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drafL as of 10 november 2012

8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
1
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Þrofessor of Laws, ÞollLlcal Law 8ar 8evlewer
ALeneo Law School
(drafL as of 10 november 2012)


ÞarL 1 )487/ ,4912:;1:3< 3

naLure of Local CovernmenL unlLs 3
1ypes of Local CovernmenL unlLs 6
CreaLlon of Local CovernmenL unlLs 9

ÞarL 2 )487/ +=34:4;> 13

unlLary, noL lederal, lorm 13
Local AuLonomy 14
uevoluLlon and ueconcenLraLlon 16
LxecuLlve Supervlslon 19
LeglslaLlve ConLrol 23

ÞarL 3 ?4@12< 4A )487/ ,4912:;1:3< 23

uelegaLlon and lnLerpreLaLlon of Þowers 23
Þollce Þower 28
LmlnenL uomaln 33
8eclasslflcaLlon of Land 38
Local LeglslaLlon 39
CLher CovernmenLal and CorporaLe Þowers 48

ÞarL 4 )487/ +=34:4;> 7:B )487/ C4=281< 4A D=:B< 49

Sources of lunds 49
llscal AuLonomy 49
lnLernal 8evenue AlloLmenL 30
Share ln naLlonal WealLh Þroceeds 32
Þower of 1axaLlon 33

drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
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ÞarL 3 )487/ ,4912:;1:3 'AAE8E7/< 33

LeglslaLlve ConLrol over SLrucLure 33
1erm of Cfflce 33
Þowers of Local Cfflclals 38
Þower Lo AppolnL 39
8an on Poldlng uual ÞoslLlons 60
vacancles 60

ÞarL 6 +884=:370E/E3> 4A )487/ ,4912:;1:3 F:E3<
7:B 'AAE8E7/< 63

SuablllLy and LlablllLy 63
LlablllLy of Local CovernmenL unlLs 63
LlablllLy of Local Cfflclals 64
AdmlnlsLraLlve Þroceedlngs 68
ÞenalLles 70
ÞrevenLlve Suspenslon 70
LffecL of 8e-LlecLlon 72

ÞarL 7 ?14G/1H< ?723E8EG73E4: 73

venues for Þopular ÞarLlclpaLlon 73
Þrlor MandaLory ConsulLaLlon 73
lnlLlaLlve and 8eferendum 73
Local Speclal 8odles 73
ÞarLnershlps and AsslsLance 76
8ecall 76
SecLoral 8epresenLaLlves 77










drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
3

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1. under Lhe 1987 ConsLlLuLlon, local governmenLs or local governmenL unlLs (LCus)
are referred Lo as ºpollLlcal and LerrlLorlal subdlvlslons" (5ectloo 1, Attlcle \, 1987
coostltotloo).

1.1 An LCu ls a publlc corporaLlon and ls classlfled as a munlclpal corporaLlon
proper.

a. 1he four elemenLs of an LCu are: (1) legal creaLlon, (2) corporaLe
name, (3) lnhablLanLs, and (4) place or LerrlLory (lobllc cotpototloos,
kopetto C. Mottlo, 1985).

b. 1hey are esLabllshed for Lhe governmenL of a porLlon of Lhe SLaLe
(lobllc cotpototloos, kopetto C. Mottlo, 1985).

c. An LCu can only exerclse lLs powers wlLhln lLs LerrlLorlal boundary or
[urlsdlcLlon. lLs powers are lnLramural. As an excepLlon, an LCu can
exerclse lLs powers ouLslde Lhe subdlvlslon (exLramural) ln Lhree
occaslons, namely, (1) proLecLlon of waLer supply, (2) prevenLlon of
nulsance, and (3) pollce purposes. (lobllc cotpototloos, kopetto C.
Mottlo, 1985).

1.2 Local governmenLs are admlnlsLraLlve agencles and agencles of
CovernmenL dlsLlngulshed from Lhe naLlonal CovernmenL whlch refers Lo
Lhe enLlre machlnery of Lhe cenLral governmenL (5ectloos 2 j4] ooJ j2],
1987 AJmlolsttotlve coJe).

1.3 Þubllc corporaLlons creaLed by local governmenLs are referred Lo as
quasl-munlclpal corporaLlons (lobllc cotpototloos, kopetto C. Mottlo,
1985).

1.4 Local governmenLs are dlsLlngulshed from quasl-corporaLlons. Cuasl-
corporaLlons are creaLed by Lhe SLaLe, elLher by law or by auLhorlLy of
law, for a speclflc governmenLal purpose (lobllc cotpototloos, kopetto C.
Mottlo, 1985).
drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
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a. A governmenL-owned and -conLrolled corporaLlon (CCCC) musL be
organlzed elLher as a sLock or non-sLock corporaLlon. (MlAA vs. cA,
C.k. No. 155650, Ioly 20, 2006).

l. A CCCC ls vesLed by law wlLh a legal personallLy separaLe and
dlsLlncL from Lhose acLlng for and ln lLs behalf and, ln general,
from Lhe people comprlslng lL (MlAA vs. cA, C.k. No. 155650, Ioly
20, 2006).

ll. A CCCC creaLed Lhrough speclal charLer musL meeL Lhe Lwo
condlLlons, namely: (a) lL musL be esLabllshed for Lhe common
good, and (b) lL musL meeL Lhe LesL of economlc vlablllLy (5ectloo
16, Attlcle \ll, 1987 coostltotloo).

lll. Lxamples of CCCCs are: CCCCs lncorporaLed under Lhe
CorporaLlon Code, subsldlarles of CCCCs, CovernmenL llnanclal
lnsLlLuLlons (Clls), WaLer ulsLrlcLs, governmenL-acqulred asseL
corporaLlon (MlAA vs. cA, C.k. No. 155650, Ioly 20, 2006).

b. A governmenL lnsLrumenLallLy (Cl) ls nelLher a sLock nor a non-sLock
corporaLlon (MlAA vs. cA, C.k. No. 155650, Ioly 20, 2006).

l. A Cl, whlch ls operaLlonally auLonomous, remalns parL of Lhe
naLlonal CovernmenL machlnery alLhough noL lnLegraLed wlLh
Lhe deparLmenL framework (MlAA vs. v. cA, C.k. No. 155650, Ioly
20, 2006).

ll. Lxamples of Cls are: 8angko SenLral ng
Þlllplnas, Þhlllpplne 8lce 8esearch lnsLlLuLe, Laguna Lake
uevelopmenL AuLhorlLy, llsherles uevelopmenL AuLhorlLy, 8ases
Converslon uevelopmenL AuLhorlLy, Þhlllpplne ÞorLs AuLhorlLy,
Cagayan de Cro ÞorL AuLhorlLy, San lernando ÞorL AuLhorlLy,
Cebu ÞorL AuLhorlLy, and Þhlllpplne naLlonal 8allways (MlAA vs.
v. cA, C.k. No. 155650, Ioly 20, 2006).

2. 1he characLer of LCs ls Lwo-fold, l.e., governmenLal or publlc, and proprleLary or
prlvaLe (clty of Moollo vs. lotetmeJlote Appellote coott, C.k. No. 71159, Novembet
15, 1989).

drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
3
2.1 CovernmenLal powers are Lhose exerclsed ln admlnlsLerlng Lhe powers of
Lhe sLaLe and promoLlng Lhe publlc welfare and Lhey lnclude Lhe
leglslaLlve, [udlclal, publlc and pollLlcal. Lxamples are: dellvery of sand for
a munlclpal road (Moolclpollty of 5oo letoooJo, lo uoloo vs. lltme, C.k.
No. l-52179, Aptll 8, 1991), local leglslaLlon, conLrol over pollce and
abaLemenL of nulsance.

2.2 ÞroprleLary powers, on Lhe oLher hand, are exerclsed for Lhe speclal
beneflL and advanLage of Lhe communlLy and lnclude Lhose whlch are
mlnlsLerlal, prlvaLe and corporaLe (Moolclpollty of 5oo letoooJo, lo
uoloo vs. lltme, C.k. No. l-52179, Aptll 8, 1991). Lxamples are: publlc
cemeLerles, markeLs, ferrles and waLerworks.

2.3 1herefore, Lhe purpose of LCs ls also Lwo-fold, l.e., LCs are agenLs of Lhe
SLaLe ln Lhe exerclse of governmenL or publlc powers, and are agenLs of
Lhe communlLy and people ln Lhe exerclse of proprleLary or prlvaLe
powers (lloo, It. vs. loòo, C.k. No. 12909J, Aoqost J0, 2001, Moqtojos
vs. ltyce ltopettles ooJ lblllpploe Amosemeots ooJ Comloq cotpototloo,
C.k. No. 111097, Ioly 20, 1994, 8osco vs. lblllpploe Amosemeots ooJ
Comloq cotpototloo, C.k. No. 91649, Moy 14, 1991).

3. 1he rule on corporaLe successlon applles Lo local governmenLs.

3.1 1hey have Lhe power of conLlnuous successlon under lLs corporaLe name.
(5ectloo 22, locol Covetomeot coJe of 1991 ot 1991 lCc).

3.2 When Lhere ls a perfecLed conLracL execuLed by Lhe former Covernor, Lhe
succeedlng Covernor cannoL revoke or renounce Lhe same wlLhouL Lhe
consenL of Lhe oLher parLy (Covetomeot 5etvlce losotooce 5ystem vs.
ltovloce of 1otloc, C.k. No. 157860, uecembet 1, 200J).

4. Congress ln enacLlng Lhe 1991 LCC and charLers of parLlcular LCs allocaLes among
Lhe dlfferenL LCs Lhelr powers, responslblllLles, and resources and provlde for Lhe
quallflcaLlons, elecLlon, appolnLmenL and removal, Lerm, salarles, powers and
funcLlons and duLles of local offlclals, and all oLher maLLers relaLlng Lo Lhe
organlzaLlon and operaLlon of Lhe local unlLs (5ectloo J, Attlcle \, 1987 coostltotloo).

4.1 Cne such power ls Lhe power Lo appolnL offlclals. Whlle Lhe Covernor has
Lhe auLhorlLy Lo appolnL offlclals and employees whose salarles are pald
drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
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ouL of Lhe provlnclal funds, Lhls does noL exLend Lo Lhe offlclals and
employees of Lhe sooqqoolooq poololowlqoo because such auLhorlLy ls
lodged wlLh Lhe vlce-Covernor (Atleozo vs. vlllotoso, C.k. No. 161081,
Moy 10, 2005).

4.2 1he auLhorlLy Lo appolnL casual and [ob order employees of Lhe
sooqqoolooq poololowlqoo belongs Lo Lhe vlce-Covernor. 1he auLhorlLy
of Lhe vlce-Covernor Lo appolnL Lhe offlclals and employees of Lhe
sooqqoolooq poololowlqoo ls anchored on Lhe facL LhaL Lhe salarles of
Lhese employees are derlved from Lhe approprlaLlon speclflcally for sald
local leglslaLlve body. Accordlngly, Lhe appolnLlng power of Lhe vlce-
Covernor ls llmlLed Lo Lhose employees of Lhe sooqqoolooq
poololowlqoo, as well as Lhose of Lhe Cfflce of Lhe vlce-Covernor, whose
salarles are pald ouL of Lhe funds approprlaLed for Lhe sooqqoolooq
poololowlqoo (Atleozo vs. vlllotoso, C.k. No. 161081, Moy 10, 2005).

4.3 ln allocaLlng local powers, Congress may provlde for a sysLem of checks
and balances.

a. 1he sysLem of checks and balances under Lhe currenL sysLem ls
sLaLuLorlly, noL consLlLuLlonally (unllke Lhe Lhree branches of
CovernmenL), prescrlbed.

b. under Lhe 1983 Local CovernmenL Code, Lhe local chlef execuLlve
performed dual funcLlons - execuLlve and leglslaLlve, he/she belng
Lhe presldlng offlcer of Lhe sooqqooloo. under Lhe 1991 LCC, Lhe
unlon of leglslaLlve and execuLlve powers ln Lhe offlce of Lhe local
chlef execuLlve has been dlsbanded, so LhaL elLher deparLmenL now
comprlses dlfferenL and non-lnLermlngllng offlclal personallLles wlLh
Lhe end ln vlew of ensurlng a beLLer dellvery of publlc servlce and
provlde a sysLem of check and balance beLween Lhe Lwo (Atleozo vs.
vlllotoso, C.k. No. 161081, Moy 10, 2005).


456&3 () *(+", -(.&%/0&/# 1/2#3

1. 1here are flve levels/ klnds of pollLlcal and LerrlLorlal subdlvlslons, namely: (1)
AuLonomous 8eglons, (2) Þrovlnces, (3) ClLles, (4) MunlclpallLles, and (3) 8arangays
(5ectloo 1, Attlcle \, 1987 coostltotloo).
drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
7

1.1 1he ConsLlLuLlon ldenLlfles Lwo AuLonomous 8eglons, l.e., Musllm
Mlndanao and Cordllleras (5ectloo 15, Attlcle \, 1987 coostltotloo).

a. AuLonomous 8eglons conslsL of provlnces, clLles, munlclpallLles, and
geographlcal areas whlch share common and dlsLlncLlve hlsLorlcal and
culLural herlLage, economlc and soclal sLrucLures, and oLher relevanL
characLerlsLlcs (5ectloo 15, Attlcle \, 1987 coostltotloo).

b. AuLonomous 8eglons are under Lhe general supervlslon of Lhe
ÞresldenL (5ectloo 16, Attlcle \, 1987 coostltotloo).

c. SecLlon 20, ArLlcle x of Lhe 1987 ConsLlLuLlon enumeraLes Lhe
lrreduclble leglslaLlve powers of auLonomous reglons: WlLhln lLs
LerrlLorlal [urlsdlcLlon and sub[ecL Lo Lhe provlslons of Lhls
ConsLlLuLlon and naLlonal laws, Lhe organlc acL of auLonomous
reglons shall provlde for leglslaLlve powers over: (1) AdmlnlsLraLlve
organlzaLlon, (2) CreaLlon of sources of revenues, (3) AncesLral
domaln and naLural resources, (4) Þersonal, famlly, and properLy
relaLlons, (3) 8eglonal urban and rural plannlng developmenL, (6)
Lconomlc, soclal, and Lourlsm developmenL, (7) LducaLlonal pollcles,
(8) ÞreservaLlon and developmenL of Lhe culLural herlLage, and (9)
Such oLher maLLers as may be auLhorlzed by law for Lhe promoLlon of
Lhe general welfare of Lhe people of Lhe reglon.

d. 8epubllc AcL no. 6734 or Lhe Crganlc AcL of Lhe AuLonomous 8eglon
of Musllm Mlndanao (A8MM) ls consLlLuLlonal and ls noL vlolaLlve of
Lhe 1rlpoll AgreemenL slnce Lhe former ls a laLer enacLmenL. lurLher,
Lhe 1rlpoll AgreemenL musL conform wlLh naLlonal laws such as Lhe
Crganlc AcL. (Abbos vs. commlssloo oo ílectloos, C.k. No. 89651,
Novembet 10, 1989).

e. 1he slngle pleblsclLe conLemplaLed by Lhe ConsLlLuLlon and 8.A. no.
6734 wlll be deLermlnaLlve of: (1) wheLher Lhere shall be an
auLonomous reglon ln Musllm Mlndanao, and (2) whlch provlnces
and clLles, among Lhose enumeraLed ln 8.A. no. 6734, shall comprlse
lL (Abbos vs. commlssloo oo ílectloos, C.k. No. 89651, Novembet 10,
1989).

drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
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f. Whlle Lhey are classlfled as sLaLuLes, Lhe Crganlc AcLs are more Lhan
ordlnary sLaLuLes because Lhey en[oy afflrmaLlon by a pleblsclLe.
Pence, Lhe provlslons Lhereof cannoL be amended by an ordlnary
sLaLuLe wlLhouL belng approved ln a pleblsclLe (ulsomooqcop vs.
5ectetoty of lobllc wotks ooJ nlqbwoys, C.k. No. 149848, Novembet
25, 2004).

g. An acL of Lhe 8eglonal Assembly of A8MM cannoL amend Lhe Crganlc
AcL nor can lL amend Lhe 1991 LCC. 1he 1991 LCC and Lhe 1987
AdmlnlsLraLlve Code cannoL amend Lhe Crganlc AcL (looJl vs. coott of
Appeols, C.k. No. 116850, Aptll 11, 2002).

h. 1he AuLonomous 8eglon of Lhe Cordllleras has noL been lncorporaLed
slnce ln Lhe pleblsclLe held, Lhe creaLlon has been re[ecLed by all Lhe
covered provlnces and clLy, save one provlnce. 1here can be no
auLonomous reglon conslsLlng of only one provlnce (8oJoo vs.
cotJllleto 8oJooq AJmlolsttotloo, C.k. No. 92649, lebtooty 14, 1991,
OtJlllos vs. commlssloo oo ílectloos, C.k. No. 9J054, uecembet 4,
1990).

l. Powever, Lhe ÞresldenL can creaLe Lhe Cordlllera AdmlnlsLraLlve
8eglon (CA8). 1he LxecuLlve Crder does noL creaLe Lhe auLonomous
reglon for Lhe Cordllleras. 1he CA8: (1) ls noL a LerrlLorlal and pollLlcal
subdlvlslon, (2) ls noL a publlc corporaLlon, (3) does noL have a
separaLe [urldlcal personallLy, (4) ls sub[ecL Lo conLrol and supervlslon
of Lhe ÞresldenL, and (3) ls merely a reglonal consulLaLlve and
coordlnaLlve councll (cotJllleto 8tooJ coolltloo vs. commlssloo oo
AoJlt, C.k. No. 79956, Iooooty 29, 1990).

1.2 1here are Lhree sub-Lypes of clLles, namely: (1) hlghly-urbanlzed, (2)
lndependenL clLles, and (3) componenL clLles.

a. 1he hlghly-urbanlzed clLles and lndependenL componenL clLles are noL
under Lhe supervlslon of provlnces and Lhelr voLers are noL quallfled
Lo voLe for provlnclal offlclals (5ectloo 12, Attlcle \, 1987 coostltotloo,
5ectloo 29, 1991 lCc). 1hese clLles are under Lhe dlrecL supervlslon of
Lhe ÞresldenL (5ectloo 25, 1991 lCc).

drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
9
b. ComponenL clLles are under Lhe supervlslon of provlnces and Lhelr
voLers elecL provlnclal offlclals (5ectloo 12, Attlcle \, 1987
coostltotloo).


7%&"#2(/ () *(+", -(.&%/0&/# 1/2#3

1. Cnly Congress and, by auLhorlLy of law, local leglslaLlve counclls, can creaLe speclflc
LCs. CreaLlon ls a leglslaLlve acL. 1he enabllng law ls referred Lo as Lhe charLer of Lhe
LCu.

1.1 1he ÞresldenL or Lhe LxecuLlve 8ranch of CovernmenL has no power Lo
creaLe local governmenLs (comlJ vs. Offlce of tbe lteslJeot, C.k. No.
161414, Iooooty 17, 2005).

a. MunlclpallLles creaLed by execuLlve flaL buL whose exlsLence were noL
[udlclally nulllfled and whlch conLlnue Lo operaLe and exlsL afLer 1992
are consldered regular munlclpallLles. 1he 1991 LCC ls Lhus a curaLlve
leglslaLlon. lf [udlclally annulled ln a quo warranLo case, Lhe 1991 LCC
wlll have no curaLlve effecL (5ectloo 442jJ], 1991 lCc).

b. An LCu creaLed by execuLlve flaL whlch operaLed or funcLloned
wlLhouL lnLerrupLlon ls consldered a munlclpallLy by prescrlpLlon
(Moolclpollty of Ilmeoez vs. 8oz, C.k. No. 105746, uecembet 2, 1996).

1.2 Congress can provlde for Lhe lncorporaLlon of AuLonomous 8eglons
ldenLlfled under Lhe 1987 ConsLlLuLlon. lL has noL power Lo creaLe oLher
AuLonomous 8eglons oLher Lhan ln Musllm Mlndanao and Cordllleras.

a. 1he Crganlc AcL shall deflne Lhe baslc sLrucLure of governmenL for Lhe
reglon conslsLlng of Lhe execuLlve deparLmenL and leglslaLlve
assembly, boLh of whlch shall be elecLlve and represenLaLlve of Lhe
consLlLuenL pollLlcal unlLs. 1he organlc acLs shall llkewlse provlde for
speclal courLs wlLh personal, famlly, and properLy law [urlsdlcLlon
conslsLenL wlLh Lhe provlslons of Lhls ConsLlLuLlon and naLlonal laws
(5ectloo 18, Attlcle \, 1987 coostltotloo).

b. 1he creaLlon of Lhe auLonomous reglon shall be effecLlve when
approved by ma[orlLy of Lhe voLes casL by Lhe consLlLuenL unlLs ln a
drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
10
pleblsclLe called for Lhe purpose, provlded LhaL only provlnces, clLles,
and geographlc areas voLlng favorably ln such pleblsclLe shall be
lncluded ln Lhe auLonomous reglon (5ectloo 18, Attlcle \, 1987
coostltotloo).

c. 1he ÞresldenL cannoL creaLe a ºsLaLe", l.e., 8angsamoro !urldlcal
LnLlLy esLabllshed under a Memorandum of AgreemenL, whose
relaLlonshlp wlLh Lhe governmenL ls characLerlzed by shared auLhorlLy
and responslblllLy. lL ls a sLaLe ln all buL name as lL meeLs Lhe crlLerla
of sLaLehood: (1) a permanenL populaLlon, (2) a deflned LerrlLory, (3)
a governmenL, and (4) a capaclLy Lo enLer lnLo relaLlons wlLh oLher
sLaLes (ltovloce of Nottb cotoboto vs. Covetomeot of tbe kepobllc of
tbe lblllpploes leoce looel oo Aocesttol uomolo, C.k. No. 18J591,
Octobet 14, 2008).

1.3 Congress can creaLe provlnces, clLles, munlclpallLles and barangays
sub[ecL Lo Lhe crlLerla speclfled under Lhe 1991 LCC (5ectloo 10, Attlcle \,
1987 coostltotloo) and speclal laws such as 8epubllc AcL no. 9009
(converslon of munlclpallLles Lo componenL clLles).

a. Congress, by speclal law, can provlde for dlfferenL requlremenLs oLher
Lhan Lhose speclfled ln Lhe 1991 LCC (leoqoe of cltles of tbe
lblllpploes v. commlssloo oo ílectloos, C.k. Nos. 176951, 177499 ooJ
178056, Aptll 12, 2011).

b. 1he lmplemenLlng rules and regulaLlons cannoL provlde dlfferenL
requlremenLs oLher Lhan whaL ls provlded by law. LxempLlon by
admlnlsLraLlve regulaLlon from land requlremenL when Lhe provlnce
Lo be creaLed ls composed of one or more lslands ls lnvalld (Novotto
vs. ítmlto, C.k. No. 180050, Aptll 12, 2011).

c. 1he sooqqoolooq poololowlqoo and sooqqoolooq poolooqsoJ can
creaLe barangays (5ectloo 6, 1991 lCc). 1he sooqqoolooq boyoo has
no such auLhorlLy under Lhe 1991 LCC.

1.4 An LCu ls deemed creaLed on Lhe day lLs charLer Lakes effecL.

a. lL ls deemed lncorporaLed on Lhe day Lhe charLer ls approved by a
ma[orlLy of Lhe voLes casL ln a pleblsclLe ln Lhe pollLlcal unlLs dlrecLly
drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
11
affecLed (5ectloo 10, Attlcle \, 1987 coostltotloo, 5ectloo 10, 1991
lCc).

l. When a munlclpallLy ls spllL lnLo Lwo, all Lhe barangays of Lhe
orlglnal munlclpallLy musL voLe. 1he pleblsclLe elecLoraLe lncludes
Lhose who wlll be economlcally dlslocaLed and based on plurallLy
of unlLs (loJlllo vs. commlssloo oo ílectloos, C.k. No. 10JJ28,
Octobet 19, 1992).

ll. A pleblsclLe ls requlred when a munlclpallLy ls converLed lnLo an
lndependenL componenL clLy and when Lhe laLLer ls laLer
converLed Lo a componenL clLy as Lhere was an ºupgrade" and
ºdowngrade" parLlcularly lnsofar as Laxes and supervlslon are
concerned (MltooJo vs. Aqoltte, C.k. No. 1JJ064, 5eptembet 16,
1999).

lll. A boundary dlspuLe presenLs a pre[udlclal quesLlon Lo a pleblsclLe
and Lhus musL be resolved prlor Lo Lhe conducL of any pleblsclLe
(clty of loslq vs. commlssloo oo ílectloos, C.k. No. 125646,
5eptembet 10, 1999).

lv. 1he Commlsslon on LlecLlons, noL Lhe regular courLs, has
[urlsdlcLlon over pleblsclLe proLesL cases (8ooc vs. commlssloo oo
ílectloos, C.k. No. 155855, Iooooty 26, 2004).

b. 1he corporaLe exlsLence of an LCu shall commence upon Lhe elecLlon
and quallflcaLlon of lLs chlef execuLlve and a ma[orlLy of Lhe members
of lLs sooqqooloo, unless some oLher Llme ls flxed Lherefor by Lhe law
or ordlnance creaLlng lL (5ectloo 14, 1991 lCc).

2. 1he requlremenLs for creaLlon of local governmenLs are: (1) populaLlon, (2) lncome,
and (3) land area.

2.1 under Lhe 1991 LCC, Lhese are speclflc requlremenLs for every Lype or
sub-Lype of LCu (5ectloos 461, 450, 442, J86, 1991 lCc):

kepoltemeot ltovloce clty Moolclpollty 8otooqoy
lncome 20 mllllon 20 mllllon CC
30 mllllon
2.3 mllllon ---
Economic dislocation
plurality of units
PIL
drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
12
PuC
100 mllllon
M Lo CC
ÞopulaLlon 230,000 130,000 CC
200,000 PuC
23,000 2,000
3,000 MeLro
Land Area 2,000 km
2
100 km
2
30 km
2
ConLlguous


2.2 lor purposes of creaLlon, only Lhe land area ls maLerlal. 1he law ls clear.

a. 1he aggregaLe LerrlLory whlch lncludes waLers ls noL Lhe crlLerla for
creaLlon under Lhe 1991 LCC (5ectloo 1J1 jt]).

b. A charLer sLaLes Lhe boundarles of Lhe local governmenL. Areas or
barangays noL menLloned are excluded (Moolclpollty of Noevo íto vs.
Moolclpollty of Motcos, C.k. No. 1694J5, lebtooty 27, 2008).

