i z e d ga s e ou s
condi ti on wi thi n a l i qui d stream that occurs where
the pressure i s reduced to the vapor pressure.
CELSI US—The temperature scal e usi ng the
freezi ng poi nt of water as zero and the boi l i ng
poi nt as 100, wi th 100 equal di vi si ons between,
cal l ed degrees. Thi s scal e was formerl y known as
the centi grade scal e.
CENTI GRADE—(See Cel si us.)
CENTRI FUGAL FORCE—A for ce exer ted
on a rotati ng object i n a di recti on outward from
the center of rotati on.
CHARL ES’S L AW—I f th e pr es s u r e i s
constant, the vol ume of dry gas vari es di rectl y
wi th the absol ute temperature.
CHEMI CAL CHANGE—A ch an ge th at
al ters the composi ti on of the mol ecul es of a
substance.
CI RCUI T—An ar r angement of i nter con-
nected component parts.
COMPRESSI BI LI TY—The change i n vol ume
of a uni t vol ume of a fl ui d when i t i s subjected
to a uni t change of pressure.
COMPRESSOR—A devi ce that conver ts
mechani cal force and moti on i nto pneumati c fl ui d
power .
COMPUTER—A devi ce capabl e of accepti ng
i nformati on, appl yi ng prescri bed processes to the
i nformati on, and suppl yi ng the resul ts of these
processes.
AI-1
CONDENSATI ON—Th e ch an ge fr om a
gaseous (or vapor) state to a l i qui d state.
CONTAMI NANT—Detri mental matter i n a
fl ui d.
CONTI NUI TY EQUATI ON—The mass rate
of fl ui d fl ow i nto any fi xed space i s equal to the
mass fl ow rate out. Hence, the mass fl ow rate of
fl ui d past al l cross secti ons of a condui t i s equal .
CONTROL—A devi ce used to regul ate the
functi on of a component or system.
CONTROL , CYL I NDER—A con tr ol i n
whi ch a fl ui d cyl i nder i s the actuati ng devi ce.
CONTROL, ELECTRI C—A control actuated
el ectri cal l y.
CON TROL , H YDRAU L I C—A con t r ol
actuated by a l i qui d.
CONTROL, MANUAL—A control actuated
by the operator.
CONTROL , MECHANI CAL —A con tr ol
actuated by l i nkages, gears, screws, cams, or other
mechani cal el ements.
CON TROL , PN E U MATI C—A con t r ol
actuated by ai r or other gas pressure.
CONTROL, SERVO—A control actuated by
a feedback system that compares the output wi th
the reference si gnal and makes correcti ons to
reduce the di fference.
CONTROLS, PUMP—Contr ol s appl i ed to
posi ti ve-di spl acement vari abl e del i very pumps to
adjust thei r vol umetri c output or di recti on of
fl ow.
CONVERGENT—That whi ch i ncl i nes and
approaches nearer together, as the i nner wal l s of
a tube that i s constri cted.
COOLER—A heat exchanger, whi ch removes
heat from a fl ui d.
COOLER, AFTERCOOLER—A devi ce that
cool s a gas after i t has been compressed.
COOLER, I NTERCOOLER—A devi ce that
cool s a gas between the compressi ve steps of a
mul ti pl e stage compressor.
COOLER, PRECOOLER—A devi ce that
cool s a gas before i t i s compressed.
CORROSI ON—The sl ow destr ucti on of
mater i al s by chemi cal agents and el ectr omechani cal
reacti ons.
CYCL E—A s i n gl e compl ete oper ati on
consi sti ng of progressi ve phases starti ng and
endi ng at the neutral posi ti on.
CYLI NDER—A devi ce that converts fl ui d
power i nto l i near mechani cal force and moti on.
I t usual l y consi sts of a movabl e el ement, such as
a pi ston and pi ston r od, pl unger , or r am,
operati ng wi thi n a cyl i ndri cal bore.
CYLI NDER, CUSHI ONED—A cyl i nder wi th
a pi ston-assembl y decel erati on devi ce at one of
both ends of the stroke.
CYL I N DE R, DOU BL E - ACTI N G—A
cyl i nder i n whi ch fl ui d force can be appl i ed to the
movabl e el ement i n ei ther di recti on.
CYLI NDER, DOUBLE-ROD—A cyl i nder
wi th a si ngl e pi ston and a pi ston rod extendi ng
from each end.
CYLI NDER, DUAL-STROKE—A cyl i nder
combi nati on that provi des two worki ng strokes.
CYLI NDER, PI STON—A cyl i nder i n whi ch
the movabl e el ement has a greater cross-secti onal
area than the pi ston rod.
CYLI NDER, PLUNGER—A cyl i nder i n
whi ch the movabl e el ement has the same cross-
secti onal area as the pi ston rod.
CYLI NDER, SI NGLE-ACTI NG—A cyl i nder
i n whi ch the fl ui d force can be appl i ed to the
movabl e el ement i n onl y one di recti on.
CYLI NDER, SI NGLE-ROD—A cyl i nder
wi th a pi ston rod extendi ng from one end.
CYLI NDER, SPRI NG-RETURN—A cyl i n-
der i n whi ch a spri ng returns the pi ston assembl y.
CYL I NDE R, TANDE M—Two or mor e
cyl i nders wi th i nterconnected pi ston assembl i es.
CYLI NDER, TELESCOPI NG—A cyl i nder
wi th nested mul ti pl e tubul ar rod segments whi ch
provi de a l ong worki ng stroke i n a short retracted
envel ope.
AI-2
DENSI TY—The wei ght per uni t vol ume of a
substance.
DI AGRAM, COMBI NATI ON—A dr awi ng
usi ng a combi nati on of graphi cal , cutaway, and
pi ctori al symbol s.
DI AGRAM, CUTAWAY—A drawi ng show-
i ng pri nci pal i nternal parts of al l components,
control s, and actuati ng mechani sms, al l i nter-
connecti ng l i nes and functi ons of i ndi vi dual
components.
DI AGRAM, GRAPHI CAL—A dr awi ng or
dr awi ngs showi ng each pi ece of appar atus
i ncl udi ng al l i nterconnecti ng l i nes by approved
standard symbol s.
DI AGRAM, PI CTORI AL—A drawi ng show-
i ng each component i n i ts actual shape accordi ng
to the manufacturer’s i nstal l ati on.
DI AGRAM, SCHEMATI C—(See Di agr am,
graphi cal .)
DI APHRAGM—A di vi di ng membr ane or
thi n parti ti on.
DI FFUSER—A duct of varyi ng cross secti on
desi gned to convert a hi gh-speed gas fl ow i nto
l ow-speed at an i ncreased pressure.
DI SPLACEMENT—The vol ume of fl ui d that
can pass through a pump, motor, or cyl i nder i n
a si ngl e revol uti on or stroke.
DI VERGENT—Movi ng away fr om each
other, as the i nner wal l of a tube that fl ares
outward.
EFFI CI ENCY—The r ati o of the output
power to the i nput power, general l y expressed as
a percentage.
ENERGY—The abi l i ty or capaci ty to do
wor k.
EQUI LI BRI UM—A state of bal ance between
opposi ng forces or acti ons.
FAHRENHEI T—The temperature scal e usi ng
the freezi ng poi nt of water as 32 and the boi l i ng
poi nt as 212, wi th 180 equal di vi si ons between,
cal l ed degrees.
FEEDBACK—A transfer of energy from the
output of a devi ce to i ts i nput.
FI LTER—A devi ce whose pri mary functi on
i s the retenti on by a porous medi a of i nsol ubl e
contami nants from a fl ui d.
FI LTER ELEMENT—The porous devi ce that
performs the actual process of fi l trati on.
FI LTER MEDI A—The porous materi al s that
perform the actual process of fi l trati on.
FI L TE R ME DI A, SU RFACE —Por ou s
materi al s that pri mari l y retai n contami nants on
the i nfl uent face.
FLASH POI NT—The temperature to whi ch
a l i qui d must be heated under speci fi ed condi ti ons
of the test method to gi ve off suffi ci ent vapor to
form a mi xture wi th ai r that can be i gni ted
momentari l y by a speci fi ed fl ame.
FLOW, LAMI NAR—A fl ow si tuati on i n
whi ch fl ui d moves i n paral l el l ayers (al so referred
to as streaml i ne fl ow).
FLOW, METERED—Fl ow at a contr ol l ed
r ate.
FLOW, TURBULENT—A fl ow si tuati on i n
whi ch the fl ui d par ti cl es move i n a r andom
manner.
FLOW RATE—The vol ume, mass, or wei ght
of a fl ui d passi ng through any conductor per uni t
of ti me.
FLOWMETER—An i nstr ument used to
measure quanti ty or the fl ow rate of a fl ui d
moti on.
FLUI D—A l i qui d or a gas.
FLUI D FLOW—The stream or movement of
a fl ui d, or the rate of i ts movement.
FLUI D FRI CTI ON—Fr i cti on due to the
vi scosi ty of fl ui ds.
F L U I D, F I RE - RE SI STAN T—A f l u i d
di ffi cul t to i gni te, whi ch shows l i ttl e tendency to
propagate fl ame.
AI-3
FLUI D, HYDRAULI C—A fl ui d sui tabl e for
use i n a hydraul i c system.
FLUI D, PETROLEUM—A fl ui d composed
of petrol eum oi l . I t may contai n addi ti ves.
FLUI D, PHOSPHATE ESTER BASE—A
fl ui d that contai ns a phosphate ester as one of the
major components.
FLUI D, SI LI CONE—A fl ui d composed of
si l i cones. I t may contai n addi ti ves.
FLUI D, WATER-GLYCOL—A fl ui d whose
major consti tuents are water and one or more
gl ycol s or pol ygl ycol s.
FLUI D STABI LI TY—Resi stance of a fl ui d to
permanent change i n properti es.
FLUI D POWER—Energy transmi tted and
contr ol l ed thr ough the use of fl ui ds under
pressure.
FLUI D POWER SYSTEM—A system that
transmi ts and control s power through use of a
pressuri zed fl ui d wi thi n an encl osed ci rcui t.
FOOT-POU ND—Th e a mou n t of wor k
accompl i shed when a force of 1 pound produces
a di spl acement of 1 foot.
FORCE—The acti on of one body on another
tendi ng to change the state of moti on of the body
acted upon.
FREE FLOW—Fl ow that encounters negl i -
gi bl e resi stance.
FRI CTI ON—The acti on of one body or
substance rubbi ng agai nst another, such as fl ui d
fl owi ng agai nst the wal l s of pi pe; the resi stance
to moti on caused by thi s rubbi ng.
FRI CTI ON PRESSURE DROP—The decrease
i n the pressure of a fl ui d fl owi ng through a
passage attri butabl e to the fri cti on between the
fl ui d and the passage wal l s.
GAS—The form of matter that has nei ther a
defi ni te shape nor a defi ni te vol ume.
GASKET—A cl ass of seal s that provi des a seal
between two stati onary parts.
GAUGE—An i n s tr u men t or dev i ce for
characteri sti c.
measuri ng, i ndi cati ng, or compari ng a physi cal
GAU GE PRE SSU RE —Pr es s u r e a bov e
atmospheri c pressure.
GAUGE SNUBBER—A devi ce i nstal l ed i n
the l i ne to the pressure gauge used to dampen
pressure surges and thus provi de a steady readi ng
and a protecti on for the gauge.
GAUGE, BELLOWS—A gauge i n whi ch the
sensi ng el ement i s a convol uted cl osed cyl i nder.
A pressure di fferenti al between the outsi de and
the i nsi de causes the cyl i nder to expand or contract
axi al l y.
GAUGE, BOURDON TUBE—A pr essur e
gauge i n whi ch the sensi ng el ement i s a curved
tube that tends to strai ghten out when subjected
to i nternal fl ui d pressure.
GAUGE, DI APHRAGM—A gauge i n whi ch
the sensi ng el ement i s rel ati vel y thi n and i ts i nner
porti on i s free to defl ect wi th respect to i ts
peri phery.
GAU GE , PRE SSU RE —A ga u ge t h a t
i ndi cates the pressure i n the system to whi ch i t
i s connected.
GAUGE, VACUUM—A pressure gauge for
pressures l ess than atmospheri c.
GRAVI TY—The force that tends to draw al l
bodi es toward the center of the earth. The wei ght
of a body i s the resul tant of gravi tati onal force
acti ng on the body.
HEAD—The hei ght of a col umn or body of
fl ui d above a gi ven poi nt expressed i n l i near uni ts.
Head i s often used to i ndi cate gauge pressure.
Pressure i s equal to the hei ght ti mes the densi ty
of the fl ui d.
HEAD, FRI CTI ON—The head requi red to
overcome the fri cti on at the i nteri or surface of
a conductor and between fl ui d parti cl es i n moti on.
I t vari es wi th fl ow, si ze, type, and condi ti on of
conductors and fi tti ngs, and fl ui d characteri sti cs,
HEAD, STATI C—The hei ght of a col umn or
body of fl ui d above a gi ven poi nt.
AI-4
HEAD, VELOCI TY—The equi val ent head
through whi ch the l i qui d woul d have to fal l to
attai n a gi ven vel oci ty. Mathemati cal l y i t i s equal
to the square of the vel oci ty (i n feet) di vi ded by
64.4 feet per second square.
H E AT E XCH AN GE R—A d e v i ce t h a t
transfers heat through a conducti ng wal l from one
fl ui d to another.
HYDRAULI CS—Engi neeri ng sci ence pertai n-
i ng to l i qui d pressure and fl ow.
HYDROMETER—An i nstrument for deter-
mi ni ng the speci fi c gravi ti es of l i qui ds.
HYDROPNEUMATI CS—Per tai ni ng to the
combi nati on of hydraul i c and pneumati c fl ui d
power .
HYDROSTATI CS—En gi n eer i n g s ci en ce
pertai ni ng to the energy of l i qui ds at rest.
I MPACT PRESSURE—The pr essur e of a
movi ng fl ui d brought to rest that i s i n excess of
the pressure the fl ui d has when i t does not fl ow;
that i s, total pressure l ess stati c pressure. I mpact
pressure i s equal to dynami c pressure i n i ncom-
pressi bl e fl ow; but i n compressi bl e fl ow, i mpact
pressure i ncl udes the pressure change owi ng to the
compressi bi l i ty effect.
I MPI NGEMENT—The stri ki ng or dashi ng
upon wi th a cl ash or shar p col l i si on, as ai r
i mpi ngi ng upon the rotor of a turbi ne or motor.
I MPULSE TURBI NE—A turbi ne dri ven by
a fl ui d at hi gh vel oci ty under rel ati vel y l ow
pressure.
I NERTI A—The tendency of a body at rest to
remai n at rest, and a body i n moti on to conti nue
to move at a constant speed al ong a strai ght l i ne,
unl ess the body i s acted upon i n ei ther case by an
unbal anced force.
I NHI BI TOR—Any substance whi ch sl ows or
prevents chemi cal reacti ons such as corrosi on or
oxi dati on.
I NVERSE PROPORTI ON—The rel ati on that
exi sts between two quanti ti es when an i ncrease i n
one of them produces a correspondi ng decrease
i n the other.
KELVI N SCALE—The temper atur e scal e
usi ng absol ute zero as the zero poi nt and di vi si ons
that are the same si ze as centi grade degrees.
KI NETI C ENERGY—The ener gy that a
substance has whi l e i t i s i n moti on.
KI NETI C THEORY—A theory of matter that
assumes that the mol ecul es of matter are i n
constant moti on.
LI NE—A tube, pi pe, or hose that i s used as
a conductor of fl ui d.
LI QUI D—A for m of matter that has a
defi ni te vol ume but takes the shape of i ts
contai ner.
LOAD—The power that i s bei ng del i vered by
any power-produci ng devi ce. The equi pment that
uses the power from the power-produci ng devi ce.
L U BRI CATOR—A d e v i ce t h a t a d d s
control l ed or metered amounts of l ubri cant i nto
a fl ui d power system.
MANI FOLD—A type of fl ui d conductor that
provi des mul ti pl e connecti ons ports.
MANOMETER—A di ffer enti al pr essur e
gauge i n whi ch pressure i s i ndi cated by the hei ght
of a l i qui d col umn of known densi ty. Pressure i s
equal to the di fference i n verti cal hei ght between
two connected col umns mul ti pl i ed by the densi ty
of th e man ometer l i qu i d. Some for ms of
manometers are U tube, i ncl i ned tube, wel l , and
bel l types.
