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Solar Powered, Multi-seated,

Internetted Computer System


Final Report
December 3
rd
, 200
Sponsored By:
In Cooperation With:
Michigan State University University of Dar es Salaam
ECE 48 ! Design "eam #$ ! %all $8
Management &a'() Ma*(r
We) &osh Wong
Doc(ment Ben +ershner
,resentation-.a) Eric "ar'leson
Executive Summary
With the increasing proliferation of afforda)le/ relia)le personal comp(ters into
the mar'etplace/ there is a great demand to develop afforda)le personal comp(ters for
remote and (nderdeveloped areas0 Before deploying a comp(ter system into s(ch harsh
conditions several o)stacles m(st )e overcome/ incl(ding so(rce of electricity/
telecomm(nications/ and the savannah climate0 "he .enovo Corporation has tas'ed this
team to develop a solar!po1ered comp(ter 1or'station that can accommodate (p to eight
(sers0 "he sol(tion m(st )e ro)(st eno(gh to 1ithstand the harsh environment 1ith as
little technical maintenance as possi)le/ yet still )e afforda)le for r(ral schools0
2 )an' of solar panels charges a small )attery )an' (sing a commercially
availa)le charge controller0 2 c(stom engineered )attery management system monitors
voltages and c(rrents from the solar panels and the )attery to calc(late system data0 "he
system also monitors case temperat(res to ins(re everything is operating 1ithin a safe
range0 Sho(ld the )attery )ecome discharged or temperat(res rise a)ove the safe limits
the system 1ill a(tomatically sh(t itself do1n0 2ll po1er data is logged to the comp(ter
and stored for system optimi*ation0 2 small .CD panel displays pertinent system
information
2 single comp(ter can connect (p to 8 monitors/ 'ey)oards and mice0 Each
terminal allo1s independent sim(ltaneo(s logons0 "he operating system is .in(3 )ased
and (ses only free and open so(rce soft1are 4hereinafter referred to as %5SS60
Since this pro7ect has three vastly different/ )(t e8(ally important main tas's that
needed to )e researched/ tested/ and )(ilt this report is split into three main sections0 %irst
is solar po1er system design/ second is po1er management/ and third is M(lti seat
hard1are and soft1are0 Each section 1ill address the research/ design iss(es/ testing/ and
concl(sions that 1ere fo(nd0 "he last section 1ill deal 1ith system integration and
pro7ect findings and concl(sions0 Since 1e did not deal 1ith the telecomm(nications
iss(es these 1ill not )e addressed in this report0
$
Acknowledgement
We 1o(ld li'e to than' o(r sponsor/ .enovo/ for their help in ma'ing this pro7ect
a s(ccess0 We also 1o(ld li'e to than' o(r team mem)ers in the "elecomm(nications
department as 1ell as the fac(lty and st(dents 1or'ing 1ith (s at the University of Dar
Es Salaam/ "an*ania0
2lso 1e 1o(ld li'e to than' .EM and Man vs0 Machine for their donations and
samples0 "heir engineers and salespeople 1ere very helpf(l in g(iding (s in the right
direction0
"his pro7ect 1o(ld not have )een possi)le 1itho(t the help of o(r facilitator Dr0
&ian 9en0 2lso 1e 1o(ld li'e to than' Dr0 :oodman for helping 'eep (s on trac' and
helping (s plan o(r deployment of this pro7ect in "an*ania0
;
Fi!ure " - Power system bloc# dia!ram$
4
Table of Contents
E3ec(tive S(mmary000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 $
2c'no1ledgement00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 ;
Table of Contents..................................................................................................5
Section < ! ,hotovoltaic System Design00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000=
Determining Size of Photovoltaic Panel Array:.........................................................................7
Determining Load Power Consumption:....................................................................................7
Determining Solar nsolation Levels:.........................................................................................!
Sizing "attery Array................................................................................................................. #$
%ire Sizing and Connections:..................................................................................................#&
'a(imum Solar Power )utput:................................................................................................#*
nverter to "attery %iring........................................................................................................#+
DC,AC nverter........................................................................................................................ #-
Charge Controller.................................................................................................................... #7
Conclusion............................................................................................................................... #.
Section $ ! ,o1er Management0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000$<
/esearch................................................................................................................................... $#
0oltage 'easurements.............................................................................................................$$
Control "oard.......................................................................................................................... $&
Power 'anagement "oard ......................................................................................................$*
Conclusion............................................................................................................................... $+
Section ; ! M(lti Seat System >ard1are and Soft1are00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000$=
1hin Clients.............................................................................................................................. &2
M(ltiple!Mother)oards00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 ;<
'ulti,3ser................................................................................................................................ &$
1esting4Conclusion................................................................................................................... &$
Section 4 ! System Integration and Concl(sion00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000;4
ntegration................................................................................................................................ &*
Safety........................................................................................................................................ &*
5uture mprovements:..............................................................................................................&-
ntelligent 'onitoring..............................................................................................................&7
?
Conclusion:.............................................................................................................................. &.
2ppendi3 < @ "echnical 9oles and 9esponsi)ilities0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000004<
6ric 1ar7leson.......................................................................................................................... *#
8oshua %ong............................................................................................................................ *&
8a7u9 'azur............................................................................................................................. **
"en :ershner........................................................................................................................... *+
2ppendi3 II ! Schematics000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000004A
2ppendi3 III @ :antt Chart0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000048
000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 48
2ppendi3 IB ! Comenclat(re000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000004D
2ppendi3 B ! 9eferences and 9ecommended 9eading00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000?
A
Section 1 - !otovoltaic System "esign
"here are many types of solar systems )(t most can )e categori*ed into a
variation of the follo1ing: 2 Egrid!tieF system 1here there are no )atteries and the po1er
grid provides )ac'!(p po1er0 2 hy)rid Egrid!tieF system 1here the po1er grid provides
)ac'!(p for the solar panels and )atteries act as a )ac'(p for the grid0 In cases 1here
there is no access to grid po1er an Eoff!gridF system is (sed/ in 1hich the )attery )an'
stores and provides all the energy for the system 1itho(t a )ac'(p0 Since this is generally
the case in (nder!developed areas this 1ill )e the system disc(ssed here0 "here are also
systems 1ith generators as )ac'(ps/ they are compara)le to Egrid!tieF systems and 1ill
also )e omitted from disc(ssion here0
"etermining Si#e of !otovoltaic anel Array$
"here are several steps involved in si*ing the ,B array/ determining load po1er
cons(mption/ acco(nting for losses and dividing )y solar insolation levels for deployment
region0
"etermining %oad ower Consum&tion$
"he first step is to determine ho1 m(ch po1er the total system load 1ill dra10
,o1er is meas(red in Watts:
P % & I 4&o(leGs .a16
>o1ever/ the po1er rating is more (sef(l 1hen loo'ed at in terms of time/ this is
indeed ho1 electric companies charge cons(mers0 %or e3ample a $Watt light )(l)
r(nning for $4 ho(rs (ses 408 +Wh0
200'atts 2()rs % (00 'att-*ours or ($ +')
2 list of all devices connected to the system sho(ld )e made 1ith their
appropriate po1er dra1 availa)le from specifications sheets or )etter yet/ act(al
meas(rements0
=
Component Power (Watts)
Lenovo S10 (Idle) 91
Lenovo S10 (Full Processor + Hard
Drve)
11!"#!
