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# RESOURCE MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES

NOTES
MC9242 RESOURCE MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES
UNIT I LINEAR PROGRAMMING MODELS 9
Mathematical Fom!latio" # Ga\$hical Sol!tio" o% li"ea \$o&ammi"& mo'el( ) Sim\$le* metho' )
Ati%icial +aia,le Tech"i-!e(# .aia"t( o% Sim\$le* metho'
UNIT II TRANSPORTATION AND ASSIGNMENT MODELS 9
Mathematical %om!latio" o% ta"(\$otatio" \$o,lem# Metho'( %o %i"'i"& i"itial ,a(ic %ea(i,le
(ol!tio" ) o\$tim!m (ol!tio" # 'e&e"eac/ ) Mathematical %om!latio" o% a((i&"me"t mo'el( )
H!"&aia" Al&oithm ) .aia"t( o% the A((i&"me"t \$o,lem
UNIT III INTEGER PROGRAMMING MODELS 9
Fom!latio" ) Gomo/0( IPP metho' ) Gomo/0( mi*e' i"te&e metho' ) 1a"ch a"' ,o!"'
tech"i-!e2
UNIT I. SCHEDULING 13 PERT AND CPM 9
Net4o5 Co"(t!ctio" ) Citical Path Metho' ) Po6ect E+al!atio" a"' Re+ie4 Tech"i-!e ) Re(o!ce
A"al/(i( i" Net4o5 Sche'!li"&
UNIT . QUEUEING MODELS 9
Chaactei(tic( o% Q!e!i"& Mo'el( ) Poi((o" Q!e!e( # 7M 8 M 8 9: ; 7FIFO 8 < 8<:= 7M 8 M 8 9: ; 7FIFO
8 N 8 <:= 7M 8 M 8 C: ; 7FIFO 8 < 8 <:= 7M 8 M 8 C: ; 7FIFO 8 N 8 <: mo'el(2
Total No2 o% Peio'( ; 4>
RESOURCE MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES ) MC9242
Pat#A ) Q!e(tio"( a"' A"(4e(
UNIT#I
92 ?hat i( o\$eatio"( e(each@
O\$eatio"( e(each i( a (t!'/ o% o\$timiAatio" tech"i-!e(2 It i( a\$\$lie' 'eci(io" theo/2 OR i( the
a\$\$licatio" o% (cie"ti%ic metho'(= tech"i-!e( a"' tool( to \$o,lem( i"+ol+i"& the o\$eatio"( o% (/(tem(
(o a( to \$o+i'e the(e i" co"tol o% o\$eatio"( 4ith o\$tim!m (ol!tio"( to the \$o,lem2
22 Li(t (ome a\$\$licatio"( o% OR2
• O\$timal a((i&"me"t o% +aio!( 6o,( to 'i%%ee"t machi"e( a"' 'i%%ee"t
o\$eato(2
• To %i"' the 4aiti"& time a"' "!m,e o% c!(tome( 4aiti"& i" the -!e!e a"'
(/(tem i" -!e!i"& mo'el
• To %i"' the mimim!m ta"(\$otatio" co(t a%te allocati"& &oo'( %om 'i%%ee"t
oi&i"( to +aio!( 'e(ti"atio"( i" ta"(\$otatio" mo'el
• Deci(io" theo/ \$o,lem( i" ma5eti"&=%i"a"ce a"' \$o'!ctio" \$la""i"& a"'
co"tol2
B2 ?hat ae the +aio!( t/\$e( o% mo'el( i" OR@
• Mo'el( ,/ %!"ctio"
i: De(ci\$ti+e mo'el ii: Pe'icti+e mo'el iii: Nomati+e mo'el
• Mo'el( ,/ (t!ct!e
i: Ico"ic mo'el ii: A"alo&!e mo'el iii: Mathematical mo'el
• Mo'el( ,/ "at!e o% e"+io"me"t
i: Detemi"i(tic mo'el ii: Po,a,ili(tic mo'el
42 ?hat ae mai" chaactei(tic( o% OR@
• E*ami"atio" o% %!"ctio"al elatio"(hi\$ %om a (/(tem o+e+ie42
• UtiliAatio" o% \$la""e' a\$\$oach
• A'a\$tatio" o% \$la""e' a\$\$oach
• U"co+ei"& o% "e4 \$o,lem( %o (t!'/
>2 Name (ome chaactei(tic( o% &oo' mo'el2
• The "!m,e o% a((!m\$tio"( ma'e (ho!l' ,e a( %e4 a( \$o((i,le
• It (ho!l' ,e ea(/ a( \$o((i,le to (ol+e the \$o,lem
• The "!m,e o% +aia,le( !(e' (ho!l' ,e a( %e4 a( \$o((i,le2
• It (ho!l' ,e moe %le*i,le to !\$'ate the cha"&e( o+e a \$eio' o% time 4itho!t
cha"&e i" it( %ame4o52
C2 ?hat ae the 'i%%ee"t \$ha(e( o% OR@
• Fom!latio" o% the \$o,lem
• Co"(t!ctio" o% mathematical mo'eli"&
• Dei+i"& the (ol!tio" %om the mo'el
• .ali'it/ o% the mo'el
• E(ta,li(hi"& the co"tol o+e the (ol!tio"
• Im\$leme"tatio" o% the %i"al (ol!tio"2
D2 Li(t o!t the a'+a"ta&e( o% OR@
• O\$tim!m !(e o% ma"a&e( \$o'!ctio" %acto(
• Im\$o+e' -!alit/ o% 'eci(io"
• Pe\$aatio" o% %!t!e ma"a&e( ,/ im\$o+i"& thei 5"o4le'&e a"' (5ill
• Mo'i%icatio" o% mathematical (ol!tio" ,e%oe it( !(e2
E2 ?hat ae the limitatio"( o% OR@
• Mathematical mo'el 'o "ot ta5e i"to acco!"t the i"ta"&i,le %acto( (!ch a(
h!ma" elatio"( etc2 ca" "ot ,e -!a"ti%ie'2
• Mathematical mo'el( ae a\$\$lica,le to o"l/ (\$eci%ic cate&oie( o% \$o,lem(2
• Re-!ie( h!&e calc!latio"(2 All the(e calc!latio"( ca""ot ,e ha"'le' ma"!all/
a"' e-!ie com\$!te( 4hich ,ea hea+/ co(t2
92 ?hat i( li"ea \$o&ammi"&@
Li"ea \$o&ammi"& i( a tech"i-!e !(e' %o 'etemi"i"& o\$tim!m !tiliAatio" o% limite' e(o!ce( to
meet o!t the &i+e" o,6ecti+e(2 The o,6ecti+e i( to ma*imiAe the \$o%it o mi"imiAe the e(o!ce( 7me"=
machi"e= mateial( a"' mo"e/:
9F2 ?ite the &e"eal mathematical %om!latio" o% LPP2
92 O,6ecti+e %!"ctio"
Ma* o Mi" G H C
9
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I C
2
*
2
I J22I C
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22 S!,6ect to the co"(tai"t(
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B2 No"#"e&ati+e co"(tai"t(
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=J2*
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L F
992 ?hat ae the chaactei(tic o% LPP@
• Thee m!(t ,e a 4ell 'e%i"e' o,6ecti+e %!"ctio"2