MATTER—Any substance that occupi es
space and has wei ght.
MECHANI CAL ADVANTAGE—The r ati o
of the resi sti ng wei ght to the acti ng force. The
rati o of the di stance through whi ch the force i s
exerted di vi ded by the di stance the wei ght i s
rai sed.
METER-I N—To regul ate the amount of fl ui d
i nto a system or an actuator.
METER-OUT—To regul ate the fl ow of fl ui d
from a system or actuator.
MI CRON—A mi l l i onth of a meter or about
0.00004 i nch.
AI-5
MOLECULE—A smal l natur al par ti cl e of
matter composed of two or more atoms.
MOTOR—A devi ce that converts fl ui d power
i nto mechani cal force and moti on. I t usual l y
provi des rotary mechani cal moti on.
MOTOR, FI XED-DI SPL ACEMENT—A
motor i n whi ch the di spl acement per uni t of
output moti on cannot be vari ed.
MOTOR, LI NEAR—(See Cyl i nder .)
MOTOR, ROTARY—A motor capabl e of
conti nuous rotary moti on.
MOTOR, ROTARY LI MI TED—A r otar y
motor havi ng l i mi ted moti on.
MOTOR, VARI ABLE-DI SPLACEMENT—
A motor i n whi ch the di spl acement per uni t of
output moti on can be vari ed.
NEOPRENE—A syntheti c r ubber hi ghl y
resi stant to oi l , l i ght, heat, and oxi dati on.
NEUTRALI ZATI ON NUMBER—A mea-
sure of the total aci di ty or basi ci ty of an oi l ; thi s
i ncl udes organi c or i norgani c aci ds or bases or a
combi nati on of them.
OXI DATI ON—The process by whi ch oxygen
uni tes wi th some other substance, causi ng rust or
cor r osi on.
PACKI NG—A cl ass of seal that i s used to
provi de a seal between two parts of a uni t whi ch
move i n rel ati on to each other.
PASCAL’S LAW—A pressure appl i ed to a
confi ned fl ui d at rest i s transmi tted wi th equal
i ntensi ty throughout the fl ui d.
PERI PHERY—The outsi de sur face, espe-
ci al l y that of a rounded object or body.
PI PE—A type of fl ui d l i ne whose di mensi ons
are desi gnated by nomi nal (approxi mate) i nsi de
di ameter and wal l thi ckness.
PNEUMATI CS—Engi neer i ng sci ence per -
tai ni ng to gaseous pressure and fl ow.
PORT—An i nternal or external termi nus of
a passage i n a component.
POTENTI AL ENERGY—The energy a sub-
stance has because of i ts posi ti on, i ts condi ti on,
or i ts chemi cal composi ti on.
POUR POI NT—The l owest temperature at
whi ch a l i qui d wi l l fl ow under speci fi ed con-
di ti ons.
POWER UNI T—A combi nati on of pump,
pump dri ve, reservoi r, control s, and condi ti oni ng
components whi ch may be r equi r ed for i ts
appl i cati on.
POWER—The rate of doi ng work or the rate
of expandi ng energy.
PRESSURE—The amount of force di stri b-
uted over each uni t of area, usual l y expressed i n
pounds per square i nch.
PRESSURE, ABSOL UTE—Th e s u m of
atmospheri c and gauge pressures.
PRESSURE, ATMOSPHERI C—Pr essur e
exerted by the atmosphere at any speci fi c l ocati on.
PRESSURE, BACK—The pressure encoun-
tered on the return si de of a system.
PRESSURE, DI FFERENTI AL—The di f-
ference i n pressure between any two poi nts of a
system or a component.
PRESSURE, HEAD—The pressure due to the
hei ght of a col umn or body of fl ui d. I t i s usual l y
expressed i n feet.
PRESSURE, OPERATI NG—The pressure at
whi ch a system operates.
PRESSURE, PRECHARGE—The pressure
of compressed gas i n an accumul ator pri or to the
admi ssi on of a l i qui d.
PRESSURE, PROOF—The nondestr ucti ve
test pressure i n excess of the maxi mum rated
operati ng pressure.
PRESSURE, STATI C—The pr essur e i n a
fl ui d at rest.
PRESSURE SWI TCH—An el ectri cal swi tch
operated by the i ncrease or decrease of fl ui d
pressure.
AI-6
PRI ME MOVER—The source of mechani cal
power used to dri ve the pump or compressor.
PUMP—A devi ce that converts mechani cal
force and moti on i nto hydraul i c fl ui d power.
PUMP, AXI AL PI STON—A pump havi ng
mul ti pl e pi stons di sposed wi th thei r axes paral l el .
PUMP, CENTRI FUGAL—A pu mp th at
produces fl ui d vel oci ty and converts i t to pressure
head.
PU MP, F I XE D- DI SPL ACE ME N T—A
pump i n whi ch the di spl acement per cycl e cannot
be vari ed.
PUMP, RADI AL PI STON—A pump havi ng
mul ti pl e pi stons di sposed radi al l y actuated by an
eccentri c el ement.
PUMP, VARI ABLE-DI SPLACEMENT—A
pump i n whi ch the vol ume of fl ui d per cycl e can
be vari ed.
RANKI NE SCALE—A ther mometer scal e
based on absol ute zero of the Fahrenhei t scal e,
i n wh i ch th e fr eezi n g poi n t of water i s
appr oxi matel y 492°R.
RATI O—The val ue obtai ned by di vi di ng one
number by another , i ndi cati ng thei r r el ati ve
pr opor ti ons.
RECEI VER—A contai ner i n whi ch gas i s
stored under pressure as a suppl y source for
pneumati c power.
RE CI PROCATI NG—Mov i n g ba ck a n d
forth, as a pi ston reci procati ng i n a cyl i nde.,
RESERVOI R—A contai ner for stor age of
l i qui d i n a fl ui d power system.
RESPONSE TI ME—The ti me l ag between a
si gnal i nput and the resul ti ng change of output.
RESTRI CTOR—A devi ce that reduces the
cross-secti onal fl ow area.
RESTRI CTOR, ORI FI CE—A restri ctor, the
l ength of whi ch i s rel ati vel y smal l wi th respect to
i ts cross-secti onal area. The ori fi ce may be fi xed
or vari abl e. Vari abl e types are noncompensated,
pressure compensated, or pressure and tempera-
ture compensated.
RETURN LI NE—A l i ne used for returni ng
fl ui d back i nto the reservoi r or atmosphere.
SEPARATOR—A devi ce whose pr i mar y
functi on i s to i sol ate undesi rabl e fl ui ds and or
contami nants by physi cal properti es other than
si ze.
SERVO—A devi ce used to convert a smal l
movement i nto a greater movement of force.
SOLI D—The for m of matter that has a
defi ni te shape and a defi ni te vol ume.
SPECI FI C GRAVI TY—The r ati o of the
wei ght of a gi ven vol ume of a substance to the
wei ght of an equal vol ume of some standard
substance.
STEADY FL OW—A fl ow i n wh i ch th e
vel oci ty, pressure, and temperature at any poi nt
i n the fl ui d do not vary wi th ti me.
STRAI NER—A coarse fi l ter.
STOKE—The standar d uni t of ki nemati c
vi scosi ty i n the cgs system. I t i s expressed i n square
centi meters per second; 1 centi stoke equal s 0.01
stoke.
STUFFI NG BOX—A cavi ty and cl osure wi th
manual adjustment for a seal i ng devi ce.
SUPPLY LI NE—A l i ne that conveys fl ui d
from the reservoi r to the pump.
SURGE—A momentary ri se of pressure i n a
ci rcui t.
SYNCHRONI ZE—To mak e two or mor e
events or operati ons occur at the proper ti me wi th
respect to each other.
SYNTH E TI C MATE RI AL —A comp l ex
chemi cal compound that i s arti fi ci al l y formed by
the combi ni ng of two or more si mpl er compounds
or el ements.
TANK—A contai ner for the storage of fl ui d
i n a fl ui d power system.
THEORY—A sci enti fi c expl anati on, tested by
observati ons and experi ments.
THERMAL EXPANSI ON—The i ncrease i n
vol ume of a substance due to temperature change.
A4-7
TORQUE—A force or combi nati on of forces
that produces or tends to produce a twi sti ng or
rotary moti on.
TUBI NG—A ty pe of fl u i d l i n e wh os e
di mensi ons are desi gnated by actual measured
outsi de di ameter and by actual measured wal l
thi ckness.
TURBI NE—A r otar y motor actuated by
the r eacti on, i mpul se, or both, of a fl ow of
pressuri zed fl ui d.
VALVE—A devi ce that control s fl ui d fl ow
di recti on, pressure, or fl ow rate.
VALVE, CHECK—A di r ecti onal contr ol
val ve that permi ts fl ow of fl ui d i n onl y one
di recti on.
VALVE, COUNTERBALANCE—A pressure
control val ve that mai ntai ns back pressure to
prevent a l oad from fal l i ng.
VALVE, DI RECTI ONAL CONTROL—A
val ve whose pri mary functi on i s to di rect or
prevent fl ow through sel ected passages.
VALVE, FLOW CONTROL—A val ve whose
pri mary functi on i s to control fl ow rate.
VALVE, HYDRAULI C—A val ve for con-
trol l i ng l i qui d.
VALVE, PI LOT—A val ve used to operate
another val ve or control .
VALVE, PNEUMATI C—A val ve for con-
trol l i ng gas.
VAL VE , PRE SSU RE RE DU CI N G—A
pressure control val ve whose pri mary functi on i s
to l i mi t outl et pressure.
VALVE, PRI ORI TY—A val ve that di rects
fl ow to one operati ng ci rcui t at a fi xed rate and
di rects excess fl ow to another operati ng ci rcui t.
VALVE, RELI EF—A pressure control val ve
whose pr i mar y functi on i s to l i mi t system
pressure.
VALVE, SELECTOR—A di recti onal control
val ve whose pri mary functi on i s to sel ecti vel y
i nterconnect two or more ports.
VAL VE, SEQUENCE—A v al v e wh os e
pr i mar y functi on i s to di r ect fl ow i n a pr e-
determi ned sequence.
VALVE, SERVO—A di recti onal control val ve
that modul ates fl ow or pressure as a functi on of
i ts i nput si gnal .
VALVE, SHUTOFF—A val ve that operates
ful l y open or ful l y cl osed.
VALVE, UNLOADI NG—A pressure control
val ve whose pri mary functi on i s to permi t a pump
or compressor to operate at mi ni mum l oad.
VEL OCI TY—Th e r ate of moti on i n a
parti cul ar di recti on. The vel oci ty of fl ui ds i s
usual l y expressed i n feet per second.
VENTURI —A tube havi ng a nar r owi ng
throat or constri cti on to i ncrease the vel oci ty of
fl ui d fl owi ng through i t. The fl ow through the
venturi causes a pressure drop i n the smal l est
secti on, the amount bei ng a functi on of the
vel oci ty of fl ow.
VI SCOSI TY—A measur e of the i nter nal
fri cti on or resi stance of a fl ui d to fl ow.
VI SCOSI TY I NDEX—A measur e of the
vi scosi ty-temperature characteri sti cs of a fl ui d as
referred to that of two arbi trary reference fl ui ds.
VI SCOSI TY, SAYBOL T U NI VE RSAL
SECONDS (SUS)—The ti me i n seconds for 60
mi l l i l i ters of oi l to fl ow through a standard ori fi ce
at a gi ven temperature.
VI SCOSI TY, KI NEMATI C—The absol ute
vi scosi ty di vi ded by the densi ty of the fl ui d. I t i s
usual l y expressed i n centi stokes.
VOLUME OF FLOW—The quanti ty of fl ui d
that passes a certai n poi nt i n a uni t of ti me. The
vol ume of fl ow i s usual l y expressed i n gal l ons per
mi nute for l i qui ds and cubi c feet per mi nute for
gases.
WORK—The transference of energy from one
body or system to another . That whi ch i s
accompl i shed by a force acti ng through a di stance.