Lenovo S10 ($0% Dut& C&cle) 9'"#$
Satellte (outer (Idle) )$"'
Satellte (outer (*us&) #+")
,st" -&p" Satellte ($0% Dut& C&cle) )9".1
1#/ LCD Screen 0 . (+01.) 2 '0
-otal +$'"1. Watts
Fi!ure 2 - Power measurements on "","",200$ -ote. *eadsets, +eyboards / Mice are currently not
included in calculations because t)e team is not in possession o0 t)em and t)eir power consumption
s)ould be minimal$
Since these devices are designed to pl(g into 2C po1er/ a DC!2C po1er inverter
is needed0 "he po1er inverter ideally operates at DH efficiency0 "herefore the ma3im(m
inverter dra1 from )atteries is:
23 'atts , 0$10 % 22($20 'atts
"his system po1er dra1 is then m(ltiplied )y the amo(nt of ho(rs per day that it
1ill operate0
22($20 'atts )rs,day % 2""2$0 'att *rs,day
"o compensate for system losses d(ring )attery charge-discharge cycles the total
system po1er cons(mption is m(ltiplied )y a $H compensation factor 4S(n1i*e60
2""3$32 'att *rs,day "$2 % 23(0$"2 'att *rs,day
"etermining Solar 'nsolation %evels$
In order to determine a good appro3imation of ho1 m(ch po1er the ,B panels
1ill o(tp(t/ solar insolation levels need to )e considered0 Solar insolation is the amo(nt
of incoming solar radiation incident on a s(rface/ for ,B applications the s(rface of
interest is the earthGs s(rface0 "he val(es of solar insolation are commonly e3pressed in
'Wh-m$-day/ 1hich is the amo(nt of solar energy that stri'es a s8(are meter of the
earthIs s(rface in a single day0 "his is commonly referred to as a ES(n!>o(r!DayF0 "he
8
amo(nt of insolation received at the s(rface of the Earth is controlled )y the angle of the
s(n/ the state of the atmosphere/ altit(de/ and geographic location0
D
<
Fi!ure 3 - 'orld insulation le4els$
"his map divides the 1orld into si3 solar performance regions )ased on 1inter
pea' s(n ho(rs0
It is important to 'eep this in mind 1hen designing the system )eca(se as seen
)elo1 in %ig(re 4/ d(ring the 1inter yo( have a m(ch smaller JSolar Windo1G0 Worst
case scenarios sho(ld )e calc(lated as it is )etter to have e3tra energy in the s(mmer than
not eno(gh in the 1inter0 "herefore the ES(n!>o(r!DayF val(es for Decem)er 4since
Decem)er days are shortest6 are generally (sed0
Fi!ure ( - Sun pat) c)art$
Solar Insolation .evels for 2r(sha/ the prototype deployment area/ are seen )elo1
in %ig(re ?0
<<
Fi!ure 3 - *an#ins$
"he compensated total po1er cons(mption per day val(e calc(lated a)ove is then
divided )y the solar insolation val(es for given deployment region to determine minim(m
,B panel array po1er o(tp(t re8(irement:
23(0$"2 'att *rs,day , 3$3 % (2"$( 'atts
Si#ing (attery Array
Cearly all large rechargea)le )atteries in common (se are .ead!2cid type/
altho(gh there are three variations/ flooded/ gelled electrolyte 4E:ell CellsF6 and
a)sor)ed glass matt 4E2:MF60 %looded is the oldest and cheapest technology (sed )(t
can )e dangero(s/ in case of a malf(nction acid can spill0 :ell Cells contain acid that has
)een KgelledK )y the addition of Silica :el/ t(rning the acid into a solid mass/ therefore
even if the )attery 1here crac'ed open/ no acid 1o(ld spill0 :ell )atteries need to )e
charged at a slo1er rate 4capacity - $6 )(t this is not a concern in the ,B set(p as the
panels 1ill not )e o(tp(tting nearly this m(ch c(rrent0 2:M )atteries are the ne1est
technology and have all the advantages of :ell Cells 1itho(t the charging limitations0
2ll deep cycle )atteries are rated in amp!ho(rs0 2n amp!ho(r 42mps 3 >o(rs6 is
one amp for one ho(r/ or < amps for <-< of an ho(r and so forth0 "he accepted 2>
rating time period for )atteries (sed in solar electric and )ac'(p po1er systems is the K$
ho(r rateK0 "his means that it is discharged do1n to <0? volts over a $ ho(r period
1hile the total amp!ho(rs it s(pplies is meas(red 4Winds(n60
"he compensated total po1er cons(mption per day val(e is (sed again to
calc(late minim(m )attery array si*e0
23(0$"2 'att *rs,"2 &olts % 2""$2 5mp*rs,day
C(m)er of days of a(tonomy to s(pport: < 48hrs6
2""$2 " % 2""$2 5mp*rs
EBattery life Ldeep cycleM is directly related to ho1 deep the )attery is cycled each
time0 If a )attery is discharged to ?H every day/ it 1ill last a)o(t t1ice as long as if it is
cycled to 8H D5D Ldepth of dischargeM0 If cycled only <H D5D/ it 1ill last a)o(t ?
<$
times as long as one cycled to ?H0 5)vio(sly/ there are some practical limitations on
this ! yo( donIt (s(ally 1ant to have a ? ton pile of )atteries sitting there 7(st to red(ce
the D5D0 "he most practical n(m)er to (se is ?H D5D on a reg(lar )asis 4Winds(n60F
Dept) o0 disc)ar!e 0or battery. 0$3
2""$2 , 0$3 % (23$2 5mp*rs
"his means that after 8 hrs of (se 1itho(t s(n the )attery 1ill )e discharged to ?H
8 >rs of a(tonomy and )attery depth of discharge at 08 4>alf the life!span of 0?6:
22($20 5mp *rs
A >rs of a(tonomy and )attery depth of discharge at 0?:
22($2 'atts 2 *rs % "36$2 'att *rs , day "$2 % "103$"2 'att *rs , day
"103$"2 'att *rs,"2 &olts % "3$62 5mp*rs
"(2$ 5mp*rs , 0$3 % 3"6$32 5mp *rs
4 >rs of a(tonomy and depth of discharge at 0?:
23 'atts ( *rs % "03$( 'att *rs , day "$2 % "260$0 'att *rs , day
"260$0 'att *rs , "2 &olts % "03$( 5mp *rs
"03$( 5mp *rs , 0$3 % 2""$2 5mp *rs
)ire Si#ing and Connections$
2nother important consideration for the system is the electrical 1iring0 2ll 1iring
needs to safely accommodate the amo(nt of c(rrent dra1 of the system 1ith an
accepta)le amo(nt of losses0 In a DC system losses 8(ic'ly )ecome an iss(e0 "his is
especially a concern ,B systems as they can only handle a small voltage drop as there
m(st )e eno(gh potential to charge the )attery array/ and of co(rse it is good practice to
'eep energy loss so(rced from the s(n to a minim(m0 :enerally a ;H drop )et1een ,B
array and )atteries is accepta)le0 2lso/ Eany type of connection )igger than 2W: <
sho(ld have a proper compression connector/ 1ith appropriate 7oint compo(nd and
preparation0 "his does re8(ire special tools and dies0 5ther1ise yo( are r(nning the ris'
<;
of )(rning (p yo(r connections if yo( get any 'ind of heavy c(rrent flo1ing0
4Solar%or(m6F
.osses associated 1ith transmission of DC po1er:
CM % 722$2 5 D8,&D
CM % Circular Mills In Copper
5 % current in amps
D % one-way cable distance in 0eet
&D % &olta!e Drop
22$2 % Constant 0or Copper
%or 1iring from the ,B panels to charge controller the ma3im(m ,B short circ(it
c(rrent specification 4from ,B data sheet6 is (sed0
*aximum Solar ower +ut&ut$
$4 Bolt Systems:
Configuration Max Current Out (Amps)
6 x PW080 3 x (5.14A!"C) # 15.4$
3 x "%165 $0.63
4 x &'1$5 $0.83
Fi!ure 2
<$ Bolt Systems:
Configuration Max Current Out (Amps)
6 x 80 Watt 6((5.14A!"C) # 30.84
3 x PW165 41.$5
Fi!ure 6
<4
Using the loss e8(ation a)ove the follo1ing res(lt 1as o)tained for the selected
system:
Distance. 300t
&olta!e Drop. 0$62
Current. "3$(2 5mps
Circular Mills. 23662$3
5'9. 2
'nverter to (attery )iring
%or c(rrent level estimates from the )attery to inverter ma3im(m po1er dra1
levels are (sed altho(gh this distance is generally short and ma3im(m availa)le 1ire
ga(ge is recommended0 "his is also d(e to the fact that the system 1ill enco(nter s(rge
c(rrents as vario(s components are Jt(rned onG0 Since the system (sed as an e3ample
here is not contin(o(sly r(nning and is to )e t(rned off every night and )ac' on in the
morning this 1as a serio(s iss(e that needed to )e tested0 49efer to %ig(re D60
Ma3im(m ,o1er Dra1:
Component Po)er (Watts)
*eno+o "10 (,u-- Pro.essor / 0ar1 2ri+e) 116.36
"ate--ite 4outer (5ust6) 3$.5
137 *C2 ".reen x 4 ($0 4) # 80
%ota- $30 Watts
Fi!ure
2ss(ming the inverter that 1ill )e so(rced in deployment area is operating at DH
efficiency:
260 'atts % 300 'atts : 10;
Ma3im(m c(rrent dra1 in <$ Bolt system N ; Watts - <$ Bolts N 23 5mps
Ma3im(m c(rrent dra1 in $4 Bolt system N ; Watts - $4 Bolts N "2$3 5mps
<?