• Thee m!(t ,e alte"ati+e co!(e o% actio" to choo(e2
• 1oth the o,6ecti+e %!"ctio"( a"' the co"(tai"t( m!(t ,e li"ea e-!atio" o
i"e-!alitie(2
922 ?hat ae the chaactei(tic o% (ta"'a' %om o% LPP@
• The o,6ecti+e %!"ctio" i( o% ma*imiAatio" t/\$e2
• All the co"(tai"t e-!atio" m!(t ,e o% e-!al t/\$e ,/ a''i"& (lac5 o (!\$l!(
+aia,le(
• RHS o% the co"(tai"t e-!atio" m!(t ,e \$o(iti+e t/\$e
• All the 'eci(io" +aia,le( ae o% \$o(iti+e t/\$e
9B2 ?hat ae the chaactei(tic( o% ca"o"ical %om o% LPP@ 7NO. 0FD:
I" ca"o"ical %om= i% the o,6ecti+e %!"ctio" i( o% ma*imiAatio" t/\$e= the" all co"(tai"t( ae o%
K t/\$e2 Similal/ i% the o,6ecti+e %!"ctio" i( o% mi"imiAatio" t/\$e= the" all co"(tai"t( ae o% L t/\$e2 1!t
"o"#"e&ati+e co"(tai"t( ae Lt/\$e %o ,oth ca(e(2
942 A %im ma"!%act!e( t4o t/\$e( o% \$o'!ct( A a"' 1 a"' (ell( them at \$o%it o% R( 2 o" t/\$e A a"'
R( B o" t/\$e 12 Each \$o'!ct i( \$oce((e' o" t4o machi"e( M9 a"' M22T/\$e A e-!ie( 9 mi"!te o%
\$oce((i"& time o" M9 a"' 2 mi"!te( o" M2 T/\$e 1 e-!ie( 9 mi"!te o% \$oce((i"& time o" M9 a"' 9
mi"!te o" M22 Machi"e M9 i( a+aila,le %o "ot moe tha" C ho!( 4F mi"!te( 4hile machi"e M2 i(
a+aila,le %o 9F ho!( '!i"& a"/ 4o5i"& 'a/2 Fom!late the \$o,lem a( a LPP (o a( to ma*imiAe the
\$o%it2 7MA3 0FD:
Ma*imiAe A H2*
9
IB*
2
S!,6ect tot the co"(tai"t(;
*
9
I *
2
K 4FF
2*
9
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K CFF
*
9
=*
2
L F
9>2 A com\$a"/ (ell( t4o 'i%%ee"t \$o'!ct( A a"' 1 = ma5i"& a \$o%it o% R(24F a"' R(2 BF \$e !"it o"
them=e(\$ecti+el/2The/ ae \$o'!ce' i" a commo" \$o'!ctio" \$oce(( a"' ae (ol' i" t4o 'i%%ee"t
ma5et(= the \$o'!ctio" \$oce(( ha( a total ca\$acit/ o% BF=FFF ma"#ho!(2 It ta5e( thee ho!( to
\$o'!ce a !"it o% A a"' o"e ho! to \$o'!ce a !"it o% 12 The ma5et ha( ,ee" (!+e/e' a"' com\$a"/
o%%icial %eel that the ma*im!m "!m,e o% !"it( o% A that ca" ,e (ol' i( E=FFF !"it( a"' that o% 1 i(
92=FFF !"it(2 S!,6ect to the(e limitatio"(= \$o'!ct( ca" ,e (ol' i" a"/ com,i"atio"2 Fom!late the
\$o,lem a( a LPP (o a( to ma*imiAe the \$o%it
Ma*imiAe A H4F*
9
IBF*
2
S!,6ect tot the co"(tai"t(;
B*
9
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2
K BF=FFF
*
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*
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K 92FFF
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9C2 ?hat i( %ea(i,ilit/ e&io"@ 7MA3 0FE:
Collectio"( o% all %ea(i,le (ol!tio"( ae calle' a %ea(i,le (et o e&io" o% a" o\$timiAatio"
mo'el2 O A e&io" i" 4hich all the co"(tai"t( ae (ati(%ie' i( calle' %ea(i,le e&io"2
9D2 ?hat i( %ea(i,ilit/ e&io" i" a" LP \$o,lem@ I( ti "ece((a/ that it (ho!l' al4a/( ,e a co"+e* (et@
A e&io" i" 4hich all the co"(tai"t( ae (ati(%ie' i( calle' %ea(i,le e&io"2 The %ea(i,le e&io" o% a" LPP
i( al4a/( co"+e* (et2
9E2 De%i"e (ol!tio"
A (et o% +aia,le( *9=*2J2*" 4hich (ati(%ie( the co"(tai"t( o% LPP i( calle' a (ol!tio"2
992 De%i"e %ea(i,le (ol!tio"@ 7MA3 0FD:
A"/ (ol!tio" to a LPP 4hich (ati(%ie( the "o" "e&ati+it/ e(tictio"( o% LPP0( calle' the %ea(i,le
(ol!tio"
2F2 De%i"e o\$timal (ol!tio" o% LPP2 7MA3 0F9:
A"/ %ea(i,le (ol!tio" 4hich o\$timiAe( the o,6ecti+e %!"ctio" o% the LPP0( calle' the o\$timal (ol!tio"
292 State the a\$\$licatio"( o% li"ea \$o&ammi"&
• ?o5 (che'!li"&
• Po'!ctio" \$la""i"& M \$o'!ctio" \$oce((
• Ca\$ital ,!'&eti"&
• Fi"a"cial \$la""i"&
• 1le"'i"&
• Fam \$la""i"&
• Di(ti,!tio"
• M!lti#\$eio' 'eci(io" \$o,lem
I"+e"to/ mo'el
Fi"a"cial mo'el
?o5 (che'!li"&
222 State the Limitatio"( o% LP2
• LP teat( all %!"ctio"al elatio"( a( li"ea
• LP 'oe( "ot ta5e i"to acco!"t the e%%ect o% time a"' !"cetai"t/
• No &!aa"tee %o i"te&e (ol!tio"2 Ro!"'i"& o%% ma/ "ot %ea(i,le o o\$timal
(ol!tio"2
• Deal( 4ith (i"&le o,6ecti+e= 4hile i" eal li%e the (it!atio" ma/ ,e 'i%%ic!lt2
2B2 ?hat 'o /o! !"'e(ta"' ,/ e'!"'a"t co"(tai"t(@
I" a &i+e" LPP a"/ co"(tai"t 'oe( "ot a%%ect the %ea(i,le e&io" o (ol!tio" (\$ace the" the co"(tai"t
i( (ai' to ,e a e'!"'a"t co"(tai"t2
242 De%i"e U",o!"'e' (ol!tio"@
I% the %ea(i,le (ol!tio" e&io" 'oe( "ot ha+e a ,o!"'e' aea the ma*im!m +al!e o% G occ!( at i"%i"it/2
He"ce the LPP i( (ai' to ha+e !",o!"'e' (ol!tio"2
2>2 De%i"e M!lti\$le O\$timal (ol!tio"@
A LPP ha+i"& moe tha" o"e o\$timal (ol!tio" i( (ai' to ha+e alte"ati+e o m!lti\$le o\$timal (ol!tio"(2
2C2 ?hat i( (lac5 +aia,le@
I% the co"(tai"t a( &e"eal LPP ,e NH t/\$e the" a "o" "e&ati+e +aia,le i( i"to'!ce' to co"+et the
i"e-!alitie( i"to e-!alitie( ae calle' (lac5 +aia,le(2 The +al!e( o% the(e +aia,le( ae i"te\$ete'a( the