AI-8
APPENDIX II
MECHANICAL SYMBOLS OTHER THAN
AERONAUTICAL FOR FLUID
POWER DIAGRAMS
AII-1
AII-2
AII-3
AII-4
APPENDIX III
AERONAUTICAL MECHANICAL SYMBOLS
FOR FLUID POWER DIAGRAMS
AIII-1
AIII-2
INDEX
A
Accumul ators, 9-3 to 9-7
Actuators, 10-1 to 10-12
cyl i nders, 10-1 to 10-7
pi ston-type cyl i nders, 10-3 to 10-6
doubl e-acti ng cyl i nder, 10-4 to
10-5
si ngl e-acti ng cyl i nder, 10-4
tandem cyl i nders, 10-5 to 10-6
rack-and-pi ni on pi ston-type rotary
actuators, 10-6 to 10-7
ram-type cyl i nders, 10-1 to 10-3
doubl e-acti ng ram, 10-2
dual rams, 10-3
si ngl e-acti ng ram, 10-1 to 10-2
tel escopi ng rams, 10-2 to 10-3
motors, 10-8 to 10-11
gear-type motors, 10-8
pi ston-type motors, 10-9 to 10-11
axi al -pi ston motor, 10-10 to
10-11
radi al -pi ston motor, 10-10
vane-type motors, 10-9
turbi nes, 10-11 to 10-12
i mpul se turbi ne, 10-11 to 10-12
reacti on turbi ne, 10-12
Aeronauti cal mechani cal symbol s for fl ui d
power di agrams, AI I I -1 to AI I I -2
Ai r-pressuri zed reservoi rs, 9-2 to 9-3
Atmospheri c pressure, 2-2 to 2-3
Axi al pi ston pumps, 4-12 to 4-15
Axi al -pi ston motor, 10-10 to 10-11
B
Backup ri ngs, 7-12 to 7-15
Bal l val ves, 6-1 to 6-2
Basi c di agrams and systems, 12-1 to 12-13
di agrams, 12-1 to 12-5
symbol s, 12-1 to 12-2
types of di agrams, 12-2 to 12-5
combi nati on di agrams, 12-5
cutaway di agrams, 12-2 to 12-3
graphi c di agrams, 12-4 to 12-5
pi ctori al di agrams, 12-2
fl ui d power systems, 12-5 to 12-13
hydraul i c power dri ve system, 12-6 to 12-8
control , 12-7
operati on, 12-7 to 12-8
jet bl ast defl ectors, 12-10 to 12-13
l andi ng gear emergency system, 12-8
to 12-10
Bel l ows el asti c el ements, 8-3 to 8-5
Bernoul l i ’s pri nci pl e, 2-14
Bi metal l i c expansi on thermometer, 8-7
Bl adder-type accumul ators, 9-6
Bourdon tube gauges, 8-1 to 8-3
Boyl e’s l aw, 11-4 to 11-5
Brazed connectors, 5-13
C
C-shaped bourdon tube, 8-2 to 8-3
Centered i nternal gear pump, 4-6
Charl es’s l aw, 11-5
Check val ve, 6-16 to 6-18
Combi nati on di agrams, 12-5
Compressed ai r, 11-7 to 11-8
Compressi bi l i ty and expansi on of gases, 11-3
to 11-7
Connector s for fl exi bl e hose, 5-17 to 5-19
Cork, 7-2
Cork and rubber, 7-2
Counterbal ance val ve, 6-14 to 6-15
Cup packi ngs, 7-16
Cutaway di agrams, 12-2 to 12-3
Cyl i nders, 10-1 to 10-7
pi ston-type cyl i nders, 10-3 to 10-6
rack-and-pi ni on pi ston-type rotary
actuators, 10-6 to 10-7
ram-type cyl i nders, 10-1 to 10-3
INDEX-1
D
Di agrams, 12-1 to 12-5
Di aphragm accumul ators, 9-7
Di rect-contact gas-to-fl ui d accumul ators, 9-6
to 9-7
Di recti onal control val ves, 6-15 to 6-25
check val ve, 6-16 to 6-18
cl assi fi cati on, 6-15 to 6-16
four-way val ves, 6-20 to 6-25
shuttl e val ve, 6-18
three-way val ves, 6-19 to 6-20
two-way val ves, 6-18 to 6-19
Di rt excl usi on seal s (wi pers and scrapers), 7-17
Di stant-readi ng thermometers, 8-7 to 8-8
Dual bel l ows i ndi cators, 8-4 to 8-5
F
Fi l trati on, 9-7 to 9-13
fi l ters, 9-8 to 9-12
pneumati c gases, 9-12 to 9-13
strai ners, 9-8
Fl ange connectors, 5-12
Fl ange packi ngs, 7-16 to 7-17
Fl ared connectors, 5-13 to 5-14
Fl arel ess-tube connectors, 5-15 to 5-17
Fl exi bl e hose, 5-8 to 5-12
Fl ow control val ves, 6-1 to 6-6
bal l val ves, 6-1 to 6-2
gate val ves, 6-3
gl obe val ves, 6-3 to 6-5
hydraul i c and pneumati c gl obe val ves, 6-5
to 6-6
needl e val ves, 6-5
Fl ui d l i nes and fi tti ngs, 5-1 to 5-21
fl exi bl e hose, 5-8 to 5-12
appl i cati on, 5-9 to 5-10
fabri cati on and testi ng, 5-10
i denti fi cati on, 5-10
i nstal l ati on, 5-11 to 5-12
PFTE, 5-9
syntheti c rubber hose, 5-8 to 5-9
cure date, 5-8 to 5-9
si zi ng, 5-8
pi pes and tubi ng, 5-1 to 5-8
preparati on of pi pes and tubi ng, 5-3
to 5-8
tube bendi ng, 5-5 to 5-7
tube cutti ng and deburri ng, 5-4
to 5-5
tube fl ari ng, 5-7 to 5-8
Fl ui d l i nes and fi tti ngs—Conti nued
pi pes and tubi ng—Conti nued
sel ecti on of pi pes and tubi ng, 5-1 to
5-3
materi al s, 5-2 to 5-3
si zi ng of pi pes and tubi ng, 5-1
to 5-2
precauti onary measures, 5-20 to 5-21
types of fi tti ngs and connectors, 5-12 to
5-20
brazed connectors, 5-13
connectors for fl exi bl e hose, 5-17 to
5-19
hose connecti on si de of hose
fi tti ng, 5-18 to 5-19
pi pi ng connecti on si de of hose
fi tti ng, 5-18
fl ange connectors, 5-12
fl ared connectors, 5-13 to 5-14
fl arel ess-tube connectors, 5-15 to
5-17
fi nal assembl y, 5-17
i nspecti on, 5-16 to 5-17
presetti ng, 5-15 to 5-16
mani fol ds, 5-19 to 5-20
qui ck-di sconnect coupl i ngs, 5-19
threaded connectors, 5-12
wel ded connectors, 5-12 to 5-13
types of l i nes, 5-1
Fl ui d power, i ntroducti on to, 1-1 to 1-4
Fl ui d power systems, 12-5 to 12-13
hydraul i c power dri ve system, 12-6 to
12-8
jet bl ast defl ectors, 12-10 to 12-13
l andi ng gear emergency system, 12-8 to
12-10
Fl ui d-pressuri zed reservoi r, 9-2
Forces i n l i qui ds, 2-1 to 2-17
l i qui ds at rest, 2-1 to 2-9
pressure and force, 2-1 to 2-3
atmospheri c pressure, 2-2 to 2-3
computi ng force, pressure, and
area, 2-1 to 2-2
transmi ssi on of forces through
l i qui ds, 2-3 to 2-9
densi ty and speci fi c gravi ty, 2-4
Pascal ’s l aw, 2-5 to 2-6
pressure and force i n fl ui d
power systems, 2-6 to 2-9
l i qui ds i n moti on, 2-9 to 2-15
Bernoul l i ’s pri nci pl e, 2-14
factors i nvol ved i n fl ow, 2-11 to 2-13
i nerti a and force, 2-11 to 2-12
ki neti c energy, 2-12 to 2-13
INDEX-2
Forces i n l i qui ds—Conti nued
l i qui ds i n moti on—Conti nued
mi ni mi zi ng fri cti on, 2-14 to 2-15
rel ati onshi p of force, pressure, and
head, 2-13
stati c and dynami c factors, 2-13 to
2-14
streaml i ne and turbul ent fl ow, 2-10
to 2-11
vol ume and vel oci ty of fl ow, 2-9 to
2-10
vol ume of fl ow and speed, 2-10
operati on of hydraul i c components, 2-15
to 2-17
hydraul i c brakes, 2-16 to 2-17
hydraul i c jack, 2-15 to 2-16
Four-way val ves, 6-20 to 6-25
Gate val ves, 6-3
Gauge snubbers,
G
8-8 to 8-9
Gear pumps, 4-2 to 4-6
Gear-type motors, 10-8
General gas l aw, 11-6 to 11-7
Gl obe val ves, 6-3 to 6-5
Gl ossary, AI -1 to AI -8
Graphi c di agrams, 12-4 to 12-5
H
Hand pumps, 4-9
Hel i cal gear pump, 4-5
Herri ngbone gear pump, 4-4
Hydraul i c and pneumati c gl obe
6-6
Hydraul i c brakes, 2-16 to 2-17
Hydraul i c fl ui ds, 3-1 to 3-11
contami nati on, 3-6 to 3-10
val ves, 6-5 to
cl assi fi cati on, 3-7 to 3-8
fl ui d contami nati on, 3-7 to 3-8
parti cul ate contami nati on, 3-7
contami nati on control , 3-9 to 3-10
ori gi n of contami nati on, 3-8 to 3-9
hydraul i c fl ui d sampl i ng, 3-10 to 3-11
properti es, 3-1 to 3-5
chemi cal stabi l i ty, 3-3 to 3-4
cl eanl i ness, 3-5
densi ty and compressi bi l i ty, 3-4
fi re poi nt, 3-4
fl ashpoi nt, 3-4
foami ng tendenci es, 3-4 to 3-5
freedom from aci di ty, 3-4
Hydr aul i c fl ui ds-Conti nued
properti es—Conti nued
l ubri cati ng power, 3-3
mi ni mum toxi ci ty, 3-4
vi scosi ty, 3-1 to 3-3
measurement of vi scosi ty, 3-1 to
3-3
vi scosi ty i ndex, 3-3
types of hydraul i c fl ui ds, 3-5 to 3-6
petrol eum-based fl ui ds, 3-5
syntheti c fi re-resi stant fl ui ds, 3-5 to
3-6
l i ghtwei ght syntheti c fi re-
resi stant fl ui ds, 3-6
phosphate ester fi re-resi stant
fl ui d, 3-5 to 3-6
si l i cone syntheti c fi re-resi stant
fl ui ds, 3-6
water-based fi re-resi stant fl ui ds, 3-6
Hydraul i c jack, 2-15 to 2-16
Hydraul i c power dri ve system, 12-6 to 12-8
Hydraul i cs, 1-2 to 1-3
I
I mpul se turbi ne, 10-11 to 10-12
I ntroducti on to fl ui d power, 1-1 to 1-4
advantages of fl ui d power, 1-2
hydraul i cs, 1-2 to 1-3
devel opment of hydraul i cs, 1-2 to 1-3
use of hydraul i cs, 1-3
speci al probl ems, 1-2
states of matter, 1-3 to 1-4
J
Jet bl ast defl ectors, 12-10 to 12-13
K
Ki neti c energy, 2-12 to 2-13
Ki neti c theory of gases, 11-4
L
Landi ng gear emergency system, 12-8 to 12-10
Leather, 7-2
Li ghtwei ght syntheti c fi re-resi stant fl ui ds, 3-6
Li qui ds i n moti on, 2-9 to 2-15
Lobe pump, 4-6 to 4-7
INDEX-3
M
Mani fol ds, 5-19 to 5-20
Matter, states of, 1-3 to 1-4
Measurement and pressure control devi ces, 8-1
to 8-9
gauge snubbers, 8-8 to 8-9
pressure gauges, 8-1 to 8-5
bel l ows el asti c el ements, 8-3 to 8-5
dual bel l ows i ndi cators, 8-4 to
8-5
si mpl e bel l ows el ements, 8-4
bourdon tube gauges, 8-1 to 8-3
C-shaped bourdon tube, 8-2 to
8-3
spi ral and hel i cal bourdon tubes,
8-3
pressure swi tches, 8-5 to 8-6
temperature swi tches, 8-8
temperature-measuri ng i nstruments, 8-6 to
8-8
bi metal l i c expansi on thermometer,
8-7
di stant-readi ng thermometers, 8-7 to
8-8
Mechani cal symbol s other than aeronauti cal
for fl ui d power di agrams, AI I -1 to AI I -4
Metal , 7-2 to 7-3
Motors, 10-8 to 10-11
gear-type motors, 10-8
pi ston-type motors, 10-9 to 10-11
vane-type motors, 10-9
N
Needl e val ves, 6-5
Ni trogen, 11-8
Nonpressuri zed reservoi rs, 9-1 to 9-2
O
Off-centered i nternal gear pump, 4-6
O-ri ngs, 7-6 to 7-12
P
Pascal ’s l aw, 2-5 to 2-6
Petrol i um-based fl ui ds, 3-5
PFTE hose, 5-9
Phosphate ester fi re-resi stant fl ui d, 3-5 to 3-6
Pi ctori al di agrams, 12-2
Pi pes and tubi ng, 5-1 to 5-8
Pi ston pumps, 4-9 to 4-15
Pi ston-type accumul ators, 9-5 to 9-6
Pi ston-type cyl i nders, 10-3 to 10-6
Pi ston-type motors, 10-9 to 10-11
Pneumati c gases, 9-12 to 9-13
Pneumati cs, 11-1 to 11-9
characteri sti cs of gases, 11-1 to 11-3
densi ty, 11-1 to 11-2
pressure, 11-3
temperature, 11-2 to 11-3
compressi bi l i ty and expansi on of gases,
11-3 to 11-7
Boyl e’s l aw, 11-4 to 11-5
Charl es’s l aw, 11-5
general gas l aw, 11-6 to 11-7
ki neti c theory of gases, 11-4
contami nati on control , 11-8 to 11-9
devel opment of pneumati cs, 11-1
pneumati c gases, 11-7 to 11-8
compressed ai r, 11-7 to 11-8
hi gh-pressure ai r systems, 11-7
to 11-8
l ow-pressure ai r, 11-8
medi um-pressure ai r, 11-8
ni trogen, 11-8
qual i ti es, 11-7
potenti al hazards, 11-9
safety precauti ons, 11-9
Pressure control val ves, 6-6 to 6-15
counterbal ance val ve, 6-14 to 6-15
pressure regul ators, 6-9 to 6-10
pressure-reduci ng val ves, 6-12 to 6-14
rel i ef val ves, 6-6 to 6-9
sequence val ves, 6-11 to 6-12
Pressure gauges, 8-1 to 8-5
bel l ows el asti c el ements, 8-3 to 8-5
bourdon tube gauges, 8-1 to 8-3
Pressure swi tches, 8-5 to 8-6
Pressuri zed reservoi rs, 9-2 to 9-3
Proporti onal -fl ow fi l ter, 9-10
Pumps, 4-1 to 4-15
cl assi fi cati on of pumps, 4-1 to 4-2
operati on, 4-1
performance, 4-1
purpose, 4-1
reci procati ng pumps, 4-8 to 4-15
hand pumps, 4-9
pi ston pumps, 4-9 to 4-15
axi al pi ston pumps, 4-12 to 4-15
radi al pi ston pumps, 4-10 to
4-11
INDEX-4
Pumps—Conti nued
rotary pumps, 4-2 to 4-8
gear pumps, 4-2 to 4-6
centered i nternal gear pump, 4-6
hel i cal gear pump, 4-5
herri ngbone gear pump, 4-4
off-centered i nternal gear pump,
4-5
spur gear pump, 4-3 to 4-4
l obe pump, 4-6 to 4-7
screw pump, 4-7 to 4-8
vane pump, 4-8
Q
seal s, 7-15
Quad-Ri ngs, 7-15
Qui ck-di sconnect coupl i ngs, 5-19
R
Rack-and-pi ni on pi ston-type rotary actuators,
10-6 to 10-7
Radi al -pi ston motor, 10-10
Radi al pi ston pumps, 4-10 to 4-11
Ram-type cyl i nders, 10-1 to 10-3
Reacti on turbi ne, 10-12
Reci procati ng pumps, 4-8 to 4-15
hand pumps, 4-9
pi ston pumps, 4-9 to 4-15
Rel i ef val ves, 6-6 to 6-9
Reservoi rs, strai ners, fi l ters, and
accumul ators, 9-1 to 9-13
accumul ators, 9-3 to 9-7
bl adder-type accumul ators, 9-6
di aphragm accumul ators, 9-7
di rect-contact gas-to-fl ui d
accumul ators, 9-6 to 9-7
pi ston-type accumul ators, 9-5 to 9-6
fi l trati on, 9-7 to 9-13
fi l ters, 9-8 to 9-12
fi l ter el ements, 9-11 to 9-12
fi l ter rati ng, 9-11
ful l -fl ow fi l ter, 9-8 to 9-10
proporti onal -fl ow fi l ter, 9-10
pneumati c gases, 9-12 to 9-13
removal of moi sture, 9-12 to
9-13
removal of sol i ds, 9-12
strai ners, 9-8
Reservoi rs, strai ners, fi l ters, and
accumul ators—Conti nued
reservoi rs, 9-1 to 9-3
nonpressuri zed reservoi rs, 9-1 to 9-2
pressuri zed reservoi rs, 9-2 to 9-3
ai r-pressuri zed reservoi rs, 9-2 to
9-3
fl ui d-pressuri zed reservoi r, 9-2
Rotary pumps, 4-2 to 4-8
gear pumps, 4-2 to 4-6
l obe pump, 4-6 to 4-7
screw pump, 4-7 to 4-8
vane pump, 4-8
Rubber, 7-3
S
Screw pump, 4-7 to 4-8
Seal i ng devi ces and materi al s, 7-1 to 7-18
seal materi al s, 7-1 to 7-3
cork, 7-2
cork and rubber, 7-2
l eather, 7-2
metal , 7-2 to 7-3
rubber, 7-3
types of seal s, 7-3 to 7-18
backup ri ngs, 7-12 to 7-15
i nstal l ati on, 7-12 to 7-15
packagi ng and stori ng, 7-12
cup packi ngs, 7-16
di rt excl usi on seal s (wi pers and
scrapers), 7-17
fl ange packi ngs, 7-16 to 7-17
O-ri ngs, 7-6 to 7-12
cure date, 7-8
di mensi ons, 7-8
i denti fi cati on, 7-7
repl acement, 7-9 to 7-12
shel f l i fe and expi rati on date,
7-8
si zes, 7-8
speci fi cati ons, 7-8
seal s, 7-15
Quad-Ri ngs, 7-15
storage of seal s, 7-17 to 7-18
T-seal s, 7-3 to 7-5
U-cups and U-packi ngs, 7-16
l eather U-packi ngs, 7-16
U-cups, 7-16
V-ri ngs, 7-5 to 7-6
Sequence val ves, 6-11 to 6-12
Shuttl e val ve, 6-18
Si l i cone syntheti c fi re-resi stant fl ui ds, 3-6
Spi ral and hel i cal bourdon tubes, 8-3
INDEX-5
Spur gear pump, 4-3 to 4-4
Syntheti c fi re-resi stant fl ui ds,
Syntheti c rubber hose, 5-8 to
T
T-seal s, 7-3 to 7-5
Temperature swi tches. 8-8
Val ves—Conti nued
3-5 to 3-6
di recti onal control val ves—Conti nued
5-9
shuttl e val ve, 6-18
three-way val ves, 6-19 to 6-20
cam-operated three-way val ves,
6-19 to 6-20
pi l ot-oper ated thr ee-way val ves,
6-20
Temperature-measuri ng i nstruments, 8-6 to
two-way val ves, 6-18 to 6-19
8-8
fl ow control val ves, 6-1 to 6-6
bi metal l i c expansi on thermometer, 8-7
di stant-readi ng thermometers, 8-7 to 8-8
bal l val ves, 6-1 to 6-2
Threaded connectors, 5-12
gate val ves, 6-3
Three-way val ves, 6-19 to 6-20
gl obe val ves, 6-3 to 6-5
Tube bendi ng, 5-5 to 5-7 hydraul i c and pneumati c gl obe
Tube cutti ng and deburri ng, 5-4 to 5-5
val ves, 6-5 to 6-6
-
Tube fl ari ng, 5-7 to 5-8
Turbi nes, 10-11 to 10-12
Two-way val ves, 6-18 to 6-19
U
U-cups and U-packi ngs, 7-16
V
V-ri ngs, 7-5 to 7-6
Val ves, 6-1 to 6-25
cl assi fi cati ons, 6-1
di recti onal control val ves, 6-15 to 6-25
pressure-control l ed sequence
check val ve, 6-16 to 6-18
val ve, 6-11 to 6-12
cl assi fi cati on, 6-15 to 6-16
Vane pump, 4-8
poppet, 6-15 to 6-16 Vane-type motor s, 10-9 to 10-11
rotary spool , 6-16
sl i di ng spool , 6-16
four-way val ves, 6-20 to 6-25
poppet-type four-way val ves, W
6-20 to 6-22
rotary spool val ve, 6-22
Water-based fi re-resi stant fl ui ds, 3-6
sl i di ng spool val ve, 6-22 to 6-25 Wel ded connectors, 5-12 to 5-13
needl e val ves, 6-5
pressure control val ves, 6-6 to 6-15
counterbal ance val ve, 6-14 to 6-15
pressure regul ators, 6-9 to 6-10
pressure-reduci ng val ves, 6-12 to 6-14
pi l ot-control l ed pressure-reduci ng
val ve, 6-13 to 6-14
spri ng-l oaded reducer, 6-13
rel i ef val ves, 6-6 to 6-9
sequence val ves, 6-11 to 6-12
mechani cal l y operated sequence
val ve, 6-12
INDEX-6
Assignment Questions
Information: The text pages that you are to study are
provided at the beginning of the assignment questions.