2.3 A charLer need noL menLlon Lhe populaLlon census (1oblos vs. Abolos,
C.k. No. 11478J, uecembet 8, 1994).

2.4 lallure Lo sLaLe Lhe seaL of governmenL ln Lhe charLer ls noL faLal (5omsoo
vs. Aqoltte, C.k. No. 1JJ076, 5eptembet 22, 1999).

2.3 lncome under Lhe 1991 LCC perLalns Lo all funds of Lhe LCu lncludlng Lhe
lnLernal 8evenue AlloLmenL (Alvotez vs. Coloqooo, C.k. No. 118J0J,
Iooooty J1, 1996). Powever, under 8.A. 9009 whlch deals wlLh Lhe
converslon of a munlclpallLy Lo a componenL clLy, Lhe funds musL be
lnLernally-generaLed.

2.6 1he requlremenLs for Lhe creaLlon of a componenL clLy and an
lndependenL componenL clLy are Lhe same.

2.7 uependlng on Lhe Lype of LCu creaLed, Lhe presence of all Lhe
requlremenLs of ÞopulaLlon (Þ), Land Area (LA) and lncome (?) may vary
(5ectloos 461, 450, 442, J86, 1991 lCc):

8arangay Þ and LA MunlclpallLy Þ and LA and ?
ClLy Þ and ?, or ? and LA PuC Þ and ?
Þrovlnce Þ and ?, or ? and LA
However, geographic districts and zones are not political units; there are no elected city government officials
in these city-specific administrative levels. Rather they only serve to make city planning and other
administrative tasks easier and more convenient.
drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
13

3. When a munlclpallLy ls converLed Lo a clLy, Lhe laLLer acqulres a dlsLlncL legal
personallLy from Lhe former. 1here ls maLerlal change ln Lhe pollLlcal and economlc
rlghLs of Lhe Lwo LCs (lotoso vs. commlssloo oo ílectloos, C.k. No. 154829,
uecembet 10, 200J).


?723 J5 )'*+) +F.'('-K

1/2#"%58 /(# 9&:&%",8 9(%0

1. 1he form of LCu bureaucracy ls unlLary, noL federal (Moqtojos vs. ltyce ltopettles
ooJ lblllpploe Amosemeots ooJ Comloq cotpototloo, C.k. No. 111097, Ioly 20,
1994).

1.1 LCs as pollLlcal and LerrlLorlal subdlvlslons are unlLs of Lhe SLaLe. 8elng so,
any form of auLonomy granLed Lo LCs wlll necessarlly be llmlLed and
conflned wlLhln Lhe exLenL allowed by Lhe cenLral auLhorlLy (Moqtojos vs.
ltyce ltopettles ooJ lblllpploe Amosemeots ooJ Comloq cotpototloo,
C.k. No. 111097, Ioly 20, 1994).

1.2 LCs are noL soverelgn unlLs wlLhln Lhe SLaLe. 1hey are noL emplres wlLhln
an emplre (lloo, It. vs. loòo, C.k. No. 12909J, Aoqost J0, 2001, Moqtojos
vs. ltyce ltopettles ooJ lblllpploe Amosemeots ooJ Comloq cotpototloo,
C.k. No. 111097, Ioly 20, 1994).

1.3 AuLonomy does noL conLemplaLe maklng mlnl-sLaLes ouL of LCs (Coozoo
vs. coott of Appeols, C.k. No. 9J252, Aoqost 5, 1991).

1.4 1he 1987 ConsLlLuLlon does noL conLemplaLe any sLaLe ln Lhls [urlsdlcLlon
oLher Lhan Lhe Þhlllpplne SLaLe, much less does lL provlde for a LranslLory
sLaLus LhaL alms Lo prepare any parL of Þhlllpplne LerrlLory for
lndependence (ltovloce of Nottb cotoboto vs. Covetomeot of tbe
kepobllc of tbe lblllpploes leoce looel oo Aocesttol uomolo, C.k. No.
18J591, Octobet 14, 2008).

1.3 lederallsm lmplles some measure of decenLrallzaLlon, buL unlLary
sysLems may also decenLrallze. uecenLrallzaLlon dlffers lnLrlnslcally from
federallsm ln LhaL Lhe sub-unlLs LhaL have been auLhorlzed Lo acL (by
Limited autonomy to the
extent allowed by the
central authority
drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
14
delegaLlon) do noL possess any clalm of rlghL agalnsL Lhe cenLral
governmenL (ulsomooqcop vs. 5ectetoty of lobllc wotks ooJ nlqbwoys,
C.k. No. 149848, Novembet 25, 2004).


*(+", ;$#(/(05

1. Local auLonomy means a more responslve and accounLable local governmenL
sLrucLure lnsLlLuLed Lhrough a sysLem of decenLrallzaLlon (5ectloo J, Attlcle \, 1987
coostltotloo, 5ectloo 2jo], 1991 lCc, Coozoo vs. coott of Appeols, C.k. No. 9J252,
Aoqost 5, 1991).

1.1 under a unlLary seL-up, local auLonomy does noL mean absoluLe self-
governance, self-rule or self-deLermlnaLlon (lobllc cotpototloos, kopetto
C. Mottlo, 1985). LCs cannoL exerclse a power conLrary Lo Lhe 1987
ConsLlLuLlon, Lhe 1991 LCC, sLaLuLes and Lhelr respecLlve charLers.

1.2 AuLonomy ls noL meanL Lo end Lhe relaLlon of parLnershlp and
lnLerdependence beLween Lhe cenLral admlnlsLraLlon and LCs, or
oLherwlse, Lo usher ln a reglme of federallsm (Coozoo vs. coott of
Appeols, C.k. No. 9J252, Aoqost 5, 1991).

2. 1here are Lwo levels of decenLrallzaLlon. Local auLonomy ls elLher decenLrallzaLlon of
admlnlsLraLlon or decenLrallzaLlon of power (llmbooo vs. Mooqello, C.k. No. 80J91,
lebtooty 28, 1989).

2.1 1here ls decenLrallzaLlon of admlnlsLraLlon when Lhe cenLral governmenL
delegaLes admlnlsLraLlve powers Lo pollLlcal subdlvlslons ln order Lo
broaden Lhe base of governmenL power and ln Lhe process Lo make local
governmenLs more responslve and accounLable, and ensure Lhelr fullesL
developmenL as self-rellanL communlLles and make Lhem more effecLlve
parLners ln Lhe pursulL of naLlonal developmenL and soclal progress.
(llmbooo vs. Mooqello, C.k. No. 80J91, lebtooty 28, 1989).

2.2 uecenLrallzaLlon of power, on Lhe oLher hand, lnvolves an abdlcaLlon of
pollLlcal power ln favor of local governmenL unlLs declared Lo be
auLonomous. 1he auLonomous governmenL ls free Lo charL lLs own
desLlny and shape lLs fuLure wlLh mlnlmum lnLervenLlon from cenLral
auLhorlLles (llmbooo vs. Mooqello, C.k. No. 80J91, lebtooty 28, 1989).
- responsive and
accountable structure
through
decentralization
drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
13

ueceottollzotloo of
AJmlolsttotloo
ueceottollzotloo of
lowet
uelegaLlon of admlnlsLraLlve
and regulaLory powers
AbdlcaLlon of pollLlcal power
8elleves sLaLe from burden of
managlng local affalrs
CharL own desLlny
LxecuLlve supervlslon LxecuLlve supervlslon,
mlnlmal lnLervenLlon
AccounLablllLy Lo cenLral
governmenL
AccounLablllLy Lo people, self-
lmmolaLlon
Applles Lo provlnces, clLles,
munlclpallLles and barangays
Applles Lo auLonomous
reglons


3. 1he A8MM en[oys pollLlcal auLonomy (llmbooo vs. Mooqello, C.k. No. 80J91,
lebtooty 28, 1989, cotJllleto 8tooJ coolltloo vs. commlssloo oo AoJlt, C.k. No.
79956, Iooooty 29, 1990). 1he creaLlon of auLonomous reglons conLemplaLes Lhe
granL of pollLlcal auLonomy l.e., an auLonomy whlch ls greaLer Lhan Lhe
admlnlsLraLlve auLonomy granLed Lo (oLher) LCs (ulsomooqcop vs. 5ectetoty of
lobllc wotks ooJ nlqbwoys, C.k. No. 149848, Novembet 25, 2004).

3.1 8eglonal auLonomy ls Lhe degree of self-deLermlnaLlon exerclsed by Lhe
LCu vls-a-vls Lhe cenLral governmenL. 8eglonal auLonomy refers Lo Lhe
granLlng of baslc lnLernal governmenL powers Lo Lhe people of a
parLlcular area or reglon wlLh leasL conLrol and supervlslon from Lhe
cenLral governmenL (ulsomooqcop vs. 5ectetoty of lobllc wotks ooJ
nlqbwoys, C.k. No. 149848, Novembet 25, 2004).

3.2 1he alm of Lhe 1987 ConsLlLuLlon ls Lo exLend Lo Lhe auLonomous
peoples, Lhe people of Musllm Mlndanao ln Lhls case, Lhe rlghL Lo self-
deLermlnaLlon, l.e., a rlghL Lo choose Lhelr own paLh of developmenL, Lhe
rlghL Lo deLermlne Lhe pollLlcal, culLural and economlc conLenL of Lhelr
developmenL paLh wlLhln Lhe framework of Lhe soverelgnLy and
LerrlLorlal lnLegrlLy of Lhe Þhlllpplne 8epubllc (ulsomooqcop vs. 5ectetoty
of lobllc wotks ooJ nlqbwoys, C.k. No. 149848, Novembet 25, 2004).

drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
16
4. 1he LxecuLlve ueparLmenL vlolaLes local auLonomy when lL lgnores Lhe sLaLuLory
auLhorlLy of provlnce Lo nomlnaLe budgeL offlclals (5oo Iooo vs. clvll 5etvlce
commlssloo, C.k. No. 92299, Aptll 19, 1991).

3. Where a law ls capable of Lwo lnLerpreLaLlons, one ln favor of cenLrallzed power and
Lhe oLher beneflclal Lo local auLonomy, Lhe scales musL be welghed ln favor of
auLonomy (5oo Iooo vs. clvll 5etvlce commlssloo, C.k. No. 92299, Aptll 19, 1991).

6. LCus have broad powers ln Lhe followlng areas: (1) Þollce Þower, (2) Þower of
1axaLlon, (3) Þower Lo lmpose lees and Charges, (4) Sources of Local 8evenues, (3)
CorporaLe Þowers, and (6) Local LeglslaLlon. 1he 1991 LCC ln Lhese areas does noL
provlde an excluslve llsLlng of powers. lL may be sald LhaL LCus have resldual
powers. 1hls ls conslsLenL wlLh Lhe llberal vlew of auLonomy whlch provldes LhaL
LCus can exerclse: (1) Lhose powers expressly glven Lo Lhem, (2) Lhose powers
lmplled from Lhe express powers, (3) Lhose powers noL glven Lo Lhe naLlonal
CovernmenL or any governmenLal agency or lnsLrumenLallLy by law, (4) Lhose
powers noL prohlblLed or forbldden by Lhe ConsLlLuLlon and sLaLuLes, (3) provlded
Lhe powers are necessary for Lhe carrylng ouL of Lhe mandaLes and duLles enLrusLed
Lo LCus wlLh Lhe end ln vlew of promoLlng Lhe general welfare ln response Lo local
concerns and as agenLs of Lhe communlLles.


<&.(,$#2(/ "/: <&+(/+&/#%"#2(/

1. uevoluLlon refers Lo Lhe acL by whlch Lhe naLlonal governmenL confers power and
auLhorlLy upon Lhe varlous LCs Lo perform speclflc funcLlons and responslblllLles
(5ectloo 17je], 1991 lCc). 1he naLlonal governmenL shall, slx (6) monLhs afLer Lhe
effecLlvlLy of Lhe 1991 LCC, effecL Lhe deconcenLraLlon of requlslLe auLhorlLy and
power Lo Lhe approprlaLe reglonal offlces or fleld offlces of naLlonal agencles or
offlces whose ma[or funcLlons are noL devolved Lo LCus (5ectloo 528, 1991 lCc).

1.1 1he power Lo regulaLe and responslblllLy Lo dellver baslc servlces are Lhe
funcLlons devolved Lo LCs. Lxamples are (5ectloo 17je], 1991 lCc):

Notloool Covetomeot 8oslc 5etvlces keqolototy lowets
ueparLmenL of
AgrlculLure
AgrlculLural exLenslon
and on-slLe research
lnspecLlon of meaL
producLs
ueparLmenL of
LnvlronmenL and
CommunlLy-based
foresLry pro[ecLs
LnforcemenL of
envlronmenLal laws
drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
17
naLural 8esources
ueparLmenL of PealLh PealLh and hosplLal
servlces
CuaranLlne
ueparLmenL of
1ransporLaLlon and
CommunlcaLlons
CperaLlon of 1rlcycles
ueparLmenL of Þubllc
Works and Plghways
Þubllc works locally
funded
LnforcemenL of naLlonal
8ulldlng Code


1.2 uevoluLlon also lncludes Lhe Lransfer of personnel. uevolved personnel
(former employees of Lhe naLlonal governmenL) may be reappolnLed by
clLy mayor (llozo vs. cossloo, C.k. No. 1J6809, Ioly 27, 2004).

2. uevoluLlon ls a leglslaLlve acL. As Lo whaL sLaLe powers should be decenLrallzed and
whaL may be delegaLed Lo LCs remalns a maLLer of pollcy, whlch concerns wlsdom. lL
ls Lherefore a pollLlcal quesLlon (8osco vs. lblllpploe Amosemeots ooJ Comloq
cotpototloo, C.k. No. 91649, Moy 14, 1991).

3. 1here are Lwo levels of decenLrallzaLlon, l.e., admlnlsLraLlve or deconcenLraLlon, and
pollLlcal or devoluLlon (ulsomooqcop vs. 5ectetoty of lobllc wotks ooJ nlqbwoys,
C.k. No. 149848, Novembet 25, 2004, 5ectloos 17 ooJ 528, 1991 lCc).

AJmlolsttotlve ueceottollzotloo lolltlcol ueceottollzotloo
ueconcenLraLlon uevoluLlon
Þowers Lo be Lransferred noL
speclfled
Þowers Lo be Lransferred are
speclfled
1ransfer ls from naLlonal
governmenL agencles Lo lLs fleld
offlces
1ransfer ls from naLlonal
governmenL agencles Lo local
governmenLs
1ransfer ls mandaLory 1ransfer ls mandaLory on Lhe
devolvlng naLlonal governmenL
agency and Lhe recelvlng local
governmenL
AdmlnlsLraLlve ln characLer Þowers, responslblllLles, personnel
and resources
6-monLh deadllne from !anuary 1,
1992
6-monLh deadllne from !anuary 1,
1992

drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
18

4. uevoluLlon enLalls Lhe Lransfer of powers from naLlonal governmenL agencles
(Lransferor, source of power) Lo LCs (Lransferee, reclplenL of powers). Þowers noL
devolved are reLalned by or remalns wlLh Lhe relevanL naLlonal governmenL agency.

4.1 1he regulaLory funcLlons of Lhe naLlonal ÞolluLlon ConLrol Commlsslon
were devolved Lo LCs. ÞursuanL Lo such devoluLlon, LCs may conducL
lnspecLlons aL reasonable Llmes, wlLhouL dolng damage, afLer due noLlce
Lo Lhe owners of bulldlngs, Lo ascerLaln compllance wlLh nolse sLandards
under Lhe laws and order compllance LherewlLh, or suspend or cancel any
bulldlng permlLs or clearance cerLlflcaLes afLer due hearlng (Ac
íotetptlses vs. ltobelle ltopettles cotpototloo, C.k. No. 166744,
Novembet 2, 2006).

4.2 1he power Lo lssue permlLs and locaLlonal clearances for locally-
slgnlflcanL pro[ecLs ls now lodged wlLh clLles and munlclpallLles wlLh a
comprehenslve land use plans. 1he power of Lhe Pouslng Land use
8egulaLory 8oard (PLu88) Lo lssue locaLlonal clearance ls now llmlLed Lo
pro[ecLs consldered Lo be of vlLal and naLlonal or reglonal economlc or
envlronmenLal slgnlflcance. 1he power Lo acL as appellaLe body over
declslons and acLlons of local and reglonal plannlng and zonlng bodles
and depuLlzed offlclal of Lhe board was reLalned by Lhe PLu88. (llollo clty
2ooloq 8ootJ of AJjostmeot ooJ Appeols vs. Ceqoto-Abeclo looetol
nomes, loc., C.k. No. 157118, uecembet 8, 200J).

4.3 ClLles now have Lhe power Lo regulaLe Lhe operaLlon of Lrlcycles-for-hlre
and Lo granL franchlses for Lhe operaLlon Lhereof. 1he devolved power
perLalns Lo Lhe franchlslng and regulaLory powers exerclsed by Lhe Land
1ransporLaLlon lranchlslng and 8egulaLory 8oard (L1l88) and noL lLs
funcLlon Lo granL franchlses Lo oLher vehlcles, and noL Lhe funcLlons of
Lhe Land 1ransporLaLlon Cfflce relaLlve Lo Lhe reglsLraLlon of moLor
vehlcles and lssuances of llcenses for Lhe drlvlng Lhereof (looJ
1toospottotloo Offlce vs. clty of 8otooo, C.k. No. 1J1512, Iooooty 20,
2000).

4.4 1he ueparLmenL of LnvlronmenL and naLural 8esources reLalns Lhe
power Lo conflscaLe and forfelL any conveyances uLlllzed ln vlolaLlon of
Lhe loresLry Code or oLher foresL laws, rules and regulaLlons (loot vs.
coott of Appeols, C.k. No. 111107, Iooooty 10,1997).
drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
19

4.3 1he auLhorlLy Lo granL franchlses for Lhe operaLlon of [al-alal fronLons lles
wlLh Congress, whlle Lhe regulaLory funcLlon ls vesLed wlLh Lhe Cames
and AmusemenL 8oard (llm vs. locpoloq, C.k. No. 115044, Iooooty 27,
1995).


=>&+$#2.& ?$6&%.232(/

1. 1he SLaLe shall ensure Lhe auLonomy of local governmenLs (5ectloo 25, Attlcle ll,
1987 coostltotloo).

2. 1he ÞresldenL of Lhe Þhlllpplnes shall exerclse general supervlslon over LCs.
Þrovlnces wlLh respecL Lo componenL clLles and munlclpallLles, and clLles and
munlclpallLles wlLh respecL Lo componenL barangays shall ensure LhaL Lhe acLs of
Lhelr componenL unlLs are wlLhln Lhe scope of Lhelr prescrlbed powers and funcLlons
(5ectloo 4, Attlcle \, 1987 coostltotloo, 5ectloo 25, 1991 lCc).

2.1 1he ÞresldenL exerclses dlrecL supervlslon over auLonomous reglons,
provlnces ouLslde auLonomous reglons, hlghly-urbanlzed clLles,
lndependenL componenL clLles.

2.2 1he ÞresldenL exerclses general or lndlrecL supervlslon over provlnces
wlLhln auLonomous reglons, componenL clLles, munlclpallLles, and
barangays.

2.3 Þrovlnces exerclse dlrecL supervlslon over componenL clLles and
munlclpallLles, and lndlrecL supervlslon over barangays.

2.4 ClLles and munlclpallLles exerclse dlrecL supervlslon over barangays.

3. 1he ÞresldenL or Lhe ºhlgher" local governmenL has no power of conLrol over LCs
and ºlower" LCs, respecLlvely (utlloo vs. llm, C.k. No. 112497, Aoqost 4, 1994, 5oclol
Iostlce 5oclety vs. Atleozo, C.k. No. 156052, lebtooty 1J, 2008, leyoes vs.
commlssloo oo AoJlt, C.k. No. 14J596, uecembet 11, 200J).

3.1 ConLrol ls Lhe power of an offlcer Lo alLer or modlfy or seL aslde whaL a
subordlnaLe offlcer had done ln Lhe performance of hls/her duLles and Lo
subsLlLuLe Lhe [udgmenL of Lhe former for Lhe laLLer. An offlcer ln conLrol
drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
20
lays down Lhe rules ln Lhe dolng of an acL. lL Lhey are noL followed,
he/she may, ln hls/her dlscreLlon, order Lhe acL undone or re-done by
hls/her subordlnaLe or he/she may even declde Lo do lL hlmself/herself
(utlloo vs. llm, C.k. No. 112497, Aoqost 4, 1994, 5oclol Iostlce 5oclety vs.
Atleozo, C.k. No. 156052, lebtooty 1J, 2008, leyoes vs. commlssloo oo
AoJlt, C.k. No. 14J596, uecembet 11, 200J).

3.2 Supervlslon ls Lhe power of a superlor offlcer Lo see Lo lL LhaL lower
offlcers perform Lhelr funcLlons ls accordance wlLh law. 1he supervlsor or
superlnLendenL merely sees Lo lL LhaL Lhe rules are followed, buL he/she
hlmself/herself does noL lay down such rules, nor does he/she have Lhe
dlscreLlon Lo modlfy or replace Lhem. lf Lhe rules are noL observed,
he/she may order Lhe work done or re-done buL only Lo conform Lo Lhe
prescrlbed rules. Pe/she may noL prescrlbe hls/her own manner for Lhe
dolng of Lhe acL. Pe/she has no [udgmenL on Lhls maLLer excepL Lo see Lo
lL LhaL Lhe rules are followed (utlloo vs. llm, C.k. No. 112497, Aoqost 4,
1994, 5oclol Iostlce 5oclety vs. Atleozo, C.k. No. 156052, lebtooty 1J,
2008, leyoes vs. commlssloo oo AoJlt, C.k. No. 14J596, uecembet 11,
200J).

5opetvlsloo coottol
Cverseelng
Lnsure LhaL supervlsed unlL follows
law/ rules
Allows lnLerference lf supervlsed
unlL acLed conLrary Lo law
Cver acLor and acL
1here musL be a law
Cnly lnvolves quesLlons of law
(declare legal or lllegal), noL wlsdom
or pollcy
Lays down rules ln dolng of an acL
lmpose llmlLaLlons when Lhere ls
none lmposed by law
ueclde for subordlnaLe or change
declslon
SubsLlLuLe [udgmenL over LhaL made
by subordlnaLe
AlLer wlsdom, law-conformlng
[udgmenL or exerclse of dlscreLlon
ulscreLlon Lo order acL undone or re-
done
Þrescrlbe manner by whlch acL ls
done


4. Supervlslon lnvolves Lhe power Lo revlew of execuLlve orders and ordlnances, l.e.,
declare Lhem ulLra vlres or lllegal (5ectloos J0, 56 ooJ 57, 1991 lCc), Lhe power Lo
dlsclpllne (SecLlon 61, 1991 LCC), Lhe power Lo lnLegraLe developmenL plans and
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zonlng ordlnances (5ectloos 447, 458 ooJ 467, 1991 lCc), Lhe power Lo resolve
boundary dlspuLes (5ectloo 118, 1991 lCc), Lhe power Lo approve leaves (5ectloo 47,
1991 lCc), accepL reslgnaLlons (5ectloo 82, 1991 lCc) and flll-up vacancles ln Lhe
sooqqooloo (5ectloo 44, 1991 lCc), and Lhe power Lo augmenL baslc servlces
(5ectloo 17, 1991 lCc).

3. An LCu can:

3.1 CranL and release Lhe dlsbursemenL for Lhe hosplLallzaLlon and healLh
care lnsurance beneflLs of provlnclal offlclals and employees wlLhouL any
prlor approval from Lhe ÞresldenL slnce Lhere ls no law requlrlng prlor
approval. lurLher, AdmlnlsLraLlve Crder no. 103 does noL cover local
governmenLs (Neqtos OcclJeotol vs. commlssloo oo AoJlt, C.k. No.
182574, 5eptembet 28, 2010).

3.2 Þrovlde allowances Lo [udges, sub[ecL Lo avallablllLy of local funds. 1he
ueparLmenL of 8udgeL of ManagemenL cannoL lmpose a cap on Lhe
allowance slnce Lhere ls no law whlch llmlLs Lhe amounL, oLherwlse, Lhls
wlll amounL Lo conLrol (leyoes vs. commlssloo oo AoJlt, C.k. No. 14J596,
uecembet 11, 200J).

3.3 Þrovlde for addlLlonal allowances and oLher beneflLs Lo naLlonal
governmenL offlclals sLaLloned or asslgned Lo a munlclpallLy or clLy,
provlded LhaL Lhe granL of beneflLs does noL run ln confllcL wlLh oLher
sLaLuLes (vllloteoo vs. commlssloo oo AoJlt, C.k. No. 145J8J-84, Aoqost
6, 200J).

3.4 LnacL Lax ordlnances, sub[ecL Lo revlew by Lhe SecreLary of !usLlce, Lo
ascerLaln Lhe consLlLuLlonallLy or legallLy Lhereof. 1he SecreLary however,
has no Lhe rlghL Lo declare Lhe Lax measure un[usL, excesslve, oppresslve
or conflscaLory, or dlrecL Lhe subsLlLuLlon of provlslons slnce Lhls wlll
amounL Lo conLrol (utlloo vs. llm, C.k. No. 112497, Aoqost 4, 1994).

3.3 LxproprlaLe agrlculLural land wlLhouL securlng approval from Lhe
ueparLmenL of Agrarlan 8eform (uA8) slnce Lhere ls no law whlch
requlres Lhls. uA8's auLhorlLy ls conflned Lo Lhe converslon of agrlculLural
lands (comotloes 5ot vs. coott of Appeols, C.k. No. 175604, 5eptembet
18, 2009).

drafL as of 10 november 2012
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3.6 8eclasslfy lands from resldenLlal Lo non-agrlculLural lands wlLhouL uA8
approval as Lhere ls no law mandaLlng such approval (losooq 8oyobos
lotmets Assoclotloo vs. coott of Appeols, C.k. No. 142J59 / 142980, Moy
25, 2004).

3.7 LlecL represenLaLlves Lo Lhe naLlonal Llga ng mga 8arangay. 1he
ueparLmenL of lnLerlor and Local CovernmenL cannoL appolnL an lnLerlm
careLaker Lo manage and admlnlsLer Lhe affalrs of Lhe Llga as Lhls would
vlolaLe local auLonomy (Notloool llqo oq mqo 8otooqoy vs. loteJes, C.k.
Nos. 1J0775/ 1J19J9, 5eptembet 27, 2004).