amo!"t o% !"!(e' e(o!ce(2
2D2 ?hat ae (!\$l!( +aia,le(@
I% the co"(tai"t a( &e"eal LPP ,e OH t/\$e the" a "o" "e&ati+e
i( i"to'!ce' to co"+et the i"e-!alitie( i"to e-!alitie( ae calle' the (!\$l!( +aia,le(2
2E2 De%i"e 1a(ic (ol!tio"@
Gi+e" a (/(tem o% m li"ea e-!atio"( 4ith " +aia,le(7mN":2The (ol!tio" o,tai"e' ,/ (etti"& 7"#m:
+aia,le( e-!al to Aeo a"' (ol+i"& %o the emai"i"& m +aia,le( i( calle' a ,a(ic (ol!tio"2
292 De%i"e "o" De&e"eate 1a(ic %ea(i,le (ol!tio"@
The ,a(ic (ol!tio" i( (ai' to ,e a "o" 'e&e"eate ,a(ic (ol!tio" i% No"e o% the ,a(ic +aia,le( i( Aeo2
BF2 De%i"e 'e&e"eate ,a(ic (ol!tio"@
A ,a(ic (ol!tio" i( (ai' to ,e a 'e&e"eate ,a(ic (ol!tio" i% o"e o moe o% the ,a(ic +aia,le( ae Aeo2
B92 ?hat i( the %!"ctio" o% mi"im!m atio@
• To 'etemi"e the ,a(ic +aia,le to lea+e
• To 'etemi"e the ma*im!m i"cea(e i" ,a(ic +aia,le
• To mai"tai" the %ea(i,ilit/ o% %ollo4i"& (ol!tio"
B22 Fom the o\$tim!m (im\$le* ta,le ho4 'o /o! i'e"ti%/ that LPP ha( !",o!"'e' (ol!tio"@
To %i"' the lea+i"& +aia,le( the atio i( com\$!te'2 The atio i(
NHF the" thee i( a" !",o!"'e' (ol!tio" to the &i+e"
LPP2
BB2 Fom the o\$tim!m (im\$le* ta,le ho4 'o /o! i'e"ti%/ that the LPP ha( "o (ol!tio"@
I% atlea(t o"e ati%icial +aia,le a\$\$ea( i" the ,a(i( at Aeo le+el 4ith a I+e +al!e i" the P, col!m" a"'
the o\$timalit/ co"'itio" i( (ati(%ie'
the" the oi&i"al \$o,lem ha( "o %ea(i,le (ol!tio"2
B42 Ho4 'o /o! i'e"ti%/ that LPP ha( "o (ol!tio" i" a t4o \$ha(e metho'@
I% all G6 ) C6 K F M the" atlea(t o"e ati%icial +aia,le a\$\$ea( i" the o\$tim!m ,a(i( at "o" Aeo le+el
the LPP 'oe( "ot \$o((e(( a"/ (ol!tio"2
B>2 ?hat 'o /o! !"'e(ta"' ,/ 'e&e"eac/@
The co"ce\$t o% o,tai"i"& a 'e&e"eate ,a(ic %ea(i,le (ol!tio" i" LPP i( 5"o4" a( 'e&e"eac/2 Thi( ma/
occ! i" the i"itial (ta&e 4he" atlea(t o"e ,a(ic +aia,le i( Aeo i" the i"itial ,a(ic %ea(i,le (ol!tio"2
BC2 ?ite the (ta"'a' %om o% LPP i" the mati* "otatio"@
I" mati* "otatio" the ca"o"ical %om o% LPP ca" ,e e*\$e((e' a(
Ma*imiAe G H CP7o,6 %"2:
S!, to AP NH ,7co"(tai"t(: a"' P OH F 7"o" "e&ati+e e(tictio"(:
?hee C H 7C9=C2=J22C":=

A H a99 a92 J22 a9" P H *9 , H ,9
a29 a22J22 a2" = *2 = ,2
2 2 2
2 2 2
am9 am2J2 am" *" ,"
BD2 De%i"e ,a(ic +aia,le a"' "o"#,a(ic +aia,le i" li"ea \$o&ammi"&2
A ,a(ic (ol!tio" to the (et o% co"(tai"t( i( a (ol!tio" o,tai"e' ,/ (etti"& a"/ " +aia,le( e-!al
to Aeo a"' (ol+i"& %o emai"i"& m +aia,le( "ot e-!al to Aeo2 S!ch m +aia,le( ae calle' ,a(ic
+aia,le( a"' emai"i"& " Aeo +aia,le( ae calle' "o"#,a(ic +aia,le(2
BE2Sol+e the %ollo4i"& LP \$o,lem ,/ &a\$hical metho'2 7MA3 0FE:
Ma*imiAe A HC*
9
I4*
2
S!,6ect tot the co"(tai"t(;
*
9
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2
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*
9
=*
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B92 De%i"e !"e(ticte' +aia,le a"' ati%icial +aia,le2 7NO. 0FD:
• U"e(ticte' .aia,le ;A +aia,le i( !"e(ticte' i% it i( allo4e' to ta5e o"
\$o(iti+e= "e&ati+e o Aeo +al!e(
• Ati%icial +aia,le ;O"e t/\$e o% +aia,le i"to'!ce' i" a li"ea \$o&am mo'el
i" o'e to %i"' a" i"itial ,a(ic %ea(i,le (ol!tio"Q a" ati%icial +aia,le i( !(e' %o
e-!alit/ co"(tai"t( a"' %o &eate#tha" o e-!al i"e-!alit/ co"(tai"t(
UNIT#II
92 De%i"e ta"(\$otatio" \$o,lem2
It i( a (\$ecial t/\$e o% li"ea \$o&ammi"& mo'el i" 4hich the &oo'( ae (hi\$\$e' %om +aio!(
oi&i"( to 'i%%ee"t 'e(ti"atio"(2 The o,6ecti+e i( to %i"' the ,e(t \$o((i,le allocatio" o% &oo'( %om
+aio!( oi&i"( to 'i%%ee"t 'e(ti"atio"( (!ch that the total ta"(\$otatio" co(t i( mi"im!m2
B2 De%i"e the %ollo4i"&; Fea(i,le (ol!tio"
A (et o% "o"#"e&ati+e 'eci(io" +al!e( *i6 7iH9=2=J2mQ 6H9=2J": (ati(%ie( the co"(tai"t
e-!atio"( i( calle' a %ea(i,le (ol!tio"2
42 De%i"e the %ollo4i"&; ,a(ic %ea(i,le (ol!tio"
A ,a(ic %ea(i,le (ol!tio" i( (ai' to ,e ,a(ic i% the "!m,e o% \$o(iti+e allocatio"( ae mI"#927 m#
oi&i" a"' "#'e(ti"atio":2I% the "!m,e o% allocatio"( ae le(( tha" 7mI"#9: it i( calle' 'e&e"eate
,a(ic %ea(i,le (ol!tio"2
>2 De%i"e o\$timal (ol!tio" i" ta"(\$otatio" \$o,lem
A %ea(i,le (ol!tio" i( (ai' to ,e o\$timal= i% it mi"imiAe( the total ta"(\$otatio" co(t2
C2 ?hat ae the metho'( !(e' i" ta"(\$otatio" \$o,lem to o,tai" the i"itial ,a(ic %ea(i,le (ol!tio"2
• Noth#4e(t co"e !le
• Lo4e(t co(t e"t/ metho' o mati* mi"ima metho'
• .o&el0( a\$\$o*imatio" metho'
D2 ?ite 'o4" the ,a(ic (te\$( i"+ol+e' i" (ol+i"& a ta"(\$otatio" \$o,lem2
• To %i"' the i"itial ,a(ic %ea(i,le (ol!tio"
• To %i"' a" o\$timal (ol!tio" ,/ ma5i"& (!cce((i+e im\$o+eme"t( %om the i"itial