Power-Up DC Current Draw
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
1 1570 3139 4708 6277 7846 9415 10984 12553 14122 15691 17260 18829 20398 21967 23536 25105 26674 28243 29812 31381
Samples
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

(
A
m
p
s
)
Fi!ure 1
%ig(re D sho1s DC c(rrent dra1 as meas(red d(ring po1er!(p of .enovo S<
Wor'station 4c(stom config(ration6 and .<D;p Monitor0 2ltho(gh the system is only
dra1ing ? amps 1hile r(nning the s(rge c(rrent spi'es are clearly visi)le0 "his is indeed
one of the reasons 1hy proper electrical connections are cr(cial0
"C-AC 'nverter
Since the comp(ter and monitors are designed to pl(g into 2C po1er and
accessory pl(gs for phone charging are a pro7ect specification an inverter is necessary0
"here are t1o types of inverters/ p(re sine 1ave and modified sine0 Most devices 1ill
1or' from modified sine/ this is 1hat common (ninterr(pted po1er s(pplies provide and
1hat 1as selected for this system0 It is important to ma'e s(re that the inverter is rated to
provide eno(gh po1er for everything r(nning off of it0
<A
C!arge Controller
"he charge controller chosen for this system is the 5(t)ac' ,o1er %le3Ma3 A0
"his decision 1as )ased on versatility/ efficiency/ ro)(stness/ and availa)ility in
deployment area0 "he 5(t)ac' can accept a 1ide range of voltage inp(ts as 1ell as
vario(s )attery arrays/ this 1as important for this specific system as (ltimately 1hatever
solar panels are in stoc' at the time of deployment in the region 1ill )e (sed0
Cote/ the efficiency c(rves 4%ig(re < and %ig(re <<6 are for the %le3ma38/ they
are identical to the %le3ma3A other than the fact that the %OA does not accept 8? and
<B0
"he highlighted area on the graph represents the highest efficiency 1hile charging
a <$B )attery array0 "he charge controller is operating at a)o(t D?0?H efficiency 1ith an
inp(t Boltage )et1een <=!;4B0 "ypically a <$B ,B panelIs Boltage at ,ea' ,o1er is
aro(nd <= Bolts0
<=
Fi!ure "0 - <utbac# c)ar!e controller$
<8
"he highlighted area in this graph represents the optim(m efficiency if the system 1here
charging a $4B )attery array0 "he charge controller is operating at a)o(t D8H efficiency
1ith an inp(t Boltage aro(nd ;4B0 "1o <$B panels in series 1ill typically have ;4 Bolt
e8(ivalent Boltage at pea' po1er0
In an ideal set(p the %le3Ma3 A 1o(ld operate at D80<H efficiency 1ith an inp(t
of A8B 1hile charging a )attery array at 48B0 "his 1o(ld )e the case 1ith the optim(m
,B panel chosen in section </ the +ane'a :!E2A as the B,M is A=Bolts0
Conclusion
Designing an off grid photovoltaic system involves many steps and altho(gh the
math is simple all calc(lations sho(ld )e do()le chec'ed0 If the calc(lations for one
component are off chances are the 1hole system 1ill not 1or'/ every stage relies on the
previo(s one0 Designing the system for 1orst case scenarios is good practice/ it is )etter
to have e3tra energy than not eno(gh0 2ll safety preca(tions sho(ld )e follo1ed
especially on electrical connections that have a possi)ility of carrying a lot of c(rrent0
<D
Fi!ure "" - <utbac# c)ar!e controller$
Brea'er )o3es )efore and after )attery connections for easy po1er disconnect sho(ld )e
implemented0 "hese )rea'ers sho(ld )e rated for DC voltages0
$
Section , - ower *anagement
"he core of the po1er management system is the data!gathering mod(le0 "he
mod(le (ses a ,IC microcontroller to meas(re voltages/ c(rrents and temperat(res and
send the res(lts to the comp(ter via USB0
"he end res(lt of this system is similar to the po1er management (tility in yo(r
laptop0 &(st as 1ith a laptop this is a self contained system that 1ill not have access to
e3ternal po1er some of the time 41hen there is no s(nlight60 We feel that )eca(se of the
comple3ity of the m(lti (ser comp(ter as 1ell as the photovoltaic system 1e needed to
design a system that not only 1atches )attery voltage )(t also stores and interprets data
for intelligent po1er decisions0
-esearc!