6. Powever, an LCu cannoL:

6.1 Co beyond Lhe requlremenLs seL forLh ln Lhe CockflghLlng Law desplLe Lhe
facL LhaL cockflghLlng ls a devolved power. lurLher, Lhe CockflghLlng Law
has noL been repealed (1oo vs. leteoo, C.k. No. 14974J, lebtooty 18,
2005).

6.2 AuLhorlze Lhe clLy admlnlsLraLor Lo acL on vlolaLlons of Lhe naLlonal
8ulldlng Code slnce under Lhe law, only Lhe clLy englneer, as Lhe bulldlng
offlclal, has Lhe excluslve auLhorlLy Lo acL on maLLers relaLlng Lo Lhe
lssuance of demollLlon permlLs or Lhe revocaLlon or suspenslon Lhereof
(leople of tbe lblllpploes vs. 5ooJlqooboyoo, C.k. No. 144159, 5eptembet
29, 2004).

6.3 8egulaLe Lhe subscrlber raLes charged by Cable 1elevlslon operaLors
wlLhln lLs LerrlLorlal [urlsdlcLlon slnce Lhls power ls vesLed wlLh Lhe
naLlonal 1elecommunlcaLlons Commlsslon (n1C) Lo Lhe excluslon of
oLher bodles (8otooqos cA1v vs. coott of Appeols, C.k. No. 1J8810,
Octobet 20, 2004).

6.4 ln Lhe absence of consLlLuLlonal or leglslaLlve auLhorlzaLlon, granL
franchlses Lo cable Lelevlslon operaLors as Lhls power has been delegaLed
Lo Lhe n1C (2oomzot vs. leople of tbe lblllpploes, C.k. No. 1J55J5,
lebtooty 14, 2005).

7. lnsofar as Lhe ÞresldenL, LxecuLlve 8ranch, naLlonal CovernmenL Agencles and
Cuasl-CorporaLlons are concerned:

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7.1 1he ÞresldenL has Lhe power Lo dlsclpllne errlng local elecLlve offlclals.
1he power Lo dlsclpllne ls noL lncompaLlble wlLh supervlslon (Iosoo vs.
1ottes, C.k. No. 1J1255, Moy 20, 1998). Supervlslon and lnvesLlgaLlon are
noL lnconslsLenL Lerms. lnvesLlgaLlon does noL slgnlfy conLrol, a power
whlch Lhe ÞresldenL does noL have (Coozoo vs. coott of Appeols, C.k. No.
9J252, Aoqost 5, 1991).

7.2 he Þhlllpplne AmusemenL and Camlng CorporaLlon (ÞACCC8) Lhen can
seL up caslnos even wlLhouL Lhe approval of Lhe LCs as Lhe charLer of
ÞACCC8 empowers lL Lo cenLrallze gambllng (Moqtojos vs. ltyce
ltopettles ooJ lblllpploe Amosemeots ooJ Comloq cotpototloo, C.k. No.
111097, Ioly 20, 1994).

7.3 1he Laguna Lake uevelopmenL AuLhorlLy (LLuA), pursuanL Lo lLs charLer,
can order Lhe dlsmanLllng of flshpens. Laguna de 8ay Lherefore cannoL be
sub[ecLed Lo fragmenLed concepLs of managemenL pollcles where
lakeshore LCs exerclse excluslve domlnlon over speclflc porLlons of Lhe
lake waLer (loqooo loke uevelopmeot Aotbotlty vs. coott of Appeols, C.k.
No. 120865-71, uecembet 7, 1995).

7.4 1he LLuA, pursuanL Lo lLs mandaLe, can lssue cease and deslsL orders
agalnsL LCs Lo sLop Lhe dumplng of lLs garbage ln an open dumpslLe
(loqooo loke uevelopmeot Aotbotlty, C.k. No. 110120, Motcb 16, 1994).


*&@23,"#2.& 7(/#%(,

1. 1he SLaLe shall ensure Lhe auLonomy of local governmenLs (5ectloo 25, Attlcle ll,
1987 coostltotloo).

2. Congress reLalns conLrol of Lhe local governmenLs alLhough ln slgnlflcanLly reduced
degree now Lhan under prevlous ConsLlLuLlons. 1he power Lo creaLe sLlll lncludes Lhe
power Lo desLroy. 1he power Lo granL sLlll lncludes Lhe power Lo wlLhhold or recall.
1he naLlonal LeglslaLure ls sLlll Lhe prlnclpal of Lhe LCs, whlch cannoL defy lLs wlll or
modlfy or vlolaLe lLs laws (Moqtojos vs. ltyce ltopettles ooJ lblllpploe Amosemeots
ooJ Comloq cotpototloo, C.k. No. 111097, Ioly 20, 1994).

3. under Lhe 1987 ConsLlLuLlon, Congress has Lhe power Lo:

drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
24
3.1 AllocaLe among Lhe dlfferenL local governmenL unlLs Lhelr powers,
responslblllLles, and resources, and provlde for Lhe quallflcaLlons,
elecLlon, appolnLmenL and removal, Lerm, salarles, powers and funcLlons
and duLles of local offlclals, and all oLher maLLers relaLlng Lo Lhe
organlzaLlon and operaLlon of Lhe local unlLs (5ectloo J, Attlcle \).

3.2 Þrescrlbe guldellnes and llmlLaLlons sources of local governmenL
revenues and local power Lo levy Laxes, fees, and charges provlded Lhese
are conslsLenL wlLh Lhe baslc pollcy of local auLonomy (5ectloo 5, Attlcle
\).

3.3 ueLermlne Lhe [usL share ln Lhe naLlonal Laxes of local governmenLs
(5ectloo 6, Attlcle \).

3.4 Þrovlde Lhe manner by whlch local governmenLs recelve Lhelr equlLable
share ln Lhe proceeds of Lhe uLlllzaLlon and developmenL of Lhe naLlonal
wealLh wlLhln Lhelr respecLlve areas (5ectloo 7, Attlcle \).

3.3 SeL Lhe Lerm llmlLs of barangay offlclals (5ectloo 8, Attlcle \).

3.6 Þrescrlbe Lhe manner by whlch secLoral represenLaLlves shall be lnsLalled
ln local leglslaLlve bodles (5ectloo 9, Attlcle \).

3.7 ueflne Lhe crlLerla for Lhe creaLlon, dlvlslon, merger, abollLlon and
subsLanLlal alLeraLlon of boundarles of local governmenLs (5ectloo 10,
Attlcle \).

3.8 Þass Lhe organlc acL of Lhe auLonomous reglons (5ectloo 18, Attlcle \).

4. Congress exerclses conLrol over Lhe properLles of LCs.

4.1 ArLlcle 424 of Lhe Clvll Code lays down Lhe baslc prlnclples LhaL properLles
of Lhe publlc domlnlon devoLed Lo publlc use and made avallable Lo Lhe
publlc ln general are ouLslde Lhe commerce of men (persons) and cannoL
be dlsposed of or leased by Lhe LCu Lo prlvaLe persons (Mocoslooo vs.
ulokoo, C.k. oo. 97764, Aoqost 10, 1992).

4.2 ÞursuanL Lo Lhe 8egallan docLrlne, any land LhaL has never been acqulred
Lhrough purchase, granL or any oLher mode of acqulslLlon remalns parL of
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8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
23
Lhe publlc domaln and ls owned by Lhe SLaLe. LCs cannoL approprlaLe Lo
Lhemselves publlc lands wlLhouL prlor granL from Lhe governmenL (kotol
8ook of AoJo vs. komoo cotbollc Atcbblsbop of lloqoyeo-uoqopoo, C.k.
No. 155051, Moy 21, 2007).

4.3 A loL comprlslng Lhe publlc plaza ls properLy of publlc domlnlon, hence,
noL suscepLlble Lo prlvaLe ownershlp by Lhe church or by Lhe munlclpallLy
(komoo cotbollc 8lsbop of kollbo, Akloo vs. Moolclpollty of 8otoooqo,
Akloo, C.k. No. 149145, Motcb J1, 2006).

4.4 A clLy can valldly reconvey a porLlon of lLs sLreeL LhaL has been closed or
wlLhdrawn from publlc use where Congress has speclflcally delegaLed Lo
such pollLlcal subdlvlslon, Lhrough lLs charLer, Lhe auLhorlLy Lo regulaLe lLs
sLreeLs. Such properLy wlLhdrawn from publlc servlLude Lo be used or
conveyed for any purpose for whlch oLher properLy belonglng Lo Lhe clLy
may be lawfully used or conveyed (llqotocloo vs. llbl, C.k. No. 155688
Novembet 28, 2007).


?723 L5 ?'%"!C 'D )'*+) ,'#"!(-"(.C

<&,&@"#2(/ "/: A/#&%6%&#"#2(/ () B(C&%3

1. LCs have consLlLuLlonal, sLaLuLory and [urlsprudenLlal powers.

1.1 1he sources of powers of LCs are Lhe 1987 ConsLlLuLlon, Lhe 1991 LCC,
sLaLuLes, charLers of LCs and [urlsprudence or case law.

1.2 1he power Lo Lax ls a consLlLuLlonal (5ectloo 5, Attlcle \, 1987
coostltotloo) and sLaLuLory power (5ectloo 18, 1991 lCc). CLher Lhan Lhe
1991 LCC, 8epubllc AcL no. 7303 or Lhe Magna CarLa for Þubllc PealLh
Workers, 8epubllc AcL no. 7883 or Lhe 8arangay PealLh Workers' 8eneflLs
and lncenLlves AcL of 1993, among oLhers, are Lhe sLaLuLes LhaL govern
LCs. 1he Supreme CourL ln Lhe case of ÞlmenLel vs. Agulrre (C.8. no.
132988, !uly 19, 2000) declared LhaL LCs have flscal auLonomy.

1.3 ConsLlLuLlonal powers cannoL be repealed or modlfled by Congress save
ln a consLlLuLlonal amendmenL. SLaLuLes can be repealed or modlfled by
drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
26
Congress. Þowers deflned or lnLerpreLed by Lhe Supreme CourL can be re-
deflned and re-lnLerpreLed by lL.

1.4 1here are oLher classlflcaLlons of LCu powers: (1) governmenLal (e.g.
power Lo leglslaLe) and proprleLary (e.g. operaLlng a publlc markeL), (2)
codal-1991 LCC (e.g. power Lo close local roads) and non-codal (e.g.
power of operaLlonal conLrol over pollce under 8epubllc AcLs nos. 6973
and 8331, devoluLlon of Lralnlng servlces under Lhe 1echnlcal LducaLlon
and Skllls uevelopmenL AuLhorlLy pursuanL Lo 8epubllc AcL no. 7796), (3)
sLaLe-delegaLed (e.g. pollce power) and devolved (e.g. barangay daycare
cenLers), (4) express (e.g. power Lo creaLe an offlce) and lmplled (e.g.
power Lo abollsh LhaL offlce, (3) execuLlve (e.g. power Lo veLo an
ordlnance) and leglslaLlve (e.g. power Lo enacL an ordlnance), (6) general
leglslaLlve (e.g. power Lo lssue buslness permlLs) and pollce power proper
(e.g. power Lo lmpose a curfew), (7) lnLramural (e.g. power of emlnenL
domaln) and exLramural (e.g. pollce purposes), (8) mandaLory (e.g. power
Lo dellver baslc servlces as parL of devoluLlon) and dlscreLlonary (e.g.
power Lo exproprlaLe a plece of properLy), (9) lnLernal (e.g. power Lo
adopL Lhe sooqqooloo lnLernal rules of procedure) and exLernal (e.g.
power Lo enacL a zonlng ordlnance), and (10) speclflc Lo an LCu (e.g.
power Lo leglslaLe) and lnLer-LCu (e.g. power Lo enLer lnLo a collaboraLlve
alllance wlLh oLher LCs).

2. Congress ºallocaLe[s] among Lhe dlfferenL local governmenL unlLs Lhelr powers,
responslblllLles, and resources, and provlde for Lhe quallflcaLlons, elecLlon,
appolnLmenL and removal, Lerm, salarles, powers and funcLlons and duLles of local
offlclals, and all oLher maLLers relaLlng Lo Lhe organlzaLlon and operaLlon of Lhe local
unlLs" (5ectloo J, Attlcle \, 1987 coostltotloo).

3. 1he followlng are Lhe rules of lnLerpreLaLlon of Lhe powers of LCs:

3.1 Where a law ls capable of Lwo lnLerpreLaLlons, one ln favor of cenLrallzed
power and Lhe oLher beneflclal Lo local auLonomy, Lhe scales musL be
welghed ln favor of auLonomy (5oo Iooo vs. clvll 5etvlce commlssloo, C.k.
No. 92299, Aptll 19, 1991).

3.2 Any provlslon on a power of an LCu shall be llberally lnLerpreLed ln lLs
favor, and ln case of doubL, any quesLlon Lhereon shall be resolved ln
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8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
27
favor of devoluLlon of powers and of Lhe lower LCu (5ectloo 5jo], 1991
lCc).

3.3 Any falr and reasonable doubL as Lo Lhe exlsLence of Lhe power shall be
lnLerpreLed ln favor of Lhe LCu concerned (5ectloo 5jo], 1991 lCc).

a. Conslderlng LhaL Lhe powers of Lhe ueparLmenL of Lnergy regardlng
Lhe ºÞandacan 1ermlnals" are noL caLegorlcal, any doubL as Lo Lhe
valldlLy of a zonlng ordlnance dlsallowlng Lhe malnLenance of such
Lermlnals musL be resolved ln favor of Lhe ordlnance's valldlLy (5oclol
Iostlce 5oclety vs. Atleozo, C.k. No. 156052, lebtooty 1J, 2008).

b. Whlle Lhe law dld noL expressly vesL on provlnclal governmenLs Lhe
power Lo abollsh LhaL offlce, absenL, however, any conLrary provlslon,
LhaL auLhorlLy should be deemed embraced by lmpllcaLlon from Lhe
power Lo creaLe lL (Iovlet vs. coott of Appeols, C.k. No. l-49065, Iooe,
1, 1994).

c. 1he provlslon ln Lhe clLy charLer on Lhe local power Lo provlde for Lhe
malnLenance of waLerworks for supplylng waLer Lo Lhe lnhablLanLs of
Lhe clLy does noL carry wlLh lL Lhe rlghL and auLhorlLy Lo approprlaLe
waLer. (8oeoJlo vs. clty of lllqoo, C.k. No. 1J2209, Aptll 29, 2005).

d. SLaLuLes conferrlng Lhe power of emlnenL domaln Lo pollLlcal
subdlvlslons cannoL be broadened or consLrlcLed by lmpllcaLlon
(ltovloce of comotloes 5ot vs. coott of Appeols, C.k. No. 175604,
5eptembet 18, 2009).

3.4 ln case of doubL, any Lax ordlnance or revenue measure shall be
consLrued sLrlcLly agalnsL Lhe LCu enacLlng lL, and llberally ln favor of Lhe
Laxpayer. Any Lax exempLlon, lncenLlve or rellef granLed by any LCu
pursuanL Lo Lhe provlslons of Lhls Code shall be consLrued sLrlcLly agalnsL
Lhe person clalmlng lL (5ectloo 5jb], 1991 lCc).

3.3 1he general welfare provlslons ln Lhe 1991 LCC shall be llberally
lnLerpreLed Lo glve more powers Lo LCs ln acceleraLlng economlc
developmenL and upgradlng Lhe quallLy of llfe for Lhe people ln Lhe
communlLy (5ectloo 5jc], 1991 lCc).

drafL as of 10 november 2012
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3.6 8lghLs and obllgaLlons exlsLlng on Lhe daLe of effecLlvlLy of Lhe 1991 LCC
and arlslng ouL of conLracLs or any oLher source of presenLaLlon lnvolvlng
an LCu shall be governed by Lhe orlglnal Lerms and condlLlons of sald
conLracLs or Lhe law ln force aL Lhe Llme such rlghLs were vesLed (5ectloo
5jJ], 1991 lCc).

3.7 ln Lhe resoluLlon of conLroversles arlslng under Lhe 1991 LCC where no
legal provlslon or [urlsprudence applles, resorL may be had Lo Lhe
cusLoms and LradlLlons ln Lhe place where Lhe conLroversles Lake place
(5ectloo 5je], 1991 lCc).

3.8 ln lnLerpreLlng sLaLuLory provlslons on munlclpal flscal powers, doubLs
wlll have Lo be resolved ln favor of munlclpal corporaLlons (5oo loblo clty
vs. keyes, C.k. No. 127708, Motcb 25, 1999).

3.9 ln case of doubL, any Lax ordlnance or revenue measure shall be
consLrued sLrlcLly agalnsL Lhe local governmenL unlL enacLlng lL, and
llberally ln favor of Lhe Laxpayer. Any Lax exempLlon, lncenLlve or rellef
granLed by any local governmenL unlL pursuanL Lo Lhe provlslons of 1991
Local governmenL Code shall be consLrued sLrlcLly agalnsL Lhe person
clalmlng lL. (SecLlon 3[b], 1991 LCC)
1he general welfare provlslons ln Lhe 1991 Local CovernmenL Code shall
be llberally lnLerpreLed Lo glve more powers Lo local governmenL unlLs ln
acceleraLlng economlc developmenL and upgradlng Lhe quallLy of llfe for
Lhe people ln Lhe communlLy. (SecLlon 3[c], 1991 LCC)


B(,2+& B(C&%

1. Þollce power of local governmenLs ls a sLaLuLory delegaLed power under SecLlon 16
of Lhe 1991 LCC. 1he general welfare clause ls Lhe delegaLlon ln sLaLuLory form of
Lhe pollce power of Lhe SLaLe Lo LCs (Moollo vs. loqolo, C.k. No. 118127, Aptll 12,
2005, ítmlto-Molote notel ooJ Motel Opetotloos Assoclotloo, loc., vs. Moyot of
Moollo, C.k. No. l-2469J, Ioly J1, 1967).

2. 1he Ceneral Welfare Clause under Lhe 1991 LCC sLaLes: ºLvery local governmenL
unlL shall exerclse Lhe powers expressly granLed, Lhose necessarlly lmplled
Lherefrom, as well as powers necessary, approprlaLe, or lncldenLal for lLs efflclenL
and effecLlve governance, and Lhose whlch are essenLlal Lo Lhe promoLlon of Lhe
drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
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general welfare. WlLhln Lhelr respecLlve LerrlLorlal [urlsdlcLlons, local governmenL
unlLs shall ensure and supporL, among oLher Lhlngs, Lhe preservaLlon and
enrlchmenL of culLure, promoLe healLh and safeLy, enhance Lhe rlghL of Lhe people
Lo a balanced ecology, encourage and supporL Lhe developmenL of approprlaLe and
self-rellanL sclenLlflc and Lechnologlcal capablllLles, lmprove publlc morals, enhance
economlc prosperlLy and soclal [usLlce, promoLe full employmenL among Lhelr
resldenLs, malnLaln peace and order, and preserve Lhe comforL and convenlence of
Lhelr lnhablLanLs" (5ectloo 16).

3. lor a valld exerclse of pollce power, Lwo requlslLes musL concur: (1) Lawful Sub[ecL
(subsLanLlve due process, equal proLecLlon, publlc lnLeresL requlres lnLerference),
ooJ (2) Lawful MeLhod (procedural due process, reasonable means Lo achleve Lhe
purpose) (loceoo CtooJ ceottol 1etmlool vs. IAc lloet, C.k. No. 148JJ9, lebtooty
2J, 2005).

1.1 An LCu ls consldered Lo have properly exerclsed lLs pollce powers only
when Lhe followlng requlslLes are meL: (1) Lhe lnLeresLs of Lhe publlc
generally, as dlsLlngulshed from Lhose of a parLlcular class, requlre Lhe
lnLerference of Lhe SLaLe, and (2) Lhe means employed are reasonably
necessary for Lhe aLLalnmenL of Lhe ob[ecL soughL Lo be accompllshed
and are noL unduly oppresslve. 1he flrsL requlremenL refers Lo Lhe equal
proLecLlon clause, and Lhe second Lo Lhe due process clause of Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon (lotoyoo vs. Iovellooos, C.k. No. 148408 Ioly 14, 2006,
loceoo CtooJ ceottol 1etmlool vs. IAc lloet, C.k. No. 148JJ9, lebtooty
2J, 2005).

1.2 1he power Lo esLabllsh zones for lndusLrlal, commerclal and resldenLlal
uses ls derlved from Lhe pollce power lLself and ls exerclsed for Lhe
proLecLlon and beneflL of Lhe resldenLs of a locallLy (5oclol Iostlce 5oclety
vs. Atleozo, C.k. No. 156052, lebtooty 1J, 2008).

1.3 A munlclpallLy falled Lo comply wlLh Lhe due process clause when lL
passed a 8esoluLlon orderlng Lhe closure/Lransfer of a gasollne sLaLlon
where lL dld noL even aLLempL Lo deLermlne lf Lhere was an acLual
vlolaLlon of a zonlng ordlnance (lotoyoo vs. Iovellooos, C.k. No. 148408
Ioly 14, 2006).

1.4 An ordlnance almed aL rellevlng Lrafflc congesLlon meeLs Lhe flrsL
sLandard. Powever, declarlng bus Lermlnals as nulsance pet se or publlc
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nulsances and orderlng Lhelr closure or relocaLlon conLravenes Lhe
second sLandard. 1ermlnals are noL publlc nulsances. 1helr operaLlon ls a
leglLlmaLe buslness whlch, by lLself, cannoL be sald Lo be ln[urlous Lo Lhe
rlghLs of properLy, healLh, or comforL of Lhe communlLy (loceoo CtooJ
ceottol 1etmlool vs. IAc lloet, C.k. No. 148JJ9, lebtooty 2J, 2005).

2. 1he general welfare clause has Lwo branches (kotol 8ook of Mokotl vs. Moolclpollty
of Mokotl, C.k. No. 15076J Ioly 02, 2004).

2.1 1he flrsL, known as Lhe general leglslaLlve power, auLhorlzes Lhe local
leglslaLlve councll Lo enacL ordlnances and make regulaLlons noL
repugnanL Lo law, as may be necessary Lo carry lnLo effecL and dlscharge
Lhe powers and duLles conferred upon Lhe local leglslaLlve councll by law
(kotol 8ook of Mokotl vs. Moolclpollty of Mokotl, C.k. No. 15076J Ioly 02,
2004).

2.2 1he second, known as Lhe pollce power proper, auLhorlzes Lhe local
governmenL Lo enacL ordlnances as may be necessary and proper for Lhe
healLh and safeLy, prosperlLy, morals, peace, good order, comforL, and
convenlence of Lhe munlclpallLy and lLs lnhablLanLs, and for Lhe
proLecLlon of Lhelr properLy (kotol 8ook of Mokotl vs. Moolclpollty of
Mokotl, C.k. No. 15076J Ioly 02, 2004).

3. ln Lhe exerclse of pollce power, an LCu can:

3.1 lssue zonlng classlflcaLlon. A zonlng ordlnance ls deflned as a local clLy or
munlclpal leglslaLlon whlch loglcally arranges, prescrlbed, deflnes and
apporLlons a glven pollLlcal subdlvlslon lnLo speclflc land uses as presenL
and fuLure pro[ecLlon of needs (losooq 8oyobos lotmets Assoclotloo vs.
coott of Appeols, C.k. Nos. 142J59/ 142980, Moy 25, 2004).

3.2 ÞrohlblL Lhe expanslon of a hosplLal based on Lhe approved a new zonlng
ordlnance ldenLlfylng anoLher zone for hosplLals, buL whlch allowed
exlsLlng sLrucLures Lo conLlnue ln Lhelr presenL locaLlon (uelfloo vs. 5t.
Iomes nospltol, loc., C.k. No. 1667J5, Novembet 2J, 2007).

3.3 8esLrlcL Lhe use of properLy slnce conLracLual resLrlcLlons on Lhe use of
properLy could noL prevall over Lhe reasonable exerclse of pollce power
Lhrough zonlng regulaLlons (uolteJ 8l nomes vs. clty Moyot of
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lotooopoe, C.k. 41010, lebtooty 07, 2007, Ottlqos & co. vs. leotl 8ook
ooJ 1tost co., C.k. No. l-24670, uecembet 14, 1979).

3.4 8egulaLe Lhe consLrucLlon of warehouses whereln lnflammable maLerlals
are sLored where such warehouses are locaLed aL a dlsLance of 200
meLers from a block of houses and noL Lhe consLrucLlon pet se of a
warehouse (1otel vs. Moolclpollty of vltoc, C.k. No. 4024J, Motcb 11,
1992).

3.3 Crder Lhe closure and padlocklng of a planL causlng polluLlon when Lhe
closure was ln response Lo complalnLs of resldenLs, afLer an lnvesLlgaLlon
was conducLed, when Lhere was no bulldlng permlL from Lhe hosL
munlclpallLy, and when Lhe Lemporary permlL Lo operaLe by Lhe naLlonal
ÞolluLlon ConLrol Commlsslon has explred (1ecbooloqy uevelopets, loc.
vs. coott of Appeols, C.k. No. 94759, Iooooty 21, 1991).

4. Powever, an LCu cannoL:

4.1 ÞrohlblL Lhe operaLlon of sauna and massage parlors, karaoke bars,
beerhouses, nlghL clubs, day clubs, super clubs, dlscoLheques, cabareLs,
dance halls, moLels, lnns or order Lhelr Lransfer or converslon wlLhouL
lnfrlnglng Lhe consLlLuLlonal guaranLees of due process and equal
proLecLlon of laws noL even under Lhe gulse of pollce power (ítmlto-
Molote notel ooJ Motel Opetotloos Assoclotloo, loc., vs. Moyot of
Moollo, C.k. No. l-2469J, Ioly J1, 1967).

4.2 LnacL an ordlnance prevenLlng moLels from offerlng wash raLes and
renLlng ouL a room more Lhan once a day ls an unreasonable exerclse of
pollce power where Lhe behavlor whlch Lhe ordlnance seeks Lo curLall
(l.e., prosLlLuLlon, use of llllclL drugs) ls already prohlblLed and can be
curLalled by applylng exlsLlng laws (wbltellqbt cotpototloo vs. clty of
Moollo, C.k. No. 122846, Iooooty 20, 2009).