,a(ic %ea(i,le (ol!tio"2
E2= ?hat 'o /o! !"'e(ta"' ,/ 'e&e"eac/ i" a ta"(\$otatio" \$o,lem@ 7NO. 0FD:
I% the "!m,e o% occ!\$ie' cell( i" a m * " ta"(\$otatio" \$o,lem i( le(( tha"
7 mI"#9: the" the \$o,lem i( (ai' to ,e 'e&e"eate2
92 ?hat i( ,ala"ce' ta"(\$otatio" \$o,lemM !",ala"ce' ta"(\$otatio" \$o,lem@
?he" the (!m o% (!\$\$l/ i( e-!al to 'ema"'(= the" the \$o,lem i( (ai' to ,e ,ala"ce' ta"(\$otatio"
\$o,lem2
A ta"(\$otatio" \$o,lem i( (ai' to ,e !",ala"ce' i% the total (!\$\$l/ i( "ot e-!al to the total 'ema"'2
9F2 Ho4 'o /o! co"+et a" !",ala"ce' ta"(\$otatio" \$o,lem i"to a ,ala"ce' o"e@
The !",ala"ce' ta"(\$otatio" \$o,lem i( co"+ete' i"to a ,ala"ce' o"e ,/ a''i"& a '!mm/ o4
7(o!ce: o '!mm/ col!m" 7'e(ti"atio": 4hiche+e i( "ece((a/2 The !"it ta"(\$otatio" co(t o% the
'!mm/ o48 col!m" eleme"t( ae a((i&"e' to Aeo2 The" the \$o,lem i( (ol+e' ,/ the !(!al \$oce'!e2
992 E*\$lai" ho4 the \$o%it ma*imiAatio" ta"(\$otatio" \$o,lem ca" ,e co"+ete' to a" e-!i+ale"t co(t
mi"imiAatio" ta"(\$otatio" \$o,lem2 7MA3 0FE:
I% the o,6ecti+e i( to ma*imiAe the \$o%it o ma*imiAe the e*\$ecte' (ale( 4e ha+e to co"+et
the(e \$o,lem( ,/ m!lti\$l/i"& all cell e"tie( ,/ #92No4 the ma*imiAatio" \$o,lem ,ecome( a
mi"imiAatio" a"' it ca" ,e (ol+e' ,/ the !(!al al&oithm
922 Detemi"e ,a(ic %ea(i,le (ol!tio" to the %ollo4i"& ta"(\$otatio" \$o,lem !(i"& lea(t co(t metho'2
7MA3 0F9:
A 1 C D SUPPL3
P 9 2 9 4 BF
Q B B 2 9 >F
R 4 2 > 9 2F
Dema"' 2F 4F BF 9F
9B2 De%i"e ta"((hi\$me"t \$o,lem(@
A \$o,lem i" 4hich a+aila,le commo'it/ %e-!e"tl/ mo+e( %om o"e (o!ce to a"othe (o!ce o
'e(ti"atio" ,e%oe eachi"& it( act!al 'e(ti"atio" i( calle' ta"((hi\$me"t \$o,lem(2
942 ?hat i( the 'i%%ee"ce ,et4ee" Ta"(\$otatio" \$o,lem M Ta"((hi\$me"t Po,lem@
I" a ta"(\$otatio" \$o,lem thee ae "o i"teme'iate (hi\$\$i"& \$oi"t( 4hile i" ta"((hi\$me"t \$o,lem
thee ae i"teme'iate (hi\$\$i"& \$oi"t(
9>2 ?hat i( a((i&"me"t \$o,lem@
A" a((i&"me"t \$o,lem i( a \$atic!la ca(e o% a ta"(\$otatio" \$o,lem i" 4hich a "!m,e o%
o\$eatio"( ae a((i&"e' to a" e-!al "!m,e o% o\$eato( 4hee each o\$eato \$e%om( o"l/ o"e
o\$eatio"= the o+eall o,6ecti+e i( to ma*imiAe the total \$o%it o mi"imiAe the o+eall co(t o% the &i+e"
a((i&"me"t2

9C2 E*\$lai" the 'i%%ee"ce ,et4ee" ta"(\$otatio" a"' a((i&"me"t \$o,lem(@

Ta"(\$otatio" \$o,lem( A((i&"me"t \$o,lem(
9: (!\$\$l/ at a"/ (o!ce ma/ ,e a S!\$\$l/ at a"/ (o!ce 4ill
a"/ \$o(iti+e -!a"tit/2 ,e 92
2: Dema"' at a"/ 'e(ti"atio" ma/ Dema"' at a"/ 'e(ti"atio"
,e a \$o(iti+e -!a"tit/2 4ill ,e 92
B: O"e o moe (o!ce to a"/ "!m,e O"e (o!ce o"e 'e(ti"atio"2
o% 'e(ti"atio"2
9D2 De%i"e !",o!"'e' a((i&"me"t \$o,lem a"' 'e(ci,e the (te\$( i"+ol+e' i" (ol+i"& it@
I% the "o2 o% o4( i( "ot e-!al to the "o2 o% col!m" i" the &i+e" co(t mati* the \$o,lem i( (ai' to ,e
!",ala"ce'2 It i( co"+ete' to a ,ala"ce' o"e ,/ a''i"& '!mm/ o4 o '!mm/ col!m" 4ith Aeo co(t2

9E2 E*\$lai" ho4 a ma*imiAatio" \$o,lem i( (ol+e' !(i"& a((i&"me"t mo'el@
The ma*imiAatio" \$o,lem( ae co"+ete' to a mi"imiAatio" o"e o% the %ollo4i"& metho'2
7i: Si"ce ma* A H mi"7#A:
7ii: S!,tact all the co(t eleme"t( all o% the co(t mati* %om the
Hi&he(t co(t eleme"t i" that co(t mati*2
992 ?hat 'o /o! !"'e(ta"' ,/ e(ticte' a((i&"me"t@ E*\$lai" ho4 /o! (ho!l'
o+ecome it@
The a((i&"me"t tech"i-!e= it ma/ "ot ,e \$o((i,le to a((i&" a \$atic!la ta(5 to a \$atic!la %acilit/ '!e
to tech"ical 'i%%ic!ltie( o othe e(tictio"(2 Thi( ca" ,e o+ecome ,/ a((i&"i"& a +e/ hi&h \$oce((i"&
time o co(t 7it ca" ,e <: to the coe(\$o"'i"& cell2
2F2 Ho4 'o /o! i'e"ti%/ alte"ati+e (ol!tio" i" a((i&"me"t \$o,lem@
Sometime( a %i"al co(t mati* co"tai"( moe tha" e-!ie' "!m,e o% Aeoe( at the i"'e\$e"'e"t
\$o(itio"2 Thi( im\$lie( that thee i( moe tha" o"e o\$timal (ol!tio" 4ith (ome o\$tim!m a((i&"me"t co(t2
292 ?hat i( a ta+eli"& (ale(ma" \$o,lem@
A (ale(ma" "omall/ m!(t +i(it a "!m,e o% citie( (tati"& %om hi( hea' -!ate(2 The 'i(ta"ce
,et4ee" e+e/ \$ai o% citie( ae a((!me' to ,e 5"o4"2 The \$o,lem o% %i"'i"& the (hote(t 'i(ta"ce i%
the (ale(ma" (tat( %om hi( hea' -!ate( a"' \$a((e( tho!&h each cit/ e*actl/ o"ce a"' et!"( to the
hea'-!ate( i( calle' Ta+eli"& Sale(ma" \$o,lem2
222 De%i"e o!te co"'itio"@
The (ale(ma" (tat( %om hi( hea'-!ate( a"' \$a((e( tho!&h each cit/ e*actl/ o"ce2
2B2 Gi+e the aea( o% o\$eatio"( o% a((i&"me"t \$o,lem(@
A((i&"i"& 6o,( to machi"e(2
Allocati"& me" to 6o,(8machi"e(2
Ro!te (che'!li"& %o a ta+eli"& (ale(ma"2
242 Ho4 'o /o! co"+et the !",ala"ce' a((i&"me"t \$o,lem i"to a ,ala"ce' o"e@ 7MA3 0FE:
Si"ce the a((i&"me"t i( o"e to o"e ,a(i( = the \$o,lem ha+e a (-!ae mati*2 I% the &i+e" \$o,lem i( "ot
(-!ae mati* a'' a '!mm/ o4 o '!mm/ col!m" a"' the" co"+et it i"to a ,ala"ce' o"e 7(-!ae
mati*:2 A((i&" Aeo co(t +al!e( %o a"/ '!mm/ o48col!m" a"' (ol+e it ,/ !(!al a((i&"me"t metho'2
UNIT#III
92 De%i"e I"te&e Po&ammi"& Po,lem 7IPP:@ 7DEC 0FD:
A li"ea \$o&ammi"& \$o,lem i" 4hich (ome o all o% the +aia,le( i" the o\$timal (ol!tio" ae
e(ticte' to a((!me "o"#"e&ati+e i"te&e +al!e( i( calle' a" I"te&e Po&ammi"& Po,lem 7IPP: o
I"te&e Li"ea Po&ammi"&
22 E*\$lai" the im\$ota"ce o% I"te&e \$o&ammi"& \$o,lem@
I" LPP the +al!e( %o the +aia,le( ae eal i" the o\$timal (ol!tio"2 Ho4e+e i" cetai"
\$o,lem( thi( a((!m\$tio" i( !"eali(tic2 Fo e*am\$le i% a \$o,lem ha( a (ol!tio" o% E982 ca( to ,e
\$o'!ce' i" a ma"!%act!i"& com\$a"/ i( mea"i"&le((2 The(e t/\$e( o% \$o,lem( e-!ie i"te&e +al!e(
%o the 'eci(io" +aia,le(2 Thee%oe IPP i( "ece((a/ to o!"' o%% the %actio"al +al!e(2
B2 Li(t o!t (ome o% the a\$\$licatio"( o% IPP@ 7MA3 0F9: 7DEC 0FD: 7MA3 0FD:
• IPP occ! -!ite %e-!e"tl/ i" ,!(i"e(( a"' i"'!(t/2
• All ta"(\$otatio"= a((i&"me"t a"' ta+eli"& (ale(ma" \$o,lem( ae IPP= (i"ce
the 'eci(io" +aia,le( ae eithe Geo o o"e2
• All (e-!e"ci"& a"' o!ti"& 'eci(io"( ae IPP a( it e-!ie( the i"te&e +al!e( o%
the 'eci(io" +aia,le(2
• Ca\$ital ,!'&eti"& a"' \$o'!ctio" (che'!li"& \$o,lem ae PP2 I" %act= a"/
(it!atio" i"+ol+i"& 'eci(io"( o% the t/\$e eithe to 'o a 6o, o "ot to 'o ca" ,e
teate' a( a" IPP2
• All allocatio" \$o,lem( i"+ol+i"& the allocatio" o% &oo'(= me"= machi"e(= &i+e
i(e to IPP (i"ce (!ch commo'itie( ca" ,e a((i&"e' o"l/ i"te&e a"' "ot
%actio"al +al!e(2
42 Li(t the +aio!( t/\$e( o% i"te&e \$o&ammi"&@ 7MA3 0FD:
Mi*e' IPP
P!e IPP
>2 ?hat i( \$!e IPP@
I" a li"ea \$o&ammi"& \$o,lem= i% all the +aia,le( i" the o\$timal (ol!tio" ae e(ticte' to a((!me
"o"#"e&ati+e i"te&e +al!e(= the" it i( calle' the \$!e 7all: IPP2
C2 ?hat i( Mi*e' IPP@
I" a li"ea \$o&ammi"& \$o,lem= i% o"l/ (ome o% the +aia,le( i" the o\$timal (ol!tio" ae e(ticte' to
a((!me "o"#"e&ati+e i"te&e +al!e(= 4hile the emai"i"& +aia,le( ae %ee to ta5e a"/ "o"#"e&ati+e
+al!e(= the" it i( calle' A Mi*e' IPP2
D2 ?hat i( Geo#o"e \$o,lem@
I% all the +aia,le( i" the o\$tim!m (ol!tio" ae allo4e' to ta5e +al!e( eithe F o 9 a( i" R'o0 o R"ot to
'o0 t/\$e 'eci(io"(= the" the \$o,lem i( calle' Geo#o"e \$o,lem o (ta"'a' 'i(cete \$o&ammi"&
\$o,lem2
E2 ?hat i( the 'i%%ee"ce ,et4ee" P!e i"te&e \$o&ammi"& M mi*e' i"te&e i"te&e \$o&ammi"&2
?he" a" o\$timiAatio" \$o,lem= i% all the 'eci(io" +aia,le( ae e(ticte' to ta5e i"te&e +al!e(= the" it
i( e%ee' a( \$!e i"te&e \$o&ammi"&2 I% (ome o% the +aia,le( ae allo4e' to ta5e i"te&e +al!e(=
the" it i( e%ee' a( mi*e' i"te&e i"te&e \$o&ammi"&2
92 E*\$lai" the im\$ota"ce o% I"te&e Po&ammi"&@
I" li"ea \$o&ammi"& \$o,lem= all the 'eci(io" +aia,le( allo4e' to ta5e a"/ "o"#"e&ati+e eal +al!e(=
a( it i( -!ite \$o((i,le a"' a\$\$o\$iate to ha+e %actio"al +al!e( i" ma"/ (it!atio"(2 Ho4e+e i" ma"/
(it!atio"(= e(\$eciall/ i" ,!(i"e(( a"' i"'!(t/= the(e 'eci(io" +aia,le( ma5e (e"(e o"l/ i% the/ ha+e
i"te&e +al!e( i" the o\$timal (ol!tio"2 He"ce a "e4 \$oce'!e ha( ,ee" 'e+elo\$e' i" thi( 'iectio" %o
the ca(e o% LPP (!,6ecte' to a''itio"al e(tictio" that the 'eci(io" +aia,le( m!(t ha+e i"te&e +al!e(2
9F2 ?h/ "ot o!"' o%% the o\$tim!m +al!e( i" (tea' o% e(oti"& to IP@ 7MA3 0FE:
Thee i( "o &!aa"tee that the i"te&e +al!e' (ol!tio" 7o,tai"e' ,/ (im\$le* metho': 4ill (ati(%/ the
co"(tai"t(2 i2e2 2= it ma/ "ot (ati(%/ o"e o moe co"(tai"t( a"' a( (!ch the "e4 (ol!tio" ma/ "ot
%ea(i,le2 So thee i( a "ee' %o 'e+elo\$i"& a (/(tematic a"' e%%icie"t al&oithm %o o,tai"i"& the e*act
o\$tim!m i"te&e (ol!tio" to a" IPP2
992 ?hat ae metho'( %o IPP@ 7MA3 0FE:
I"te&e \$o&ammi"& ca" ,e cate&oiAe' a(
7i: C!tti"& metho'(
7ii: Seach Metho'(2
922 ?hat i( c!tti"& metho'@
A (/(tematic \$oce'!e %o (ol+i"& \$!e IPP 4a( %i(t 'e+elo\$e' ,/ R2E2Gomo/ i" 99>E2
Late o"= he e*te"'e' the \$oce'!e to (ol+e mi*e' IPP= "ame' a( c!tti"& \$la"e al&oithm= the metho'
co"(i(t( i" %i(t (ol+i"& the IPP a( o'i"a/ LPP21/ i&"oi"& the i"te&it/ e(tictio" a"' the"
i"to'!ci"& a''itio"al co"(tai"t( o"e a%te the othe to c!t cetai" \$at o% the (ol!tio" (\$ace !"til a"
i"te&al (ol!tio" i( o,tai"e'2
9B2 ?hat i( (each metho'@
It i( a" e"!meatio" metho' i" 4hich all %ea(i,le i"te&e \$oi"t( ae e"!meate'2 The 4i'el/ !(e'
(each metho' i( the 1a"ch a"' 1o!"' Tech"i-!e2 It al(o (tat( 4ith the co"ti"!o!( o\$tim!m= ,!t