"he c(rrent sensors (sed are .EM %>S series sensors0
"hey are >all effect sensors 1hich operate )y meas(ring the
electric field prod(ced )y the c(rrent carrying 1ire0 "he field is
proportional to the c(rrent0 "hese c(rrent sensors are isolated
from the act(al po1er path and can )e t(rned off to conserve
po1er0 Different models of the sensors are capa)le of
meas(ring anything from milliamps to over ? amps0 "he )iggest advantage of these
sensors is scala)ility0 2 single chip can handle any range of c(rrent )y clever ,CB )oard
design0 We ac8(ired several sample (nits from .EM and p(t them into small pro7ect
)o3es that can )e (sed any1here0 "hey attach to the po1er management system via d!s()
ca)les0
"emperat(re meas(rements (se a small pro)e/ 1hich o(tp(ts a voltage
proportional to the am)ient temperat(re0 We chose the national instr(ments .M;;?*0
"hese are Pener diodes 1ith a linear internal voltage drop proportional to the temperat(re
of the device0 5(r design allo1s for (p to 4 sensors0
Beca(se the ,IC (ses a very small amo(nt of po1er/ it is contin(o(sly operating
to ens(re system safety0 "he ,IC is connected to a small .CD screen 1hich displays
pertinent information a)o(t the condition of the )attery and solar panels0
$<
"1o )(ttons mo(nted )eside the screen allo1 a (ser to scroll thro(gh the
information sho1ing them )attery voltage/ c(rrent/ and amp ho(rs remaining0 2lso there
1ill )e displays for voltage and c(rrent from the solar panel0 "his information 1ill )e
(sed to comp(te time and percent remaining )efore system po1er do1n0 "here are also
three stat(s .EDIs that inform the (ser of system po1er/ )attery good/ or )attery lo10
"he ,IC comm(nicates to the comp(ter via USB0 "his is done (sing the %"DI
UM$;$90 "his device a(tomatically converts the USB signal to a standard serial signal0
It also registers 1ith the comp(ter as )eing a serial port0 With the connection/ the
comp(ter can 8(ery the ,IC a)o(t the stat(s of the )attery and can sh(t the system do1n
safely 1hen the )attery is lo10 "he comp(ter can also 8(ery the ,IC to get real time data
on the voltages/ c(rrents and temperat(res0 "he information is stored in an OM. file and
can )e easily reprocessed into any file format for analysis of the data0
.oltage *easurements
Boltage meas(rements re8(ire the addition of a voltage divider into the circ(it
)eca(se the ,IC has a ma3im(m dynamic range of ? volts0 2n advantage of (sing the
,IC to meas(re voltage is that the val(e of the resistors in the voltage divider can )e
acc(rately meas(red and the program can (se that information to improve the acc(racy of
the voltage meas(rement0
"he )(ilt!in <!)it 2DC of the ,IC <8%4?$ microcontroller is a cheap 1ay to
meas(re analog voltages0 2 dra1)ac' is that it is limited to meas(ring only !?BDC0 By
adding a voltage divider/ c(stomi*ing the soft1are slightly/ and (sing a digital I5 pin as a
c(rrent sin'/ 1e can efficiently and acc(rately meas(re m(ch larger voltages0
Fi!ure "2 - &olta!e di4ider wit) selectable current sin#$
$$
"he <!)it 2DC on the ,IC<8%4?$ is implemented as an 9C circ(it inside of the
,IC0 Beca(se of this/ there are certain parameters to )e a1are of/ all of 1hich have )een
ta'en from the ,IC<8%4?$ Datasheet0
By adding a voltage divider to the inp(t pin of the ,IC/ 1e are no1 a)le to scale
the inp(t voltage0 2ll that is left is the selection of resistor val(es0 Starting 1ith 'no1n
val(es/ 1e can select v
out
to )e ?B/ as that is v
ref;
on the ,IC0 2lso/ recalling from the first
section/ the nominal inp(t impedance to the ,IC is $0?'Q/ and as s(ch 1ill )e selected for
/
$
0 "he node la)eled v
in
is the high voltage inp(t to the voltage divider/ and sho(ld )e
selected as the highest voltage desired to )e meas(red0 %or this e3ample 1e 1ill say ?B0
2s can easily fo(nd )y inspection/ the form(la for a voltage divider is:
v
out
% v
in
7R
2
, 7R
1
= R
2
88
"his gives (s a form(la/ three 'no1ns/ and one (n'no1n0 Solving for /
#
:
R
1
= R
2
% v
in
R
2
, v
out
R
1
% R
2
77v
in
, v
out
8 > "8
R
1
% 2$3#? 7730& , 3&8 > "8
R
1
% 22$3#?
We can no1 )(ild o(r ne1 voltage divider and acc(rately meas(re voltages
(p to ?BR "o convert the 2DC res(lt to act(al voltage/ the follo1ing e8(ation is
no1 (sed:
v
an0
% 77V
DD
ADC_output8 , "0238 7R
2
, 7R
1
= R
2
88
Control (oard
"his is the schematic and for the control )oard0 It is mo(nted )ehind the control
panel and connects directly to the .CD header0 "here are headers for connection to the
stat(s .EDs as 1ell as the control )(ttons0 2 ri))on ca)le connects this )oard to the rest
of the circ(it
$;
Fi!ure "3 > @CD control board sc)ematic$
ower *anagement (oard
"his circ(it allo1s connection of (p to 4 c(rrent sensors/ 4 temperat(re pro)es/
and 4 independent voltages0 "he voltage inp(ts have a voltage divider circ(it that can )e
config(red to accept voltages for systems r(nning at <$/ $4/ or 48 volts0 2 USB
connection allo1s data sharing 1ith the comp(ter0
$4
Fi!ure "( - Power system monitor sc)ematic$
Conclusion
5(r po1er management system performs as it 1as designed to0 Each channel
acc(rately reads a voltage from the sensor and converts the voltage to a val(e0 "he ,IC
then (ses this information and displays this information clearly on the .CD panel0 Both
)oards are mo(nted in an enclos(re 1ith connectors for each sensor0 "he )oard 1ill )e
mo(nted in the main enclos(re and 1ill allo1 a (ser to t(rn of the entire system 1ith the
to(ch of a )(tton0 "he st(rdy ,CB design and constr(ction 1ill stand the test of time0 "he
,CB )oard also allo1s for on site reprogramming if it is deemed necessary0
$?
Fi!ure "3 - Power system monitor and 0aceplate$

$A
Section / - *ulti Seat System 0ardware and Software
"he primary goal of this pro7ect is to help promote ed(cation in developing
co(ntries )y providing grade schools 1ith electronic reso(rces0 "here are a variety of
other gro(ps that have already initiated sol(tions to this pro)lem0 "he most prominent
gro(p is the 5ne .aptop ,er Child 2ssociation 4hereinafter referred to as 5.,C6/ 1hich
has created a cheap/ d(ra)le laptop 'no1n as the O5!<0 5ther gro(ps s(ch as the Center
for Scientific Comp(ting and %ree Soft1are 4hereinafter referred to as C;S.6 have made
significant strides in re(sing older comp(ters for schoolsS ho1ever/ )oth of those
programs have some significant dra1)ac's0
"he primary competitor identified is the 5.,C0 "he 5.,C 2ssociation is dedicated to
prod(cing lo1 cost laptops and distri)(ting them to lo1!income areas0 "here e3ist
several pro)lems 1ith the program/ incl(ding the per!deployment cost and deployment