4.3 ÞrohlblL Lhe operaLlon of nlghLclubs. 1hey may be regulaLed, buL noL
prevenLed from carrylng on Lhelr buslness (uelo ctoz vs. lotos, C.k. Nos.
l-42571-72, Ioly 25, 198J).

4.4 Modlfy Lhe Lerms of an appllcaLlon for a publlc assembly permlL wlLhouL
even lndlcaLlng how Lhe clLy mayor arrlved aL such a declslon agalnsL Lhe
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sLandard of Lhe clear and presenL danger LesL (loteqtoteJ 8ot of tbe
lblllpploes vs. Atleozo, C.k. No. 175241, lebtooty 24, 2010).

4.3 lmpose an absoluLe ban on publlc assemblles. A mayor, however, can
deny Lhe lssuance of a rally permlL on Lhe ground of clear and presenL
danger Lo publlc order, publlc safeLy, publlc convenlence, publlc morals
or publlc healLh (8oyoo vs. ítmlto, C.k. No. 1698J8, Aptll 25, 2006).

4.6 8egulaLe Lhe pracLlce of a professlon, llke LhaL of opLomeLry, Lhrough Lhe
lssuance of a permlL. Such a funcLlon ls wlLhln Lhe excluslve domaln of Lhe
admlnlsLraLlve agency speclflcally empowered by law Lo supervlse Lhe
professlon, l.e., Þrofesslonal 8egulaLlons Commlsslon and Lhe 8oard of
Lxamlners ln CpLomeLry (AcebeJo Optlcol vs. coott of Appeols, C.k. No.
100152 Motcb J1, 2000).

4.7 Cause Lhe summary abaLemenL of concreLe posLs where Lhe posLs dld noL
pose any hazard Lo Lhe safeLy of persons and properLy buL merely posed
an lnconvenlence Lo Lhe publlc by blocklng Lhe free passage of people Lo
and from Lhe naLlonal road. 1he posL ls noL nulsance pet se (1elmo vs.
8ostomoote, C.k. No. 182567, Ioly 1J, 2009).

4.8 Cause Lhe desLrucLlon of quonseL bulldlng where copra ls sLored slnce
Lhls ls a leglLlmaLe buslness. 8y lLs naLure, lL cannoL be sald Lo be ln[urlous
Lo rlghLs of properLy, of healLh or of comforL of Lhe communlLy. lf lL ls a
nulsance pet occlJeos lL may be so proven ln a hearlng conducLed for LhaL
purpose (ístote ltooclsco vs. coott of Appeols, C.k. No. 95279, Ioly 26,
1991).

4.9 Crder Lhe closure of a bank for non-paymenL of Laxes slnce Lhe
approprlaLe remedles Lo enforce paymenL of dellnquenL Laxes or fees are
provlded ln SecLlon 62 of Lhe Local 1ax Code. Closure ls noL a remedy
(kotol 8ook of Mokotl vs. Moolclpollty of Mokotl, C.k. No. 15076J, Ioly
02, 2004).

3. no compensaLlon ls needed Lo be pald by Lhe LCu as Lhere ls no compensable Laklng
ln Lhe condemnaLlon of prlvaLe properLy under pollce power. ÞroperLy condemned
under pollce power ls usually noxlous or lnLended for a noxlous purpose (ulJlplo
íottb-5ovets´ Moltl-lotpose Assoclotloo vs. Cozoo, C.k. No. 157882, Motcb J0,
2006).
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3.1 ln Lhe exerclse of pollce power, properLy rlghLs of prlvaLe lndlvlduals are
sub[ecLed Lo resLralnLs and burdens ln order Lo secure Lhe general
comforL, healLh, and prosperlLy of Lhe sLaLe. Where a properLy lnLeresL ls
merely resLrlcLed because Lhe conLlnued use Lhereof would be ln[urlous
Lo publlc welfare, or where properLy ls desLroyed because lLs conLlnued
exlsLence would be ln[urlous Lo publlc lnLeresL, Lhere ls no compensable
Laklng (ulJlplo íottb-5ovets´ Moltl-lotpose Assoclotloo vs. Cozoo, C.k.
No. 157882, Motcb J0, 2006).

3.2 ln Lhe exerclse of lLs pollce power regulaLlon, Lhe sLaLe resLrlcLs Lhe use of
prlvaLe properLy, buL none of Lhe properLy lnLeresLs ln Lhe bundle of
rlghLs whlch consLlLuLe ownershlp ls approprlaLed for use by or for Lhe
beneflL of Lhe publlc (ulJlplo íottb-5ovets´ Moltl-lotpose Assoclotloo vs.
Cozoo, C.k. No. 157882, Motcb J0, 2006).


=02/&/# <(0"2/

1. LmlnenL uomaln ls a sLaLuLory power of LCs. 1he 1991 LCC deflnes Lhe power and
enumeraLes Lhe requlremenLs, Lo wlL: ºA local governmenL unlL may, Lhrough lLs
chlef execuLlve and acLlng pursuanL Lo an ordlnance, exerclse Lhe power of emlnenL
domaln for publlc use, or purpose or welfare for Lhe beneflL of Lhe poor and Lhe
landless, upon paymenL of [usL compensaLlon, pursuanL Lo Lhe provlslons of Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon and perLlnenL laws: Þrovlded, however, 1haL Lhe power of emlnenL
domaln may noL be exerclsed unless a valld and deflnlLe offer has been prevlously
made Lo Lhe owner, and such offer was noL accepLed: Þrovlded, furLher, 1haL Lhe
local governmenL unlL may lmmedlaLely Lake possesslon of Lhe properLy upon Lhe
flllng of Lhe exproprlaLlon proceedlngs and upon maklng a deposlL wlLh Lhe proper
courL of aL leasL flfLeen percenL (13°) of Lhe falr markeL value of Lhe properLy based
on Lhe currenL Lax declaraLlon of Lhe properLy Lo be exproprlaLed: Þrovlded, flnally,
1haL, Lhe amounL Lo be pald for Lhe exproprlaLed properLy shall be deLermlned by
Lhe proper courL, based on Lhe falr markeL value aL Lhe Llme of Lhe Laklng of Lhe
properLy." (5ectloo 19, 1991 lCc).

2. 1he power of emlnenL domaln delegaLed Lo LCs ls ln reallLy noL emlnenL buL
ºlnferlor." Congress ls sLlll Lhe prlnclpal of LCs, and Lhe laLLer cannoL go agalnsL Lhe
prlnclpal's wlll or modlfy Lhe same (8eloso vs. Moolclpollty of loooy, C.k. No.
15J974, Aoqost 07, 2006).
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3. ln Lhe exerclse of Lhe power of emlnenL domaln, lL ls baslc LhaL Lhe Laklng of prlvaLe
properLy musL be for a publlc purpose (5ectloo 19, 1991 lCc).

3.1 Þubllc use ls deflned as whaLever ls beneflclally employed for Lhe
communlLy (8otooqoy 5loJoloo, 5oo letoooJo vs. coott of Appeols, C.k.
No. 150640, Motcb 22, 2007).

3.2 lf Lhe lnLended feeder road wlll only beneflL Lhe resldenLs of a prlvaLe
subdlvlslon, Lhen Lhere ls no valld purpose (8otooqoy 5loJoloo, 5oo
letoooJo vs. coott of Appeols, C.k. No. 150640, Motcb 22, 2007).

3.3 1he ordlnance musL show why Lhe sub[ecL properLy was slngled ouL for
exproprlaLlon or whaL necesslLy lmpelled Lhe parLlcular cholce or
selecLlon (loqcoo vs. lobto, C.k. No. 155746, Octobet 1J, 2004).

4. 1o [usLlfy Lhe paymenL of [usL compensaLlon, Lhere musL be compensable Laklng. 1he
exproprlaLed properLy musL be used afLer Laklng (ulJlplo íottb-5ovets´ Moltl-
lotpose Assoclotloo vs. Cozoo, C.k. 157882, Motcb J0, 2006).

4.1 When a properLy lnLeresL ls approprlaLed and applled Lo some publlc
purpose, Lhere ls compensable Laklng.

1he deprlvaLlon of use can ln facL
be LoLal and lL wlll noL consLlLuLe compensable Laklng lf nobody else
acqulres use of Lhe properLy or any lnLeresL Lhereln. lf, however, ln Lhe
regulaLlon of Lhe use of Lhe properLy, somebody else acqulres Lhe use or
lnLeresL Lhereof, such resLrlcLlon consLlLuLes compensable Laklng (ulJlplo
íottb-5ovets´ Moltl-lotpose Assoclotloo vs. Cozoo, C.k. 157882, Motcb
J0, 2006).

4.2 Crderlng a parLlcular Lype of buslness Lo wlnd up, Lransfer, relocaLe or
converL Lo an allowable Lype of buslness ln effecL permanenLly resLrlcLs
Lhe use of properLy and Lhus goes beyond regulaLlon. !usL compensaLlon
ls Lherefore requlred (Moollo vs. loqolo, C.k. No. 118127, Aptll 12, 2005).

3. 1he foundaLlon of Lhe rlghL Lo exerclse emlnenL domaln ls genulne necesslLy and
LhaL necesslLy musL be of publlc characLer (5ectloo 19, 1991 lCc).

3.1 CovernmenL may noL caprlclously or arblLrarlly choose whlch prlvaLe
properLy should be exproprlaLed. 1he condemnor musL show Lhe
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necesslLy (Iesos ls lotJ cbtlstloo 5cbool loooJotloo vs. loslq, C.k. No.
1522J0, Aoqost 09, 2005, Meycooyoo vs. lotetmeJlote Appellote coott,
C.k. No. 72126, Iooooty 29, 1988).

3.2 1he clalm of Lhe LCu LhaL Lhe plece of properLy ls Lhe ºshorLesL and mosL
sulLable access road" and LhaL Lhe ºloL has been surveyed as Lhe besL
posslble lngress and egress" musL be proven by a showlng of a
preponderance of evldence (Iesos ls lotJ cbtlstloo 5cbool loooJotloo vs.
loslq, C.k. No. 1522J0, Aoqost 09, 2005).

3.3 1he rlghL Lo Lake prlvaLe properLy for publlc purposes necessarlly
orlglnaLes from Lhe necesslLy and Lhe Laklng musL be llmlLed Lo such
necesslLy. 1here ls no genulne necesslLy when Laklng of prlvaLe properLy
ls done for Lhe beneflL of a small communlLy whlch seeks Lo have lLs own
sporLs and recreaLlonal faclllLy, noLwlLhsLandlng Lhe facL LhaL Lhere ls a
recreaLlonal faclllLy only a shorL dlsLance away (Moslklp vs. clty of loslq,
C.k. No. 1J6J49, Iooooty 2J, 2006).

6. 1he enabllng lnsLrumenL for Lhe exerclse of emlnenL domaln ls an ordlnance, noL a
resoluLlon (5ectloo 19, 1991 lCc).

6.1 A resoluLlon whlch merely expresses Lhe senLlmenL of Lhe munlclpal
councll wlll noL sufflce (8eloso vs. Moolclpollty of loooy, C.k. No. 15J974,
Aoqost 07, 2006, lotooopoe vs. vM keolty cotpototloo, C.k. No. 127820
Ioly 20, 1998).

6.2 ln a resoluLlon, Lhere ls no poslLlve acL of lnsLlLuLlng Lhe lnLended
exproprlaLlon proceedlngs (Aotoolo vs. Cetoolmo, C.k. No. 124779,
Novembet 29, 2005).

6.3 1he enacLmenL of Lhe ordlnance musL precede Lhe flllng of Lhe
exproprlaLlon complalnL (5oqoltoo vs. MooJoloyooq clty, C.k. No.
1J5087, Motcb 14, 2000).

7. 1here musL be a valld and deflnlLe offer (5ectloo 19, 1991 lCc).

7.1 8easonable efforLs musL be exhausLed ln acqulrlng Lhe properLy
volunLarlly (Iesos ls lotJ cbtlstloo 5cbool loooJotloo vs. loslq, C.k. No.
1522J0, Aoqost 09, 2005).
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7.2 An LCu has Lhe burden of provlng compllance wlLh Lhe mandaLory
requlremenL of a valld and deflnlLe offer Lo Lhe owner of Lhe properLy
before flllng lLs complalnL and Lhe re[ecLlon Lhereof by Lhe laLLer.

lL ls
lncumbenL upon Lhe condemnor Lo exhausL all reasonable efforLs Lo
obLaln Lhe land lL deslres by agreemenL.

lallure Lo prove compllance wlLh
Lhe mandaLory requlremenL wlll resulL ln Lhe dlsmlssal of Lhe complalnL
(Iesos ls lotJ cbtlstloo 5cbool loooJotloo vs. loslq, C.k. No. 1522J0,
Aoqost 09, 2005).

7.3 1he offer musL be compleLe, lndlcaLlng wlLh sufflclenL clearness Lhe klnd
of conLracL lnLended and deflnlLely sLaLlng Lhe essenLlal condlLlons of Lhe
proposed conLracL.

An offer would requlre, among oLher Lhlngs, a clear
cerLalnLy on boLh Lhe ob[ecL and Lhe cause or conslderaLlon of Lhe
envlsloned conLracL. 1here ls no valld offer when Lhe leLLer senL by Lhe
LCu Lo Lhe owner ls a mere lnvlLaLlon Lo a conference Lo dlscuss Lhe
pro[ecL and Lhe prlce (Iesos ls lotJ cbtlstloo 5cbool loooJotloo vs. loslq,
C.k. No. 1522J0, Aoqost 09, 2005).

8. ln Lhe exerclse of Lhls power, Lhe ConsLlLuLlon and oLher perLlnenL laws musL be
followed (5ectloo 19, 1991 lCc).

8.1 ÞrlvaLe lands rank lasL ln Lhe order of prlorlLy for purposes of soclallzed
houslng. LxproprlaLlon proceedlngs are Lo be resorLed Lo only afLer Lhe
oLher modes of acqulslLlon have been exhausLed under 8epubllc AcL. no.
7279, Lhe urban uevelopmenL and Pouslng AcL of 1992 (ístote of nelts of
lote íx-Iostlce Iose 8.l. keyes vs. Moollo, C.k. No. 1J24J1/ 1J7146,
lebtooty 12, 2004, lllstteom lotetootloool vs. coott of Appeols, C.k. No.
125218 / 128077, Iooooty 2J, 1998).

9. 1he auLhorlLy of Lhe supervlslng-hlgher LCu ln exerclslng lLs revlew auLhorlLy over
ordlnances of supervlsed-lower LCu ls llmlLed Lo quesLlons of law/legal quesLlons,
l.e., wheLher or noL Lhe ordlnances are wlLhln Lhe powers of supervlsed-lower LCu
Lo enacL, wheLher or noL oltto vltes, and wheLher or noL procedures were followed.
1he power Lo revlew does noL exLend Lo cholce of properLy Lo be exproprlaLed
(MoJoy vs. coott of Appeols, C.k. No. 107916 lebtooty 20, 1997).

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10. 1he approval of Lhe ueparLmenL of Agrarlan 8eform (uA8) ls noL requlred before an
LCu can exproprlaLe an agrlculLural land (ltovloce of comotloes 5ot vs. coott of
Appeols, C.k. No. 175604, 5eptembet 18, 2009).

11. !udlclal revlew of Lhe exerclse of emlnenL domaln ls llmlLed Lo Lhe followlng areas of
concern: (1) Lhe adequacy of Lhe compensaLlon, (2) Lhe necesslLy of Lhe Laklng, and
(3) Lhe publlc use characLer of Lhe purpose of Lhe Laklng (Moslklp vs. clty of loslq,
C.k. No. 1J6J49, Iooooty 2J, 2006).

11.1 An exproprlaLlon sulL ls lncapable of pecunlary esLlmaLlon. Accordlngly, lL
falls wlLhln Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of 8eglonal 1rlal CourLs, regardless of Lhe
value of Lhe sub[ecL properLy. An exproprlaLlon sulL does noL lnvolve Lhe
recovery of a sum of money buL lnvolves Lhe governmenL's auLhorlLy Lo
exproprlaLe (8otJllloo vs. Moslll, C.k. No. 146886, Aptll J0, 200J).

11.2 1he requlslLes for auLhorlzlng lmmedlaLe enLry ln Lhe exerclse of an LCu's
rlghL of emlnenL domaln are as follows: (1) Lhe flllng of a complalnL for
exproprlaLlon sufflclenL ln form and subsLance, and (2) Lhe deposlL of Lhe
amounL equlvalenL Lo 13° of Lhe falr markeL value of Lhe properLy Lo be
exproprlaLed based on lLs currenL Lax declaraLlon. upon compllance wlLh
Lhese requlremenLs, Lhe lssuance of a wrlL of possesslon becomes
mlnlsLerlal (llollo clty vs. leqospl, C.k. No. 154614, Novembet 25, 2004).

a. lor a wrlL of possesslon Lo lssue, only Lwo requlremenLs are requlred:
(1) Lhe sufflclency ln form and subsLance of Lhe complalnL, and (2) Lhe
requlred provlslonal deposlL. no hearlng ls requlred for Lhe lssuance
of a wrlL of possesslon. 1he sufflclency ln form and subsLance of Lhe
complalnL for exproprlaLlon can be deLermlned by Lhe mere
examlnaLlon of Lhe allegaLlons of Lhe complalnL (llollo clty vs. leqospl,
C.k. No. 154614, Novembet 25, 2004).

b. 1he law does noL make Lhe deLermlnaLlon of a publlc purpose a
condlLlon precedenL Lo Lhe lssuance of a wrlL of possesslon (ltooclo
vs. Meycoooyoo, C.k. No. 1704J2, Motcb 24, 2008).

c. 1he requlred deposlL ls based on Lhe properLy's currenL Lax
declaraLlon (koecbt, loc. vs. Moolclpollty of coloto, C.k. 145254, Ioly
17, 2006).

drafL as of 10 november 2012
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38
11.3 1he owner of Lhe exproprlaLed properLy has cerLaln remedles.

a. 1he owner may flle a mandamus case agalnsL Lhe LCu ln order Lo
compel lLs sooqqooloo Lo enacL anoLher approprlaLlon ordlnance
replaclng a prevlous one whlch charged Lhe paymenL for [usL
compensaLlon Lo a non-exlsLenL bank accounL (Otteqo vs. clty of
cebo, C.k. No. 181562-6J, Octobet 2, 2009).

b. Where a munlclpallLy falls or refuses, wlLhouL [usLlflable reason, Lo
effecL paymenL of a flnal money [udgmenL rendered agalnsL lL, Lhe
clalmanL may avall of Lhe remedy of mandamus ln order Lo compel
Lhe enacLmenL and approval of Lhe necessary approprlaLlon
ordlnance, and Lhe correspondlng dlsbursemenL of munlclpal funds
Lherefore (Mokotl vs. coott of Appeols, C.k. No. 898998-89, Octobet
01, 1990, ¥ojolco vs. Atleozo, C.k. No. 164282, Octobet 12, 2005).

c. 1he non-flllng of an exproprlaLlon case wlll noL necessarlly lead Lo Lhe
reLurn of Lhe properLy Lo lLs owner. 8ecovery of possesslon can no
longer be allowed where Lhe owner was gullLy of esLoppel and, more
lmporLanLly, where whaL was consLrucLed on Lhe properLy was a
publlc road. WhaL ls lefL Lo Lhe owner ls Lhe rlghL Lo [usL
compensaLlon (íoseblo vs. lols, C.k. No. 162474, Octobet 15, 2009).


D&+,"332)2+"#2(/ () *"/:

1. 8eclasslflcaLlon ls Lhe acL of speclfylng how agrlculLural lands shall be uLlllzed for
non-agrlculLural (resldenLlal, lndusLrlal, commerclal) as embodled ln Lhe land use
plan, sub[ecL Lo Lhe requlremenLs and procedure for land use converslon (5ectloo 20,
1991 lCc).

1.1 Converslon ls dlfferenL from reclasslflcaLlon. Converslon ls Lhe acL of
changlng Lhe currenL use of a plece of agrlculLural land lnLo some oLher
use as approved by Lhe ueparLmenL of Agrarlan 8eform
(uA8). Accordlngly, a mere reclasslflcaLlon of agrlculLural land does noL
auLomaLlcally allow a landowner Lo change lLs use and Lhus cause Lhe
e[ecLmenL of Lhe LenanLs. Pe/she has Lo undergo Lhe process of
converslon before he/she ls permlLLed Lo use Lhe agrlculLural land for
oLher purposes (kos vs. uAk, C.k. No. 1J2477, Aoqost J1, 2005).
drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
39

ímloeot uomolo 2ooloq keclosslflcotloo coovetsloo
Compensable
1aklng
Þollce Þower AdmlnlsLraLlve AdmlnlsLraLlve
Change of Cwner
(prlvaLe Lo LCu)
no change of owner no change of owner no change of owner
Any land Any land AgrlculLural Lo non-
AgrlculLural
AgrlculLural Lo non-
AgrlculLural
Change acLual use no change no change Change acLual use
All LCus CrlglnaLes from
ClLles/
MunlclpallLles,
Þrovlnce lnLegraLes
ClLles/
MunlclpallLles
ueparLmenL of
Agrarlan 8eform
no hearlng
mandaLed
no hearlng
mandaLed
Þubllc hearlng
requlred
no hearlng
mandaLed


*(+", *&@23,"#2(/

1. Local leglslaLlve power ls Lhe power of LCus Lhrough Lhelr local leglslaLlve counclls Lo
enacL, repeal, amend, modlfy ordlnances and lssue resoluLlons.

1.1 Local leglslaLlve power shall be exerclsed by Lhe sooqqoolooq
poololowlqoo for Lhe provlnce, Lhe sooqqoolooq poolooqsoJ for Lhe clLy,
Lhe sooqqoolooq boyoo for Lhe munlclpallLy, and Lhe sooqqoolooq
botooqoy for Lhe barangay (5ectloo 48, 1991 lCc).

2. Local leglslaLlon ls referred Lo as subordlnaLlon leglslaLlon.

2.1 Local pollLlcal subdlvlslons are able Lo leglslaLe only by vlrLue of a valld
delegaLlon of leglslaLlve power from Lhe naLlonal leglslaLure excepL only
LhaL Lhe power Lo creaLe Lhelr own sources of revenue and Lo levy Laxes
ls conferred by Lhe ConsLlLuLlon lLself. 1hey are mere agenLs vesLed wlLh
whaL ls called Lhe power of subordlnaLe leglslaLlon. As delegaLes of
Congress, LCus cannoL conLravene buL musL obey aL all Llmes Lhe wlll of
Lhelr prlnclpal. An enacLmenL local ln orlgln cannoL prevall agalnsL a
decree, whlch has Lhe force and effecL of a sLaLuLe (Moollo vs. loqolo,
C.k. No. 118127, Aptll 12, 2005).

drafL as of 10 november 2012
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40
2.2 An ordlnance ln confllcL wlLh a sLaLe law of general characLer and
sLaLewlde appllcaLlon ls unlversally held Lo be lnvalld. 1he prlnclple ls
frequenLly expressed ln Lhe declaraLlon LhaL munlclpal auLhorlLles, under
a general granL of power, cannoL adopL ordlnances whlch lnfrlnge upon
Lhe splrlL of a sLaLe law or repugnanL Lo Lhe general pollcy of Lhe sLaLe. ln
every power Lo pass ordlnances glven Lo a munlclpallLy, Lhere ls an
lmplled resLrlcLlon LhaL Lhe ordlnances shall be conslsLenL wlLh Lhe
general law (8otooqos cA1v vs. coott of Appeols, C.k. No. 1J8810,
Octobet 20, 2004).

2.3 1he delegaLe cannoL be superlor Lo Lhe prlnclpal or exerclse powers
hlgher Lhan Lhose of Lhe laLLer (loqcoo vs. lobto, C.k. No. 155746,
Octobet 1J, 2004).

2.4 A ptovlso ln an ordlnance dlrecLlng LhaL Lhe real properLy Lax be based on
Lhe acLual amounL reflecLed ln Lhe deed of conveyance or Lhe prevalllng
8ureau of lnLernal 8evenue zonal value ls lnvalld noL only because lL
mandaLes an excluslve rule ln deLermlnlng Lhe falr markeL value buL more
so because lL deparLs from Lhe esLabllshed procedures sLaLed ln Lhe Local
AssessmenL 8egulaLlons no. 1-92 (AllleJ 8ookloq vs. Ooezoo clty, C.k. No.
154126, Octobet 11, 2005).

3. Local leglslaLlve acLs are referred Lo as denomlnaLed ordlnances. lor an ordlnance Lo
be valld, lL musL noL only be wlLhln Lhe corporaLe powers of Lhe LCu Lo enacL and
musL be passed accordlng Lo Lhe procedure prescrlbed by law, lL musL also conform
Lo Lhe followlng subsLanLlve requlremenLs: (1) musL noL conLravene Lhe ConsLlLuLlon
or any sLaLuLe, (2) musL noL be unfalr or oppresslve, (3) musL noL be parLlal or
dlscrlmlnaLory, (4) musL noL prohlblL buL may regulaLe Lrade, (3) musL be general
and conslsLenL wlLh publlc pollcy, and (6) musL noL be unreasonable (loqcoo vs.
lobto, C.k. No. 155746, Octobet 1J, 2004).

4. Crdlnances enacLed by LCus en[oy Lhe presumpLlon of consLlLuLlonallLy. 1o
overLhrow Lhls presumpLlon, Lhere musL be a clear and unequlvocal breach of Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon, noL merely a doubLful or argumenLaLlve conLradlcLlon. ln shorL, Lhe
confllcL wlLh Lhe ConsLlLuLlon musL be shown beyond reasonable doubL. When
doubL exlsLs, even lf well-founded, Lhere can be no flndlng of unconsLlLuLlonallLy
(1ooo vs. 5octotes, C.k. No. 110249, Aoqost 21, 1997).

drafL as of 10 november 2012
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AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
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3. A vold leglslaLlve acL such an ordlnance granLlng a franchlse Lo cable Lelevlslon
operaLors, a power vesLed on Lhe naLlonal 1elecommunlcaLlons Commlsslon, does
noL confer any rlghL nor vesL any prlvllege (2oomzot vs. leople of tbe lblllpploes,
C.k. No. 1J55J5, lebtooty 14, 2005).

6. Crdlnances passed ln Lhe exerclse of Lhe general welfare clause and devolved
powers of LCus need noL be approved by Lhe devolvlng agency ln order Lo be
effecLlve absenL a speclflc provlslon of law (1ooo vs. 5octotes, C.k. No. 110249,
Aoqost 21, 1997).