(/(tematicall/ \$atitio"( the (ol!tio" (\$ace i"to (!, \$o,lem( that elimi"ate \$at( that co"tai" "o
%ea(i,le i"te&e (ol!tio"2 It 4a( oi&i"all/ 'e+elo\$e' ,/ A2H2La"' a"' A2G2Doi&2
942 E*\$lai" the co"ce\$t o% 1a"ch a"' 1o!"' Tech"i-!e@
The 4i'el/ !(e' (each metho' i( the 1a"ch a"' 1o!"' Tech"i-!e2 It (tat( 4ith the co"ti"!o!(
o\$tim!m= ,!t (/(tematicall/ \$atitio"( the (ol!tio" (\$ace i"to (!, \$o,lem( that elimi"ate \$at( that
co"tai" "o %ea(i,le i"te&e (ol!tio"2 It 4a( oi&i"all/ 'e+elo\$e' ,/ A2H2La"' a"' A2G2Doi&2
9>2 Gi+e the &e"eal %omat o% IPP@
The &e"eal IPP i( &i+e" ,/
Ma*imiAe G H CP
S!,6ect to the co"(tai"t(
AP K ,=
P L F a"' (ome o all +aia,le( ae i"te&e2
9C2 ?ite a" al&oithm %o Gomo/0( Factio"al C!t al&oithm@
92 Co"+et the mi"imiAatio" IPP i"to a" e-!i+ale"t ma*imiAatio" IPP a"' all the
coe%%icie"t( a"' co"(tai"t( (ho!l' ,e i"te&e(2
22 Fi"' the o\$tim!m (ol!tio" o% the e(!lti"& ma*imiAatio" LPP ,/ !(i"& (im\$le*
metho'2
B2 Te(t the i"te&it/ o% the o\$tim!m (ol!tio"2
42 Re4ite each P
1i
>2 E*\$e(( each o% the "e&ati+e %actio"( i% a"/= i" the 5
th
o4 o% the o\$tim!m (im\$le*
ta,le a( the (!m o% a "e&ati+e i"te&e a"' a "o"#"e&ati+e %actio"2
C2 Fi"' the %actio"al c!t co"(tai"t
D2 A'' the %actio"al c!t co"(tai"t at the ,ottom o% o\$tim!m (im\$le* ta,le o,tai"e' i"
(te\$ 22
E2 Go to (te\$ B a"' e\$eat the \$oce'!e !"til a" o\$tim!m i"te&e (ol!tio" i( o,tai"e'2
9D2 ?hat i( the \$!\$o(e o% Factio"al c!t co"(tai"t(@
I" the c!tti"& \$la"e metho'= the %actio"al c!t co"(tai"t( c!t the !"!(e%!l aea o% the %ea(i,le e&io"
i" the &a\$hical (ol!tio" o% the \$o,lem2 i2e2 c!t that aea 4hich ha( "o i"te&e#+al!e' %ea(i,le (ol!tio"2
Th!( the(e co"(tai"t( elimi"ate all the "o"#i"te&al (ol!tio"( 4itho!t loo(i"& a"/ i"te&e#+al!e'
(ol!tio"2
9E2A ma"!%act!e o% ,a,/ 'oll( ma5e( t4o t/\$e( o% 'oll(= 'oll P a"' 'oll 32 Poce((i"& o% the(e 'oll( i(
'o"e o" t4o machi"e( A a"' 12 Doll P e-!ie( 2 ho!( o" machi"e A a"' C ho!( o" Machi"e 12 Doll
3 e-!ie( > ho!( o" machi"e A a"' > ho!( o" Machi"e 12 Thee ae 9C ho!( o% time \$e 'a/
a+aila,le o" machi"e A a"' BF ho!( o" machi"e 12 The \$o%it i( &ai"e' o" ,oth the 'oll( i( (ame2
Fomat thi( a( IPP@
Let the ma"!%act!e 'eci'e to ma"!%act!e *
9
the "!m,e o% 'oll P a"' *
2
"!m,e o% 'oll 3 (o a( to
ma*imiAe the \$o%it2 The com\$lete %om!latio" o% the IPP i( &i+e" ,/
Ma*imiAe G H *
9
I*
2
S!,6ect to 2 *
9
I > *
2
K9C
C *
9
I > *
2
KBF
a"' LF a"' ae i"te&e(2
992 E*\$lai" Gomo/0( Mi*e' I"te&e Metho'@
The \$o,lem i( %i(t (ol+e' ,/ co"ti"!o!( LPP ,/ i&"oi"& the i"te&it/ co"'itio"2 I% the +al!e( o% the
i"te&e co"(tai"e' +aia,le( ae i"te&e(= the" the c!e"t (ol!tio" i( a" o\$timal (ol!tio" to the &i+e"
mi*e' IPP2 El(e (elect the (o!ce o4 4hich coe(\$o"'( to the la&e(t %actio"al \$at amo"& the(e
,a(ic +aia,le( 4hich ae co"(tai"e' to ,e i"te&e(2 The" co"(t!ct the Gomaia" co"(tai"t %om the
(o!ce o42 A'' thi( (eco"'a/ co"(tai"t at the ,ottom o% the o\$tim!m (im\$le* ta,le a"' !(e '!al
(im\$le* metho' to o,tai" the "e4 %ea(i,le o\$timal (ol!tio"2 Re\$eat thi( \$oce'!e !"til the +al!e( o%
the i"te&e e(ticte' +aia,le( ae i"te&e( i" the o\$tim!m (ol!tio" o,tai"e'2
2F2 ?hat i( the &eometical mea"i"& o% \$otio"e' o ,a"che' the oi&i"al \$o,lem@
Geometicall/ it mea"( that the ,a"chi"& \$oce(( elimi"ate( \$otio" o% the %ea(i,le e&io" that
co"tai"( "o %ea(i,le#i"te&e (ol!tio"2 Each o% the (!,#\$o,lem( (ol+e' (e\$aatel/ a( a LPP2
292 ?hat i( (ta"'a' 'i(cete \$o&ammi"& \$o,lem@
I% all the +aia,le( i" the o\$tim!m (ol!tio" ae allo4e' to ta5e +al!e( eithe F o 9 a( i" R'o0 o R"ot to
'o0 t/\$e 'eci(io"(= the" the \$o,lem i( calle' (ta"'a' 'i(cete \$o&ammi"& \$o,lem2
222 ?hat i( the 'i(a'+a"ta&e o% ,a"che' o \$otio"e' metho'@
It e-!ie( the o\$tim!m (ol!tio" o% each (!, \$o,lem2 I" la&e \$o,lem( thi( co!l' ,e +e/ te'io!( 6o,2
2B2 Ho4 ca" /o! im\$o+e the e%%icie"c/ o% \$otio"e' metho'@
The com\$!tatio"al e%%icie"c/ o% \$otio"e' metho' i( i"cea(e' ,/ !(i"& the co"ce\$t o% ,o!"'i"&2 1/
thi( co"ce\$t 4he"e+e the co"ti"!o!( o\$tim!m (ol!tio" o% a (!, \$o,lem /iel'( a +al!e o% the o,6ecti+e
%!"ctio" lo4e tha" that o% the ,e(t a+aila,le i"te&e (ol!tio" it i( !(ele(( to e*\$loe the \$o,lem a"/
%!the co"(i'eatio"2 Th!( o"ce a %ea(i,le i"te&e (ol!tio" i( o,tai"e'= it( a((ociati+e o,6ecti+e
%!"ctio" ca" ,e ta5e" a( a lo4e ,o!"' to 'elete i"%eio (!,#\$o,lem(2 He"ce e%%icie"c/ o% a ,a"ch
a"' ,o!"' metho' 'e\$e"'( !\$o" ho4 (oo" the (!cce((i+e (!,#\$o,lem( ae %athome'2
UNIT#I.