into r(ral areas0 "he original intent 1as to deliver a laptop to every child for a cost of
T< per device0 "he program/ ho1ever/ is (na)le to deliver the laptop at the T< targetS
in fact/ the cost to donate a system is almost T$0 Deployments also re8(ire a minim(m
commitment of < laptops0 "his represents a very significant financial )(rden/ tho(gh
once deployed/ it is diffic(lt to integrate m(ltiple ,Cs into a cohesive learning
environment/ and this ta'es a1ay from ed(cating the st(dents0 >o1ever/ the O5!<Gs are
e3tremely r(gged ,Cs and do not depend on any e3ternal po1er so(rces e3cept to charge
the )atteries0
C;S.Gs sol(tion integrates into school systems )etter/ and 1as 1idely deployed in
the ,aranU Digital pro7ect0 "his pro7ect involved having m(ltiple terminals r(nning off of
a single comp(ter in m(ltiple schools0 "his program has )een very s(ccessf(l and sho1s
great promise/ )(t there is a critical fla10 "he program is entirely soft1are/ and this
soft1are 1as intended to r(n in a classroom e8(ipped 1ith )asic (tilities/ s(ch as po1er
and internet connectivity0
5(r sol(tion 1as to integrate the 5.,CIs r(ggedness and the C;S.Is novel
soft1are sol(tion into one ro)(st pac'age0 "he design team preceding o(rs )(ilt a solar
po1ered comp(ter system that can )e deployed in a relatively d(ra)le )(ilding0 "hey
assem)led a solar panel/ )attery/ and a charge controller into a self contained sol(tion/
$=
s(ch that deployment in a 1ide variety of climates and locales is possi)le/ )(t they 1ere
(na)le to decide on the comp(ter system0 5(r primary goal for this pro7ect is integrating
the solar charging and )attery system 1ith a comp(ter system that is s(ita)le for
ed(cating yo(th/ regardless of regional or socio!economic )o(ndaries0
"he re8(irements for the comp(ter system 1ere fairly simpleS fo(r seats/ lo1
po1er0 "his co(ld )e esta)lished very easily 1ith fo(r laptop comp(ters/ )(t there 1ere
design iss(es that had to )e considered0 %irst/ the system 1ill )e deployed in a relatively
e3treme environment0 It also 1ill not )e r(nning off of mains po1er/ and 1ill therefore
have to )e lo1 po1er0 It sho(ld also )e as cost efficient as possi)le/ i0e0 lo1est cost per
seat0 %o(r architect(res 1ere disc(ssed for the comp(ter system: laptops/ thin clients/
m(ltiple!mother)oard/ and m(lti!seat0
Laptops Thin Client Multi-User Blade Client
Cost Outline: *aselne3
4 (outer wt5
advanced
6eatures (7+00)
*aselne3
4 Server (7)00)
*aselne3
4 Power6ul
Server (7'00)
*aselne3
4 Server
(7)00)
Per Seat3
4 Lenovo
IdeaPad S10
Latop (7.$9)
4 8ount (7)0)
Per Seat3
4 Ds9less
Wor9staton
L-SP 1++0P:,
-5n Clent
(7+'))
4 Lenovo L19#
8ontor (7+$9)
4 ;e&<oard=
8ouse (7$0)
Per Seat3
4 Lenovo
L19# 8ontor
(7+$9)
4 ;e&<oard=
8ouse (7$0)
4 >deo card
(7$0)
4 ?ptonal
So6tware
(7100)
Per Seat3
4 Small
8ot5er<oard
wt5 (@8 A
CPB (7100)
4 DC4DC
Power Suppl&
(7)0)
4 ;e&<oard=
8ouse (7$0)
4 Lenovo
L19# 8ontor
(7+$9)
Total Cost: *ase3 7+00 *ase3 7)00 *ase3 7'00 *ase3 7)00
Per Seat3 7.'9 Per Seat3 7)). Per Seat3 7$99 Per Seat3 7.19
Pros: ,as&C (ela<leC
Server4
lessC (edundantC
Low
Power
Consumpton
,as&C (ela<leC
Sta<leC Low
PowerC C?-S
C5eapC
Lowest Power
ConsumptonC
SnDle Pont
o6
8antenanceC
100% Lenovo
Hardware
Poss<l&
C5eaper t5an
-5n
ClentC 100%
Lenovo
Hardware
$8
Cons: Small ScreensC
De6eats
Purpose o6
DesDnnD a
Eew s&stem as
?pposed to
DonatnD
LaptopsC
Securt&
Concerns
(elatvel&
,0pensveC
Lenovo
Does not 8a9e
a -5n Clent
C?-S
So6tware s
,0pensve and
?pen4Source
s ImmatureC
(ela<lt& s
8an Concern
Lots o6
,nclosure
Wor9C
(ela<lt&
Fi!ure "2 - System arc)itecture prototypes$
%a&to&s
Fi!ure "6 - @aptop-type system arc)itecture moc#up$
"he first prototype 1as a simple laptop!server set(p0 Each 1or'station 1o(ld
consist of small laptop 4a <F form factor/ s(ch as the .enovo S<60 "he laptops 1o(ld )e
connected to the Internet either )y an Ethernet ca)le/ or even Wi!%i0 .aptops 1o(ld )e
$D
r(n 1itho(t )eing directly connected to 2C po1erS a charging station 1o(ld )e set(p
ne3t to the server0
"his style of architect(re 1o(ld )e very simple to config(re0 "he server and the
laptops 1o(ld all )e off!the!shelf .enovo prod(cts0 "he 1or'stations 1o(ld have lo1
po1er cons(mption/ given the fact that the monitor/ comp(ter/ 'ey)oard/ and mo(se are
all com)ined into one device0 Sho(ld a laptop )e damaged/ it 1o(ld also )e very easy to
replace/ re8(iring little re!config(ration/ and no c(stom engineering0 "he laptops/
ho1ever/ 1o(ld )e most s(scepti)le to accidental damage given that they 1o(ld )e o(t in
the environment/ rather than safe inside the case0
T!in Clients
Fi!ure " - A)in client-type system arc)itecture moc#up$
"he thin client architect(re is m(ch closer to a traditional des'top (ser
e3perience0 2 thin client is little more than a small form factor mother)oard/ processor/
and 92M 4no >DD necessary6 loaded 1ith a special BI5S0 "he server does most of the
processing and the thin' client simply helps to sh(ttle data )ac' and forth0 With this
set(p/ fo(r thin clients are each connected to their o1n monitor/ 'ey)oard/ and mo(se0
2ll of the applications and processing tas's are handled on a central server0
"his is another easy sol(tion that (ses all commercial off!the!shelf 4C5"S6
hard1are and soft1are0 It also has m(ch lo1er po1er cons(mption 1hen compared to
;
installing fo(r individ(al des'tops/ )(t the po1er cons(mption is not as lo1 as other
methods0 "he 'ey dra1)ac' is price0 Since .enovo does not prod(ce a thin client/ they
1o(ld have to )e p(rchased at f(ll mar'et price0 "his )rings the total per seat cost (p to
aro(nd T=0
*ulti&le-*ot!erboards
Fi!ure "1 - Blade client-type system arc)itecture moc#up$
5ne method of avoiding this high per seat cost 1o(ld )e to )(ild c(stom thin
clients/ very similar to the )lades of a )lade server0 "he team estimates that even paying
mar'et prices/ a hand!)(ilt thin client co(ld )e )(ilt for aro(nd T</ compared to the
nearly T; for third!party thin client0
"he pros are the same as that of the thin client/ 1ith the added )enefit of )eing
cheaper and )eing made totally of .enovo hard1are0 "he 'ey dra1)ac' tho(gh is the
pac'aging0 Since these Ethin clientsF are 7(st a mother)oard/ they 1o(ld need to )e p(t
into a proper case/ first0 "his 1o(ld add to the cost and co(ld ca(se lifecycle iss(es 4a
poor case 1o(ld lead to high fail(re rates of the mother)oard60
;<
*ulti-1ser
Fi!ure 20 - Multi-user des#top-type system arc)itecture moc#up$
"he most attractive architect(re is the .in(3 )ased m(lti!seat system0 It is
implemented )y )(ilding a central ,C 1ith m(ltiple video cards 4$!46/ m(ltiple
'ey)oards/ and m(ltiple mice0 Each 1or'station consists of a monitor/ 'ey)oard/ and