7. 1here are no unlawful dlsbursemenLs of publlc funds when dlsbursemenLs are made
pursuanL Lo a re-enacLed budgeL. Money can be pald ouL of Lhe local Lreasury slnce
Lhere ls a valld approprlaLlon (vllloooevo vs. Ople, C.k. No. 165125, Octobet 18,
2005).

8. Local leglslaLlve counclls enacL ordlnances and lssue resoluLlons.

8.1 LeglslaLlve acLlons of a general and permanenL characLer shall be enacLed
ln Lhe form of ordlnances, whlle Lhose whlch are of Lemporary characLer
shall be passed ln Lhe form of resoluLlons. MaLLers relaLlng Lo proprleLary
funcLlons and Lo prlvaLe concerns shall also be acLed upon by resoluLlon
(Att. 107, lmplemeotloq koles ooJ keqolotloos of tbe 1991 lCc)

OtJloooces kesolotloos
LqulvalenL Lo Law Lxpresslon of SenLlmenL or Cplnlon
Þubllc or CovernmenLal ÞrlvaLe or ÞroprleLary
More or Less ÞermanenL 1emporary
As a general rule, musL undergo 3
readlngs
As a general rule, only undergoes 2
readlngs
All ordlnances sub[ecL Lo veLo/
8evlew
Cnly some resoluLlons sub[ecL Lo
veLo/ 8evlew (l.e., local
developmenL plan and publlc
lnvesLmenL program)

9. LCus can enLer lnLo conLracLs sub[ecL Lo cerLaln requlremenLs (5ectloo 22jo]j5],
1991 lCc).

9.1 unless oLherwlse provlded ln Lhe 1991 LCC, no conLracL may be enLered
lnLo by Lhe local chlef execuLlve ln behalf of Lhe LCu wlLhouL prlor
drafL as of 10 november 2012
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auLhorlzaLlon by Lhe sooqqooloo concerned. A leglble copy of such
conLracL shall be posLed aL a consplcuous place ln Lhe provlnclal caplLol or
Lhe clLy, munlclpal or barangay hall (5ectloo 22jc], 1991 lCc).

9.2 A mayor valldly enLered lnLo a ConLracL of Legal Servlces where Lhe
sooqqooloo unanlmously passed a resoluLlon auLhorlzlng hls/her Lo hlre a
lawyer of hls/her cholce Lo represenL Lhe munlclpallLy's lnLeresL
(Moolclpollty of 1lwl vs. 8etlto, C.k. No. 17187J, Ioly 9, 2010).

9.3 1he prlor auLhorlzaLlon may be ln Lhe form of an approprlaLlon ordlnance
passed for Lhe year whlch speclflcally covers Lhe pro[ecL, cosL or conLracL
Lo be enLered lnLo by Lhe LCu (Oolsombloq vs. Cotclo, C.k. No. 175527,
uecembet 8, 2008).

9.4 A loan agreemenL enLered lnLo by Lhe provlnclal governor wlLhouL prlor
auLhorlzaLlon from Lhe sooqqoolooq poololowlqoo ls unenforceable. 1he
sooqqooloo´s fallure Lo lmpugn Lhe conLracL's valldlLy desplLe knowledge
of lLs lnflrmlLy ls an lmplled raLlflcaLlon LhaL valldaLes Lhe conLracL
(Ocompo vs. leople, C.k. Nos. 156547-51 / 156J82-85, lebtooty 4, 2008).

9.3 1he auLhorlLy of Lhe Þunong 8arangay Lo accepL a donaLlon on behalf of
Lhe barangay ls deemed raLlfled when Lhrough Lhe years, Lhe sooqqooloo
botooqoy dld noL repudlaLe Lhe accepLance of Lhe donaLlon and when Lhe
barangay and Lhe people of Lhe barangay have conLlnuously en[oyed Lhe
maLerlal and publlc servlce beneflLs arlslng from Lhe lnfrasLrucLures
pro[ecLs puL up on Lhe sub[ecL properLy (uolot vs. 8otooqoy loblob, C.k.
No. 15266J, Novembet 18, 2005).

9.6 A local chlef execuLlve has Lhe auLhorlLy Lo flle sulLs for Lhe recovery of
funds and properLy on behalf of Lhe LCu, even wlLhouL Lhe prlor
auLhorlzaLlon from Lhe sooqqooloo. nowhere ln Lhe enumeraLed powers
and duLles of Lhe sooqqooloo

can one flnd Lhe requlremenL of such prlor
auLhorlzaLlon ln favor of Lhe local chlef execuLlve for Lhe purpose of flllng
sulLs on behalf of Lhe LCu (clty of coloocoo vs. coott of Appeols, C.k. No.
145004, Moy 0J, 2006).

10. 1he local leglslaLlve process has Lhe followlng sLages/sLeps: (1) sponsorshlp, (2) 1
sL

readlng, (3) commlLLee dellberaLlons, (4) commlLLee reporL, (3) 2
nd
readlng
(lnLerpellaLlon and amendmenLs), (6) 3
rd
readlngs, aLLesLaLlon, (7) LransmlLLal Lo
drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
43
local chlef execuLlve, (8) approval or veLo, (9) publlcaLlon/ posLlng, (10) effecLlvlLy,
and (11) revlew by Lhe supervlslng-hlgher sooqqooloo.

11. A sooqqooloo ls a colleglal body.

11.1. LeglslaLlon requlres Lhe parLlclpaLlon of all lLs members so LhaL Lhey may
noL only represenL Lhe lnLeresLs of Lhelr respecLlve consLlLuenLs buL also
help ln Lhe maklng of declslons by voLlng upon every quesLlon puL upon
Lhe body (2omoto vs. cobolleto, C.k. No. 147767, Iooooty 14, 2004).

11.2 1he acLs of only a parL of Lhe sanggunlan done ouLslde Lhe parameLers of
Lhe legal provlslons are legally lnflrm. All such acLs cannoL be glven
blndlng force and effecL for Lhey are consldered unofflclal acLs done
durlng an unauLhorlzed sesslon (2omoto vs. cobolleto, C.k. No. 147767,
Iooooty 14, 2004).

11.3 A ma[orlLy of all members of Lhe sooqqooloo who have been elecLed and
quallfled shall consLlLuLe a quorum Lo LransacL offlclal buslness. 1he
deLermlnaLlon of Lhe exlsLence of a quorum ls based on Lhe LoLal number
of members of Lhe sooqqooloo wlLhouL regard Lo Lhe flllng of a leave of
absence (2omoto vs. cobolleto, C.k. No. 147767, Iooooty 14, 2004).

11.4 A sooqqooloo may provlde for a voLe requlremenL dlfferenL from LhaL
prescrlbed under Lhe law (l.e., generally, ma[orlLy voLe) for cerLaln (buL
noL all) ordlnances as ln amendlng a zonlng ordlnance. (cosloo vs. coott
of Appeols, C.k. No. 91192, uecembet 2, 1991).

11.3 1he sooqqooloo´s verbal concurrence ls noL Lhe concurrence envlsloned
under Lhe law. 1he sooqqooloo, as a leglslaLlve body, acLs Lhrough a
resoluLlon or an ordlnance, adopLed ln a leglslaLlve sesslon (Mootoetto
vs. 1y, C.k. No. 1777J6, Octobet 6, 2008).

11.6 1here ls noLhlng ln Lhe language of Lhe law LhaL resLrlcLs Lhe maLLers Lo
be Laken up durlng Lhe flrsL regular sesslon merely Lo Lhe adopLlon or
updaLlng of Lhe house rules. A supplemenLal budgeL may be passed on
Lhe flrsL sesslon day of Lhe sanggunlan (Moloozo vs. 2omoto, C.k. No.
1J7718, Ioly 27, 1999).

drafL as of 10 november 2012
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44
11.7 1here ls noLhlng ln Lhe law whlch prohlblLs Lhe conducL of Lhree readlngs
of a proposed ordlnance from belng held ln [usL one sesslon day
(Moloozo vs. 2omoto, C.k. No. 1J7718, Ioly 27, 1999).

11.8 AbsenL a law, local leglslaLlve counclls have no conLempL and subpoena
powers (Neqtos Otleotol ll ílecttlc coopetotlve loc. vs. 5ooqqoolooq
loolooqsoJ of uomoqoete, C.k. No. 72492, Novembet 05, 1987).

12. Covernors and mayors have Lhe power Lo approve or veLo ordlnances. 1he local
chlef execuLlve may veLo any ordlnance of Lhe sooqqooloo poololowlqoo,
sooqqoolooq poolooqsoJ, or sooqqooloo boyoo on Lhe ground LhaL lL ls oltto vltes or
pre[udlclal Lo Lhe publlc welfare, sLaLlng hls reasons Lherefor ln wrlLlng (5ectloo
55jo], 1991 lCc).

12.1 1he governor or mayor has Lhe power Lo veLo Lhe enLlre ordlnance or
parLlcular lLems Lhereof. 1he local chlef execuLlve, excepL Lhe punong
barangay, shall have Lhe power Lo veLo any parLlcular lLem or lLems of an
approprlaLlons ordlnance, an ordlnance or resoluLlon adopLlng a local
developmenL plan and publlc lnvesLmenL program, or an ordlnance
dlrecLlng Lhe paymenL of money or creaLlng llablllLy (5ectloo 55jb], 1991
lCc).

12.2 1he local chlef execuLlve may veLo an ordlnance or resoluLlon only once.
1he sooqqooloo may overrlde Lhe veLo of Lhe local chlef execuLlve
concerned by Lwo-Lhlrds (2/3) voLe of all lLs members, Lhereby maklng
Lhe ordlnance effecLlve even wlLhouL Lhe approval of Lhe local chlef
execuLlve concerned (5ectloo 55jc], 1991 lCc).

12.3 1he granL of Lhe veLo power confers auLhorlLy beyond Lhe slmple acL of
slgnlng an ordlnance or resoluLlon as a requlslLe Lo lLs enforceablllLy. Such
power accords Lhe local chlef execuLlve Lhe dlscreLlon Lo susLaln a
resoluLlon or ordlnance ln Lhe flrsL lnsLance or Lo veLo lL and reLurn lL wlLh
hls/her ob[ecLlons Lo Lhe sooqqooloo (uelos keyes vs. 5ooJlqooboyoo,
C.k. No. 121215, Novembet 1J, 1997).

12.4 An approprlaLlon ordlnance slgned by Lhe local chlef execuLlve auLhorlzes
Lhe release of publlc funds. 1he mayor's slgnaLure approvlng Lhe budgeL
ordlnance was hls/her assenL Lo Lhe approprlaLlon of funds. lf he/she dld
drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
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43
noL agree wlLh such allocaLlon, he/she could have veLoed Lhe lLem
(coloocoo clty vs. AllotJe, C.k. No. 107271, 5eptembet 10, 200J).

12.3 A munlclpal mayor cannoL lssue a mayor's permlL Lo operaLe a cockplL
wlLhouL an enabllng ordlnance. A general ordlnance empowerlng a mayor
Lo lssue permlLs cannoL be used Lo [usLlfy Lhe lssuance of a llcense. A
mayor cannoL also be compelled Lo lssue such a llcense slnce Lhls would
consLlLuLe an undue encroachmenL on Lhe mayor's admlnlsLraLlve
prerogaLlves (cooet vs. ueceoo, C.k. No. 155J44, Octobet 20, 2004).

13. 8evlew ls a reconslderaLlon or re-examlnaLlon for purposes of correcLlon. 1he power
of revlew ls exerclsed Lo deLermlne wheLher lL ls necessary Lo correcL Lhe acLs of Lhe
subordlnaLe and Lo see Lo lL LhaL supervlsed unlL performs Lhe duLles ln accordance
wlLh law (cosloo vs. coott of Appeols, C.k. No. 91192, uecembet 2, 1991).

14. An LCu has Lwo branches of governmenL, l.e. execuLlve and leglslaLlve. 1he
Covernor for Lhe Þrovlnces, Mayors for ClLles and MunlclpallLles, and Lhe Þunong
8arangay for 8arangays are Lhe local chlef execuLlves, whlle Lhe vlce-Covernor and
vlce-Mayor are Lhe vlce-local chlef execuLlves. 1he 1991 LCC does noL provlde for
Lhe poslLlon of vlce-Þunong 8arangay.

locol cblef íxecotlve vlce-locol cblef íxecotlve
LxecuLlve LeglslaLlve and LxecuLlve (as vlce)
veLo or Approve Þreslde over sesslons
AppolnL Lmployees of Lhe LxecuLlve
8ranch and LeglslaLlve 8ranch funded
by LxecuLlve 8ranch
AppolnL Lmployees of 5ooqqooloo and
Cfflce of vlce-Mayor funded from
5ooqqooloo and CvLCL
Approves ulsbursemenLs and vouchers
for LxecuLlve 8ranch
Approves ulsbursemenLs and vouchers
for LeglslaLlve 8ranch
ApproprlaLlons: May veLo, lf approved,
musL release funds
LnacL ApproprlaLlons Crdlnance


veto kevlew
Approve or dlsapprove 8econslderaLlon or re-examlnaLlon for
purposes of correcLlon
lnLra-LCu (wlLhln Lhe LCu) lnLer-LCu (2 LCus)
LxecuLlve Þower LeglslaLlve Þower
Local Chlef LxecuLlve Supervlslng-Plgher Sanggunlan
drafL as of 10 november 2012
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46
veto kevlew
ultto vltes (beyond Lhe powers of Lhe
LCu) or Þre[udlclal Lo Þubllc Welfare of
law and facL/ wlsdom
ultto vltes
lnvolves quesLlon of law and
facL/wlsdom
lnvolves quesLlon of law only
Þerlod Lo exerclse: Þrovlnce (13 days),
ClLy/ MunlclpallLy (10 days)
30 days
no veLo ln 8arangays no 8evlew of Þrovlnclal Crdlnances
8eversal by Cverrlde or !udlclal 8evlew
(reversal by courLs)
!udlclal 8evlew (reversal only by courLs)

13. 1he 1991 LCC allows for revlew of cerLaln ordlnances.

13.1 1he law requlres LhaL a dlssaLlsfled Laxpayer who quesLlons Lhe valldlLy or
legallLy of a Lax ordlnance musL flle lLs appeal Lo Lhe SecreLary of !usLlce
wlLhln 30 days from effecLlvlLy Lhereof. ln case Lhe SecreLary decldes Lhe
appeal, a perlod of 30 days ls allowed for an aggrleved parLy Lo go Lo
courL. 8uL lf Lhe SecreLary does noL acL Lhereon, afLer Lhe lapse of 60
days, a parLy could already proceed Lo seek rellef ln courL (keyes et. ol. vs.
coott of Appeols, C.k. No. 1182JJ, uecembet 10, 1999, 5ectloo 187, 1991
lCc).

a. lallure Lo appeal Lo Lhe SecreLary of !usLlce wlLhln 30 days from Lhe
effecLlvlLy daLe of Lhe Lax ordlnance as mandaLed by SecLlon 187 of
Lhe 1991 LCC ls faLal (IotJloe uovles vs. Allposo, C.k. No. 118900,
lebtooty 27, 200J).

13.2 1he ueparLmenL of 8udgeL and ManagemenL shall revlew ordlnances
auLhorlzlng Lhe annual or supplemenLal approprlaLlons of provlnces,
hlghly-urbanlzed clLles, lndependenL componenL clLles, and munlclpallLles
wlLhln Lhe MeLropollLan Manlla Area (5ectloo J26, 1991 lCc).

13.3 Crdlnances bannlng Lhe caLchlng of cerLaln specles of flshes and corals
need noL be approved by Lhe ueparLmenL of LnvlronmenL and naLural
8esources before Lhey can be effecLlve because ln Lhe exerclse of
devolved power, such approval ls noL necessary (1ooo vs. 5octotes, C.k.
No. 110249, Aoqost 21, 1997).

drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
47
13.4 1he Cfflce of Lhe ÞresldenL, ueparLmenL of lnLerlor and Local
CovernmenL, and oLher execuLlve deparLmenLs are noL glven Lhe power
Lo revlew under Lhe 1991 LCC.

16. 1he consLlLuLlonallLy and legallLy of ordlnances and resoluLlons may be ralsed before
Lhe courLs on [udlclal revlew.

16.1 A peLlLlon for cerLlorarl flled agalnsL a sooqqooloo Lhe legallLy of an
ordlnance wlll noL lle slnce Lhe sooqqooloo does noL fall wlLhln Lhe amblL
of Lrlbunal, board, or offlcer exerclslng [udlclal or quasl-[udlclal funcLlons.
1he enacLmenL of an ordlnance was done ln Lhe exerclse of leglslaLlve
and execuLlve funcLlons of Lhe sooqqooloo and mayor respecLlvely and do
noL parLake of [udlclal or quasl-[udlclal funcLlons (llqo oq mqo 8otooqoy
Notloool vs. Moollo, C.k. No. 154599, Iooooty 21, 2004).

16.2 1he approprlaLe remedy ls a peLlLlon for declaraLory rellef. 1he requlslLes
of an acLlon for declaraLory rellef are: (1) Lhe sub[ecL maLLer of Lhe
conLroversy musL be a deed, wlll, conLracL or oLher wrlLLen lnsLrumenL,
sLaLuLe, execuLlve order or regulaLlon, or ordlnance, (2) Lhe Lerms of sald
documenLs and Lhe valldlLy Lhereof are doubLful and requlre [udlclal
consLrucLlon, (3) Lhere musL have been no breach of Lhe documenLs ln
quesLlon, (4) Lhere musL be an acLual [usLlclable conLroversy or Lhe
ºrlpenlng seeds" of one beLween persons whose lnLeresLs are adverse,
(3) Lhe lssue musL be rlpe for [udlclal deLermlnaLlon, and (6) adequaLe
rellef ls noL avallable Lhrough oLher means or oLher forms of acLlon or
proceedlng. 1hus, an acLlon for declaraLory rellef quesLlonlng Lwo
resoluLlons and an ordlnance by a sooqqooloo poolooqsoJ ls premaLure
where sald lssuances merely endorsed favorably Lo Lhe Pouslng Land use
and 8egulaLory 8oard (PLu88) an appllcaLlon Lo develop a memorlal
park. 1he sooqqooloo has noL yeL acLed on Lhe appllcaLlon wlLh flnallLy.
1he PLu88, belng Lhe sole regulaLory body for houslng and land
developmenL, has Lhe flnal say on Lhe maLLer. under Lhe docLrlne of
prlmary admlnlsLraLlve [urlsdlcLlon, courLs cannoL or wlll noL deLermlne a
conLroversy where Lhe lssues for resoluLlon demand Lhe exerclse of
sound admlnlsLraLlve dlscreLlon, requlrlng Lhe speclal knowledge,
experlence, and servlces of Lhe admlnlsLraLlve Lrlbunal Lo deLermlne
Lechnlcal and lnLrlcaLe maLLers of facL (lettet, It. vs. koco, It., C.k. No.
174129, Ioly 5, 2010).

While the enactment of an
ordinance is NOT a quasi-
j function, they have
OTHER powers which
ARE.
drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
48
16.3 1he Supreme CourL can only revlew, revlse, reverse, modlfy on appeal or
cerLlorarl flnal [udgmenLs and orders of lower courLs ln all cases ln whlch
Lhe consLlLuLlonallLy or valldlLy of, among oLher Lhlngs, an ordlnance ls ln
quesLlon (Otteqo vs. Ooezoo clty, C.k. No. 161400, 5eptembet 02, 2005).

16.4 lL ls a general rule LhaL Lhe regularlLy of Lhe enacLmenL of an offlclally
promulgaLed sLaLuLe or ordlnance may noL be lmpeached by parol
evldence or oral LesLlmony elLher of lndlvldual offlcers and members, or
of sLrangers who may be lnLeresLed ln nulllfylng leglslaLlve acLlon (keyes
et. ol. vs. coott of Appeols, C.k. No. 1182JJ, uecembet 10, 1999).


E#F&% -(.&%/0&/#", "/: 7(%6(%"#& B(C&%3

1. 1he corporaLe powers of LCus are enumeraLed ln Lhe 1991 LCC buL Lhe llsLlng ls noL
excluslve.

1.1 Lvery LCu, as a corporaLlon, shall have Lhe followlng powers Lo: (1) have
conLlnuous successlon ln lLs corporaLe name, (2) sue and be sued, (3)
have and use a corporaLe seal, (4) acqulre and convey real or personal
properLy, (3) enLer lnLo conLracLs, and (6) exerclse such oLher powers as
are granLed Lo corporaLlons, sub[ecL Lo Lhe llmlLaLlons provlded ln Lhe
1991 LCC and oLher laws (5ectloo 22, 1991 lCc).

2. Aslde from express powers, LCus also have lmplled powers (l.e. Lhose powers
lmplled from express powers and sLaLe pollcles).

2.1 Whlle Lhe law dld noL expressly vesL on LCus Lhe power Lo abollsh LhaL
offlce, absenL, however, any conLrary provlslon, LhaL auLhorlLy should be
deemed embraced by lmpllcaLlon from Lhe power Lo creaLe lL (Iovlet vs.
coott of Appeols, C.k. No. l-49065, Iooe, 1, 1994).

2.2 LCus cannoL use publlc funds for Lhe wldenlng and lmprovemenL of
prlvaLely-owned sldewalks. under Lhe law, no publlc money shall be
approprlaLed or applled for prlvaLe purposes (Alboo vs. letoooJo, C.k.
No. 148J57, Iooe J0, 2006).

2.3 An LCu musL comply wlLh Lhe legal condlLlons lmposed on a donaLlon
(clty of Aoqeles vs. coott of Appeols, C.k. No. 97882, Aoqost 28, 1996).
drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
49


?723 M5 )'*+) +F.'('-K +(N )'*+) C'F!*"C 'D DF(NC

?($%+&3 () 9$/:3

1. LCus have consLlLuLlonal and sLaLuLory sources of funds.

1.1 under Lhe 1987 ConsLlLuLlon, Lhe sources of funds of local governmenLs
are Lhelr share ln naLlonal Laxes, share ln Lhe proceeds of Lhe uLlllzaLlon
and developmenL naLlonal wealLh, local Laxes, fees and charges, oLher
sources of revenues (5ectloos 5,6 ooJ 7, Attlcle \, 1987 coostltotloo).

1.2 under Lhe 1991 LCus ralse funds from loans (5ectloos J00 ooJ J01, 1991
lCc), donaLlons and granLs (5ectloo 2J, 1991 lCc), floaL bonds (5ectloo
299, 1991 lCc), exerclse of proprleLary funcLlons (5ctloo 22jJ]. 1991
lCc), and credlL-flnanclng schemes such as 8ulld-CperaLe-1ransfer
schemes (k.A. No. 7718 omeoJloq k.A. No. 6957).


923+", ;$#(/(05

1. Local auLonomy lncludes boLh admlnlsLraLlve and flscal auLonomy (ltovloce of
8otooqos vs. komolo, C.k. No. 152774, Moy 27, 2004, llmeotel vs. Aqoltte, C.k. No.
1J2988, Ioly 19, 2000).

1.1 LCus en[oy flscal auLonomy. 1he consLlLuLlonal basls of flscal auLonomy ls
SecLlon 3, ArLlcle x of Lhe 1987 ConsLlLuLlon (llmeotel vs. Aqoltte, C.k.
No. 1J2988, Ioly 19, 2000).

1.2 llscal auLonomy means LhaL LCus have Lhe: (1) power Lo creaLe Lhelr own
sources of revenue ln addlLlon Lo Lhelr equlLable share ln Lhe naLlonal
Laxes released by Lhe naLlonal governmenL, as well as Lhe (2) power Lo
allocaLe Lhelr resources ln accordance wlLh Lhelr own prlorlLles. (3) lL
exLends Lo Lhe preparaLlon of Lhelr budgeLs, and local offlclals ln Lurn-
have Lo work wlLhln Lhe consLralnLs Lhereof (llmeotel vs. Aqoltte, C.k.
No. 1J2988, Ioly 19, 2000).

Section 5. Each local
government unit shall have the
power to create its own sources
of revenues and to levy taxes,
fees and charges subject to
such guidelines and limitations
as the Congress may provide,
consistent with the basic policy
of local autonomy. Such taxes,
fees, and charges shall accrue
exclusively to the local
governments.
drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
30
1.3 Local flscal auLonomy does noL however rule ouL any manner of naLlonal
governmenL lnLervenLlon by way of supervlslon, ln order Lo ensure LhaL
local programs, flscal and oLherwlse, are conslsLenL wlLh naLlonal goals
(llmeotel vs. Aqoltte, C.k. No. 1J2988, Ioly 19, 2000).

2. As a consequence of flscal auLonomy:

2.1 1he ueparLmenL of 8udgeL and ManagemenL cannoL lmpose a llmlLaLlon
noL found ln Lhe law such as seLLlng a cap on Lhe amounL of allowances
for [udges (uoJole vs. commlssloo oo AoJlt, C.k. No. 125J50, uecembet
0J, 2002).

2.2 ln revlewlng Lax ordlnances, Lhe ueparLmenL of !usLlce can only declare a
Lax measure unconsLlLuLlonal and lllegal. 1he SecreLary cannoL amend,
modlfy or repeal Lhe Lax measure or declare lL excesslve, conflscaLory or
conLrary Lo publlc welfare (utlloo vs. llm, C.k. No. 112497, Aoqost 4,
1994).

2.3 1he resLrlcLlve and llmlLed naLure of Lhe Lax exempLlon prlvlleges under
Lhe 1991 LCC ls conslsLenL wlLh Lhe SLaLe pollcy of local auLonomy. 1he
obvlous lnLenLlon of Lhe law ls Lo broaden Lhe Lax base of LCus Lo assure
Lhem of subsLanLlal sources of revenue (lblllpploe kotol ílecttlc
coopetotlves Assoclotloo vs. ullC, C.k No. 14J076, Iooe 10, 200J).

2.4 WlLh Lhe added burden of devoluLlon, lL ls even more lmperaLlve for
governmenL enLlLles Lo share ln Lhe requlremenLs of local developmenL,
flscal or oLherwlse, by paylng Laxes or oLher charges due from Lhem
(Notloool lowet cotpototloo vs. coboootooo clty, C.k. No. 149110, Aptll
09, 200J).