92 ?hat 'o /o! mea" ,/ \$o6ect@
A \$o6ect i( 'e%i"e' a( a com,i"atio" o" i"te elate' acti+itie( 4ith limite' e(o!ce( "amel/ me"=
machi"e( mateial(= mo"e/ a"' time all o% 4hich m!(t ,e e*ec!te' i" a 'e%i"e' o'e %o it(
com\$letio"2
22 ?hat ae the thee mai" \$ha(e( o% \$o6ect@
• Pla""i"&= Sche'!li"& a"' Co"tol
B2 ?hat ae the t4o ,a(ic \$la""i"& a"' co"tolli"& tech"i-!e( i" a "et4o5 a"al/(i(@
• Citical Path Metho' 7CPM:
• Po&amme E+al!atio" a"' Re+ie4 Tech"i-!e 7PERT:
42 ?hat ae the a'+a"ta&e( o% CPM a"' PERT tech"i-!e(@
• It e"co!a&e( a lo&ical 'i(ci\$li"e i" \$la""i"&= (che'!li"& a"' co"tol o% \$o6ect(
• It hel\$( to e%%ect co"(i'ea,le e'!ctio" o% \$o6ect time( a"' the co(t
• It hel\$( ,ette !tiliAatio" o% e(o!ce( li5e me"=machi"e(=mateial( a"' mo"e/
4ith e%ee"ce to time
• It mea(!e( the e%%ect o% 'ela/( o" the \$o6ect a"' \$oce'!al cha"&e( o" the
o+eall (che'!le2
>2 ?hat i( the 'i%%ee"ce CPM a"' PERT
CPM
• Net4o5 i( ,!ilt o" the ,a(i( o% acti+it/
• Detemi"i(tic "at!e
• O"e time e(timatio"
PERT
• A" e+e"t oie"te' "et4o5
• Po,a,ili(tic "at!e
• Thee time e(timatio"
C2 ?hat i( "et4o5@
A "et4o5 i( a &a\$hical e\$e(e"tatio" o% a \$o6ect0( o\$eatio" a"' i( com\$o(e' o% all the e+e"t( a"'
acti+itie( i" (e-!e"ce alo"& 4ith thei i"te elatio"(hi\$ a"' i"te 'e\$e"'e"cie(2
D2 ?hat i( E+e"t i" a "et4o5 'ia&am@
A" e+e"t i( (\$eci%ic i"(ta"t o% time 4hich ma5( the (tat( a"' e"' o% a" acti+it/2 It "eithe co"(!me(
time "o e(o!ce(2 It i( e\$e(e"te' ,/ a cicle2
E2 De%i"e acti+it/@
A \$o6ect co"(i(t( o% a "!m,e o% 6o, o\$eatio"( 4hich ae calle' acti+itie(2 It i( the eleme"t o% the
\$o6ect a"' it ma/ ,e a \$oce((= mateial ha"'li"&= \$oc!eme"t c/cle etc2
92 De%i"e Citical Acti+itie(@
I" a Net4o5 'ia&am citical acti+itie( ae tho(e 4ho(e i% co"(!me moe tha" e(timate' time the
\$o6ect 4ill ,e 'ela/e'2

9F2 De%i"e "o" citical acti+itie(@
Acti+itie( 4hich ha+e a \$o+i(io" (!ch that the e+e"t i% the/ co"(!me a (\$eci%ie' time o+e a"' a,o+e
the e(timate' time the \$o6ect 4ill "ot ,e 'ela/e' ae teme' a( "o" citical acti+itie(2
992 De%i"e D!mm/ Acti+itie(@
?he" t4o acti+itie( (tat at a (ame time= the hea' e+e"t ae 6oi"e' ,/ a 'otte' ao4 5"o4" a( '!mm/
acti+it/ 4hich ma/ ,e citical o "o" citical2
922 De%i"e '!atio"@
It i( the e(timate' o the act!al time e-!ie' to com\$lete a ta'e o a" acti+it/2

9B2 De%i"e total \$o6ect time@
It i( time ta5e" to com\$lete to com\$lete a \$o6ect a"' 6!(t %o!"' %om the (e-!e"ce o% citical acti+itie(2
I" othe 4o'( it i( the '!atio" o% the citical \$ath2
942 De%i"e Citical Path@
It i( the (e-!e"ce o% acti+itie( 4hich 'eci'e( the total \$o6ect '!atio"2 It i( %ome' ,/ citical
acti+itie( a"' co"(!me( ma*im!m e(o!ce( a"' time2
9>2 De%i"e %loat o (lac5@ 7MA3 0FE:
Slac5 i( 4ith e(\$ect to a" e+e"t a"' %loat i( 4ith e(\$ect to a" acti+it/2 I" othe 4o'(= (lac5 i( !(e'
4ith PERT a"' %loat 4ith CPM2 Float o (lac5 mea"( e*ta time o+e a"' a,o+e it( '!atio" 4hich a
"o"#citical acti+it/ ca" co"(!me 4itho!t 'ela/i"& the \$o6ect2
9C2 De%i"e total %loat@ 7MA3 0FE:
The total %loat %o a" acti+it/ i( &i+e" ,/ the total time 4hich i( a+aila,le %o \$e%oma"ce o% the
acti+it/= mi"!( the '!atio" o% the acti+it/2 The total time i( a+aila,le %o e*ec!tio" o% the acti+it/ i(
&i+e" ,/ the late(t %i"i(h time o% a" acti+it/ mi"!( the ealie(t (tat time %o the acti+it/2 Th!(
Total %loat H Late(t (tat time ) ealie(t (tat time2
9D2 De%i"e %ee %loat@ 7MA3 0FE:
Thi( i( that \$at o% the total %loat 4hich 'oe( "ot a%%ect the (!,(e-!e"t acti+itie(2 Thi( i( the %loat 4hich
i( o,tai"e' 4he" all the acti+itie( ae (tate' at the ealie(t2
9E2 De%i"e I"'e\$e"'e"t %loat@ 7MA3 0FD: 7MA3 0FE:
I% all the \$ece'i"& acti+itie( ae com\$lete' at thei late(t= i" (ome ca(e(= "o %loat a+aila,le %o the