mo(se pl(gged directly into the ,C 4acting as an O 1indo1 server60
"he cost for s(ch a set(p is lo10 Since no thin clients are re8(ired/ the per!seat
cost consists of only a monitor/ 'ey)oard/ and mo(se0 "he po1er re8(irements are also
lo1er/ given that the C,U and all of its reso(rces are )e shared )y all of the (sers0 "he
system 1o(ld also respond m(ch 8(ic'er than a thin client/ 1itho(t the .2C )and1idth
and latency iss(es0 With significant c(stomi*ation of the operating system 4UCIO )ased6/
this architect(re 1as completed (sing only free/ open!so(rce soft1are0
"his is the architect(re that has )een chosen )y the design team0 "he lo1 cost and
lo1 po1er re8(irements ma'e it an ideal sol(tion0 2lso the server can )e safely mo(nted
inside a case and only the monitors/ 'ey)oards/ and mice need to )e o(tside of the case0
Testing2Conclusion
"o test the comp(ter terminals/ fo(r acco(nts 1ere created and each acco(nt
attempted to do the follo1ing tas's:
;$
Write a doc(ment (sing a 1ord processor
Watch an offline video
,lay an ed(cational game
Bro1se a simple 1e)page
Bro1se a rich 1e)page
Watch an online video0
"hese tas's represent 1hat a typical st(dent might )e doing on a school comp(ter0
S(pport for advanced programs/ s(ch as Mat.a)/ 1ere not tested0 Each station 1as a)le
to perform the tas's listed/ and therefore the comp(ter terminals are ready to )e deployed0
CPU
usage Video Audio Comment
Open Offie !o" good n#a
$asi doument p%epe%ation& 'imu!ates mu!tip!e students
"%iting a pape%
(i%efo) *asi !o" good n#a
$asi "e* su%fing& 'imu!ates mu!tip!e students %eading
stati "e*pages+ ie "i,ipedia
(i%efo) %i- -ig- good good
Ad.ane "e* su%fing& 'imu!ates mu!tip!e students
*%o"sing f!as- ena*!ed "e*sites+ ie /outu*e
0otem mid good good
Video#audio p!a1e%& 'imu!ates mu!tip!e students "at-ing
an off!ine .ideo
2omp%is !o" good good
3duation games& 'imu!ates mu!tip!e students p!a1ing non
ae!e%ated games
Fi!ure 2" - Pro!rams used to test multi-seat system$
;;
Section 3 - System 'ntegration and Conclusion
'ntegration
5(r final pro7ect consists of a ne1 more ro)(st charge controller and a c(stom
engineered )attery management system0 Ce1 solar panels have )een chosen for o(r
deployment area )(t d(e to their similarity to o(r c(rrent components they 1ere not
ordered here0 We decided to change o(r solar panel array and )attery )an' from a <$B to
a $4B system0 "his lo1ers o(r c(rrent thro(gho(t the system 1hich leads to lo1er losses
and smaller 1ire ga(ges0 We p(rchased a $4B inverter to replace o(r <$B inverter that
1as left to (s from the previo(s team0
"he final architect(re that 1e chose 1as the single 1or'station m(lti!seat system0
"his allo1s for relatively lo1 po1er cons(mption and the lo1est cost per seat of the
other architect(res 1e researched0 We 1ere s(ccessf(l in having (p to 4 independent
sim(ltaneo(s logons from a single des'top comp(ter 1ith m(ltiple graphics cards0 With
o(r c(rrent hard1are 1e can easily s(pport (p to 8 seats 1ith only the addition of more
graphics cards and accessories0
We 1ere s(ccessf(l in com)ining o(r o)7ectives into a complete and f(nctioning
prototype that can and 1ill )e deployed in a r(ral village in "an*ania for testing0 5(r
finished prototype has 4 (ser terminals connected to a large case that 1ill hold the
comm(nications e8(ipment/ 1or'station/ )atteries/ charge controller/ and )attery
management system0 "his system 1ill )e hoo'ed (p to a solar panel array that sho(ld
provide eno(gh po1er for the system to f(nction thro(gho(t a normal school day0
Safety
Since 1e are designing a system that 1ill )e deployed in a school 1ith no
pree3isting po1er/ and aro(nd people 1itho(t m(ch e3perience 1ith electrical e8(ipment
1e need to ta'e some e3tra preca(tions to ma'e s(re that the entire system is as safe as
possi)le0 "here 1ill )e solar panels that 1ill either )e mo(nted on poles o(tside of the
)(ilding or on the roof so 1e 1ill have to ma'e s(re to protect these ca)les )eca(se they
1ill carry high c(rrents0 "he )attery )an' also needs e3tra safety meas(res )eca(se it 1ill
;4
have the potential to (nleash h(ge amo(nts of c(rrent sho(ld a short/ or other lo1
resistance connection 4ie0 )ody6 cross the terminals0
"he solar panels 1ill )e mo(nted o(tside0 If 1e mo(nt them on the roof then 1e
need to ma'e s(re that the ca)le r(ns go into the str(ct(re thro(gh a 1atertight seal0 2lso
there 1ill need to )e an earth gro(nd installed in case lightning hits the )(ilding0 "he
)(ilding itself m(st )e str(ct(rally so(nd eno(gh not only for the solar panels )(t also for
several people so that installation and maintenance is safe0
If the )(ilding is orientated in s(ch a 1ay that the panels can not face the s(n
1hile they are on the roof then they 1ill have to )e mo(nted on a pole o(tside of the
school )(ilding0 In this case e3tra preca(tion m(st )e (sed to ins(re that a person is
(na)le to access any 1ire leads )eca(se the c(rrent can easily 'ill a person0 2lso the
ca)ling 1ill have to )e r(n (ndergro(nd so the 1ires 1ill have to )e enclosed in the
proper type of d(ct to that they cannot )e c(t )y someone digging in the area0 "hey also
m(st )e completely 1eatherproof to avoid the 1ire ins(lation )rea'ing do1n from the
elements0 5ne advantage to this set(p is that the str(ct(re that the panels hang on can )e
(sed as an earth gro(nd for the entire system0
5nce inside the )(ilding all 1iring o(tside of the case sho(ld )e in d(ct1or'0
"his prevents a person from easily c(tting the 1ires and also prevents animals from
che1ing thro(gh the ins(lation0 "he system case m(st have a hole that is not sharp so that
the 1ires cannot fray over time0 2lso ca)ling sho(ld )e sec(red to the case so that it
cannot easily )e p(lled o(t 1hich co(ld ca(se short circ(its or )ro'en hard1are0 2ny
short (nintentional short circ(its have a large pro)a)ility of destroying the e3pensive
e8(ipment near)y or ca(sing a fire0
"he )attery )an' m(st )e caref(lly installed so as to minimi*e any possi)ility of
short circ(its0 Each )attery terminal sho(ld have a cover installed so that it is diffic(lt to
to(ch the electrodes accidently0 2ll )atteries sho(ld also )e sec(red to the casing so that
they cannot move if the 1hole case is tipped or moved0
"here m(st )e circ(it )rea'ers at several 'ey points in the system to ins(re that if
there is a pro)lem the system 1ill c(t off po1er to itself and hopef(lly save the
e8(ipment from )eing r(ined0 "here 1ill )e a circ(it )rea'er )et1een the solar panel
array and the Charge Controller and also )et1een the Battery Ban' and the Inverter0
;?