2.3 ln lnLerpreLlng sLaLuLory provlslons on munlclpal flscal powers, doubLs
wlll have Lo be resolved ln favor of LCus (5oo loblo clty vs. keyes, C.k.
No. 127708, Motcb 25, 1999).


A/#&%/", D&.&/$& ;,,(#0&/#

1. LCus shall have a [usL share, as deLermlned by law, ln Lhe naLlonal Laxes whlch shall
be auLomaLlcally released Lo Lhem (5ectloo 6, Attlcle \, 1987 coostltotloo).
National government
can exercise the power
of supervision
drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
31

1.2 AL presenL, all LCus have a 40° share ln Lhe naLlonal lnLernal revenue
Laxes based on Lhe collecLlon of Lhe Lhlrd flscal year precedlng Lhe
currenL flscal year (5ectloo 284, 1991 lCc).

1.3 Cf Lhe 40°, provlnces and clLles are enLlLled Lo 23° each, munlclpallLles,
34°, and barangays, 20°. 1he share of a parLlcular local governmenL
shall be based on Lhls formula: populaLlon, 30°, land area, 23°, and
equal sharlng, 23° (5ectloo 285, 1991 lCc).

1.4 ln Lhe evenL LhaL Lhe naLlonal governmenL lncurs an unmanageable publlc
secLor deflclL, Lhe ÞresldenL of Lhe Þhlllpplnes ls hereby auLhorlzed, upon
Lhe recommendaLlon of SecreLary of llnance, SecreLary of lnLerlor and
Local CovernmenL and SecreLary of 8udgeL and ManagemenL, and
sub[ecL Lo consulLaLlon wlLh Lhe presldlng offlcers of boLh Pouses of
Congress and Lhe presldenLs of Lhe ºllga", Lo make Lhe necessary
ad[usLmenLs ln Lhe lnLernal revenue alloLmenL of local governmenL unlLs
buL ln no case shall Lhe alloLmenL be less Lhan LhlrLy percenL (30°) of Lhe
collecLlon of naLlonal lnLernal revenue Laxes of Lhe Lhlrd flscal year
precedlng Lhe currenL flscal year (5ectloo 284, 1991 lCc).

1.3 1he lnLernal 8evenue AlloLmenL (l8A) of LCus: (1) forms parL of Lhe
lncome of local governmenL unlLs, (2) forms parL of Lhe gross accreLlon of
Lhe funds of Lhe local governmenL unlLs, (3) regularly and auLomaLlcally
accrues Lo Lhe local Lreasury wlLhouL need of furLher acLlon on Lhe parL of
Lhe LCu, (4) ls a regular and recurrlng lLem of lncome, (3) accrues Lo Lhe
general fund of Lhe LCus, (6) ls used Lo flnance local operaLlons sub[ecL
Lo modes provlded by Lhe 1991 LCC and lLs lmplemenLlng rules, and (7) ls
lncluded ln Lhe compuLaLlon of Lhe average annual lncome for purposes
of converslon of LCus (Alvotez vs. Coloqooo, C.k. No. 118J0J, Iooooty
J1, 1996).

1.6 1he share of each LCu shall be released, wlLhouL need of any furLher
acLlon, dlrecLly Lo Lhe provlnclal, clLy, munlclpal or barangay Lreasurer, as
Lhe case may be, on a quarLerly basls wlLhln flve (3) days afLer Lhe end of
each quarLer, and whlch shall noL be sub[ecL Lo any llen or holdback LhaL
may be lmposed by Lhe naLlonal governmenL for whaLever purpose
(5ectloo 286, 1991 lCc).

drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
32
a. 1he ÞresldenL cannoL wlLhhold 10° of Lhe l8A wlLhouL complylng
wlLh Lhe requlremenLs under SecLlon 284 of Lhe 1991 LCC. 1hls would
be vlolaLlve of local auLonomy and flscal auLonomy (llmeotel vs.
Aqoltte, C.k. No. 1J2988, Ioly 19, 2000).

b. 1he Ceneral ApproprlaLlon AcL cannoL place a porLlon of Lhe l8A ln an
unprogrammed lund only Lo be released when a condlLlon ls meL,
l.e., Lhe orlglnal revenue LargeLs are reallzed (Altetootlve ceotet vs.
2omoto, C.k. No. 144256, Iooe 8, 2005).

c. 1he provlslons ln Lhe Ceneral ApproprlaLlon AcL creaLlng Lhe Local
CovernmenL Speclal LquallzaLlon lund and auLhorlzlng Lhe non-
release of Lhe full 40° Lo all LCus are lnapproprlaLe provlslons/rlders.
lurLher, an approprlaLlons acL cannoL amend a subsLanLlve law, l.e.,
1991 LCC (ltovloce of 8otooqos vs. komolo, C.k. No. 152774, Moy 27,
2004).

d. A ºno reporL, no release" pollcy may noL be valldly enforced agalnsL
offlces vesLed wlLh flscal auLonomy. 1he auLomaLlc release provlslon
found ln Lhe ConsLlLuLlon means LhaL LCus cannoL be requlred Lo
perform any acL Lo recelve Lhe º[usL share" accrulng Lo Lhem from Lhe
naLlonal coffers (clvll 5etvlce commlssloo vs. uepottmeot of 8oJqet
ooJ Moooqemeot, C.k. No. 158791, Ioly 22, 2005).


?F"%& 2/ !"#2(/", G&",#F B%(+&&:3

1. LCus shall be enLlLled Lo an equlLable share ln Lhe proceeds of Lhe uLlllzaLlon and
developmenL of Lhe naLlonal wealLh wlLhln Lhelr respecLlve areas, ln Lhe manner
provlded by law, lncludlng sharlng Lhe same wlLh Lhe lnhablLanLs by way of dlrecL
beneflLs (5ectloo 7, Attlcle \, 1987 coostltotloo).

1.1 LCus shall have a 40° share of gross collecLlon derlved by Lhe naLlonal
governmenL from Lhe precedlng flscal year from mlnlng Laxes, royalLles,
foresLry and flshery charges, and such oLher Laxes, fees, or charges,
lncludlng relaLed surcharges, lnLeresLs, or flnes, and from lLs share ln any
co-producLlon, [olnL venLure or producLlon sharlng agreemenL ln Lhe
uLlllzaLlon and developmenL of Lhe naLlonal wealLh wlLhln Lhelr LerrlLorlal
[urlsdlcLlon (5ectloo 290, 1991 lCc).
No condition on IRA
drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
33

1.2 1he hosL provlnce shall be enLlLled Lo 20°, componenL munlclpallLy/ clLy,
43° (lf hlghly-urbanlzed or lndependenL clLy, 63°), and barangay, 33°
(5ectloo 292, 1991 lCc).


B(C&% () 4">"#2(/

1. Lach LCu shall have Lhe power Lo levy Laxes, fees, and charges sub[ecL Lo such
guldellnes and llmlLaLlons as Lhe Congress may provlde, conslsLenL wlLh Lhe baslc
pollcy of local auLonomy. Such Laxes, fees, and charges shall accrue excluslvely Lo
Lhe LCus (5ectloo 5, Attlcle \, 1987 coostltotloo).

1.1 1he power Lo Lax ls prlmarlly vesLed ln Lhe Congress, however, ln our
[urlsdlcLlon, lL may be exerclsed by local leglslaLlve bodles, no longer
merely by vlrLue of a valld delegaLlon as before, buL pursuanL Lo dlrecL
auLhorlLy conferred by SecLlon 3, ArLlcle x of Lhe 1987 ConsLlLuLlon.

1he
exerclse of Lhe power may be sub[ecL Lo such guldellnes and llmlLaLlons
as Lhe Congress may provlde whlch, however, musL be conslsLenL wlLh
Lhe baslc pollcy of local auLonomy (Moctoo cebo lotetootloool Altpott
Aotbotlty vs. Motcos, C.k. No. 120082, 5eptembet 11, 1996)

1.2 1he llsL of Laxes under 8ook ll of Lhe 1991 LCC ls noL excluslve. LCus may
exerclse Lhe power Lo levy Laxes, fees or charges on any base or sub[ecL:
(1) noL oLherwlse speclflcally enumeraLed hereln or Laxed under Lhe
provlslons of Lhe naLlonal lnLernal 8evenue Code, as amended, or oLher
appllcable laws: Þrovlded, 1haL Lhe Laxes, fees, or charges shall: (2) noL be
un[usL, excesslve, oppresslve, conflscaLory or conLrary Lo declared
naLlonal pollcy: Þrovlded, furLher, 1haL Lhe: (3) ordlnance levylng such
Laxes, fees or charges shall: (4) noL be enacLed wlLhouL any prlor publlc
hearlng conducLed for Lhe purpose (5ectloo 186, 1991 lCc).

ltovloces cltles Moolclpolltles 8otooqoys
1ax on 1ransfer of
8eal ÞroperLy
Cwnershlp
1ax on 8uslness of
ÞrlnLlng and
ÞubllcaLlon
1ax on 1ransfer of
8eal ÞroperLy
Cwnershlp
1ax on 8uslness of
ÞrlnLlng and
ÞubllcaLlon
8uslness 1ax on
ManufacLurers
8uslness 1ax on
Wholesalers,
ulsLrlbuLors, or
uealers
1ax on SLores or
8eLallers wlLh
flxed buslness
esLabllshmenLs
Power to tax: Not
delegated to LGUs but
direct authority by the
Constitution
Criteria for taxation
drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
34
ltovloces cltles Moolclpolltles 8otooqoys
lranchlse 1ax
1ax on Sand,
Cravel and CLher
Cuarry 8esources
Þrofesslonal 1ax
AmusemenL 1ax
Annual llxed 1ax
for Lvery uellvery
1ruck or van of
ManufacLurers or
Þroducers,
Wholesalers of,
uealers, or
8eLallers ln,
CerLaln ÞroducLs

8eal ÞroperLy 1ax
Speclal LducaLlon
lund Levy
Ad valorem 1ax on
ldle Lands
Speclal Levy on
Land 8eneflLed by
Þubllc Works
lranchlse 1ax
1ax on Sand,
Cravel and CLher
Cuarry
8esources
Þrofesslonal 1ax
AmusemenL 1ax
Annual llxed 1ax
for Lvery
uellvery 1ruck or
van of
ManufacLurers or
Þroducers,
Wholesalers of,
uealers, or
8eLallers ln,
CerLaln ÞroducLs
8uslness 1ax on
ManufacLurers
8uslness 1ax on
Wholesalers,
ulsLrlbuLors, or
uealers
8uslness 1ax on
8eLallers
8uslness 1ax on
LxporLers, and
on
ManufacLurers,
Wholesalers and
8eLallers of
LssenLlal
CommodlLles
8uslness 1ax on
ConLracLors
8uslness 1ax on
8anks
8uslness 1ax on
8uslness 1ax on
8eLallers
8uslness 1ax on
LxporLers, and on
ManufacLurers,
Wholesalers and
8eLallers of
LssenLlal
CommodlLles
8uslness 1ax on
ConLracLors
8uslness 1ax on
8anks
8uslness 1ax on
Þeddlers
8uslness 1ax on all
oLher 8uslnesses

CommunlLy 1ax
8eal ÞroperLy 1ax
for MeLro-Manlla
MunlclpallLles
Speclal LducaLlon
lund Levy
Ad valorem 1ax on
ldle Lands
Speclal Levy on
Land 8eneflLed by
Þubllc Works

drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
33
ltovloces cltles Moolclpolltles 8otooqoys
Þeddlers
8uslness 1ax on
all oLher
8uslnesses

CommunlLy 1ax
8eal ÞroperLy 1ax
Speclal LducaLlon
lund Levy
Ad valorem 1ax
on ldle Lands
Speclal Levy on
Land 8eneflLed
by Þubllc Works



?723 O5 )'*+) ,'#"!(-"(. 'DD$*$+)C

*&@23,"#2.& 7(/#%(, (.&% ?#%$+#$%&

1. 1he 1987 ConsLlLuLlon does noL enumeraLe Lhe local offlclals of Lhe flve klnds/levels
of LCus.

2. Congress shall provlde for Lhe quallflcaLlons, elecLlon, appolnLmenL and removal,
Lerm, salarles, and powers and funcLlons and duLles of local offlclals (5ectloo J,
Attlcle \, 1987 coostltotloo). Congress exerclses leglslaLlve conLrol over sLrucLure of
LCus.


4&%0 () E))2+&

1. 1he Lerm of offlce of elecLlve local offlclals, excepL barangay offlclals, whlch shall be
deLermlned by law, shall be Lhree years and no such offlclal shall serve for more
Lhan Lhree consecuLlve Lerms. volunLary renunclaLlon of Lhe offlce for any lengLh of
Llme shall noL be consldered as an lnLerrupLlon ln Lhe conLlnulLy of hls servlce for Lhe
full Lerm for whlch he was elecLed (5ectloo 8, Attlcle \, 1987 coostltotloo). under
8.A. no. 9164, Lhe currenL Lerm of offlce of elecLlve barangay offlclals ls Lhree years.
drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
36

1.1 lor Lhe 3-Lerm rule Lo apply, Lwo condlLlons musL concur: (1) Lhe offlclal
concerned has been elecLed for Lhree consecuLlve Lerms ln Lhe same local
governmenL posL, and (2) he/she has fully served Lhree consecuLlve
Lerms. A munlclpal councllor who was elecLed for Lhree consecuLlve
Lerms buL who had Lo assume Lhe poslLlon of vlce-mayor on hls/her
second Lerm ln vlew of Lhe lncumbenL's reLlremenL ls noL deemed Lo
have fully served Lhree consecuLlve Lerms (Mooteboo vs. comelec, C.k.
No. 180444, Aptll 08, 2008).

1.2 Pe/she musL also have been elecLed Lo Lhe same poslLlon for Lhe same
number of Llmes before Lhe dlsquallflcaLlon can apply. 1he flrsL requlslLe
ls absenL when a proclamaLlon was subsequenLly declared vold slnce
Lhere was no proclamaLlon aL all. Whlle a proclalmed candldaLe may
assume offlce on Lhe sLrengLh of Lhe proclamaLlon of Lhe 8oard of
Canvassers, he/she ls only a presumpLlve wlnner who assumes offlce
sub[ecL Lo Lhe flnal ouLcome of Lhe elecLlon proLesL. 1he second requlslLe
ls noL presenL when Lhe offlclal vacaLes Lhe offlce noL by volunLary
renunclaLlon buL ln compllance wlLh Lhe legal process of wrlL of execuLlon
lssued by Lhe Commlsslon on LlecLlons (loozoolJo vs. comelec, C.k. No.
1J5150, Ioly 28, 1999).

1.3 1he Lerm llmlL for elecLlve local offlclals musL be Laken Lo refer Lo Lhe
rlghL Lo be elecLed as well as Lhe rlghL Lo serve ln Lhe same elecLlve
poslLlon. ConsequenLly, lL ls noL enough LhaL an lndlvldual has served
Lhree consecuLlve Lerms ln an elecLlve local offlce, he/she musL also have
been elecLed Lo Lhe same poslLlon for Lhe same number of Llmes before
Lhe dlsquallflcaLlon can apply. 1hus, Lhe Lerm of a vlce-mayor who
became Lhe mayor by successlon ls noL consldered a Lerm as mayor for
purposes of Lhe 3-Lerm rule (8otjo vs. comelec, C.k. No. 1JJ495,
5eptembet 0J, 1998).

1.4 ÞrevenLlve suspenslon, by lLs naLure, does noL lnvolve an effecLlve
lnLerrupLlon of a Lerm and should Lherefore noL be a reason Lo avold Lhe
3-Lerm llmlLaLlon. 8ecause lL ls lmposed by operaLlon of law, prevenLlve
suspenslon does noL lnvolve a volunLary renunclaLlon, lL merely lnvolves
Lhe Lemporary lncapaclLy Lo perform Lhe servlce LhaL an elecLlve offlce
demands (AlJovloo, It. vs. commlssloo oo ílectloos, C.k. No. 1848J6,
uecembet 2J, 2009).
3 term rule: ELECTED
Same post, served fully
the 3 consecutive
terms
drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
37

1.3 A person who has run for Lhree consecuLlve Lerms may run ln a recall
elecLlon so long as Lhe sald candldaLe ls noL runnlng for lmmedlaLe
reelecLlon followlng hls/her Lhree consecuLlve Lerms. 1erm llmlLs should
be consLrued sLrlcLly Lo glve Lhe fullesL posslble effecL Lo Lhe rlghL of Lhe
elecLoraLe Lo choose Lhelr leaders. 1hus, Lhe 3-Lerm llmlL for local elecLed
offlclals ls noL vlolaLed when a local offlclal wlns ln a recall elecLlon for
mayor afLer servlng Lhree full Lerms as mayor slnce sald elecLlon ls noL
consldered lmmedlaLe reelecLlon (5octotes vs. comelec, C.k. No. 154512,
Novembet 12, 2002).

1.6 A person who served for Lwo consecuLlve Lerms for mayor and LhereafLer
losL ln Lhe succeedlng elecLlons, can run ln Lhe nexL elecLlon slnce Lhe 3-
Lerm rule was noL vlolaLed (AJotmeo vs. comelec, C.k. No. 147927,
lebtooty 04, 2002).

1.7 A punong barangay servlng hls/her Lhlrd Lerm of offlce who ran, won and
assumed offlce as sooqqooloo boyoo member ls deemed Lo have
volunLarlly rellnqulshed hls/her offlce as punong barangay for purposes
of Lhe Lhree-Lerm rule (8olos vs. comelec, C.k. No. 184082, Motcb 17,
2009).

1.8 A 3-Lerm mayor of a munlclpallLy converLed lnLo a clLy on Lhe 3
rd
Lerm of
Lhe mayor cannoL seek offlce as a clLy mayor ln Lhe 1
sL
elecLlons of clLy
offlclals conslderlng Lhe area and lnhablLanLs of Lhe locallLy are Lhe same
and LhaL Lhe munlclpal mayor conLlnued Lo hold offlce unLll such Llme as
clLy elecLlons are held. 1here was no lnvolunLary renunclaLlon on Lhe parL
of Lhe munlclpal mayor aL any Llme durlng Lhe Lhree Lerms. Whlle Lhe clLy
acqulred a new corporaLe exlsLence separaLe and dlsLlncL from LhaL of
Lhe munlclpallLy, Lhls does noL mean LhaL for Lhe purpose of applylng Lhe
consLlLuLlonal provlslon on Lerm llmlLaLlons, Lhe offlce of Lhe munlclpal
mayor would be consLrued as dlfferenL from LhaL of Lhe offlce of Lhe clLy
mayor (lotoso vs. comelec, C.k. No. 154829, uecembet 10, 200J).

1.9 A punong barangay who has served for Lhree consecuLlve Lerms when
Lhe barangay was sLlll parL of a munlclpallLy ls dlsquallfled from runnlng
for a 4
Lh
consecuLlve Lerm when Lhe munlclpallLy was converLed Lo a clLy
because Lhe poslLlon and LerrlLorlal [urlsdlcLlon are Lhe same (loceJo vs.
lomeoo, C.k. No. 182867, Novembet 25, 2008).
drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
38

1.10 ln case of fallure of elecLlons lnvolvlng barangay offlclals, Lhe lncumbenL
offlclals shall remaln ln offlce ln a hold-over capaclLy pursuanL Lo SecLlon
3 of 8epubllc AcL no. 9164 (AJop vs. comelec, C.k. No. 161984, lebtooty
21, 2007).


B(C&%3 () *(+", E))2+2",3

1. 1he powers of local governmenL offlclals are deflned under Lhe 1991 LCC.

2. 1he powers and responslblllLles of Lhe Þrovlnclal Covernor are enumeraLed under
SecLlon 463 of Lhe 1991 LCC. Among oLhers, Lhe Covernor shall exerclse general
supervlslon and conLrol over all programs, pro[ecLs, servlces, and acLlvlLles of Lhe
provlnclal governmenL, enforce all laws and ordlnances relaLlve Lo Lhe governance of
Lhe provlnce, represenL Lhe provlnce ln all lLs buslness LransacLlons and slgn ln lLs
behalf all bonds, conLracLs, and obllgaLlons, and such oLher documenLs upon
auLhorlLy of Lhe sooqqoolooq poololowlqoo or pursuanL Lo law or ordlnance, ensure
LhaL all execuLlve offlclals and employees of Lhe provlnce falLhfully dlscharge Lhelr
duLles and funcLlons as provlded by law and Lhe 1991 LCC, ensure LhaL Lhe acLs of
Lhe componenL clLles and munlclpallLles of Lhe provlnce and of lLs offlclals and
employees are wlLhln Lhe scope of Lhelr prescrlbed powers, duLles and funcLlons,
and ensure LhaL all Laxes and oLher revenues of Lhe provlnce are collecLed, and LhaL
provlnclal funds are applled Lo Lhe paymenL of expenses and seLLlemenL of
obllgaLlons of Lhe provlnce, ln accordance wlLh law or ordlnance.

3. 1he powers and responslblllLles of Lhe ClLy/Munlclpal Mayor are llsLed under
SecLlons 433 and 444 of Lhe 1991 LCC, respecLlvely. Among oLhers, Lhe Mayor shall
exerclse general supervlslon and conLrol over all programs, pro[ecLs, servlces, and
acLlvlLles of Lhe munlclpal governmenL, enforce all laws and ordlnances relaLlve Lo
Lhe governance of Lhe munlclpallLy, upon auLhorlzaLlon by Lhe sooqqoolooq
pooqlooqsoJ/boyoo, represenL Lhe munlclpallLy ln all lLs buslness LransacLlons and
slgn on lLs behalf all bonds, conLracLs, and obllgaLlons, and such oLher documenLs
made pursuanL Lo law or ordlnance, ensure LhaL all execuLlve offlclals and
employees of Lhe clLy/munlclpallLy falLhfully dlscharge Lhelr duLles and funcLlons,
solemnlze marrlages, ensure LhaL Lhe acLs of Lhe clLy/munlclpallLy's componenL
barangays and of lLs offlclals and employees are wlLhln Lhe scope of Lhelr prescrlbed
powers, funcLlons, duLles and responslblllLles, lssue llcenses and permlLs and
suspend or revoke Lhe same for any vlolaLlon of Lhe condlLlons upon whlch sald
drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
39
llcenses or permlLs had been lssued, pursuanL Lo law or ordlnance, and ensure Lhe
dellvery of baslc servlces and Lhe provlslon of adequaLe faclllLles.

4. 1he powers and responslblllLles of Lhe Þunong 8arangay are enumeraLed under
SecLlon 389 of Lhe 1991 LCC. Among oLhers, Lhe Þunong 8arangay shall enforce of all
laws and ordlnances whlch are appllcable wlLhln Lhe barangay, promoLe Lhe general
welfare of Lhe barangay, negoLlaLe, enLer lnLo, and slgn conLracLs for and ln behalf of
Lhe barangay, upon auLhorlzaLlon of Lhe sooqqoolooq botooqoy, malnLaln publlc
order ln Lhe barangay, call and preslde over Lhe sesslons of Lhe sooqqoolooq
botooqoy and Lhe barangay assembly, and voLe only Lo break a Lle, upon approval by
a ma[orlLy of all Lhe members of Lhe sooqqoolooq botooqoy, appolnL or replace Lhe
barangay Lreasurer, Lhe barangay secreLary, and oLher appolnLlve barangay offlclals,
admlnlsLer Lhe operaLlon of Lhe kototooqooq pombotooqoy, and exerclse general
supervlslon over Lhe acLlvlLles of Lhe sooqqoolooq kobotooo.


B(C&% #( ;66(2/#

1. 1he Local Chlef LxecuLlve and Lhe vlce-Local Chlef LxecuLlve have Lhe power Lo
appolnL.

1.1 As a general rule, appolnLmenLs made by defeaLed local candldaLes afLer
Lhe elecLlons are prohlblLed Lo avold anlmoslLles beLween ouLgolng and
lncomlng offlclals, Lo allow Lhe lncomlng admlnlsLraLlon a free hand ln
lmplemenLlng lLs pollcles, and Lo ensure LhaL appolnLmenLs and
promoLlons are noL used as Lools for pollLlcal paLronage or as reward for
servlces rendered Lo Lhe ouLgolng local offlclals. Powever, such
appolnLmenLs may be allowed lf Lhe followlng requlslLes concur relaLlve
Lo Lhelr lssuance: (1) 1he appolnLmenL has gone Lhrough Lhe regular
screenlng by Lhe Þersonnel SelecLlon 8oard (ÞS8) before Lhe prohlblLed
perlod on Lhe lssuance of appolnLmenLs as shown by Lhe ÞS8 reporL or
mlnuLes of lLs meeLlng, (2) 1he appolnLee ls quallfled, (3) 1here ls a need
Lo flll up Lhe vacancy lmmedlaLely ln order noL Lo pre[udlce publlc servlce
and/or endanger publlc safeLy, and (4) 1he appolnLmenL ls noL one of
Lhose mass appolnLmenLs lssued afLer Lhe elecLlons (Nozoteoo vs. clty of
uomoqoete, C.k. No. 168484, Ioly 12, 2007).

1.2 Where a munlclpal mayor orders Lhe suspenslon or dlsmlssal of a
munlclpal employee on grounds he/she belleves Lo be proper, buL hls/her
drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
60
order ls reversed or nulllfled by Lhe Clvll Servlce Commlsslon or Lhe CourL
of Appeals, he/she has Lhe rlghL Lo conLesL such adverse rullng. Pls/her
rlghL Lo appeal flows from Lhe facL LhaL hls/her power Lo appolnL carrles
wlLh lL Lhe power Lo remove. 8elng chlef execuLlve of Lhe munlclpallLy,
he/she possesses Lhls dlsclpllnary power over appolnLlve munlclpal
offlclals and employees (uoqoJoq vs. 1ooqoowo, C.k. No. 161166-67,
lebtooty 0J, 2005).

1.3 1he clLy legal offlcer has no dlsclpllnary auLhorlLy over Lhe chlef of Lhe
Legal Affalrs and ComplalnL Servlces of Lhe ulvlslon of ClLy Schools.
lnasmuch as Lhe sald offlclal was appolnLed by and ls a subordlnaLe of Lhe
reglonal dlrecLor of Lhe ueparLmenL of LducaLlon, CulLure and SporLs,
he/she ls sub[ecL Lo Lhe supervlslon and conLrol of sald dlrecLor (Aqoltte
vs. ue costto, C.k. No. 1276J1, uecembet 17, 1999).