Assignment 1
Textbook Assignment: “Fluid Power,” chapter 1; “Forces in Liquids,” chapter 2;
“Hydraulic Fluids, ” chapter 3, pages 3-1 through 3-6.
1-1.
1-2.
1-3.
Learning Objective: Recognize
the scope of the text and the
breadth of the topic, Fluid
Power, including pertinent
definitions, applications and
fundamental concepts.
The term “fluid power” includes
hydraulics and pneumatics, and is
power that is applied through
liquids or gases pumped or
compressed to provide force and
motion to mechanisms.
1. True
2. False
The purpose of your textbook,
Fluid Power, is to provide you
with
1. a basic guide for use in
maintaining hydraulic
equipment
2. a basic reference concerning
fundamentals of fluid power
3. information on fluid power
application for specific
equipment
4. a reference concerning
advanced concepts of fluid
power
Which of the following is a
favorable characteristic of a
fluid power system?
1. Very large forces can be
controlled by much smaller
ones
2. Different parts of the system
can be located at widely
separated points
3. Motion can be transmitted
without the slack inherent in
the use of solid machine
parts
4. Each of the above
IN ANSWERING QUESTIONS 1-4 THROUGH 1-6,
SELECT FROM COLUMN B THE SYSTEM THAT
MEETS THE PRESSURE AND CONTROL
REQUIREMENTS LISTED IN COLUMN A.
A. Requirements B. Systems
1-4.
1-5.
1-6.
A medium amount 1.
of pressure and
fairly accurate 2.
control
A medium amount 3.
of pressure and
more accurate
control
A great amount of
pressure and/or
extremely accurate
control
Hydraulic
Pneumatic
Combination
hydraulic
and
pneumatic
1-7. Which of the following is a
special problem of fluid power
systems?
1. Loss in efficiency as the
force of the fluid is
conveyed up and down or
around corners
2. Loss of force as the fluid is
transmitted over considerable
distances
3. Leaks
4. Each of the above
1-8. The study of hydraulics was
originally confined to the study
of the physical behavior of water
at rest and in motion. The term
“hydraulics” now includes the
physical behavior of all
1. liquids
2. gases
3. liquids and gases
4. liquids, gases, and solids
1
1-9. Pascal’s law pertains to the
1. construction of aqueducts
2. use of water wheels for doing
work
3. differences of floating and
submerged bodies
4. transmission of force in
confined fluids
IN QUESTIONS 1-10 THROUGH 1-12, SELECT
FROM COLUMN B THE TYPE OF POWER USED IN
EACH ITEM OF EQUIPMENT OR SYSTEM LISTED
IN COLUMN A.
_ EQUIPMENT A B. POWER TYPES
1-10. Dental Chair 1. Hydraulic
1-11. Anchor Windlass 2. Hydro-
pneumatic
1-12. Service station
lift 3. Pneumatic
1-13.
1-14.
1-15.
Learning Objective: Identify the
states of matter and the factors
affecting them.
All matter is classified
according to its state as a
solid, a liquid, or a gas.
1. True
2. False
The critical factors affecting
the state of matter are
1.
2.
3.
4.
temperature and weight
pressure and density
density and specific gravity
pressure and temperature
Learning Objective: Recognize
the pressure characteristics of
liquids, including how pressure
is caused by the weight of the
atmosphere, and identify how
pressures are measured.
Pressure can be measured in terms
of force per unit area.
1. True
2. False
1-16. Mark each of the following
statements, concerning the atmosphere
and atmospheric pressure, true or false;
then select the alternative below that
lists
1-17.
1-18.
1-19.
the statements that are true.
A. The troposphere is that
part of the atmosphere
touching the earth’s surface
B. The atmosphere has weight.
c. Atmospheric pressure
decreases as altitude
decreases.
D. Atmospheric pressure at
points below sea level is
less than at sea level.
1. A and B
2. B and C
3. C and D
4. A, B, C, and D
The reference standard used as an
indicator of atmospheric pressure
is a column of mercury that at
sea level is
1. 76 inches high at 0°C
2. 76 centimeters high at 4°C
3. 76 centimeters high at 0°C
4. 29.92 inches high at 4°C
The side of a thin-walled chamber
partially evacuated of air is the
source of movement for the
1. hydrometer
2. aneroid barometer
3. mercury thermometer
4. Fahrenheit thermometer
Learning Objective: Identify
terms and facts applicable to the
physics of fluids and use these
facts with related formulas to
solve problems pertaining to
density and specific gravity.
In the metric system the density
of a substance is its weight in
1. grams per cubic foot
2. pounds per cubic foot
3. grams per cubic centimeter
4. pounds per cubic centimeter
2
1-20. What change, if any, will occur
in the volume and weight of a
substance if its temperature
changes?
1. Both its volume and weight
will change
2. Both its volume and weight
will be unaffected
3. Its volume will change, but
its weight will remain
constant
4. Its weight will change, but
its volume will remain
constant
1-21. Which statement about specific
gravity is false?
1. The density of a solid can be
determined by multiplying its
specific gravity times the
density of water
2. Specific gravity can also be
described as specific weight
or specific density
3. Specific gravity of a
substance should be measured
at a standardized temperature
and pressure
4. Specific gravity will vary
with the size of the sample
being tested
1-22. How can the specific gravity of a
liquid or solid be expressed?
1. As a ratio between the weight
of the substance and the
density of a volume of water
2. As a ratio between the weight
of the substance and the
weight of an equal volume of
water
3. As the number that shows the
density of the substance in
the metric system
4. As in 2 and 3 above
1-23. What is the specific gravity of a
liquid which weighs 44 pounds per
cubic foot at 4°C?
1. 0.440
2. 0.624
3. 0.705
4. 0.789
1-24.
1-25.
1-26.
1-27.
1-28.
What is the density of a solid
that has a specific gravity of
2.5?
1. 156 pounds per cubic foot
2. 250 pounds per cubic foot
3. 312 pounds per cubic foot
4. 482 pounds per cubic foot
What is the specific gravity of a
solid object which weighs 49.92
pounds per cubic foot?
1. 0.789
2. 0.8
3. 2.7
4. 0.9
A device used for measuring the
specific gravity of a liquid is
known as a
1. hydrography
2. hydrometer
3. hydrostat
4. hydroscope
Learning Objective: Recognize
the principles and equations
involved with the transmission of
forces, and solve related
problems.
The pressure of force exerted on
the end of a rigid metal bar is
applied equally and undiminished
to all surfaces of the bar.
1. True
2. False
The head, or pressure due to the
weight of a fluid, depends on the
density of the fluid and the
1. area of the bottom surface of
the container
2. total volume of the fluid
3. vertical height of the fluid
4. geometric shape of the
container
3
REFER TO FIGURE 2-11 OF YOUR TEXTBOOK IN
ANSWERING QUESTIONS 1-29 AND 1-30, WHICH
DEAL WITH THE MULTIPLICATION OF FORCES
IN POWER SYSTEMS.
1-29. Assume that the input piston has
an area of 3 square inches with a
force of 45 pounds. What is the
pressure in the system?
1. 5 psi
2. 10 psi
3. 15 psi
4. 20 psi
1-30. Assume that the output piston has
a diameter of 6 inches and is
subject to a pressure of 10
pounds per square inch. What is
the force exerted on the output
piston?
1. 28.26 pounds
2. 31.4 pounds
3. 282.6 pounds
4. 314.0 pounds
Refer to figure 1A in answering
questions 1-31 and 1-32. The rule
applying to the action of the piston
states that the force acting on the
piston surface area from chamber C is
proportional to the pressure in chamber
C times the area of the piston head.
The force acting on the piston from
chamber D is proportional to the
pressure in chamber D times the
effective area of the piston head (which
is the cross-sectional area of the
piston minus the cross-sectional area of
the piston shaft.) The piston surface
in chamber C is 25 square inches, and
the effective area in chamber D is 20
square inches.
1-31. The pressure in line A is 200
psi. No force is exerted on
shaft S. How much pressure will
be required in line B to prevent
the piston from moving?
1. 160 psi
2. 200 psi
3. 250 psi
4. 500 psi
1-32. Lines A and B are pressurized to
50 psi. How much force is
applied to each surface and which
way will the piston move?
1. C = 1250 pounds, D = 1000
pounds, piston will move to
the right
2. C = 1250 pounds, D = 1000
pounds, piston will move to
the left
3. C = 1000 pounds, D = 1250
pounds, piston will move to
the right
4. C = 1000 pounds, D = 1250
pounds, piston will move to
the left
1-33. For two pistons in the same fluid
power system, the distances moved
are inversely proportional to the
1. pressure of the fluid
2. volume of fluid moved
3. expansion of the fluid
4. areas of the pistons
Learning Objective: Recognize
the characteristics and behavior
of fluids in motion, including
methods for measuring volume and
velocity, and relate the dynamic
and static factors involved with
fluid flow.
1-34. In fluid power syetems using
liquids, the measurement of the
volume of fluid flow is made in
units of
1. cubic inches per minute
2. gallons per minute
3. cubic feet per minute
4. cubic yards per minute
Figure 1A
4
1-35.
1-36.
1-37.
1-38.
1-39.
Water flows through a pipe of 5
square-inch cross section at the
velocity of 3 feet per second
(fps). At what velocity does it
flow through a constriction in
the pipe with a cross section of
3 square inches?
1. 1.8 fps
2. 3.0 fps
3. 3.6 fps
4. 5.0 fps
Two pistons with different cross-
sectional areas will travel at
the same speed as long as the
rate of fluid flow into their
cylinders is identical.
1. True
2. False
In streamline flow, each particle
of fluid moves in what manner?
1. In uniform helical swirls
2. In parallel layers
3. At a velocity proportional to
the cross-sectional area of
the pipe
4. At the same velocity in the
center of the pipe as along
the walls
Losses due to friction increase
with velocity at a higher rate in
turbulent flow than in streamline
flow.
1. True
2. False
What is inertia of fluids in a
power system?
1. The resistance of the fluid
to movement or change of rate
of movement
2. The force required to
maintain the fluid at
constant velocity
3. The capacity to move and
change rate of flow
4. The force required to
overcome friction
1-40. Neglecting friction, how much
force is required to accelerate 3
pounds of fluid from rest to a
velocity of 322 feet per second
in 2 seconds?
1. 1.5 pounds
2. 3.0 pounds
3. 15 pounds
4. 30 pounds
ANSWER QUESTIONS 1-41 THROUGH 1-45 AS
TRUE OR FALSE BASED ON THE RELATIONSHIP
OF FORCE, PRESSURE, AND HEAD.
1-41.
1-42.
1-43.
1-44.
1-45.
1-46.
Head is a statement of force per
unit area.
1. True
2. False
Velocity head
energy caused
1. True
2. False
is the loss of
by inertia.
Gravity head depends on which
portions of the system are
exposed to open air.
1. True
2. False
Friction head cannot exist
without velocity head.
1. True
2. False
There can be no static head if
the fluid is in motion.
1. True
2. False
Which factors affecting fluid
action are classified as static
factors?
1. Applied forces, inertia, and
friction
2. Atmospheric pressure, applied
forces , and inertia
3. Gravity, applied forces, and
friction
4. Gravity, atmospheric
pressure, and applied forces
5
1-47. Refer to figure 2-18 in your
textbook. If this were a
practical situation, the pressure
in chamber A would be greater
than that in chamber B by the
amount of pressure required to
1. absorb inertia
2. prevent the fluid from moving
3. overcome friction
4. raise the pressure at an
intermediate point
Learning Objective: Recognize
similarities and differences
between pneumatic and hydraulic
fluid power systems, and indicate
operating characteristics and
component functions of basic
fluid power systems.
1-48. The similarity between hydraulic
and pneumatic fluid power systems
is correctly indicated by which
of the following statements?
1. The basic components of the
systems are essentially the
same
2. Both systems depend upon
internal lubrication by the
system fluid
3. Both 1 and 2 above correctly
indicate the similarity
4. The basic components of the
systems are identical and
interchangeable
1-49. Which component of a hydraulic
fluid power system performs the
same function as the receiver in
a pneumatic fluid power system?
1. Reservoir
2. Compressor
3. Actuator
4. Selector valve
Learning Objective: Identify the
characteristic of liquid that
makes it desirable for use in
hydraulic systems and properties
and characteristics that must be
considered in selecting a
hydraulic liquid for a particular
system, including related data.
1-50. Liquids rather than gases are
used in hydraulic systems because
liquids are
1. more compressible
2. less compressible
3. more expensive
4. less corrosive to system
components
1-51. A liquid that is satisfactory for
use in a hydraulic system
provides
1. a low viscosity index, good
sealing quality, and
lubricity
2. a high viscosity index, good
sealing quality, and a low
flashpoint
3. good lubrication and sealing
qualities, and a viscosity
that does not result in an
increase in flow resistance
in” system piping
4. good lubrication and a
viscosity that decreases as
temperature increases
1-52. The viscosity reading of a liquid
is expressed as Saybolt universal
seconds (SUS), which represents
the time, in seconds, it takes
for 60 cubic centimeters of the
liquid at a specified temperature
to pass through an orifice of
given diameter.
1. True
2. False
1-53. A low V.I. indicates that a
liquid will
1. maintain a constant viscosity
over a wide temperature range
2. vary greatly in viscosity
with changes in temperature
3. vary only slightly in
viscosity with changes in
temperature
4. have a response to
temperature changes very much
like the response of
paraffinic oil
6
1-54. Which of the following statements
is NOT a true statement of fluid
viscosity?
1. An ideal fluid viscosity
remains constant throughout
temperature changes
2. The average hydraulic fluid
has a relatively low
viscosity
3. There is a large choice of
liquids available for the
viscosity range required
4. Liquids derived from the same
source have equal resistance
to heat
1-55. The film strength and lubricating
qualities of a liquid are
directly related to the liquid’s
physical properties.
1. True
2. False
1-56. Which statement about a hydraulic
liquid that is continuously
subjected to high temperature
conditions is true?
1. It accumulates moisture
2. It changes unfavorably in
composition
3. Its life is unaffected by the
hours of use
4. The carbon and sludge formed
in it are of little concern
if the reservoir temperature
remains normal
IN QUESTIONS 1-57 THROUGH 1-59, SELECT
FROM COLUMN B THE DEFINITION OF EACH
PROPERTY OF LIQUIDS LISTED IN COLUMN A.
A. Properties B. Definitions
1-57. Fluidity 1.
1-58. Viscosity
1-59. Chemical
stability
2.
3.
4.
The internal
resistance
that tends
to prevent
liquids from.
flowing
The quality,
state, or
degree of
liquids
being
poisonous
The physical
property
that enables
liquids to
flow
The ability
of liquids
to resist
oxidation
and
deteriora-
tion for
long periods
1-60. The desirable flashpoint of a
hydraulic liquid is one which
provides a
1. low degree of evaporation and
good resistance to combustion
2. high degree of evaporation
and poor resistance to
combustion
3. low degree of evaporation and
low resistance to combustion
4. high degree of evaporation
and high resistance to
combustion
1-61. Hydraulic liquid must possess
which of the following
properties?