"hese 1ill trip if c(rrent e3ceeds e3pected ratings and 1ill also allo1 the system to )e
man(ally sh(t do1n if the need arises0
%ollo1ing these simple preca(tions sho(ld allo1 the system to )e safe from
prying fingers/ 1eather/ animals and e8(ipment fail(re0 2lso in the case of a fail(re
tro()leshooting sho(ld )e easy )eca(se if o(r )attery management system is r(nning it
1ill provide feed)ac' a)o(t 1hich components are not 1or'ing0 If a )rea'er is reset then
it 1ill also provide cl(es as to 1hich part of the system failed0
4uture 'm&rovements$
2 ma7or improvement to the efficiency of the system co(ld )e accomplished )y
(sing a comp(ter system that is optimi*ed for minimal po1er cons(mption yet 1ithin
re8(irements for the JM(lti!SeatG set(p0 "he comp(ter (sed in the prototype is a .enovo
S< 1or'station0 "his comp(ter is designed to )e a state!of!the!art processing po1er
ho(se/ efficiency 1as near the )ottom of re8(irements d(ring its design0 >o1ever/ it is
the only hard1are that .enovo c(rrently offers that 1o(ld s(pport the JM(lti!SeatG
architect(reS therefore it 1as (sed in this proof of concept prototype0 2fter ret(rning from
"an*ania the team is traveling to Corth Carolina to give a presentation to .enovo
Corporation a)o(t re8(irements and s(ggestions for developing a more efficient
comp(ter system for (se in ,B systems0 2mongst specific s(ggestions of lo1!po1er
components incl(de (sing the Intel 2tom processor and lo1er po1er hard drives/ this
1ill also incl(de a design modification to their po1er s(pply0 "he po1er s(pply is
designed to transform and rectify 2C po1er to DC 1hich is (sed )y the comp(ter0 Since
po1er so(rced from ,B systems is already DC (nnecessary losses can )e avoided )y
(sing a DC to DC po1er s(pply0 Most modern po1er inverters optimally operate at DH
efficiencyS hence eliminating these conversions from the system c(ts losses significantly0
2ltho(gh the team (sed the most efficient ,B panels on the mar'et at the time of
deploying the prototype/ a close eye sho(ld )e 'ept on advancements in ,B technology0
C(rrent panels are still very inefficient and e3pensive0 "his is an area that is heavily
researched and as advancements develop in this field they 1ill greatly )enefit the system0
;A
'ntelligent *onitoring
5ne of the goals of developing the po1er monitoring (nit is to collect (sage data0
"his incl(des comp(ter and telecomm(nication e8(ipment d(ty cycles as 1ell as specific
component po1er cons(mptions and ,B array and )attery efficiencies at meas(red
operating temperat(res0 Before deployment many factors are estimated/ once
e3perimental data is availa)le the system can )e designed 1ithin tighter tolerances0 2s
part of the prod(ct life cycle management minor changes can )e made at identified 1ea'
lin's in order to ma3imi*e system efficiency0
;=
;8
'tem Cost 5uantity Total Cost
Miniature Pus89utton 3.40 $ 6.80
Meta- 5in1ing Posts 5.43 $ 10.:4
*i;ui1 %in 31.:4 1 31.:4
Pro<e.t 5ox 6.:: 1 6.::
Out9a.= ,-exmax60 545.$$ 1 545.$$
P">$41$5A !n+erter 350.00 1 350.00
Winfor1 5C,: A1apter 6.50 $ 13.00
*>M 33.$0 1 33.$0
Ca--ing Car1 10.00 1 10.00
Mo9i-e Computer Ca9inet 1831.00 1 1831.00
?@A A B"5 extensions 54.35 1 54.35
iro.=s B"5 0u9 11.:: 4 43.:6
"'5A B"5 Au1io A1apter 3.:: 4 31.:6
*eno+o "10 Wor=station 11:0.60 1 11:0.60
TotalC 4$03.:6
Fi!ure 22 - Aeam bud!et$
Conclusion$
"his pro7ect is special )eca(se the driving force )ehind it is not artificial0 "he
team mem)ers do not care a)o(t their grade0 "hey do not care a)o(t the o(tcome of the
design day competition0 "his team is driven )y passion/ and the sole thing this team cares
a)o(t is the s(ccessf(l deployment of a system that 1ill provide h(ndreds of 'ids living
in a 1orld of great hardship 1ith a priceless tool/ a tool that all of (s gre1 (p ta'ing for
granted0 2 tool that has the a)ility of transforming people/ a tool that transforms 'ids into
st(dents/ a tool that transforms tho(ghts into dreamsV this tool is access to information0
We live in the information age0 We live in a society 1here the term E&(st :oogle
itF is (sed on a daily )asis0 Where 1e are t1o clic's a1ay from the ans1er to any
8(estion 1e have0 So/ 1hat is it that separates (sW What ma'es (s differentW >o1 do 1e
have access to this tool 1hen there are people living in this 1orld that are deprived of
something so f(ndamental to (sW We are no different0 We are 7(st l(c'y to )e )orn into
this society0
;D
"his team is fort(nate eno(gh to have the a)ility to give o(r most pri*ed tool to
h(ndreds of (nder!privileged children0 Children that go to )ed at night and dream/ and 1e
1ant to let them dream )ig and t(rn those dreams into realities0
"he team mem)ers participated in every aspect of engineering a prod(ct and
service from start to finish0 "he team not only accomplished everything o(tlined in their
initial pro7ect description )(t everything that 1as thro1n at them along the 1ay/ and 1hat
is yet to come0
"his Decem)er/ Michigan State UniversityGs Design "eam $ 1ill deliver the most
priceless present anyone can ever give/ this is all that 1e care a)o(t and there is nothing
that can stand in o(r 1ay0
4
A&&endix 1 6 Tec!nical -oles and -es&onsibilities
Eric Tarkleson
Eric "ar'leson 1as this semesterGs la) facilitator and
doc(ment preparer0 >e 1or'ed 1ith Ben on the c(rrent
and voltage monitoring system0 Specifically he
researched and ac8(ired and )(ilt the c(rrent sensing
e8(ipment (sed in the final prototype0
Eric also 1or'ed 1ith the team to decide on casing
options0 >e chose the final case design that 1ill )e (sed
on design day0 Eric 1or'ed 1ith &a'() on designing and
man(fact(ring the faceplate and )o3 that 1ill ho(se the
)attery management system0 "he end res(lt is a slee'
easy to (se interface to the system that 1as c(stom designed for monitoring a solar
po1ered comp(ter system0
2lmost all of the ,CB design 1as completed )y Eric0 "he final pro7ect incl(des t1o
small ,CB )oards0 "he main )oard incl(des a microprocessor controlled data ac8(isition
system that monitors the vario(s components po1er (sage0 It then sends this data to the
comp(ter via USB for datalogging0 "he second ,CB mo(nts to the .CD and ro(tes the
appropriate signals to the stat(s .EDs as 1ell as the po1er/ reset and men( )(ttons0
4<
"esting 1as performed )y the 1hole team and Eric 1as no e3ception0 M(ch testing
needed to )e performed to ins(re that the correct solar panels/ )attery )an's/ and charge
controllers 1ere p(rchased and ready in 2frica0 M(ch po1er testing 1as done on )oth
the .enovo S< ,C and the monitors0 "his data 1ill )e (sef(l in determining ho1 to
streamline the system in the f(t(re0
4$
7os!ua )ong
&oshGs primary d(ties for the semester 1ere to find and