H"/ (/ I(,:2/@ <$", B(32#2(/3

1. no (local) elecLlve offlclal shall be ellglble for appolnLmenL or deslgnaLlon ln any
capaclLy Lo any publlc offlce or poslLlon durlng hls/her Lenure (5ectloo 7jb], Attlcle
l\j8], 1987 coostltotloo).

1.1 A clLy mayor cannoL be appolnLed Lo Lhe poslLlon of chalrperson of Lhe
Sublc 8ay MeLropollLan AuLhorlLy slnce such offlce ls noL an ex-offlclo
posL or aLLached Lo Lhe offlce of Lhe mayor. 1hls provlslon expresses Lhe
ºpollcy agalnsL Lhe concenLraLlon of several publlc poslLlons ln one
person, so LhaL a publlc offlcer or employee may serve full-Llme wlLh
dedlcaLlon and Lhus be efflclenL ln Lhe dellvery of publlc servlces (llotes
vs. utlloo, C.k. No. 1047J2, Iooe 22, 199J).

1.2 ÞursuanL Lo SecLlon 7(8), ArLlcle ll of Lhe Culdellnes ln Lhe ConducL of
LlecLrlc CooperaLlve ulsLrlcL LlecLlons, ex-offlclo sooqqooloo members are
dlsquallfled from becomlng board members of elecLrlc cooperaLlves
(Notloool ílecttlflcotloo AJmlolsttotloo vs. vllloooevo, C.k. No. 16820J,
Motcb 9, 2010).


J"+"/+2&3

Serve FULL TIME with
dedication and efficiency
drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
61
1. 1here are permanenL and Lemporary causes of vacancles ln local elecLlve poslLlons
under Lhe 1991 LCC. 1he grounds are:

letmooeot 1empototy
ueaLh
volunLary reslgnaLlon
ConvlcLlon
LxplraLlon of Lerm
ÞermanenL dlsablllLy
lllls a hlgher vacanL offlce
8efuses Lo assume offlce
lalls Lo quallfy
8emoved from offlce
lallure of elecLlons
Leave of absence
1ravel abroad
Suspenslon from offlce
ÞrevenLlve suspenslon
Slckness
1emporary dlsablllLy

1.1 Where a permanenL vacancy occurs due Lo dlsquallflcaLlon ln Lhe offlce of
mayor, Lhe proclalmed vlce-mayor shall succeed as mayor, pursuanL Lo
SecLlon 44 of Lhe 1991 LCC (looJooJoyo vs. commlssloo oo ílectloos,
C.k. No. 179J1J, 5eptembet 17, 2009).

1.2 When a mayor ls ad[udged Lo be dlsquallfled, a permanenL vacancy was
creaLed for fallure of Lhe elecLed mayor Lo quallfy for Lhe offlce. ln such
evenLuallLy, Lhe duly elecLed vlce mayor shall succeed as provlded by law.
1he second placer cannoL be declared as mayor (1otol kote vs. comelec,
C.k. Nos. 157526 / 157527, Aptll 28, 2004).

1.3 ln case Lhere ls a permanenL vacancy caused by a sooqqooloo member
belonglng Lo a pollLlcal parLy, lL shall be Lhe ÞresldenL acLlng Lhrough Lhe
execuLlve secreLary who shall appolnL Lhe replacemenL, upon Lhe
cerLlflcaLlon and nomlnaLlon of Lhe pollLlcal parLy from where Lhe
replaced member comes from, for Lhe sooqqoolooq poololowlqoo and
sooqqoolooq pooqlooqsoJ of a hlghly urbanlzed or lndependenL
componenL clLy. lor Lhe sooqqoolooq pooqlooqsoJ of componenL clLles
and lL shall be Lhe governor who shall make Lhe appolnLmenL upon Lhe
cerLlflcaLlon and nomlnaLlon of Lhe pollLlcal parLy from where Lhe
replaced member comes from. ln case Lhe vacancy ls caused by a
member who does noL come from any pollLlcal parLy, appolnLmenL shall
be done by Lhe offlclals menLloned upon Lhe recommendaLlon of Lhe
sooqqooloo concerned, wlLhouL, however, need of Lhe nomlnaLlon or
But wasn't there the
contention that the Vice
Mayor was not duly
elected by the people??
If vacancy in the
sanggunian:
1. President through ExSec
appoint - panlalawigan/
panglunsod
- if political party: add'l req.
of certification and
nomination
2. Panglunsod of
component cities - Governor
3. Sanggu Pambarangay -
Mayor appoints with the
recommendation of the
Barangay Chair
drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
62
cerLlflcaLlon from any pollLlcal parLy. lor sooqqoolooq botooqoy
members, lL ls Lhe mayor who appolnLs upon recommendaLlon of Lhe
sooqqoolooq botooqoy (lotloos vs. 8otbo, C.k. No. 1167J, Aptll 19,
1996).

1.4 ln case of vacancy ln Lhe sooqqoolooq boyoo, Lhe nomlnee of Lhe parLy
under whlch Lhe member concerned was elecLed and whose elevaLlon Lo
Lhe hlgher poslLlon creaLed Lhe lasL vacancy wlll be appolnLed. 1he lasL
vacancy refers Lo LhaL creaLed by Lhe elevaLlon of Lhe councllor as vlce-
mayor. 1he reason behlnd Lhe rule ls Lo malnLaln parLy represenLaLlon
(Novotto vs. coott of Appeols, C.k. No. 141J07, Motcb 28, 2001).

1.3 lor purposes of successlon ln Lhe fllllng up of vacancles under SecLlon 44
of 1991 LCC, Lhe ranklng ln Lhe sanggunlan shall be deLermlned on Lhe
basls of Lhe proporLlon of voLes obLalned by each wlnnlng candldaLes Lo
Lhe LoLal number of reglsLered voLers ln each dlsLrlcL ln Lhe lmmedlaLely
precedlng local elecLlon, noL Lhe number of voLers who acLually voLed
(vlctotlo vs. comelec, C.k. No. 109005, Iooooty 10, 1994).

1.6 1he hlghesL-ranklng munlclpal councllor's successlon Lo Lhe offlce of vlce-
mayor cannoL be consldered a volunLary renunclaLlon of hls/her offlce as
councllor slnce lL occurred by operaLlon of law (Mooteboo vs. comelec,
C.k. No. 180444, Aptll 08, 2008).

1.7 8eslgnaLlons by sooqqoolooq poololowlqoo members musL submlL Lhelr
leLLers of reslgnaLlon Lo Lhe ÞresldenL or Lo hls/her alLer ego, Lhe
SecreLary of Lhe lnLerlor and Local CovernmenL. 1he leLLer musL be
submlLLed, recelved and acLed upon by Lhe supervlslng offlclals,
oLherwlse, Lhere was no valld and compleLe reslgnaLlon (5ooqqoolooq
8oyoo of 5oo AoJtes vs. coott of Appeols, C.k. No. 11888J, Iooooty 16,
1998).

1.8 When Lhe vlce-Covernor exerclses Lhe powers and duLles of Lhe Cfflce of
Lhe Covernor, he/she does noL assume Lhe laLLer offlce. Pe/she only acLs
as Lhe Covernor buL does noL 'become' Lhe Covernor. Pls/her
assumpLlon of Lhe powers of Lhe provlnclal Chlef LxecuLlve does noL
creaLe a permanenL vacuum or vacancy ln hls/her poslLlon as Lhe vlce-
Covernor. 8uL he/she does Lemporarlly rellnqulsh Lhe powers of Lhe vlce-
Covernor, lncludlng Lhe power Lo preslde over Lhe sesslons of Lhe
Sanggu Ranking:
Proportion of votes
obtained to TOTAL #
registered voters
Sanggu complete
resignation: submitted
and received by
President or Sec. of
DILG
drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
63
sooqqoolooq poololowlqoo (Comboo vs. Aqoltte, et. ol., C.k. No. 1J421J,
Ioly 20, 1999).

1.9 Absence should be reasonably consLrued Lo mean 'effecLlve' absence,
l.e., one LhaL renders Lhe offlcer concerned powerless, for Lhe Llme belng,
Lo dlscharge Lhe powers and prerogaLlves of hls/her offlce. 1here ls no
vacancy whenever Lhe offlce ls occupled by a legally quallfled lncumbenL.
A seoso coottotlo, Lhere ls a vacancy when Lhere ls no person lawfully
auLhorlzed Lo assume and exerclse aL presenL Lhe duLles of Lhe offlce
(Comboo vs. Aqoltte, et. ol., C.k. No. 1J421J, Ioly 20, 1999).


?723 P5 +**'F(.+Q$)$.K 'D )'*+) ,'#"!(-"(. F($.C +(N 'DD$*$+)C

?$"K2,2#5 "/: *2"K2,2#5

1. LCus have Lhe power Lo sue and be sued (5ectloo 22 jo]j2], 1991 lCc). 8ecause of
Lhe sLaLuLory walver, LCus are noL lmmune from sulL.

2. LCus and Lhelr offlclals are noL exempL from llablllLy for deaLh or ln[ury Lo persons or
damage Lo properLy (5ectloo 24, 1991 lCc).

3. 1he LesL of llablllLy of Lhe munlclpallLy depends on wheLher or noL Lhe drlver, acLlng
on behalf of Lhe munlclpallLy, ls performlng governmenLal or proprleLary funcLlons.
1he dlsLlncLlon of powers becomes lmporLanL for purposes of deLermlnlng Lhe
llablllLy of Lhe munlclpallLy for Lhe acLs of lLs agenLs whlch resulL ln an ln[ury Lo Lhlrd
persons. under Lhe 1983 Local CovernmenL Code, LCus are exempL from llablllLy
whlle ln Lhe performance of Lhelr offlclal funcLlons. uellvery of sand and gravel for
Lhe consLrucLlon of a munlclpal brldge ls ln Lhe exerclse of Lhe governmenLal
capaclLy of LCus (Moolclpollty of 5oo letoooJo, lo uoloo vs. lltme, C.k. No. l-
52179, Aptll 8, 1991). under Lhe 1991 LCC, Lhe dlsLlncLlon beLween governmenLal
and proprleLary powers has been removed.


*2"K2,2#5 () *(+", -(.&%/0&/# 1/2#3

1. When Lhere ls no mallce or bad falLh LhaL aLLended Lhe lllegal dlsmlssal and refusal
Lo relnsLaLe on Lhe parL of Lhe munlclpal offlclals, Lhey cannoL be held personally
accounLable for Lhe back salarles. 1he munlclpal governmenL should dlsburse funds
Effective absence:
powerless to discharge
powers and functions
Distinction of
powers:
governmental
or Proprietary
to determine
liability ????
drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
64
Lo answer for Lhe clalms resulLlng from Lhe dlsmlssal (clvll 5etvlce commlssloo vs.
Ceotolloo, C.k. No. 1528JJ Moy 09, 2005).

2. 1he LCu ls llable for Lhe lllegal dlsmlssal of an appolnLlve employee and Lhe
appolnLmenL ln hls/her sLead of anoLher, a non-clvll servlce ellglble, whose salarles lL
LhereafLer pald. 1he dlsmlssal by Lhe mayor was conflrmed and raLlfled when Lhe
clLy dld noL oppose Lhe dlsmlssal and Lhe appolnLmenL (keqls, It. vs. Osmeño, It.,
C.k. No. 26785, Moy 2J, 1991).

3. An LCu ls llable for ln[urles susLalned due Lo defecLlve roads and manholes. lor
llablllLy Lo arlse under ArLlcle 2189 of Lhe Clvll Code, ownershlp of Lhe roads, sLreeLs,
brldges, publlc bulldlngs and oLher publlc works ls noL a conLrolllng facLor, lL belng
sufflclenL LhaL a provlnce, clLy or munlclpallLy has conLrol or supervlslon Lhereof
(Moolclpollty of 5oo Iooo vs. coott of Appeols, C.k. No. 121920, Aoqost 9, 2005,
Collotco vs. uoqopoo, C.k. No. 61516, Motcb 21, 1989).

4. lnasmuch as Lhe llcense for Lhe esLabllshmenL of a cockplL ls a mere prlvllege whlch
can be suspended aL any Llme by compeLenL auLhorlLy, Lhe flxlng ln a munlclpal
ordlnance of a dlsLance of noL less Lhan Lwo kllomeLers beLween one cockplL and
anoLher, ls noL sufflclenL Lo warranL Lhe annulmenL of such ordlnance on Lhe ground
LhaL lL ls parLlal, even Lhough lL ls pre[udlclal Lo an already esLabllshed cockplL (AboJ
vs. ívooqellsto, C.k. No. J8884, 5eptembet 26, 19JJ).


*2"K2,2#5 () *(+", E))2+2",3

1. 1he power of supervlslon ls compaLlble wlLh Lhe power Lo dlsclpllne. 1he power Lo
dlsclpllne does noL amounL Lo execuLlve conLrol whlch ls proscrlbed under SecLlon,
4, ArLlcle x of Lhe 1987 ConsLlLuLlon.

1.1 1he ÞresldenL's power of general supervlslon means no more Lhan Lhe
power of ensurlng LhaL laws are falLhfully execuLed, or LhaL subordlnaLe
offlcers acL wlLhln Lhe law. Supervlslon ls noL lncompaLlble wlLh
dlsclpllne. 1he power Lo dlsclpllne and ensure LhaL Lhe laws be falLhfully
execuLed musL be consLrued Lo auLhorlze Lhe ÞresldenL Lo order an
lnvesLlgaLlon of Lhe acL or conducL of local offlclals when ln hls/her
oplnlon Lhe good of Lhe publlc servlce so requlres (Iosoo vs. 1ottes, C.k.
No. 1J1255, Moy 20, 1998).

Power of supervision
includes power to
discipline
drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
63
1.2 !urlsdlcLlon over admlnlsLraLlve dlsclpllnary acLlons agalnsL elecLlve local
offlclals ls lodged ln Lwo auLhorlLles: Lhe ulsclpllnlng AuLhorlLy and Lhe
lnvesLlgaLlng AuLhorlLy. 1he ulsclpllnary AuLhorlLy may consLlLuLe a
Speclal lnvesLlgaLlng CommlLLee ln lleu of Lhe SecreLary of Lhe lnLerlor
and Local CovernmenL. WlLh respecL Lo a provlnclal governor, Lhe
dlsclpllnlng AuLhorlLy ls Lhe ÞresldenL of Lhe Þhlllpplnes, wheLher acLlng
by hlmself/herself or Lhrough Lhe LxecuLlve SecreLary (Iosoo vs. 1ottes,
C.k. No. 1J1255, Moy 20, 1998).

1.3 1he SecreLary of Lhe lnLerlor and Local CovernmenL ls Lhe lnvesLlgaLlng
AuLhorlLy, who may acL hlmself/ herself or consLlLuLe and lnvesLlgaLlng
CommlLLee. 1he SecreLary of Lhe ueparLmenL, however, ls noL Lhe
excluslve lnvesLlgaLlng AuLhorlLy. ln lleu of Lhe ueparLmenL SecreLary, Lhe
ulsclpllnlng AuLhorlLy may deslgnaLe a Speclal lnvesLlgaLlng CommlLLee
(Iosoo vs. 1ottes, C.k. No. 1J1255, Moy 20, 1998).

2. 1he grounds for dlsclpllnary acLlon agalnsL local elecLlve offlclals are: (1) ulsloyalLy Lo
Lhe 8epubllc of Lhe Þhlllpplnes, (2) Culpable vlolaLlon of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon, (3)
ulshonesLy, oppresslon, mlsconducL ln offlce, gross negllgence, or derellcLlon of
duLy, (4) Commlsslon of any offense lnvolvlng moral LurplLude or an offense
punlshable by aL leasL ptlsloo moyot, (3) Abuse of auLhorlLy, (6) unauLhorlzed
absence for flfLeen (13) consecuLlve worklng days, excepL ln Lhe case of members of
Lhe sooqqoolooq poololowlqoo, sooqqoolooq poolooqsoJ, sooqqoolooq boyoo, and
sooqqoolooq botooqoy, (7) AppllcaLlon for, or acqulslLlon of, forelgn clLlzenshlp or
resldence or Lhe sLaLus of an lmmlgranL of anoLher counLry, and (8) Such oLher
grounds as may be provlded ln 1991 LCC and oLher laws (5ectloo 60, 1991 lCc).

3. 1he basls of admlnlsLraLlve llablllLy dlffers from crlmlnal llablllLy. 1he purpose of
admlnlsLraLlve proceedlngs ls malnly Lo proLecL Lhe publlc servlce, based on Lhe
Llme-honored prlnclple LhaL a publlc offlce ls a publlc LrusL. Cn Lhe oLher hand, Lhe
purpose of Lhe crlmlnal prosecuLlon ls Lhe punlshmenL of crlme. Powever, Lhe re-
elecLlon of a publlc offlclal exLlngulshes only Lhe admlnlsLraLlve, buL noL Lhe crlmlnal,
llablllLy lncurred by hlm/her durlng hls/her prevlous Lerm of offlce (voleoclo vs.
5ooJlqooboyoo, C.k. No. 141JJ6, Iooe 29, 2004).

4. An ºadmlnlsLraLlve offense" means every acL or conducL or omlsslon whlch amounLs
Lo, or consLlLuLes, any of Lhe grounds for dlsclpllnary acLlon (5olollmo vs. Coloqooo,
C.k. No. 117589-92, Moy 22, 1996).

Disciplining: President
Investigating Authority:
Sec of DILG
- Jurisdiction over
admin disciplinary
actions for elective local
officials
drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
66
4.1 A munlclpal mayor, vlce-mayor and Lreasurer were gullLy of Lwo (2)
counLs of vlolaLlon of Lhe AnLl-CrafL and CorrupL ÞracLlces AcL where Lhey
knowlngly slmulaLed a blddlng/canvasslng ln favor of Lhe mayor's son (ue
Iesos, 5t. vs. 5ooJlqooboyoo, C.k. Nos. 1825J9-40, lebtooty 2J, 2011).

4.2 1here are Lwo modes by whlch a publlc offlcer who has a dlrecL or
lndlrecL flnanclal or pecunlary lnLeresL ln any buslness, conLracL, or
LransacLlon may vlolaLe SecLlon 3(h) of Lhe AnLl-CrafL and CorrupL
ÞracLlces AcL. 1he flrsL mode ls lf ln connecLlon wlLh hls/her pecunlary
lnLeresL ln any buslness, conLracL or LransacLlon, Lhe publlc offlcer
lnLervenes or Lakes parL ln hls/her offlclal capaclLy. 1he second mode ls
when he/she ls prohlblLed from havlng such lnLeresL by Lhe ConsLlLuLlon
or any law. A mayor relaLlve Lo Lhe lssuance of a llcense Lo operaLe a
cockplL whlch he/she owns cannoL be held llable under Lhe flrsL mode
slnce he/she could noL have lnLervened or Laken parL ln hls/her offlclal
capaclLy ln Lhe lssuance of a cockplL llcense because he/she was noL a
member of Lhe sooqqoolooq boyoo. under Lhe 1991 LCC, Lhe granL of a
llcense ls a leglslaLlve acL of Lhe sooqqooloo. Powever, Lhe mayor could
be llable under Lhe second mode. (uomloqo vs. 5ooJlqooboyoo, C.k. No.
149175 Octobet 25, 2005, 1eves vs. 5ooJlqooboyoo, C.k. No. 154182,
uecembet 17, 2004).

4.3 When Lhe valldlLy of subsequenL appolnLmenLs Lo Lhe poslLlon of
AsslsLanL ClLy Assessor has noL been challenged, Lhe clLy mayor who
appolnLed a person Lo serve ln sald poslLlon had every rlghL Lo assume ln
good falLh LhaL Lhe one who held Lhe poslLlon prlor Lo Lhe appolnLmenLs
no longer held Lhe same. 1hus, Lhe clLy mayor ls noL llable for vlolaLlon of
SecLlons 3(a) and 3(e) of Lhe AnLl-CrafL and CorrupL ÞracLlces AcL (keyes
vs. Atleozo, C.k. No. 15224J 5eptembet 2J, 2005).

4.4 1o be crlmlnally llable for vlolaLlon of SecLlon 3(e) of 8.A. 3019, Lhe ln[ury
susLalned musL have been caused by poslLlve or passlve acLs of manlfesL
parLlallLy, evldenL bad falLh, or gross lnexcusable negllgence. Slnce Lhe
SLaLe AudlLors even recommended LhaL munlclpal offlclals should noL pay
Lhe clalms due Lo lrregularlLles ln Lhe LransacLlons and Lhe paLenL nulllLy
of Lhe same, lL cannoL be sald LhaL Lhe ln[ury clalmed Lo have been
susLalned by was caused by any of offlclals' overL acLs (loeotes vs.
5ooJlqooboyoo, C.k. No. 164664, Ioly 20, 2006).

1. Pecuniary interest
and intervenes in
official capacity
2. prohibited from
having such interest by
the Constitution
drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
67
4.3 1he lssuance of a cerLlflcaLlon as Lo avallablllLy of funds for Lhe paymenL
of Lhe wages and salarles of local offlclals awalLlng appolnLmenL by Lhe
Clvll Servlce Commlsslon (CSC) ls noL a mlnlsLerlal funcLlon of Lhe clLy
Lreasurer. Slnce Lhe CSC has noL yeL approved Lhe appolnLmenL, Lhere
were yeL no servlces performed Lo speak of, and Lhere was yeL no due
and demandable obllgaLlon (Alttes vs. ímpleo, C.k. No. 180986,
uecembet 10, 2008).

4.6 A munlclpal mayor ls mandaLed Lo ablde by Lhe 1991 LCC whlch dlrecLs
LhaL execuLlve offlclals and employees of Lhe munlclpallLy falLhfully
dlscharge Lhelr duLles and funcLlons as provlded by law. Such duLy
lncludes enforclng declslons or flnal resoluLlons, orders or rullngs of Lhe
Clvll Servlce Commlsslon (CSC). (velosco vs. 5ooJlqooboyoo, C.k. No.
160991, lebtooty 28, 2005).

4.7 A munlclpal mayor ls noL gullLy of vlolaLlng SecLlon 3(e) of Lhe AnLl-CrafL and
CorrupL ÞracLlces AcL ln lssulng a Memorandum prevenLlng vendors wlLh
quesLlonable lease conLracLs from occupylng markeL sLalls where Lhe sald
Memorandum applles equlLably Lo all awardees of lease conLracLs, and
dld noL glve any unwarranLed beneflL, advanLage, or preference Lo any
parLlcular prlvaLe parLy (leople vs. 5ooJlqooboyoo, C.k. No. 15J952-71,
Aoqost 2J, 2010).

4.8 All heads of offlces have Lo rely Lo a reasonable exLenL on Lhelr
subordlnaLes and on Lhe good falLh of Lhose who prepare blds, purchase
supplles, or enLer lnLo negoLlaLlons. A publlc offlcer cannoL be expecLed
Lo probe records, lnspecL documenLs, and quesLlon persons before
he/she slgns vouchers presenLed for hls/her slgnaLure unless Lhere ls
some added reason why he/she should examlne each voucher ln such
deLall. When an excepLlonal clrcumsLance exlsL whlch should have
prodded Lhe offlcer, and lf he/she were ouL Lo proLecL Lhe lnLeresL of Lhe
munlclpallLy he/she swore Lo serve, he/she ls expecLed go beyond whaL
hls/her subordlnaLes prepared or recommended (leycooo vs. commlssloo
oo AoJlt, C.k. No. 154665, lebtooty 10, 2006).

4.9 Munlclpal employees were gullLy of falslflcaLlon of publlc documenLs
where Lhey falled Lo dlsclose ln Lhelr SLaLemenLs of AsseLs and LlablllLles
(SALn) Lhelr relaLlonshlp wlLhln Lhe fourLh clvll degree of consangulnlLy
and afflnlLy Lo Lhe munlclpal mayor who appolnLed Lhem Lo Lhelr
drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
68
poslLlons (Coleos vs. leople, C.k. Nos. 1747J0-J7 / 174845-52, lebtooty
9, 2011).

4.10 When a complalnL merely alleges LhaL Lhe dlsbursemenL for flnanclal
asslsLance was nelLher auLhorlzed by law nor [usLlfled as a lawful expense
and no law or ordlnance was clLed LhaL provlded for an orlglnal
approprlaLlon of Lhe amounL used for Lhe flnanclal asslsLance and LhaL lL
was dlverLed from Lhe approprlaLlon lL was lnLended for, Lhe complalnL ls
defecLlve as lL does noL prove Lechnlcal malversaLlon (1etooqco vs.
OmboJsmoo, C.k. No. 156427, Iooooty 20, 2006).

4.11 A candldaLe's convlcLlon by flnal [udgmenL of Lhe crlme of fenclng ls a
crlme lnvolvlng moral LurplLude whlch dlsquallfles such a person from
elecLlve publlc offlce under SecLlon 40(a) of Lhe 1991 LCC (uelo 1otte vs.
comelec, C.k. No. 121592, Ioly 5, 1996).

4.12 A publlc offlclal, more especlally an elecLed one, should noL be onlon
sklnned. SLrlcL personal dlsclpllne ls expecLed of an occupanL of a publlc
offlce because a publlc offlclal ls a properLy of Lhe publlc (¥obot vs.
OmboJsmoo, C.k. No. 111J04, Iooe 17, 1994).

4.13 A mayor who conLlnues Lo perform Lhe funcLlons of Lhe offlce desplLe Lhe
facL LhaL he/she ls under prevenLlve suspenslon usurps Lhe auLhorlLy of
Lhe Cfflce of Lhe Mayor and ls llable for vlolaLlon of SecLlon 13 of Lhe
AnLl-CrafL and CorrupL ÞracLlces AcL (MltooJo vs. 5ooJlqooboyoo, C.k.
No. 154098, Ioly 27, 2005).