1. Chemical stability and
freedom from acidity
2. Lubricating ability and
proper viscosity
3. Minimum toxicity and high
flashpoint
4. All of the above
7
1-62. Although manufacturers strive to
produce hydraulic liquids that
contain no toxic chemicals, some
liquids contain chemicals that
are harmful. How do these
poisonous chemicals enter the
body?
1. Absorption through the skin
2. Through the eyes or mouth
3. Through inhalation
4. All of the above
Learning Objective: Recognize
various types of hydraulic
liquids and their particular
characteristics and uses.
1-63. The bases of the most common
types of hydraulic liquids are
classified as
1. synthetic, water, or
vegetable
2. water , petroleum, or
synthetic
3. water , petroleum, or
vegetable
4. petroleum, vegetable, or
synthetic
1-64. What is the moat widely used
medium for hydraulic systems?
1. Petroleum-based liquid
2. Synthetic-based liquid
3. Vegetable-based liquid
4. Water-based liquid
1-65. Which of the following properties
of a hydraulic liquid can be
improved by additives?
1. viscosity
2. Chemical stability
3. Lubricating power
4. All of the above
1-66. The fluid currently being used in
a hydraulic system that requires
a nonflammable liquid will
probably be a
1-67. Which of the following statements
is/are true concerning synthetic-
based fluids?
1. They will not burn
2. They are compatible with most
commonly used packing and
gasket materials
3. They may contain toxic
chemicals
4. All of the above
1-68. You have accidentally gotten a
synthetic hydraulic fluid in your
eyes . You should flush your eyes
for at LEAST 15 minutes and seek
immediate medical attention.
1. True
2. False
1-69. You are required to dispose of
contaminated synthetic fluid
while deployed. HOW should you
dispose of the fluid?
1. Pump it to the collecting,
holding, and transfer (CHT)
tank
2. Place it in drums for
disposal ashore
3. Pump it over the side
4. Dilute it with soapy water
and pump it over the side
1-70. Water-based fluids’ resistance to
fire depends on the vaporization
and smothering effect of steam
generated from water.
1. True
2. False
1. synthetic-based liquid
2. blend of water and oil
3. petroleum-based liquid
4. blend of petroleum and
vegetable oil
8
Assignment 2
Textbook Assignment: “Hydraulic Fluids,” chapter 3, pages 3-6 through 3-11;
“Pumps,” chapter 4; and “Fluid Lines and Fittings,” chapter 5,
pages 5-1 through 5-11.
2 - 5. Compatibility of hydraulic liquid
Learning Objective: Identify
types, characteristic, origin,
control, and checks for various
hydraulic system contaminants.
2-1. Trouble develops in a hydraulic
system when the fluid becomes
contaminated as the result of
1. system component
deterioration
2. friction at hotspots
3. abrasive wear
4. any action that places
foreign matter in the fluid
2-2. By which of the following ways 2-6.
may air enter into a hydraulic
system?
1. Through improper maintenance
2. Past leaky seals in gas-
pressurized accumulators
3. Past actuator piston rod
seals 2-7.
4. Each of the above
2-3. Water contamination of a
hydraulic system is NOT a major
concern since its presence aids
in reducing the flammability of
the fluid.
1. True
2. False 2-8.
2-4. Chemical contamination of
hydraulic liquid by oxidation is
indicated when the liquid
contains which of the following
materials?
1. Sludge
2. Asphaitine particles
3. Organic acids
with the seals and hoses in a
system prevents which of the
following problems from
occurring?
1. Gum formation around the
seals and within the hoses
2. Deposits
of contaminants on
the seals and within the
hoses
3. Condensation of moisture
within the system
4. Chemical reaction between the
liquid acid the seal or hose
material and consequent
breakdown of these parts
All of the following contaminants
are abrasive EXCEPT
1. lint
2. rust
3. sludge
4. sand particles
Whenever drained or used
hydraulic fluid is returned to a
system, straining is necessary
only if the cleanliness of the
storage container is
questionable.
1. True
2. False
Which of the following agents
should parts of a hydraulic
component be cleaned with prior
to being assembled?
1. An approved dry-cleaning
solvent
2. Trichlorotrifluoroethane
3.
Chlorinated solvents
4. Trichlorofluoromethane
4. Each cf the above
9
2-9. Which of the following agents, if
combined with minute amounts of
water found in operating
hydraulic systems, does NOT
change into hydrochloric acid?
1. An approved dry-cleaning
solvent
2. Trichlorotrifluoroethane
3. Chlorinated solvents
4. Trichlorofluoromethane
2-10. When you analyze operating
hydraulic fluids, changes in
which of the following areas may
be of particular interest to you?
1. Chemical properties
2. physical properties
3. particulate contamination
4. Any of the above
2-11. From which of the following
locations can fluid samples be
taken?
1. Filter bowls
2. Tops of tanks
3. Pipe drains after sufficient
fluid has drained
4. Each of the above
Learning Objective: Indicate
functions, operating
characteristics, and related data
pertinent to hydraulic pumps.
2-12. Which of the following is the
function of a hydraulic pump?
1. To provide flow to the
hydraulic system
2. To create the pressure
required in a hydraulic
system
3. To control the pressure
required in a hydraulic
system
4. To compensate for atmospheric
pressure at varying altitudes
2-13. If a hydraulic pump is located
below the reservoir, fluid is
supplied to its inlet port by
which of the following forces?
1. Fluid head
2. Gravity
3. Atmospheric pressure
4. A combination of all of the
above
2-14. The ratings of most hydraulic
pumps are determined by their
1. efficiency
2. output per unit time
3. volumetric output at a given
pressure
4. amount of internal slippage
2-15. Pump performance can be expressed
in which of the following terms?
1. Gallons per minute
2. Cubic inches per revolution
3. Both 1 and 2 above
4. Cubic feet per minute
2-16.
In contrast to a nonpositive-
displacement pump that can
operate with its discharge outlet
completely restricted, a
positive-displacement pump cannot
do so and must be used with a
pressure regulator.
1. True
2.
False
Learning Objective: Identify
operating principles and
construction features of rotary
pumps
2-17. Slippage is the term given to the
amount of fluid that can return
from the discharge side to the
suction side of a rotary pump
through the space or clearances
between the stationary and moving
parts.
1. True
2. False
2-18. Which of the following is
generally the basis for rotary
pump classification?
1. Type of drive
2. Shaft position
3. Service application
4. Type of rotating element
2-19. What type of gears is illustrated
in figure 4-1 of your textbook?
1. Spur
2. Helical
3. Crescent
4. Herringbone
10
2-20.
2-21.
2-22.
2-23.
Which type of gear-type rotary
pumps discharges the smoothest
fluid flow?
1. Spur
2. Helical
3. Herringbone
4. Crescent
Why are helical gear pumps
classified as external gear
pumps?
1. Both sets of teeth project
inward toward the center of
the gears
2. Both sets of teeth project
outward from the center of
the gears
3. The teeth of the interior
gear project inward toward
the center of the gears, and
the teeth of the exterior
gear project outward from the
center of the gears
4. The teeth of the interior
gear project outward from the
center of the gears, and the
teeth of the exterior gear
project inward toward the
center of the gears
Refer to figure 4-2, view B, in
your textbook, What determines
the volume delivery of this pump?
1. The size of the crescent
2. The size of the internal gear
3. The speed of rotation of the
crescent
4. The speed of rotation of the
drive gear
Refer to figure 4-7 In your
textbook. The vanes of the lobe
pump are used for which of the
following purposes?
1. To reduce wear of the pump
caused by surface to surface
contact
2. To provide a good seal
between the lobes and the
point of lobe junction in the
center of the pump
3. To provide a good seal
between the lobes and the
chamber
4. To do both 2 and 3 above
2-24.
2-25.
The pump illustrated In figure
4.9 of your textbook is
designated as unbalanced because
the pumping action is done by one
side of the shaft and rotor.
1. True
2. False
Which, if any, of the following
statements is true of a screw
pump ?
1. Its performance is based on
the fluid’ s viscosity
2. It is very efficient
3. The idler rotors are
connected by gears
4. None of the above
Learning Objective: Recognize
functions, principles of
operation, and construction
features of various types of
reciprocating pumps.
REFER TO FIGURE 4-10 IN YOUR,TEXTBOOK IN
ANSWERING QUESTIONS 2-26 AND 2-27.
2-26. This type of pump is used in some
aircraft hydraulic systems to
provide a source of hydraulic
power for what purpose(s)?
1. Emergencies
2. Testing certain subsystems
during preventive maintenance
3. Determining the causes of
malfunctions in certain
subsystems
4. All of the above
11
2-27.
Why is liquid discharged through
the outlet port when the piston
is moved to the right?
1. The piston rod makes the
inlet chamber smaller than
the outlet chamber
2. Check valve B opens,
admitting liquid to the inlet
port and outlet port through
check valve A
3. Check valve A opens, causing
the liquid confined in the
inlet chamber to flow to the
smaller outlet chamber and
out the outlet port
4. Check valve A closes, causing
the liquid confined in the
inlet chamber to flow to the
outlet chamber and out the
outlet port
REFER TO FIGURE 4-11 IN YOUR TEXTBOOK IN
ANSWERING QUESTIONS 2-28 THROUGH 2-30.
2-28. Which of the following components
will revolve during the operation
of this pump?
1. Cylinder block
2. Slide block
3. Both 1 and 2 above
4. Pintle
2-29. The pumping action of this pump
is obtained by which of the
following actions?
1. Rotating the pintle at the
center of the cylinder block
2. Moving the cylinder block off
center from the axis of the
pintle
3. Positioning the sliding block
to provide unequal travel of
the pistons in the cylinder
block
4. Moving the rotor and reaction
ring to provide unequal
piston travel radially around
the cylinder block
2-30. In which of the following piston
positions will the cylinder have
taken on a full charge of liquid?
1. Position 1, view D
2. Position
2,
view A
3. Position 3, view C
4. Position 4, view B
2-31. Pulsations of fluid flow from a
radial-piston pump are much
greater if the pump has an even
number of pistons than if it has
an odd number.
1. True
2 . False
2-32. Which of the following components
of a radial-piston pump is
connected to the cylinder block?
1. Rotor
2. Pintle
3. Piston
4. Drive shaft
REFER TO FIGURE 4-15 IN YOUR TEXTBOOK IN
ANSWERING QUESTIONS 2-33 AND 2-34,
2-33. The rocker arm will be
perpendicular to the shaft when
the shaft has been rotated how
far?
1. One-quarter of a turn only
2. One-half of a turn
3. Three-quarters of a turn only
4. Either one-quarter or three-
quarters of a turn
2-34. Starting from the position of the
shaft as indicated in figure
4-15, view G, how many times will
rod A be pushed out and pulled in
through the wheel during each
shaft revolution?
1. Once
2. Twice
3. Four times
4. Eight times
2-35. The output of the axial-piston
pump is determined by which of
the following factors?
1. Number of pistons
2. Length of the piston rods
3. Length of the drive shaft
4. Angle given to the tilting
plane
2-36. What component of a Stratopower
pump holds the pistons in
constant contact with the
mechanical drive mechanism?
1. Wobble plate
2. Creep plate
3. Check spring
4. Piston return spring
12
2-37. Automatic variation of the volume
output of a variable-displacement
Stratopower pump is controlled by
which of the following factors?
1. Atmospheric pressure
2. Reciprocating action of the
pistons
3. The position of the rocker
arm on the shaft
4. The pressure in the hydraulic
system
2-38. During nonflow operation of a
variable-displacement Stratopower
pump, what provides its
lubrication?
1. Compensator spring
2. Compensator piston
3. Bypass system
4. Drive cam
Learning Objective: Indicate
basic requirements for fluid
power system lines and
connectors, and recognize
pertinent facts concerning
identification, sizing, uses, and
construction of pipe and tubing.
2-39.
You must consider which of the
following factors when selecting
the types of fluid lines for a
particular fluid power system?
1. The required pressure of the
system
2. The type of fluid medium
3. The location of the system
4. All of the above
2-40. You must give primary
consideration to all but which of
the following factors in
selecting the lines for a
particular fluid power system?
1. The type of material
2. The material’s wall thickness
3. The material’s inside
diameter
4. The material’s outside
diameter
2-41. Replacement of a piece of tubing
with one having a smaller inside
diameter will result in which of
the following conditions?
1. Fluid heating
2. Turbulent fluid flow
3. System power loss
4. All of the above
2-42. Which, if any, of the following
statements is true for pipes of
the same nominal size?
1. As the pipe schedule size
increases, the ID remains the
same and the wall thickness
and OD increase
2. As the pipe schedule size
increases, the ID increases ,
the wall thickness decreases,
and the OD remains the same
3. As the pipe schedule size
increases, the ID decreases,
the wall thickness increases,
and the OD remains the same
4. None of the above
REFER TO TABLE 5-1 IN YOUR TEXTBOOK IN
ANSWERING QUESTIONS 2-43 AND 2-44.
2-43. The nominal size of pipe whose
outside diameter is 1.900 inches
is
1. 1 1/2
2. 1 3/4
3. 2
4. 2 1/4
2-44. What is the schedule 40 wall
thickness of pipe with a nominal
pipe size of 2 inches?
1. 0.154 In.
2. 0.218 in.
3. 0.308 in.
4. 0.436 in.
2-45. What is the size of No. 4 rigid
tubing , and where is the
measurement taken?
1. 0.004 inch, wall thickness
2.
0.040 inch, wall thickness
3. 4/16 inch, inside diameter
4. 1/4 inch, outside diameter
13
2-46. Which statement about the
relative bursting pressure for
various sizes of tubing made of
the same material is true?
1. It is different for each wall
thickness regardless of size
2. It is the same for all sizes
having the same wall
thickness
3. It is lower for small tubing
than for larger tubing of the
same wall thickness
4. It is higher for small tubing
than for larger tubing of the
same wall thickness
2-47. Which of the following metals may
be used to provide a strong,
inexpensive pipe or tubing
capable of withstanding high
pressures and temperatures?
1. Steel
2. Copper
3. Stainless steel
4. Aluminum
2-48. Which of the following basic
requirements must be considered
in designing the lines and
connectors of a fluid power
system?
1. Inside surfaces that do not
create turbulent fluid flow
2. Sizes sufficient to deliver
adequate quantities of fluid
to all components
3. Strength to withstand
pressure surges that exceed
the system’ s working pressure
4. All of the above
2-49. Bends in piping serve to absorb
vibration and to compensate for
thermal expansion and
contraction.
1. True
2. False
2-50. The determining factor for the
radius of the bend to be made in
a pipe is the pipe’s
1. length
2. wall thickness
3. inside diameter
4. outside diameter
2-51. Coarse-toothed hacksaw blades are
preferred for cutting tubing
because they cut faster and are
less liable to choke up with the
chips.
1. True
2. False
2-52. Which of the following procedures
should you follow when cutting a
tube with a tube cutter?
1. Apply continual light
pressure to the cutting wheel
2. Remove all burrs on the
inside and outside of the
tube
3. Remove all foreign particles
from the tube
4. All of the above
2-53. Which of the following statements
is NOT correct for cutting tubing
with a hacksaw?
1. A fine-tooth hacksaw of 48
teeth per inch could be used
2. When you clamp the tubing in
a vice, tighten the vice
until the tubing is just
starting to hold without
collapsing
3. All hacksaw marks must be
removed by filing
2-54. What parts of the hand tube
bender are used to obtain the
correct bend radius and the
desired bend angle on tubing?
1. The clip and the slide bar
2. The radius block and the
slide bar
3. The radius block and the clip
4. The forming bar and the slide
bar
2-55. Which of the following statements
is NOT true concerning the
flaring of a tube?
1. The flare must be large
enough to seat properly
against the fitting
2. The correct diameter of the
flare is obtained by ensuring
that the tube is flush with
the top face of the die block
3. The flare must be small
enough to allow the threads
of the flare nut to slide
over it
14
Learning Objective: Recognize
characteristics, uses,
construction features, and
installation procedures of
flexible hose.
2-56.
Flexible hose should be used in
locations where it will be
subjected to
1. intense heat
2. severe vibration
3. excessive abrasion
4. an oily environment
2-57. Which of the following
information is found along the
layline of synthetic rubber hoses
having a rubber cover?
1. Hose size
2. Cure date
3. Federal supply code
4. All of the above
2-58.
The size of flexible hose is
designated In what increments
measured at what place?
1. Thousandths of an inch,”
outside diameter,
2. Thousandths of an inch,
inside diameter
3. Sixteenths-inch, outside,
diameter
4. Sixteenths-inch, Inside
diameter
2-59. The flexible hose that is inert
to all fluids presently used and
that does not absorb water is
composed of what material?