implement a m(lti!terminal sol(tion0 "he first attempt to
implement a m(lti!terminal sol(tion 1as installing and
testing an ."S, server0 ."S, allo1s .in(3 )ased
system to r(n thin clients 1hich s(pport ,OE )ooting
and (ses the 38A instr(ction set0 "his 1as re7ected d(e to
the (se of non!lenovo hard1are0 "he second attempt
1as to implement a m(ltiseat system )y modifying the
login manager and the O 1indo1ing system0 D(ring the
co(rse of searching for (p to date doc(mentation on
Oephyr and gdm a ne1 program called MDM 1as discovered0 MDM provided scripts to
do most of the 1or' referred to )y the older doc(mentation0 >o1ever/ the soft1are 1as
immat(re and several patches 1ere needed to ens(re it f(nctions correctly0 Specifically/
there 1ere several )(gs 1hich the developers never tested for/ incl(ding a )(g 1here the
program terminates premat(rely0
&osh 1as a)le to analy*e the codes and fi3 most of the )(gs0 "he soft1are
re8(ired ma7or retooling to )e compati)le to 1ith the Cvidia drivers0 %ort(nately one of
the developers (ses an Cvidia system and 1as a)le to provide val(a)le assistance in
adapting the e3isting code to (se the Cvidia drivers0 2nother ma7or development 1as
discovering ho1 to ena)le a(dio devices for the system0 Ena)ling a(dio devices system
1ide re8(ired solving a pro)lem 1here certain programs 1o(ld 1or' properly 1hile
others failed0 "his 1as event(ally traced to an iss(e 1here a file 1as not getting
processed correctly0 5ther tas's incl(ded locating a USB serial interface and helping my
teammates develop soft1are for the USB interface0 5verall/ most of my tas's involved
dealing 1ith soft1are/ or interfacing hard1are 1ith soft1are0
4;
7akub *a#ur
&a'() Ma*(r 1as the ,ro7ect Manager of the team0 >e
1as heavily involved in photovoltaic component
selection incl(ding: Determining the si*e of the ,B
array/ si*ing the )attery array/ 1iring ga(ge selection/
and the DC!2C inverter selection0
&a'() acted as s(pply chain manager since there needed
to )e a serio(s amo(nt of logistics to )e ta'en care of to
so(rce parts in 2frica and comm(nicate and assign tas's
to the "an*anian st(dents0 "his incl(ded plenty of
research/ 'eeping (p 1ith emails on a daily )asis and
ma'ing phone calls at $am to motivate third parties to do their 7o)0 "his tas' t(rned o(t to
)e e3tremely time cons(ming and 8(ite fr(strating0 "he time!difference also played a role
in this as often only one comm(nication per day is possi)le0
&a'() 1as also heavily involved in testing stages/ he performed load c(rrent
meas(rements (sing data ac8(isition hard1are and programming in .a)Bie10 "his
provided critical po1er cons(mption data as 1ell as capt(ring s(rge c(rrent data0
>is technical roles also incl(ded helping all the other team mem)ers 1ith any iss(es they
1here having0 >e 1or'ed 1ith Ben and Eric on the microprocessor po1er monitoring
circ(itry0 >e also 1or'ed 1ith Eric to design and physically )(ild the faceplate of the
po1er monitoring e8(ipment0
44
(en 8ers!ner
Ben +ershner/ the doc(ment prep/ handled the
colla)oration/ formatting/ and finali*ation of the team
doc(mentation0 >e also spent several days researching the
types and prices of solar panels and )atteries/ and )(ilding
a spreadsheet that helped to organi*e and analy*e this
data/ so that the team co(ld choose the most cost efficient
parts of the po1er system0
"he ma7ority of BenGs time 1as spent designing and
programming the circ(itry for the po1er system monitor0
>e )(ilt the prototype on a )read)oard and 1rote a series
of proof!of!concept coding e3amples to test the vario(s digital and analog I-5 feat(res of
the ,IC/ incl(ding a c(stom .CD driver li)rary to interface the ,IC to a Motorola 44=8!
type chipset0
BenGs application note in meas(ring high DC voltages 1ith the )(ilt!in 2DC of
the ,IC in a po1er efficient manner 1as implemented in the final design of po1er system
monitor0
Ben also 1rote the server side code to accompany the po1er system monitor0
Written in CXX/ and ta'ing advantage of UCIO system calls/ it ena)les the server to p(ll
metric data off of the ,IC0 It then 1rites this to an OM. file/ 1hich is (ploaded to an
offsite server on a daily )asis0
4?
A&&endix '' - Sc!ematics
Fi!ure 23 - @CD control board sc)ematic$
Fi!ure 2( - @CD control board layout$
4A
Fi!ure 23 - Power system monitor sc)ematic$
Fi!ure 22 - Power system monitor layout$
4=
A&&endix ''' 6 9antt C!art
48
A&&endix '. - :omenclature
C;S. @ Center for Scientific Comp(ting and %ree Soft1are0
C,U @ Central ,rocessing Unit/ refers to the main processor chip on a comp(ter
mother)oard/ not the comp(ter as a 1hole0
C5"S @ Commercial 5ff "he Shelf/ descri)es hard1are or soft1are that may )e
p(rchased rather than designed and )(ilt0
%5SS ! %ree and 5pen So(rce Soft1are0
M,," @ Ma3im(m ,o1er ,oint "rac'er/ a style of solar charge controller0
m(lti!seat @ 2 type of system architect(re in 1hich many 1or'stations are )(ilt
onto a single machine0
,IC @ "he company that prod(ces the microcontroller (sed/ may also refer to the
microcontroller itself0
,B @ ,hoto!Boltaic/ i0e0 solar panel0
,OE @ ,re!)oot eOec(tion Environment/ a manner of )ooting comp(ters over the
net1or' 1itho(t a locally installed operating system0
5.,C @ 5ne .aptop ,er Child0
5SS @ 5pen So(rce Soft1are0
system architect(re @ "he term (sed 1ithin this doc(ment to descri)e ho1 the
style in 1hich the 1or'stations are deployed0
thin client @ 2 client comp(ter that relies on a central server for a ma7ority of its
processing tas's0
4D
A&&endix . - -eferences and -ecommended -eading
>an'ins/ Mar'/ and %rancis C7er(0 Solar Electric Systems for 2frica : 2 :(ide
for ,lanning and Installing Solar Electric Systems in 9(ral 2frica0 Ed0 "imothy
Simalenga0 Beverly: Common1ealth Secretariat/ <DD?0 =!80
http:--1110'no1ledgeho(nd0com-topics-solar0htm
World Insolation Map: http:--1110s(n1i*e0com-infoYcenter-insolmap0htm
S(n path chart: http:--1110o'solar0com-images-solarYpathYlarge07pg
5(t)ac' ,o1er %le3ma3 User Man(al:
http:--1110o(t)ac'po1er0com-pdfs-man(als-fle3ma30pdf
Wiring Safety Concerns: http:--1110(s)r0gov-po1er-data-fist-fist;Y;-vol;!;0pdf
2lso/ http:--1110solarpo1erfor(m0net-for(mBB-sho1thread0phpW
tN<8DZpageN;
[[ So(rce: S(n1i*e ,B installation g(ide as 1ell as other installer personal
e3periences
http:--1110s(n1i*e0com-catalog-images-designYs(n1i*eYg(ide0pdf
http:--11101inds(n0com-Batteries-BatteryY%2\0htm
http:--11101inds(n0com-Batteries-BatteryY%2\0htm
http:--1110nms(0ed(-]tdi-,BNCECY>"M.-pv!nec-pv!nec0html
http:--1110n1es0com-WireH$.ossH$"a)les0htm
http:--1110egr0ms(0ed(-classes-ece48-goodman-spring8-gro(p;-
http:--1110o(t)ac'po1er0com-
http:--11<0microchip0com-do1nloads-en-DeviceDoc-;DA;<E0pdf
http:--11<0microchip0com-do1nloads-en-devicedoc-C<8Y.i)Y?<$D=d0pdf
?