;:02/23#%"#2.& B%(+&&:2/@3

1. A verlfled complalnL agalnsL any errlng local elecLlve offlclal shall be prepared as
follows: (1) A complalnL agalnsL any elecLlve offlclal of a provlnce, a hlghly urbanlzed
clLy, an lndependenL componenL clLy or componenL clLy shall be flled before Lhe
Cfflce of Lhe ÞresldenL, (2) A complalnL agalnsL any elecLlve offlclal of a munlclpallLy
shall be flled before Lhe sooqqoolooq poololowlqoo whose declslon may be appealed
Lo Lhe Cfflce of Lhe ÞresldenL, and (3) A complalnL agalnsL any elecLlve barangay
offlclal shall be flled before Lhe sooqqoolooq poolooqsoJ or sooqqoolooq boyoo
concerned whose declslon shall be flnal and execuLor (5ectloo 61, 1991 lCc).

drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
69
2. ln admlnlsLraLlve proceedlngs, procedural due process slmply means Lhe opporLunlLy
Lo explaln one's slde or Lhe opporLunlLy Lo seek a reconslderaLlon of Lhe acLlon or
rullng complalned of. Þrocedural due process has been recognlzed Lo lnclude Lhe
followlng: (1) Lhe rlghL Lo acLual or consLrucLlve noLlce of Lhe lnsLlLuLlon of
proceedlngs whlch may affecL a respondenL's legal rlghLs, (2) a real opporLunlLy Lo
be heard personally or wlLh Lhe asslsLance of counsel, Lo presenL wlLnesses and
evldence ln one's favor, and Lo defend one's rlghLs, (3) a Lrlbunal vesLed wlLh
compeLenL [urlsdlcLlon and so consLlLuLed as Lo afford a person charged
admlnlsLraLlvely a reasonable guaranLee of honesLy as well as lmparLlallLy, and (4) a
flndlng by sald Lrlbunal whlch ls supporLed by subsLanLlal evldence submlLLed for
conslderaLlon durlng Lhe hearlng or conLalned ln Lhe records or made known Lo Lhe
parLles affecLed (coslmlto vs. 1ooJoq, C.k. No. 1461J7, Iooe 8, 2005).

2.1 under Lhe 1991 LCC, an elecLlve local offlclal musL be a clLlzen of Lhe
Þhlllpplnes. Cne who clalms LhaL a local offlclal ls noL has Lhe burden of
provlng hls/her clalm. ln admlnlsLraLlve cases and peLlLlons for
dlsquallflcaLlon, Lhe quanLum of proof requlred ls subsLanLlal evldence
(Motoqos vs. comelec, C.k. No. 151944, Iooooty 20, 2004).

2.2 1he lack of verlflcaLlon ln a leLLer-complalnL may be walved, Lhe defecL
noL belng faLal. verlflcaLlon ls a formal, noL [urlsdlcLlonal requlslLe (Iosoo
vs. 1ottes, C.k. No. 1J1255, Moy 20, 1998).

2.3 under SecLlon 61 of Lhe 1991 LCC, a complalnL agalnsL any elecLlve
offlclal of a munlclpallLy shall be flled before Lhe sooqqoolooq
poololowlqoo whose declslon may be appealed Lo Lhe Cfflce of Lhe
ÞresldenL (8olloJooq vs. uocolos, C.k. No. 158874, Novembet 10, 2004).

2.4 1he voLlng followlng Lhe dellberaLlon of Lhe members of Lhe sooqqooloo
ln admlnlsLraLlve cases does noL consLlLuLe Lhe declslon unless Lhls was
embodled ln an oplnlon prepared by one of Lhem and concurred ln by Lhe
ma[orlLy. unLll Lhey have slgned Lhe oplnlon and Lhe declslon ls
promulgaLed, Lhe councllors are free Lo change Lhelr voLes. no noLlce of
Lhe sesslon where a declslon of Lhe sooqqooloo ls Lo be promulgaLed on
Lhe admlnlsLraLlve case ls requlred Lo be glven Lo Lhe anymperson. 1he
dellberaLlon of Lhe sooqqooloo ls an lnLernal maLLer (Mollooo vs. keyes,
C.k. No. 117618, Motcb 29, 1996).


1. Notice
2. Opportunity to be
heard
3. Present witnesses
and defend rights
4. Tribunal with
competent
jurisdiction (honesty
and impartiality)
5. Finding based on
evidence
drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
70
B&/",#2&3

1. Cnly Lhe courLs can remove a local elecLlve offlclal.

1.1 1he 8ules and 8egulaLlons lmplemenLlng Lhe 1991 LCC, lnsofar as lL vesLs
power on Lhe ºdlsclpllnlng auLhorlLy" Lo remove from offlce errlng
elecLlve local offlclals, ls vold. Local leglslaLlve bodles and/or Lhe Cfflce of
Lhe ÞresldenL on appeal cannoL valldly lmpose Lhe penalLy of dlsmlssal
from servlce on errlng elecLlve local offlclals. lL ls beyond cavll LhaL Lhe
power Lo remove errlng elecLlve local offlclals from servlce ls lodged
excluslvely wlLh Lhe courLs (lobllco vs. vlllopooJo, C.k. No. 147870, Ioly
J1, 2002).

1.2 1he sooqqoolooq boyoo ls noL empowered Lo remove an elecLlve local
offlclal from offlce. SecLlon 60 of Lhe 1991 LCC conferred excluslvely on
Lhe courLs such power. 1hus, lf Lhe acLs allegedly commlLLed by a
barangay offlclal are of a grave naLure and, lf found gullLy, would merlL
Lhe penalLy of removal from offlce, Lhe case should be flled wlLh Lhe
reglonal Lrlal courL (5ooqqoolooq 8otooqoy of uoo Motlooo Motcos,
8oyombooq vs. looooq 8otooqoy Mottloez, C.k. No. 170626, Motcb J,
2008).

1.3 A sanggunlang panlalawlgan may cause Lhe removal of a munlclpal mayor
who dld noL appeal Lo Lhe Cfflce of Lhe ÞresldenL wlLhln Lhe reglemenLary
perlod Lhe declslon removlng hlm/her from offlce (keyes vs. comelec,
C.k. No. 120905, Motcb 7, 1996).

1.4 1he ÞresldenL may suspend an errlng provlnclal elecLed offlclal who
commlLLed several admlnlsLraLlve offenses for an aggregaLe perlod
exceedlng slx monLhs provlded LhaL each admlnlsLraLlve offense, Lhe
perlod of suspenslon does noL exceed Lhe 6-monLh llmlL (5olollmo vs.
Coloqooo, C.k. No. 117589-92, Moy 22, 1996).


B%&.&/#2.& ?$36&/32(/

1. ÞrevenLlve suspenslon ls merely a prevenLlve measure, a prellmlnary sLep ln an
admlnlsLraLlve lnvesLlgaLlon. 1hls ls noL a penalLy.

???
6 month limit suspension
NOT A PENALTY
drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
71
2. 1he purpose of Lhe suspenslon order ls Lo prevenL Lhe accused from uslng hls/her
poslLlon and Lhe powers and prerogaLlves of hls/her offlce Lo lnfluence poLenLlal
wlLnesses or Lamper wlLh records whlch may be vlLal ln Lhe prosecuLlon of Lhe case
agalnsL hlm/her.

lf afLer such lnvesLlgaLlon, Lhe charge ls esLabllshed and Lhe person
lnvesLlgaLed ls found gullLy of acLs warranLlng hls/her suspenslon or removal, Lhen
he/she ls suspended, removed or dlsmlssed. 1hls ls Lhe penalLy. noL belng a penalLy,
Lhe perlod wlLhln whlch one ls under prevenLlve suspenslon ls noL consldered parL of
Lhe acLual penalLy of suspenslon. 1hus, servlce of Lhe prevenLlve suspenslon cannoL
be credlLed as servlce of penalLy (Oolmbo vs. Cetvoclo, C.k. No. 155620, Aoqost 09,
2005).

3. A prevenLlve suspenslon may be lmposed by Lhe dlsclpllnary auLhorlLy aL any Llme:
(1) afLer Lhe lssues are [olned, l.e., respondenL has flled an answer, (2) when Lhe
evldence of gullL ls sLrong, and (3) glven Lhe gravlLy of Lhe offenses, Lhere ls greaL
probablllLy LhaL Lhe respondenL, who conLlnues Lo hold offlce, could lnfluence Lhe
wlLnesses or pose a LhreaL Lo Lhe safeLy and lnLegrlLy of Lhe records and oLher
evldence. 1hese are Lhe pre-requlslLes. Powever, Lhe fallure of respondenL Lo flle
hls/her answer desplLe several opporLunlLles glven hlm/her ls consLrued as a walver
of hls/her rlghL Lo presenL evldence ln hls/her behalf. ln Lhls slLuaLlon, a prevenLlve
suspenslon may be lmposed even lf an answer has noL been flled (Iosoo vs. coott of
Appeols, C.k. No. 160652, lebtooty 1J, 2006).

3.1 1he rule under Lhe Cmbudsman AcL of 1989 ls dlfferenL. Cmbudsman AcL
of 1989 does noL requlre LhaL noLlce and hearlng precede Lhe prevenLlve
suspenslon of an errlng offlclal. Cnly Lwo requlslLes musL concur Lo
render Lhe prevenLlve suspenslon order valld. llrsL, Lhere musL a prlor
deLermlnaLlon by Lhe Cmbudsman LhaL Lhe evldence of respondenL's
gullL ls sLrong. Second, (1) Lhe offense charged musL lnvolve dlshonesLy,
oppresslon, grave mlsconducL or neglecL ln Lhe performance of duLy, (2)
Lhe charges would warranL removal from Lhe servlce, or (3) Lhe
respondenL's conLlnued sLay ln Lhe offlce may pre[udlce Lhe case flled
agalnsL hlm (cotobeo vs. coott of Appeols, C.k. Nos. 178000/ 17800J,
uecembet 4, 2009).

3.2 SecLlon 63 of Lhe 1991 LCC whlch provldes for a 60-day maxlmum perlod
for prevenLlve suspenslon for a slngle offense does noL govern prevenLlve
suspenslons lmposed by Lhe Cmbudsman. under Lhe Cmbudsman AcL,
Lhe prevenLlve suspenslon shall conLlnue unLll Lhe case ls LermlnaLed by
Under
Ombudsman Act,
no need notice
and hearing to
precede
preventive
suspension
drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
72
Lhe Cfflce of Lhe Cmbudsman buL noL more Lhan slx monLhs (MltooJo vs.
5ooJlqooboyoo, C.k. No. 154098, Ioly 27, 2005).

3.3 under Lhe 1991 LCC, a slngle prevenLlve suspenslon of local elecLlve
offlclals should noL go beyond 60 days. 1hus, Lhe Sandlganbayan cannoL
prevenLlvely suspend a mayor for 90 days (klos vs. 5ooJlqooboyoo, C.k.
No. 12991J 5eptembet 26, 1997).

4. ulrecL recourse Lo Lhe courLs wlLhouL exhausLlng admlnlsLraLlve remedles ls noL
permlLLed. 1hus, a mayor who clalms LhaL Lhe lmposlLlon of prevenLlve suspenslon
by Lhe governor was un[usLlfled and pollLlcally moLlvaLed, should seek rellef flrsL
from Lhe SecreLary of Lhe lnLerlor and Local CovernmenL, noL from Lhe courLs
(íspltlto vs. Melqot, C.k. No. 100874, lebtooty 1J, 1992).

4.1 A munlclpal offlclal placed under prevenLlve suspenslon by a
sooqqoolooq poololowlqoo musL flle a moLlon for reconslderaLlon before
Lhe sald sanggunlan before flllng a peLlLlon for cerLlorarl wlLh Lhe CourL of
Appeals (llotes vs. 5ooqqoolooq loololowlqoo of lompooqo, C.k. No.
159022, lebtooty 2J, 2005).

4.2 A munlclpal mayor may flle before Lhe CourL of Appeals a peLlLlon for
cerLlorarl, lnsLead of a peLlLlon for revlew assalllng Lhe declslon of Lhe
Cfflce of Lhe ÞresldenL whlch relnsLaLes Lhe prevenLlve suspenslon order
lssued by Lhe provlnclal governor. 1he speclal clvll acLlon of cerLlorarl ls
proper Lo correcL errors of [urlsdlcLlon lncludlng Lhe commlsslon of grave
abuse of dlscreLlon amounLlng Lo lack or excess of [urlsdlcLlon. LxhausLlon
of admlnlsLraLlve remedles may be dlspensed wlLh when pure quesLlons
of law are lnvolved (Iosoo vs. coott of Appeols, C.k. No. 160652, lebtooty
1J, 2006).


=))&+# () D&L=,&+#2(/

1. An admlnlsLraLlve case has become mooL and academlc as a resulL of Lhe explraLlon
of Lerm of offlce of an elecLlve local offlclal durlng whlch Lhe acL complalned of was
allegedly commlLLed. Þroceedlngs agalnsL respondenL are Lherefor barred by
hls/her re-elecLlon (Mollooo vs. keyes, C.k. No. 117618, Motcb 29, 1996).

drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
73
1.1 A reelecLed local offlclal may noL be held admlnlsLraLlvely accounLable for
mlsconducL commlLLed durlng hls/her prlor Lerm of offlce. 1he raLlonale
for Lhls holdlng ls LhaL when Lhe elecLoraLe puL hlm/her back lnLo offlce,
lL ls presumed LhaL lL dld so wlLh full knowledge of hls/her llfe and
characLer, lncludlng hls/her pasL mlsconducL. lf, armed wlLh such
knowledge, lL sLlll reelecLs hlm/her, Lhen such reelecLlon ls consldered a
condonaLlon of hls/her pasL mlsdeeds (voleoclo vs. 5ooJlqooboyoo, C.k.
No. 141JJ6, Iooe 29, 2004).

1.2 A publlc offlclal cannoL be removed for admlnlsLraLlve mlsconducL
commlLLed durlng a prlor Lerm slnce hls/her re-elecLlon Lo offlce operaLes
as a condonaLlon. 1o do oLherwlse would be Lo deprlve Lhe people of
Lhelr rlghL Lo elecL Lhelr offlcers. When Lhe people have elecLed a person
Lo offlce, lL musL be assumed LhaL Lhey dld Lhls wlLh knowledge of hls/her
llfe and characLer LhaL Lhey dlsregarded or forgave hls/her faulL, lf he/she
had been gullLy of any (5olollmo vs. Coloqooo, C.k. No. 117589-92, Moy
22, 1996).

1.3 1he elecLoraLe's condonaLlon of Lhe prevlous admlnlsLraLlve lnfracLlons of
reelecLed offlclals cannoL be exLended Lo LhaL of reappolnLed
coLermlnous employees. ln Lhe laLLer's case, Lhere ls nelLher subverslon
of Lhe soverelgn wlll nor dlsenfranchlsemenL of Lhe elecLoraLe Lo speak
of. lL ls Lhe populace's wlll, noL Lhe whlm of Lhe appolnLlng auLhorlLy,
LhaL could exLlngulsh an admlnlsLraLlve llablllLy (5olomblJes vs. Offlce of
tbe OmboJsmoo, C.k. No.180917, Aptll 2J, 2010).


?723 R5 ?"'?)"HC ?+!.$*$?+.$'(

J&/$&3 )(% B(6$,"% B"%#2+26"#2(/

1. 1here are seven venues by whlch ordlnary clLlzens, non-governmenLal and people's
organlzaLlons can parLlclpaLe ln local governance. 1hese are: (1) local speclal bodles,
(2) prlor mandaLory consulLaLlon, (3) recall, (4) dlsclpllnary acLlon, (3) lnlLlaLlve and
referendum, (6) secLoral represenLaLlon, and (7) parLnershlp and asslsLance.


B%2(% M"/:"#(%5 7(/3$,#"#2(/

Does that mean admin
proceedings can still be
conducted against appointive
officials for acts committed in
their previous term?
drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
74
1. Þrlor Lo Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of naLlonal pro[ecLs, Lhe prlor approval by Lhe LCu and
prlor consulLaLlon wlLh affecLed secLors are requlred (5ectloos ooJ 27, 1991 lCc).

1.1 1he granL of an LnvlronmenLal Clearance CerLlflcaLe by Lhe ueparLmenL
of LnvlronmenL and naLural 8esources ln favor of naLlonal Þower
CorporaLlon of Lhe consLrucLlon of a moorlng faclllLy does noL vlolaLe
SecLlons 26 and 27 of Lhe 1991 LCC. 1he moorlng faclllLy lLself ls noL
envlronmenLally crlLlcal and hence does noL belong Lo any of Lhe slx Lypes
of pro[ecLs menLloned ln Lhe law. 1he pro[ecLs and programs menLloned
ln SecLlon 27 should be lnLerpreLed Lo mean pro[ecLs and programs
whose effecLs are among Lhose enumeraLed ln SecLlons 26 and 27, Lo wlL,
Lhose LhaL: (1) may cause polluLlon, (2) may brlng abouL cllmaLlc change,
(3) may cause Lhe depleLlon of non-renewable resources, (4) may resulL
ln loss of crop land, rangeland, or foresL cover, (3) may eradlcaLe cerLaln
anlmal or planL specles, and (6) oLher pro[ecLs or programs LhaL may call
for Lhe evlcLlon of a parLlcular group of people resldlng ln Lhe locallLy
where Lhese wlll be lmplemenLed. lL ls anoLher maLLer lf Lhe operaLlon of
Lhe power barge ls aL lssue (8ooqos lty llsbetfolk ulwoto Moqbobos vs.
loozooos, C.k. No. 1J1442, Ioly 10, 200J).

1.2 1he 1991 LCC requlres conference wlLh Lhe affecLed communlLles of a
governmenL pro[ecL. 1hus, before Lhe naLlonal Þower CorporaLlon
energlzes and LransmlLs hlgh volLage elecLrlc currenL Lhrough lLs cables ln
connecLlon wlLh Þower 1ransmlsslon Þro[ecL whlch could cause lllnesses,
Lhe requlremenLs seL forLh ln SecLlon 27 of Lhe 1991 LCC musL be
followed (netoooJez vs. Notloool lowet cotpototloo, C.k. No. 145J28,
Motcb 2J, 2006).

1.3 under Lhe 1991 LCC, Lwo requlslLes musL be meL before a naLlonal
pro[ecL LhaL affecLs Lhe envlronmenLal and ecologlcal balance of local
communlLles can be lmplemenLed: prlor consulLaLlon wlLh Lhe affecLed
local communlLles, and prlor approval of Lhe pro[ecL by Lhe approprlaLe
sooqqooloo. AbsenL elLher of Lhese mandaLory requlremenLs, Lhe
pro[ecL's lmplemenLaLlon ls lllegal. 1he esLabllshmenL of a
dumpslLe/landflll by Lhe naLlonal governmenL and Lhe MeLropollLan
Manlla uevelopmenL AuLhorlLy requlres compllance wlLh Lhese
requlremenLs (ltovloce of klzol vs. íxecotlve 5ectetoty, C.k. No. 129546,
uecembet 1J, 2005).

1. prior consultation
2. prior approval with the
sanggu
drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
73
1.4 1he requlremenL of prlor consulLaLlon and approval under SecLlons 2(c)
and 27 of Lhe 1991 LCC applles only Lo naLlonal programs and/or pro[ecLs
whlch are Lo be lmplemenLed ln a parLlcular local communlLy. LoLLo ls
nelLher a program nor a pro[ecL of Lhe naLlonal governmenL, buL of a
charlLable lnsLlLuLlon, Lhe Þhlllpplne CharlLy SweepsLakes Cfflce. 1hough
sancLloned by Lhe naLlonal governmenL, lL ls far-feLched Lo say LhaL loLLo
falls wlLhln Lhe conLemplaLlon of Lhe law (lloo, It. vs. loòo, C.k. No.
12909J, Aoqost J0, 2001).


A/2#2"#2.& "/: D&)&%&/:$0

1. 1he voLers have Lhe power of lnlLlaLlve and referendum.

1.1 Local lnlLlaLlve ls Lhe legal process whereby Lhe reglsLered voLers of an
LCu may dlrecLly propose, enacL, or amend any ordlnance (5ectloo 120,
1991 lCc).

1.2 Local referendum ls Lhe legal process whereby Lhe reglsLered voLers of
Lhe LCus may approve, amend or re[ecL any ordlnance enacLed by Lhe
sooqqooloo (5ectloo 126, 1991 lCc).

1.3 lnlLlaLlve ls resorLed Lo or lnlLlaLed by Lhe people dlrecLly elLher because
Lhe law-maklng body falls or refuses Lo enacL Lhe law, ordlnance,
resoluLlon or acL LhaL Lhey deslre or because Lhey wanL Lo amend or
modlfy one already exlsLlng. Cn Lhe oLher hand, ln a local referendum,
Lhe law-maklng body submlLs Lo Lhe reglsLered voLers of lLs LerrlLorlal
[urlsdlcLlon, for approval or re[ecLlon, any ordlnance or resoluLlon whlch
ls duly enacLed or approved by such law-maklng auLhorlLy (5oblc 8oy
Mettopolltoo Aotbotlty vs. comelec, C.k. No. 125416, 5eptembet 26,
1996).

1.4 1he appllcaLlon of local lnlLlaLlves exLends Lo all sub[ecLs or maLLers whlch
are wlLhln Lhe legal powers of Lhe sooqqooloos Lo enacL, whlch
undoubLedly lncludes ordlnances and resoluLlons (Cotclo vs. comelec,
C.k. No. 1112J0, 5eptembet J0, 1994).


*(+", ?6&+2", H(:2&3
PEA
drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
76

1. 1he local speclal bodles are Lhe developmenL counclls (5ectloo 106, 1991 lCc),
school boards (5ectloo 98, 1991 lCc), healLh boards (5ectloo 102, 1991 lCc), peace
and order counclls (5ectloo 116, 1991 lCc), and people's law enforcemenL boards
(k.A. No. 6975). Þeople's and non-governmenLal organlzaLlons are represenLed ln
Lhese bodles.


B"%#/&%3F263 "/: ;3323#"/+&

1. Local governmenLs shall promoLe Lhe esLabllshmenL and operaLlon of people's and
non-governmenLal organlzaLlons Lo become acLlve parLners ln Lhe pursulL of local
auLonomy. Local governmenLs may provlde asslsLance Lo, flnanclal or oLherwlse, and
may enLer lnLo parLnershlp and cooperaLlve arrangemenLs wlLh clvll socleLy groups,
non-governmenLal and people's organlzaLlons (5ectloos J4 -J6, 1991 lCc).


D&+",,

1. 1he power of recall or Lhe power Lo remove a local elecLlve offlclal for loss of
confldence shall be exerclsed by Lhe reglsLered voLers of an LCu Lo whlch Lhe local
elecLlve offlclal sub[ecL Lo such recall belongs (5ectloo 69, 1991 lCc).

1.1 8ecall ls a mode of removal of publlc offlcer by Lhe people before Lhe end
of hls/her Lerm of offlce. 1he people's prerogaLlve Lo remove a publlc
offlcer ls an lncldenL of Lhelr soverelgn power and ln Lhe absence of any
ConsLlLuLlonal resLralnL, Lhe power ls lmplled ln all governmenLal
operaLlons. Loss of confldence as a ground for recall ls a pollLlcal quesLlon
(Cotclo vs. comelec, C.k. No. 111511, Octobet 5, 199J).

1.2 1he 1-year ban refers Lo elecLlon where Lhe offlce held by Lhe local
offlclal soughL Lo be recalled shall be conLesLed. 1he scheduled barangay
elecLlon on May 1997 ls noL Lhe regular elecLlon conLemplaLed for
purposes of compuLlng Lhe 1-year prohlblLlon for recall of munlclpal
elecLlve offlclals (Iotlol vs. comelec, C.k. No. 127456, Motcb 20, 1997).

1.3 1he 1-year ban cannoL be deemed Lo apply Lo Lhe enLlre recall
proceedlngs. 1he llmlLaLlons apply only Lo Lhe exerclse of Lhe power of
recall whlch ls vesLed ln Lhe reglsLered voLers. So, as long as Lhe elecLlon
drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
77
ls held ouLslde Lhe one-year perlod, from assumpLlon Lo offlce Lhe local
offlclal soughL Lo be recalled, Lhe prellmlnary proceedlngs Lo lnlLlaLe a
recall can be held even before Lhe end of Lhe flrsL year ln offlce of sald
local offlclal (clooJlo vs. comelec, C.k. No. 140560, Moy 4, 2000).

1.4 A parLy aggrleved by Lhe lssuance of a Commlsslon on LlecLlon resoluLlon
provldlng for Lhe schedule of acLlvlLles for Lhe recall of elecLlve offlclals
should have flled, when he/she had sufflclenL Llme, a moLlon for
reconslderaLlon wlLh Lhe Commlsslon pursuanL Lo Lhe rule on exhausLlon
of admlnlsLraLlve remedles (Iotlol vs. comelec, C.k. No. 127456, Motcb
20, 1997).

2. under Lhe 1991 LCC, Lhere are Lwo modes of lnlLlaLlng recall: (1) popular peLlLlon by
Lhe voLers, (2) resoluLlon by Lhe ÞreparaLory 8ecall Assembly composed of elecLlve
offlclals of Lhe supervlsed-lower LCu. under 8.A. no. 9244, Lhe second mode was
repealed.


?&+#(%", D&6%&3&/#"#2.&3

1. 1here shall be Lhree secLoral represenLaLlves ln Lhe provlnclal, clLy and munlclpal
leglslaLlve counclls. ln addlLlon Lo Lhe regular members, Lhere shall be one (1)
secLoral represenLaLlve from Lhe women, one (1) from Lhe workers, and one (1) from
any of Lhe followlng secLors: Lhe urban poor, lndlgenous culLural communlLles,
dlsabled persons, or any oLher secLor as may be deLermlned by Lhe sooqqooloo
concerned wlLhln nlneLy (90) days prlor Lo Lhe holdlng of Lhe nexL local elecLlons as
may be provlded for by law (5ectloo 41, 1991 lCc).

1.1 SecLlon 9 of Lhe 1987 Þhlllpplne ConsLlLuLlon provldes LhaL ºleglslaLlve
bodles of local governmenL shall have secLoral represenLaLlon as may be
prescrlbed by law". 1he phrase ºas may be prescrlbed by law" does noL
and cannoL, by lLs very wordlng, resLrlcL lLself Lo Lhe uncerLalnLy of fuLure
leglslaLlon. Such lnLerpreLaLlon would defeaL Lhe very purpose of
lmmedlaLely lncludlng secLoral represenLaLlves ln Lhe local law-maklng
bodles. CLherwlse, ln Lhe lnLerregnum, from Lhe raLlflcaLlon of Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon unLll Lhe passage of Lhe approprlaLe sLaLuLe, Lhe secLors
would have no volce ln Lhe formulaLlon of leglslaLlon LhaL would dlrecLly
affecL Lhelr lndlvldual members (5opooqoo vs. 5ootos, C.k. No. 8466J,
Aoqost 24, 1990).
drafL as of 10 november 2012
8evlewer on Local CovernmenL Law
AlberLo C. Agra, ALeneo Law School
78