1. PTFE
2. Natural rubber
3. Synthetic rubber
4. Rubber impregnated cotton or
nylon
2-60. You have completed fabrication of
a flexible hose assembly. Which,
if any, of the following steps
must you NOT perform?
1. Proof test the assembly
2. Ensure that the hose is
compatible with system fluid
3. Flush and dry the hose and
cap its ends
4. None of the above
2-61. Mark each of the following
statements about the correct
installation and use of flexible
hose as true or false, then
select the alternative below that
lists the true statements.
A. Sharp bends may reduce the
bursting pressure of the
hose
B. Supports are never required
when the hose is used.
C. The hose should be stretched
tightly between connecetions.
D. The hose should be wrapped
where necessary for
protection against chafing.
1. A and D
2. A and C
3. B and D
4. B and C
2-62. A characteristic of flexible hose
is that under pressure it will
1.
2.
3.
4.
expand in both diameter and
length
retain its manufactured
dimensions
expand in diameter and
contract in length
contract in diameter and
expand in length
15
Assignment 3
Textbook Assignment: “Fluid Lines and Fittings,” chapter 5, pages 5-11 through
5-21; “Valves,” chapter 6; and Sealing Devices and
Materials,” chapter 7.
Learning Objective: Recognize
uses, construction features,
operational characteristics and
procedures, functions, and
precautionary measures associated
with fluid power system
connectors.
QUESTIONS 3-1 THROUGH 3-4 CONCERN THE
USE OF THREADED CONNECTORS IN FLUID
POWER CIRCULATORY SYSTEMS.
3-1.
3-2.
3-3.
3-4.
The threads of newly threaded
pipe do not corrode if the
fittings cover all of the exposed
threading.
1. True
2. False
Pipe compounds prevent corrosion
and assist in the disassembly of
threaded joints.
1. True
2. False
Excess pipe compound that may
ooze inside lines does not
present problems if the compound
is compatible with the fluid in
the system.
1. True
2. False
The use of threaded connectors is
generally limited to low-pressure
systems.
1. True
2. False
IN ANSWERING QUESTIONS 3-5 THROUGH 3-7,
SELECT FROM COLUMN B THE TYPE OF
CONNECTOR TO WHICH EACH STATEMENT IN
COLUMN A APPLIES. NOT EVERY CONNECTOR
IN COLUMN B IS USED.
3-5.
3-6.
3-7.
A. STATEMENTS B. CONNECTORS
This connector is 1. Brazed
attached to the
piping by welding, 2. Flared
brazing, tapered
thread , or rolling 3. Welded
and bending
4. Flange
This connector
connects sub-
assemblies in some
fluid power systems,
especially in high-
-pressure systems that
use pipe for the fluid
lines
This connector is
commonly used for
joining nonferrous
piping in the pressure
and temperature range
where its use is
practical
3-8. The fitting of a flared connector
should be made of material having
greater strength than that of its
sleeve and nut and of the piping.
1. True
2. False
16
3-9. A universal fitting is one that
can be
1. positioned to the angle
required for the installation
2. adapted to operate with any
size tubing
3. positioned to any angle in
any plane
4. routed through a bulkhead
IN QUESTIONS 3-10 THROUGH 3-13, SELECT
FROM COLUMN B THE CONNECTOR TO WHICH
EACH STATEMENT CONCERNING TIGHTENING
DATA IN COLUMN A APPLIES.
A. TIGHTENING DATA
3-10. This connector
tightened 1/6
turn past the
specified torque
3-11. This connector
may not be
tightened past
the specified
torque
3-12. This connector
must be preset
prior to being
tightened
3-13. This connector
must be turned
with a wrench
1/6 turn past
handtight
3-14.
3-15.
B. CONNECTORS
1. Flareless
type
2. Aluminum
alloy
flared type
3. Steel
flared type
Quick-disconnect couplings are
provided with an automatic
shutoff feature which prevents
loss of fluid from the system or
entrance of foreign matter into
the system when they are
disconnected.
1. True
2. False
Manifolds are used in the
pressure supply and/or return
lines of fluid power systems to
perform which of the following
functions?
1. Conserve space
2. Reduce joints
3. Eliminate piping
4. All of the above
3-16. In long pieces of tubing or
pieces bent to a complex shape,
rust and scale can be removed by
what process?
1. Degaussing
2. Pickling
3. Scraping
4. Sandblasting
Learning Objective: Identify
functions of valves in a fluid
power system; also recognize
functions, operating
characteristics, and construction
features of various types of flow
control valves.
3-17. Valves are used to control which
of the following in fluid power
systems?
1. Direction of fluid flow
2. Fluid pressure
3. Fluid flow
4. All of the above
IN ANSWERING QUESTIONS 3-18 THROUGH
3-20, SELECT FROM COLUMN B THE TYPE OF
FLOW CONTROL VALVE MOST CLOSELY
IDENTIFIED WITH EACH STATEMENT IN COLUMN
A.
3-18.
3-19.
3-20.
A. STATEMENTS
Its flow is con-
trolled by
raising or low-
ering discs or
wedges
Flow or no-flow
through it is
controlled by
turning the valve
shaft one-quarter
turn
Certain types are
used as variable
restrictors
B. TYPES
1. Ball
2. Gate
3. Globe
4. Needle
3-21. Gate valves are suitable for use
as throttling valves because they
close in small increments.
1. True
2. False
17
3-22.
3-23.
3-24.
3-25.
3-26.
The globe valve gets its name
from the globular shape of its
body, a shape that is unique to
this valve.
1. True
2. False
Approximately how far must the
handwheel of a globe valve be
turned toward the closed position
after the valve has been fully
opened?
1. 1/4 turn
2. 1/2 turn
3. 3/4 turn
4. 7/8 turn
What type of flow control valve
makes the most suitable throttle
valve?
1. Gate
2. Plug
3. Globe
4. Needle
Learning Objective: Relate the
operation, functions,
requirements, and construction
characteristics of pressure
control devices to fluid power
systems.
Relief valves are used for which
of the following functions?
1. To maintain pressures above a
predetermined level
2. To maintain fluid flow below
a predetermined rate
3. To prevent pressure from
rising above a predetermined
level
4. To prevent thermal expansion
of the fluids
If a fluid power system uses two
or more relief valves, they must
all be the same size.
1. True
2. False
3-27. Chatter in a relief valve is the
result of
1. rapid opening and closing of
the valve as it ‘hunts
-
above
and below a set pressure
2. too much difference between
opening and closing pressures
of the valve
3. concurrent operation of the
small relief valve and the
main relief valve
4. improper seating of the valve
element
REFER TO FIGURE 6-13 IN YOUR TEXTBOOK IN
ANSWERING QUESTIONS 3-28 AND 3-29
CONCERNING THE OPERATION OF A COMPOUND
RELIEF VALVE.
3-28. When the system pressure
increases above the pressure to
which the valve is set, the main
valve opens
1. independently of the pilot
valve
2. only after the system
pressure increases to more
than can be relieved by the
pilot valve
3. concurrently with the pilot
valve
4. every time the pilot valve
opens but at a predetermined
time interval afterward
3-29. After the main valve has relieved
the system and when pressure
returns to normal, what does
pilot valve do?
1.
2.
3.
4.
It remains open until after
the main valve closes
It closes simultaneously
the main valve
It closes first and allows
pressure to equalize above
and below the main piston
It closes first and causes
pressure above the main
piston to force the main
valve closed
the
with
18
3-30. A hydraulic pressure regulator
does which of the following?
1. Maintains the system pressure
between two predetermined
levels
2. Regulates the quantity of
fluid flow in the system
3. Maintains the system pressure
above a predetermined
pressure level
4. Maintains the system pressure
below a predetermined
pressure level
3-31. Chatter of a pressure regulator
may be prevented by
1. using a constant displacement
pump
2. installing a snubber in the
fluid supply line
3. maintaining a very small
differential pressure
4. making cutout (closing)
pressure higher than cutin
(opening) pressure
REFER TO FIGURE 6-14 IN YOUR TEXTBOOK IN
ANSWERING QUESTIONS 3-32 AND 3-33.
3-32. What is the operational state of
the regulator when the system
pressure is less than that
required to operate one of the
activating units in the system?
1. The pilot valve is seated,
the check valve is unseated,
and fluid is flowing into the
system
2. The pilot valve is unseated,
the check valve is seated,
and fluid is flowing into the
system
3. The check valve is unseated,
the pilot valve is seated,
and fluid is flowing into the
return line
4. The check valve is unseated,
the pilot valve is unseated,
and fluid is flowing into the
system and into the return
line
3-33.
3-34.
3-35.
For the pressure-controlled
sequence valve to operate
properly, the tension of the
spring must be sufficient to hold
the piston in the closed position
against pressure required to
operate the primary unit.
1. True
2. False
Refer to figure 6–17 in your
textbook. Under what condition
does the valve operate as a
conventional check valve?
1. Any time pressure in port A
is greater than the pressure
in port B
2. Any time the pressures in
port A and port B are equal
3. Only when the plunger is
depressed
4. Only when the plunger is
released
Refer to figure 6-18 in your
textbook. The valve decreases
fluid flow when which of the
following conditions exist(s)?
1. The pressure in the outlet
port exceeds the adjusting
spring pressure
2. The pressure in the inlet
port exceeds the pressure
desired in the outlet port
3. The pressure on the valve
diaphragm moves the valve
stem up to close the valve
4. All of the above
REFER TO FIGURE 6-19 IN YOUR TEXTBOOK IN
ANSWERING QUESTIONS 3-36 AND 3-37.
3-36. If the input pressure of the
inlet port is less than the
setting of the pressure reducing
valve, what should be the
respective positions of the
poppet valve and the spool valve?
1. Open, open
2. Open, closed
3. Closed, closed
4. Closed, open
3-37. A restriction in the drain would
cause the outlet port pressure to
1. pulsate
2. increase
3. decrease
4. remain the same
19
3-38. The following statements concern
the operation of the
counterbalance valve shown in
figure 6-20 of your textbook.
Mark each statement true of
false, then select the
alternative below that lists
those that are true.
A.The main valve has equal
surfaces which are the inner
areas of the spool.
The activation of the valve B.
results from the applied
pressure opening the check
valve, allowing the fluid to
bypass the main valve.
C. Reverse action of the valve
is controlled by the
pressure required to
overcome the spring tension
of a check valve.
D. The weight supported by the
valve depends upon the
spring tension on the spool.
1. A, B, C
2. A, C, D
3. B, C, D
4. A, D
Learning Objective: Recognize
construction features, operating
characteristics, and uses of
various types of directional
control valves.
3-39. A poppet is used as the valving
element for which of the
following fluid power valve
applications?
1. Flow control
2. Pressure control
3. Directional control
4. All of the above
3-40. What type of valving element is
most commonly used in directional
control applications?
3-41. Check valves usually contain what
types of valving elements?
1. Ball and cone
2. Ball and poppet
3. Sleeve and poppet
4. Rotary spool and sliding
spool
3-42. What type of check valve permits
free flow of fluid in one
direction and a limited flow of
fluid in the opposite direction?
1. Orifice
2. Vertical
3. Swing
4. Ball
3-43. Refer to figure 6-25 in your
textbook. Force caused by which
of the following plays no part in
the opening and closing of this
valve?
1. Gravity
2. Spring action
3. Backflow of fluid
4. Forward flow of fluid
3-44. Refer to figure 6-27 in your
textbook. If normal system inlet
pressure is lost, when the
alternate system is activated,
its pressure will cause the
shuttle to move sufficiently to
1. close the outlet port to
prevent reverse flow from the
outlet port to the normal
system inlet
2. close the outlet port and
connect the normal system
inlet to the alternate system
inlet
3. apply the alternate system
pressure to both the outlet
port and the normal system
4. close the normal system inlet
to prevent loss of alternate
system pressure
1. Ball
2. Poppet
3. Rotary spool
4. Sliding spool
20
3-45. Refer to figure 6-28 in your
textbook. Which statement
relative to the operation of this
valve is false?
1. The upper poppet is
controlled by the inside cam
2. Fluid flow to the return line
is controlled by the lower
poppet
3. Fluid flow from the pressure
line is controlled by the
upper poppet
4. The lower poppet is unseated
by the outside cam to allow
the fluid to flow into the
cylinder and actuate the
piston
3-46. When the pilot chamber of the
three-way, poppet-type, normally
closed directional control valve
is pressurized, fluid flows from
the actuating cylinder through
the valve and out the exhaust
port .
1. True
2. False
3-47. Which four-way valves are
actuated by cams?
1. Rotary spool
2. Poppet
3. Sliding spool
4. All of the above
3-48. Which type of valve is considered
most trouble free of all four-way
valves?
1. Poppet
2. Rotary spool
3. Sliding spool
4. Cam operated
3-49. Which of the following represents
the flow of fluid as illustrated
in figure 6-34, view B in your
textbook?
1.
2.
3.
4.
Learning Objective: Recognize
required characteristics,
functions, types, and materials
of sealing devices used in fluid
power systems.
3-50. Suitable packing devices for
fluid power systems are made from
materials that possess which of
the following characteristics?
1. Compatibility with fluids
used in the systems
2. Effective sealing ability
3. Durability
4. All of the above
3-51. The term “sealing devices” is a
classification applicable to
packing materials used to provide
an effective seal between which
of the following parts?
1. Two moving parts
2. Two stationary parts
3. A moving part and a
stationary part
4. All of the above parts
combinations
3-52. No internal leakage should be
allowed to occur within a
hydraulic power system because of
the resulting loss in system
efficiency.
1. True
2. False
3-53. Which of the following factors
is/are used in determining the
material used as a sealing device
for a particular application?
1. Location of the seal
2. Storage of the seal
3. Both 1 and 2 above
4. Type of motion
3-54. Cork is suitable for use as
gaskets because of which of the
following characteristics?
1. Its resiliency
2. Its flexibility
3. Its compressibility
4. All of the above
21
3-55. You are reassembling a vital
component which uses a copper
sealing ring and discover there
is not a new replacement ring.
Which, if any, of the following
steps should you take?
1. Reinstall the old ring after
inspecting it for damage
2. Install an O-ring that is
compatible with the fluid
used in the system
3. Reinstall the old ring after
it has been annealed
4. None of the above
3-56. Although it has many of the
characteristics required in an
effective seal , which of the
following materials is not used
as packing material in a system
in which petroleum-base fluid is
used?
1. Cork
2. Asbestos
3. Natural rubber
4. Synthetic rubber
3-59.
3-60.
3-61.
3-62.
Learning Objective: Recognize
functions, identification
procedures, inspection and
installation techniques, and
characteristics of various types
of seals.
3-63.
3-57. Which of the following statements
is NOT true of T-seals?
1. T-seals provide a positive
seal at low pressure
2. There is no military standard
part numbering system to
identify T-seals
3. The dash (-) numbers used to
identify the size of T-seals
are part of a preliminary
numbering system
4. The Navy has created a
numbering system to identify
T-seals for hydraulic
actuators
3-50. To obtain the correct squeeze or
clearance on V-ring packing,
shims or spacers are used to
adjust the packing gland depth.
1. True
2. False
3-64.
Regardless of its condition, an
O-ring must be discarded if it
cannot be positively identified.
1. True
2. False
Which of the following items can
be used to identify replacement
O-rings?
1. Allowance parts lists (APLs)
2. Technical manuals
3. System drawings
4. All of the above
What is the basis for computing
the age of an O-ring’?
1. Service life
2. The cure date
3. Replacement schedule
4. Operational conditions
What is the expiration date of an
O-ring which was cured on 13 July
1990 and has a 4-year shelf life?
1. 30 September 1994
2. 31 August 1994
3. 31 July 1994
4. 13 July 1994
Which of the following materials
should NOT be used to fabricate
tools for use in removing and
installing O-ring and backup
rings?
1. Wood
2. Steel
3. Brass
4. Phenolic rod
Why are O-rings sometimes rolled
on a cone or dowel?
1. To expose the manufacturer’s
identification code
2. To expose and stretch the
inner diameter surface for
inspection
3. To determine their breaking
point
4. To condition them before
installation
22
3-65. What is the first step in
replacing an O-ring in a
disassembled fluid power system
component?
1. Identify the ring’s size and
material
2. Inspect the ring for cuts,
nicks, and flaws
3. Install felt washers on both
sides of the ring
4. Lubricate the O-ring groove
and all surfaces over which
the ring must slide
3-66. What is/are used when the O-ring
installation requires spanning or
inserting through sharp threaded
areas, ridges, slots, and edges?
1. O-ring expanders
2. O-ring entering sleeves
3. A rolling motion of the
O-ring
4. A light coating of the
threads with MIL-S-8802
3-67. What device is used to prevent
3-68.
3-69.
3-70.
O-ring seal extrusion under
pressure?
1. Backup ring
2. Cup packing
3. Flange packing
4. Gasket
Backup rings made from which of
the following materials are the
most widely used?
1. Cork
2. Leather
3. Tetrafluorethylene (TFE)
4. Bakelite
What is the age of deterioration
of TFE backup rings?
1. 1 year
2. 3 years
3. 5 years
4. TFE does not deteriorate
When the packing in a fluid power
system component is being
replaced, the backup washers
should be inspected for which of
the following conditions?
1. Fray
2. cuts
3. Evidence of compression
damage
4. All of the above
3-71. Which of the following statements
about a Quad-Ring is false?
1. It can be used at extremely
high pressures
2. It provides a seal in only
one direction
3. It eliminates the spiral
twist sometimes encountered
with O-rings
4. It can be used as a static
seal as well as a packing for
reciprocating or rotary
motion
3-72. Which of the following statements
is incorrect concerning U-cups
and U-packings?
1. They are usually made of
different materials
2. They both seal on the OD and
the ID
3. They are interchangeable
4. They have cross sections
resembling the letter U
3-73. What type of seal is least
desirable and is used only where
there is not sufficient space for
a U-ring packing or a V-ring
packing?
1. Cup
2. Flange
3. O-ring
4. Quad-Ring
3-74. How are O-rings stored?
1. They are hung from pegs
2. They are kept under tension
3. They are kept in their
original envelopes
4. They are kept in a light,
moist atmosphere with a
strong draft
3-75. A torn O-ring package is properly
secured with which of the
following materials?
1. Staples
2. Moistureproof glue
3. Outer covering of
moistureproof paper
4. Pressure-sensitive,
moistureproof tape
23
Assignment 4
Textbook Assignment: “Measurement and Pressure Control Devices,” Chapter 8:
“Reservoirs, Strainers, Filters, and Accumulators,” chapter 9;
and “Actuators,” chapter 10.
4-1.
4-2.
Learning Objective: Recognize
the construction, operational
characteristics, and uses of
different types of fluid pressure
indicators, thermometers, and
control switches.
The pressure sensing elements of
Bourdon-tube gauges are commonly
made in which of the following
shapes?
1. The letter C
2. Helical
3. Spiral
4. All of the above
Which, if any, of the following
statements correctly explains the
action of a C-shaped Bourdon
tube?
1.
2.
3.
4.
Centrifugal force of fluid
flowing through the curved
tube causes it to straighten
out
Pressure applied to the tube
causes its cross section to
become more circular, causing
It to straighten out
Pressure applied to the tube
causes its cross section to
become more circular, causing
it to contract
None of the above
4-3. A duplex Bourdon gauge is
composed of
1. one indicator dependent upon
both of two separate
mechanisms
2. two separate and independent
mechanisms and indicators
3. one mechanism with one
indicator showing current
pressure and a second
indicator showing the maximum
pressure reached
4. one mechanism with one
indicator showing pressure in
pounds per square inch (psi)
and a second indicator
showing the load on a ram in
tons
4-4. A Bourdon-tube differential
pressure gauge is composed of
1. one indicator dependent upon
both of two separate
mechanisms
2. two separate and independent
mechanisms and indicators
3. one mechanism with one
indicator showing current
pressure and the second
indicator showing the maximum
pressure reached
4. one mechanism with one
indicator which can register
pressure either above or
below atmospheric pressure
4-5. Which of the following gauges can
be used to measure the
differential pressure across a
strainer?
1. Duplex gauge
2. Differential pressure gauge
3. Both 1 and 2 above
4. Compound gauge
24
4-6. Which of the following statements
describes hydraulic pressure
gauges?
1. The tube is designed for
hydraulic fluids only
2. The gauge is designed to
operate at higher pressures
3. Some gauges are designed with
a special type of
spring-loaded linkage to
prevent damage
4. All of the above
4-7. Gauges having bellows elements
are used only for pressure
indicating.
1. True
2. False
4-8. Which of the following is NOT a
function of pressure switches?
1. Indicating pressure
2. Energizing an auxiliary
control system
3. De-energizing an auxiliary
control system
4. Signaling a visual warning or
audible alarm when a preset
pressure is reached
4-9. The pressure switch sensing
element operates on the same
principle as the Bourdon-tube
pressure gauge.
1. True
2. False
4-10. A change in which of the
following properties is the basis
of operation of the bimetallic
thermometer?
1. Chemical
2. Electrical
3. Physical
4. All of the above
4-11. What is the maximum length, in
feet, of the capillary tube of
distant-reading thermometers?
4-12. Distant-reading thermometers
operate similarly to Bourdon-
tube pressure gauges.
1. True
2. False
4-13. In the operation of pressure
gauges within a hydraulic system,
what does a gauge snubber do?
1. Dampens out system pressure
surges and oscillations to
the gauge, thereby preventing
internal damage
2. Prevents hydraulic pressure
indicators from oscillating,
thereby ensuring an accurate
system pressure reading
3. Both 1 and 2 above
4. Meters the flow of
pressurized hydraulic fluid
from the gauge or
transmitter, thereby
preventing internal damage
Learning Objective: Recognize
functions, operating requirements
and characteristics, and
construction features of
hydraulic reservoirs and the
functions of related components.
4-14. The reservoir serves the primary
function of storing the hydraulic
fluid required by the system,
Which of the following secondary
functions does it also serve?
1. Separates air from the system
2. Dissipates heat
3. Traps foreign matter
4. All of the above
4-15. The baffles In a reservoir serve
which of the following functions?
1. Dissipate heat
2. Trap foreign matter
3. Separate air form the system
4. All of the above
1. 50
2. 75
3. 100
4.
125
25
4-16. Which of the following factors
must be considered In determining
the reservoir capacity of a
hydraulic system?
1. The thermal expansion of the
fluid
2. Whether the system is fixed
or mobile
3. The volume of fluid required
by the system
4. All of the above
4-17. Why must the reservoir of an
aircraft designed for high-
altitude operations be
pressurized?
1. To maintain a net positive
suction head to the pump
2. To use atmospheric pressure
to assist fluid flow
3. To prevent the fluid from
congealing at high altitudes
4. To vent the system during
periods of high fluid demand
4-18. A pressurized reservoir may be
Instead at a level below the pump
suction and still maintain a
positive flow of fluid to the
pump.
1. True
2. False
Learning Objective: Identify
operating principles and
applications of accumulators.
4-19. Hydraulic systems are equipped
with one or more accumulators
that serve to perform which of
the following functions?
1. To provide pressure for
emergency operation of the
system in the event of system
failure
2. To act as a buffer and absorb
surges and shock pressures
that might damage pipes and
other components of the
system
3. To equalize and readjust for
any pressure losses in the
system due to small leaks and
thermal reaction of the fluid
4. All of the above
4-20. Which of the following statements
best describe(s) the advantage a
vented tailrod accumulator has
over a floating piston
accumulator?
1.
2.
3.
4.
The tailrod allows the
accumulator to be used as a
hydraulic actuator, thus
eliminating the number of
system components requiring
maintenance
The vented tailrod
accumulator has the space
between the piston seals
vented to the atmosphere,
causing air or oil leakage
past the seals to be apparent
Both 1 and 2 above
The vented tailrod
accumulator has a gauge that
provides a quick indication
of the amount of fluid in the
accumulator
4-21
Why does a bladder-type, air-
operated accumulator have a very
high volumetric efficiency?
1. The bladder is larger
bottom and the rubber
thinner at the top
2.
The bladder is larger
top and the rubber is
at the bottom’
3. The bladder is larger
top and the rubber is
at the top
4. The bladder is larger
bottom and the rubber
thinner at the bottom
at the
is
at the
thinner
at the
thinner
at the
is
4-22. Which of the following statements
describe(s) how an excessive
amount of gas is prevented from
being entrained In direct-
contact accumulators?
1. Safety fluids are used in
this type of accumulator
2. The fluid port is located at
the bottom of the accumulator
3. These accumulators are
generally not used for
pressures over 1200 psi
4. All of the above
4-23. Both the bladder-type accumulator
and the diaphragm accumulator
operate in a similar manner.
1. True
2. False
26
Learning Objective: Recognize
the effects of foreign matter on
filtration in a hydraulic power
system Recall the functions,
construction features, and
operating characteristic of
filters, strainers, and
dehydrators.
4-24. A filter should be used to remove
large particles of foreign matter
from the fluid in a hydraulic
power system.
1. True
2. False
4-25. To prevent the higher
differential pressure that is
generated at cold temperatures by
high fluid viscosity from causing
a false indication of a loaded
filter element, what device is
installed in the button-type
pressure differential indicator?
1. Thermal lockout
2. Viscosity sensor
3. Collapsible filter element
4. Pressure-operated bypass
valve
4-26. Nonbypassing filters are used in
a hydraulic system to serve which
of the following functions?
1. Decrease the frequency of
flushing the system
2. Reduce the probability of the
failure of other system
components
3. Reduce the circulation of
contaminated fluid in the
system
4. All of the above
4-27. How is the bypass valve, located
within the head assembly of some
filters, operated?
1. Manually
2. Pressure
3. Electrically
4. Magnetically
4-28. When you find a filter
differential pressure indicator
button extended, what is the
first action you should take?
1. Replace the indicator
2. Replace the filter el
3. Replace the filter assembly
4. Verify that the releace of
the button is due to a loaded
filter element
4-29. The recirculation of fluid
through a proportional-flow
filter over a period of time will
eventually accomplish the same
purpose as passage of the fluid
once through a full flow filter.
1. True
2. False
4-30. The diameter, in microns, of the
largest spherical particle that
will pass through a filter under
a certain test condition defines
what filtration rating?
1. Mean
2. Nominal
3. Absolute
4. Adequate
4-31. Which of the following types of
filter elements would most likely
be found in the air intake of a
compressor?
1. Ceramic
2 . Porous metal
3. Woven screen wire
4. Moving mechanical device
4-32. Some pneumatic systems use
chemical driers to remove any
moisture that might collect in
the lines beyond the water
separators. The driers remove
this moisture by what process?
1. Absorption
2. Condensation
3. Evaporation
4. Precipitation
4-33. The chemical driers referred to
in the preceding question may be
identified by which of the
following terms?
1. Air driers
2. Desiccators
3. Dehumidifiers
4. Each of the above
27
4-34.
4-35.
4-36.
4-37.
Learning Objective: Recognize
the types of fluid power
actuating devices and identify
construction features, uses, and
operating characteristics of
various types of actuating
cylinders.
What component of a fluid power
system converts fluid power into
mechanical force and motion?
1. Pump
2. Valve
3. Actuator
4. Solenoid
What actuating devices are
commonly used in fluid power
systems?
1. Turbines
2. Motors
3. Cylinders
4. All of the above
A cylinder is identified as a ram
type if its
1. piston rod diameter is less
than one-half of the diameter
of the piston
2. piston rod area is less than
On-half the area of it
3. area is more than one-half of
the area of the piston rod
4. piston rod cross-sectional
area exceeds one-half of the
cross-sectional area of the
piston
Ram-type sinqle-acting cylinders
are designed for which type of
functions?
1. Push functions where springs
assist the functions
2. Pull functions where springs
assist the functions
3. Push functions where return
action depends on springs or
gravity
4. Pull functions where return
action depends on springs or
gravity
4-38.
4-39.
Four-way control valves are
normally used to control the
actions of the
1. single–acting ram
2. double-acting ram
3.
sinqle-acting ram through two
ports
4. double–acting ram using equal
pressure on all valve
surfaces
Refer to figure 10-2 of your
textbook. Why does the extension
stroke exert a greater force than
the retraction stroke?
1. The pressure is much greater
for the extension stroke
2. The bottom of the ram has a
larger surface area than the
lip
3. Both pressure and surface
area are greater for the
extension stroke
4. The extension stroke is
usually assisted by gravity
IN QUESTIONS 4-40 THROUGH 4-42 SELECT
FROM COLUMN B AN APPLICATON OF EACH
TYPE OF ACTUATING CYLINDER LISTED IN
COLUMN A.
A. CYLINDER TYPES B. APPLICATIONS
4-40. Sinqle–acting. 1. Dump trucks
spring-loaded
piston 2.
Ships’ steer.
ing systems
4-41. Telescoping ram
3. Anchor wind-
4-42. Dual ram lass
4. Carrier air-
craft arrest-
ing hooks
4-43. The piston-type cylinder has a
cross-sectional area that
measures more than twice the
cross-sectional area of its
piston rod.
1. True
2.
False
28
4-44. Refer to figure 10-5 in your
4-45.
4-46.
4-47.
4-48.
textbook. Which statement
relative to the operation of this
cylinder is correct?
1. Fluid pressure extends and
returns the rod
2. Fluid pressure extends the
rod and gravity returns it
3. Mechanical force extends the
rod and fluid pressure
returns it
4. Fluid pressure extends the
rod and mechanical force
returns it
What type of directional control
valve is normally used to control
a single-acting, spring-loaded,
piston-type actuating cylinder?
1. Shuttle
2. Transfer
3. Three-way
4. Four-way
Refer to figure 10-6 of your
textbook. This type of cylinder
is normally installed so that the
greater load is carried as the
piston travels in which
direction?
1. To the right
2. To the left
3. To either the right or left:
it does not matter since the
same pressure is applied to
both sides of the piston
Refer to figures 10-6 and 10-8 in
your textbook. A double-acting
unbalanced cylinder differs from
a double-acting balanced cylinder
in that the balanced cylinder has
1. equal, opposing piston
surfaces
2. unequal piston rod areas
3. unequal piston surface areas
4. springs to equalize pressures
on the piston
Rotary actuation of fluid power
equipment can be done only with
the use of fluid power motors.
1. True
2. False
4-49. Although pumps and fluid power
motors are similar in design and
construction, the function of
each is the direct opposite to
that of the other.
1. True
2. False
4-50. Which of the following
4-51.
4-52.
4-53.
operational conditions are
provided by a fixed-displacement
fluid motor?
1. Variable torque and constant
speed
2. Constant torque and constant
speed
3. Constant torque and variable
speed
4. Variable torque and variable
speed
In a system requiring rotation of
a motor in one direction, fluid
flow to the motor can be
controlled by which of the
following components?
1. A flow control valve
2. A variable-displacement pump
3. A two-way directional cantrol
valve
4. Each of the above
Although hydraulic systems use
all of the following types of
fluid power motors, pneumatic
systems are limited to using
which type?
1. Vane
2. Gear
3. Radial piston
4. Axial piston
Refer to figure 10-12 in your
textbook. Which statement about
the gears is true?
1. Both 1 and 2 are driving
gears
2. Both 1 and 2 are driven gears
3. 1 is the driven gear and 2 is
the driving gear
4. 1 is the driving gear and 2
is the driven gear
29
4-54. Which of the following statements 4-57.
concerning the operation of the
vane-type motor illustrated in
figure 10-13 of your textbook is
false?
1. The rotor turns because area
A is greater than area B
2. The pressure of the driving
force is equal in all
directions
3. When the rotor turns
clockwise, the vanes tend to
bend backward due to
centrifugal force
4. The potential energy of the
driving force is converted
into kinetic energy in the
form of rotary motion and
force
4-55. Piston-type motors and variable-
displacement pumps are often
combined to form a hydraulic
transmission. The advantages of
such a transmission over a
mechanical transmission include
which of the following? 4-58.
1. Smooth acceleration and
deceleration
2. Shock load effect reduction
3. Smooth operating action
4. All of the above
REFER TO FIGURE 10-16 IN YOUR TEXTBOOK
IN ANSWERING QUESTIONS 4-56 THROUGH
4-58.
4-56. The direction of the hydraulic
motor is controlled by which of
the
1.
2.
3.
4.
Which of the following statements
concerning the design of the
hydraulic transmission
illustrated in figure 10-16 of
your textbook is true?
1. The A-end is a variable-
displacement axial-piston
motor, and the B-end is a
fixed-displacement axial-
piston pump
2. The A-end is a fixed-
displacement axial-piston
pump , and the B-end is a
variable-displacement axial-
piston motor
3. The A-end is a variable-
displacement axial-piston
pump, and the B-end is a
fixed-displacement axial-
piston motor
4. The A-end is a fixed-
displacement axial-piston
motor, and the B-end is a
variable displacement axial-
piston pump
The B-end of the speed gear is a
fixed-displacement motor whose
pistons make a full stroke for
every revolution of the output
shaft
1. True
2. False
Learning Objective: Identify
functions, operating
characteristics, and construction
features of various types of
following components? turbines.
Electric motor
Hydraulic pump 4-59. Which of the following is NOT a
Prime mover use of turbines?
B-end
1. Convert kinetic energy of gas
to mechanical energy
2. Supply fluid flow in
hydraulic systems
3. Drive electric generators
4. Drive pumps
4-60. Which of the following turbine
parts convert(s) kinetic energy
to mechanical energy?
1. Blade
2. Nozzle
3. Both 1 and 2 above
4. Rotor
30
4-61. Which of the following forces
causes the reaction turbine to
rotate?
1. Reactive force produced on
the moving blades as the gas
increases in velocity
2. Reactive force produced on
the moving blades as the gas
changes direction
3. The impulse of the gas
impinging upon the moving
blades
4. Each of the above
4-62. The nozzles of a reaction turbine
are mounted between the blades.
1. True
2. False
31
Assignment 5
Textbook Assignment: “Pneumatics,” chapter 11; “Basic Diagrams and Systems,”
chapter 12; chapters 9 and 10.
Learning Objective: Recall facts
pertaining to the development of
gases and the characteristics of
gases.
5-1.
5-2
Pneumatic power is most commonly
used in complex systems.
1. True
2. False
Which of the following
characteristics is/are true for
gases?
1. They have no definite volume
2. They have no definite shape
3. Gases are lighter than equal
volumes of liquids
4. All of the above
Learning Objective: Relate the
common temperature scales by
converting temperature readings
between them.
5-7. Which of the follownig statements
is true concerning absolute zero?
1.
2.
3.
4.
It is the temperature at
which no heat remains in a
gas but not the lowest
temperature obtainable
It was attained only once, at
which time the absolute zero
point of -273.16°C was
determined
It is the temperature at
which all molecular activity
in a substance ceases
It is the temperature to
which liquids, solids, and
gases can be reduced and at
which most molecular activity
ceases
IN ANSWERING QUESTIONS 1-8 THROUGH 5-12
REFER TO FIGURE 11-1 IN YOUR TEXTBOOK.
5-8.
IN ANSWERING QUESTIONS 5-3 THROUGH 5-6,
SELECT FROM COLUMN B THE TEMPERATURE
THAT CORRESPONDS TO THE ABSOLUTE ZERO
TEMPERATURE FOR EACH OF THE SCALES IN
COLUMN A.
A. SCALES B. TEMPERATURES
5-3. Celsius 1. -460°
2. -273°
5-4. Fahrenheit
5-5. Kelvin 3. 0°
5-6. Rankine
5-9.
5-10.
What is the Celsius scale
equivalent of 68°F?
1.
5.7°C
20.O°C 2.
3. 37.7°C
4. 52.0°C
What is the Kelvin scale
equivalent of 68°F?
1. 253°K
273°K 2.
3. 293°K
4. 341°K
What is the Rankine scale
equivalent of 68°F?
1. 341°R
2. 441°R
3. 460°R
4. 528°R
32
5-11. What Is the Celsius scale
equivalent of 263°K?
1.
90°C
2.
3.
O°c
4.
-10°C
10°C
5-12. What is the Fahrenheit scale
equivalent of 263°K?
1.
-l8°F
2.
-14°F
3.
14°F
4.
18°F
Learning Objective: Recognize
the pressure characteristics of
gases and liquids, including how
pressure is caused by the weight
of the atmosphere, and identify
how pressures are measured.
5-13. Gases exert equal pressure on all
surface areas of their
containers.
1. True
2. False
5-14. When a reading is taken of the
pressure in an automobile tire,
what does the gauge reading
represent?
1. Local atmospheric pressure
plus the absolute pressure
2. Absolute pressure minus the
local atmospheric pressure
3. Local atmospheric pressure
minus the absolute pressure
4. Absolute pressure
5-15. What is the absolute pressure
(psia) in a cylinder that has a
gauge reading of 1990 psig?
1. 1843
2. 1975.3
3. 2004.7
4. 2137
5-16. What is the gauge pressure (psig)
of a container that has an
internal pressure of 113 psia?
1. 98.3
2. 99.7
3.
125.3
4. 127.7
5-17 Whenever you apply the gas laws,
you must use absolute pressure.
1. True
2. False
5-18
5-19.
5-20.
5-21.
Learning Objective: Identify
various theories, laws, and
properties of gases, correlate
these with applicable formulas,
and solve related problems.
When you observe that the
pressure of gas in a sealed
container has increased, you can
assume that
1. heat has been absorbed by the
gas
2. heat has been removed from
the gas
3. the kinetic energy of the gas
has decreased
4. molecules of the gas gained
energy from each other while
colliding
Four cubic feet of nitrogen are
under a pressure of 50 psig. If
the nitrogen is compressed to 2
cubic feet, what is the new gauge
pressure?
1. 104 psig
2. 114.7 psig
3. 124 psig
4. 134 psig
A cylinder of gas at 75°F has a
pressure of 900 psig, To what
maximum temperature may it be
heated without exceeding 1000
psig?
1. 211.9°F
2. 174.9°F
3. 158.4°F
4. 133.4°F
The general gas equation used in
the study of gases is a
combination of the gas laws of
1. Charles and Boyle
2. Charles and Kelvin
3. Boyle and Fahrenheit
4. Boyle, Charles, and Kelvin
33
5-22. Four cubic feet of a gas at 40°F
has a gauge pressure of 100 psig.
If the volume of the gas is
expanded to 6 cubic feet and the
gas heated to a temperature of
90°F, what will the new gauge
pressure be?
1. 67.9 psig
2. 69.4 psig
3. 71.5 psig
4. 73.6 psig
Learning Objective: Recognize
characteristics of gases used in
pneumatic systems, safety
precautions for handling
compressed gas, and color codes
of compressed gas cylinders.
5-23. In addition to being nonpoisonous
and free from any acids that
might cause system corrosion, the
gas used as the fluid medium for
a pneumatic system must possess
which of the following
characteristics?
1. Nonflammability
2. Chemical stability
3. Ready availability
4. All of the above
5-24. The gases used in Navy pneumatic
systems are similar to the
liquids used in hydraulic
systems, except that the gases
are not
1. acid free
2. nontoxic
3. good lubricants
4. chemically stable
5-25. What characteristic of compressed
air makes it undesirable as a
medium for pneumatic systems?
1. Its toxicity
2. Its flammability
3. Its moisture content
4. Its lubricating qualities
5-26. In all compressed air systems,
the compressor, due to the
unlimited supply of air, is
installed in the distribution
lines leading to the device to be
operated.
5-27. Which of the following statements
is NOT true of LP air systems?
1. The LP air system is supplied
with LP air by LP air
compressors
2. The LP air system is supplied
with air by the HP air system
supplying air through a
pressure-reducing station
3. The LP air system is supplied
with air by the MP air system
supplying air through a
pressure-reducing station
4. LP compressed air is used in
the production of nitrogen
5-28. Why is the use of nitrogen
preferred over the use of
compressed air in many aircraft
and missile pneumatic systems?
1. Nitrogen cannot support
living organisms
2. Nitrogen cannot support
combustion and fire
3. Nitrogen does not cause rust
or decay of the surfaces with
which it comes in contact
4. All of the above
5-29. Which of the following steps can
a maintenance person take to
control contamination of
pneumatic systems?
1. Install an air filter in the
supply line
2. Keep all tools and the work
air clean and dirt free
3. Cap or plug all lines and
fittings immediately after
disconnecting them
4. Both 2 and 3 above
5-30. You must NEVER use the contents
of a cylinder identified by which
of the following color codes for
purging an oxygen system?
1. Gray
2. Black
3. One black stripe around its
top
4. One green stripe around its
top
1. True
2. False
34
5-31.
5-32.
5-33.
5-34.
Inasmuch as compressed air is
neither toxic nor flammable, the
ordinary precautions for handling
compressed gases do not apply to
handling it.
1. True
2. False
Inasmuch as nitrogen is nontoxic,
the usual ventilation precautions
need not be observed when
nitrogen is used in confined
spaces.
1. True
2. False
Which, if any, of the following
operations is an acceptable
practice during the use of
compressed gases?
1. Perform general space cleanup
2. Tighten leaking portions of
compressed gas systems while
they are pressurized to
ensure that you stop the leak
3. Pressurize empty lines and
vessels rapidly
4. None of the above
REFER TO APPENDIX II OF YOUR TEXTBOOK IN
ANSWERING QUESTIONS 5-35 THROUGH 5-3B.
FOR QUESTIONS 5-35 THROUGH 5-38, SELECT
FROM COLUMN B THE MECHANICAL SYMBOL FOR
EACH HYDRAULIC SYSTEM COMPONENT LISTED
IN COLUMN A.
A C O M P O N E N T S _
-
B SYMBOLS
5-35. Sequence valve 1.
5-36. Variable displace-
ment pump
5-37. Check Valve
2.
5-38. Pressure gauge
3.
4.
REFER TO APPENDIX III OF YOUR
TEXTBOOK IN ANSWERING QUESTIONS
5-39 through 5-41.
Learning Objective: Recognize
the importance of diagrams and
symbols, identify symbols used in
diagrams, and types of diagrams.
For a mechanic or technician.
which of the following aids
is/are provided by diagrams?
1. Location of components within
a system
2. Location of general
components
3. Understanding of how a system
operates
4. All of the above
FOR QUESTIONS 5-35 THROUGH 5-41, SELECT
FROM COLUMN B THE AERONAUTICAL
MECHANICAL SYMBOL FOR EACH HYDRAULIC
SYSTEM COMPONENT LISTED IN COLUMN.
A. COMPONENTS B. SYMBOLS
5-39. Power-driven 1.
pump
5-40. Actuating
cylinder
5-41. Automatic 2.
check valve
3.
4.
35
FOR. QUESTIONS 5-42 THROUGH 5-45, SELECT
FROM COLUMN B THE DIAGRAM THAT IS
DEFINED IN COLUMN A.
A. DEFINITIONS B. DIAGRAMS
5-42. Shows the intern- 1. Combina-
al parts of the tion
components
2. Pictorial
5-43. Shows the general
location of 3. Graphic
components
4. Cutaway
5-44. Uses symbols,
shows actual
appearance, and
shows internal
working part
5-45. Uses symbols to
show components
5-46. Which of the following diagrams
includes the interconnecting
system piping?
1. Combination
2. Pictorial
3. Graphic
4. Each of the above
5-47. Which, if any, of the following
diagrams contains pipe sizes and
data on the sequence of system
operation?
1. Combination
2. Pictorial
3. Graphic
4. None of the above
5-48. A schematic diagram of a
hydraulic system enables a
mechanic to accomplish which of
the following tasks?
1. Understand the operation of
the system
2. Identify components of the
system
3. Trace the flow of fluid
through the system
4. All of the above
5-49. Which of the following
statements about an oper-center
hydraulic system is false?
1. The directional control
valves are connected in
parallel
2. There is no pressure in the
system when the actuators
are idle
3. The system may have any
number of subsystems with a
directional control valves,
for each
4. The pump circulates fluid
from the reservoir, through
the directional control
valves, and back to the
reservoir
5-50. Why are closed-center hydraulic
systems the most widely used
systems.?
1. They provide smooth
operation of their actuators
2. They eliminate continuous
system pressurization
3. They operate very rapidly
4. They do all of the above
Learning Objective: Recognize
Navy applications, component
functions. construction
features, and operating
characteristics of hydraulic
power drive systems.
5-51. Hydraulic power drives are used
in the Navy to perform which of
the following functions?
1. Drive and control winches,
capstans , and windlasses
2. Train and elevate nearly all
calibers of guns
3. Position rocket and missile
launchers
4. All of the above
36
QUESTIONS 5-52 THROUGH 5-55, SELECT FROM
COLUMN B THE HYDRAULIC POWER DRIVE
SYSTEM COMPONENT TO WHICH EACH STATEMENT
IN COLUMN A APPLIES.
A. STATEMENTS B. COMPONENTS
5-52. It can be an 1. A- end
electric motor
2. B-end
5-53. It is a hydraulic
motor mover 3. Prime
5-54. It is a hydraulic
pump
5-55. It can be a gaso-
line enigine
REFER TO FIGURE 12-5 IN YOUR TEXTBOOK IN
ANSWERING QUESTIONS 5-56 THROUGH 5-62.
5-56. The forward shaft of the prime
mover drives which of the
following components?
1. The hydraulic pump
2. The hydraulic motor
3. The auxiliary pumps
4. All of the above
5-57. What type of pump is the A-end
pump of this power drive?
1. Axial-flow variable-
displacement
2. Radial-flow variable-
displacement
3. Axial-flow constant-
displacement
4. Radial-flow constant-
displacement
5-58. Which of the following statements
is true concerning the operation
of the A-end?
1. Its output is variable
because it is driven at a
variable speed
2. Its output is constant
because it is driven at a
constant speed
3. Its output is variable even
though it is driven at a
constant speed
4. Its output is constant even
though it is driven at a
variable speed
IN QUESTIONS 5-59 THROUGH 5-62, SELECT
FROM COLUMN B THE AUXILIARY PUMP THAT
PERFORMS EACH FUNCTION LISTED IN COLUMN
A.
A. FUNCTIONS B. PUMPS
5-59. Transmits a puls- 1. Replen-
ing effect to the ishing
fluid in the res-
ponse pressure 2. sump
pump
5-60. Replaces fluid in and
the active systems oscil-
of the power drive lator
5-61. Supplies high- 3. Control
pressure fluid to pres
the various pistons sure
in the system
5-62. Pumps leakage to the
expansion tank
5-63. What function(s) does the
reservoir provide?
1. A method of cleansing and
storing fluid
2. A reserve supply of fluid
3. A cooling surface for the
fluid
4. Both 2 and 3 above
REFER TO FIGURE 12-6 IN YOUR TEXTBOOK IN
AWSWERING QUESTIONS 5-64 AND 5-65.
5-64. How is the tilting box
positioned?
1. Locally by the stroke
control shaft
2. Automatically by the stroke
control shaft
3. Mechanically by hand control
4. By each of the above means
5-65. The tilting box will not move
under which of the conditions
listed below?
1. IHP = 385 psi, HPC = 900
psi
2. IHP = 500 psi, HPC = 1000
psi
3. IHP = 750 psi, HPC = 750
psi
4. IHP = 800 psi, HPC = 1000
psi
37
5-66. The direction and speed of the
hydraulic motor are controlled by
the
1. electric motor
2. hydraulic pump
3. prime mover
4. B-end
REFER TO FIGURE 12-8 IN YOUR TEXTBOOK IN
ANSWERING QUESTIONS 5-67 THROUGH 5-71.
5-67. Which of the following components
is/are NOT operated by nitrogen
from the manually operated
nitrogen bottle?
1. Dump valves
2. Nose gear cylinder
3. Main gear unlock cylinders
4. Aft door cylinders
5-68. What provides the force to
reposition the shuttle valves for
emergency operation?
1. Hydraulic fluid
2. Gravity
3. Springs
4. Nitrogen
5-69. When the emergency system is
actuated, what force extends the
main gear after the unlock hooks
are released?
1. Gravity
2. Hydraulic pressure
3. Nitrogen pressure
4. A combination of gravity and
nitrogen pressure
5-70. When the emergency system is
actuated, what component is used
in the system to prevent a fluid
lock in the landing gear?
1. Dump valve
2. Timer valve
3. Relief valve
4. Shuttle valve
REFER TO FIGURE 12-10 IN YOUR TEXTBOOK
IN ANSWERING QUESTIONS 5-71 AND 5-72.
5-71. How is the main valve in the
4-way valve assembly normally
operated?
1. Electrically
2. Hydraulically
3. Manually
5-72. What is the function of the
orifice plate installed in the
lines to port A of the hydraulic
cylinders?
1. To control the flow of
hydraulic fluid to the
cylinder for raising
operations
2. To control the flow of
hydraulic fluid to the
cylinder for lowring
operations
3. Both 1 and 2 above
4. To allow for changes in the
viscosity of the hydraulic
flluid as its temperature
changes
38