(!,(e-!e"t acti+itie( 4hich ma/ thee%oe ,ecome citical2
I"'e\$e"'e"t %loat H %ee ) tail (lac52
992 De%i"e I"te%ei"& %loat@
Sometime( %loat o% a" acti+it/ i% !tiliAe' 4holl/ o i" \$at= ma/ i"%l!e"ce the (tati"& time o% the
(!ccee'i"& acti+itie( i( 5"o4" a( i"te%ei"& %loat2
I"te%ei"& %loat H late(t e+e"t time o% the hea' # ealie(t e+e"t time
o% the e+e"t2
2F2 De%i"e O\$timi(tic@
O\$timi(tic time e(timate i( the '!atio" o% a"/ acti+it/ 4he" e+e/thi"& &oe( o" +e/ 4ell '!i"& the
\$o6ect2

292 De%i"e Pe((imi(tic@
Pe((imi(tic time e(timate i( the '!atio" o% a"/ acti+it/ 4he" almo(te+e/thi"& &oe( a&ai"(t o! 4ill
a"' a lot o% 'i%%ic!ltie( i( %ace' 4hile 'oi"& a \$o6ect2
222 De%i"e mo(t li5el/ time e(timatio"@
Mo(t li5el/ time e(timate i( the '!atio" o% a"/ acti+it/ 4he" (ometime( thi"& &o o" +e/ 4ell=
(ometime( thi"&( &o o" +e/ ,a' 4hile 'oi"& the \$o6ect2
242 ?hat i( a \$aallel citical \$ath@
?he" citical acti+itie( ae ca(he' a"' the '!atio" i( e'!ce' othe \$ath( ma/ al(o ,ecome citical
(!ch citical \$ath( ae calle' \$aallel citical \$ath2
2>2 ?hat i( (ta"'a' 'e+iatio" a"' +aia"ce i" PERT "et4o5@ 7NO. 0FD:
The e*\$ecte' time o% a" acti+it/ i" act!al e*ec!tio" i( "ot com\$letel/ elia,le a"' i( li5el/ to +a/2 I%
the +aia,ilit/ i( 5"o4" 4e ca" mea(!e the elia,ilit/ o% the e*\$ecte' time a( 'etemi"e' %om thee
e(timate(2 The mea(!e o% the +aia,ilit/ o% \$o((i,le acti+it/ time i( &i+e" ,/ (ta"'a' 'e+iatio"= thei
\$o,a,ilit/ 'i(ti,!tio"
.aia"ce o% the acti+it/ i( the (-!ae o% the (ta"'a' 'e+iatio"
2C2 Gi+e the 'i%%ee"ce ,et4ee" 'iect co(t a"' i"'iect co(t@ 7NO. 0FD:
Diect co(t i( 'iectl/ 'e\$e"'i"& !\$o" the amo!"t o% e(o!ce( i"+ol+e' i" the e*ec!tio" o% all acti+itie(
o% the \$o6ect2 I"cea(e i" 'iect co(t 4ill 'ecea(e i" \$o6ect '!atio"2 I"'iect co(t i( a((ociate' 4ith
&e"eal a"' a'mi"i(tati+e e*\$e"(e(= i"(!a"ce co(t= ta*e( etc2 I"cea(e i" i"'iect co(t 4ill i"cea(e i"
\$o6ect '!atio"2
UNIT#.
92 De%i"e Se"'al0( "otatio" %o e\$e(e"ti"& -!e!i"& mo'el(2
A -!e!i"& mo'el i( (\$eci%ie' a"' e\$e(e"te' (/m,olicall/ i" the %om 7a8,8c: ; 7'8e:
?hee a# i"te ai+al time
,#(e+ice mecha"i(m
c#"!m,e o% (e+ice
'#the ca\$acit/ o% the (/(tem
e#the -!e!e 'i(ci\$li"e
22 I" a (!\$e ma5et= the a+ea&e ai+al ate o% c!(tome i( > i" e+e/ BF mi"!te( %ollo4i"& Poi((o"
\$oce((2 The a+ea&e time i( ta5e" ,/ the ca(hie to li(t a"' calc!late the c!(tome0( \$!cha(e i( 42>
mi"!te(Q %ollo4i"& e*\$o"e"tial 'i(ti,!tio"2 ?hat i( the \$o,a,ilit/ that the -!e!e le"&th e*cee'( >@
Ai+al ateH >8BF mi"
Se+ice ateH289mi"
Po,a,ilit/ that the -!e!e le"&th e*cee'( > H 7T:
"I2
H 72D>:
D
HF29BB
B2 E*\$lai" Q!e!e 'i(ci\$li"e a"' it( +aio!( %om(2
7i: FIFO o FCFS # Fi(t I" Fi(t O!t o Fi(t Come Fi(t Se+e'2
7ii: LIFO o LCFS # La(t I" Fi(t O!t o La(t Come Fi(t Se+e'2
7iii: SIRO # Selectio" %o (e+ice i" a"'om o'e2
7i+: PIR # Pioit/ i" (electio"
42 Di(ti"&!i(h ,et4ee" ta"(ie"t a"' (tea'/ (tate -!e!i"& (/(tem2
A (/(tem i( (ai' to ,e i" ta"(ie"t (tate 4he" it( o\$eati"& chaactei(tic( ae 'e\$e"'e"t o" time2 A
(tea'/ (tate (/(tem i( o"e i" 4hich the ,eha+io o% the (/(tem i( i"'e\$e"'e"t o% time2
>2 De%i"e (tea'/ (tate@
A (/(tem i( (ai' to ,e i" (tea'/ (tate 4he" the ,eha+io o% the (/(tem i"'e\$e"'e"t o% time2 Let \$
"
7t:
'e"ote the \$o, that thee ae R"0 !"it( i" the (/(tem at time t2 the" i" (tea'/ (tateHO lim \$
"
U7 t :HF

tV<
C2 ?ite 'o4" the little %om!la@
L
(
HL
-
IW8X
?hee L
(
H the a+ea&e "o2 o% c!(tome( i" the (/(tem
L
-
H the a+ea&e "o2 o% c!(tome( i" the -!e!e
D2 I% ta%%ic i"te"(it/ o% M8M8I (/(tem i( &i+e" to ,e F2DC= 4hat \$ece"t o% time the (/(tem 4o!l' ,e
i'le@
Ta%%ic i"te"(it/ H F2DC 7,!(/ time:
S/(tem to ,e i'le H 9#F2DC HF224
E2 ?hat ae the ,a(ic eleme"t( o% -!e!i"& (/(tem@
S/(tem co"(i(t( o% the ai+al o% c!(tome(= 4aiti"& i" -!e!e= \$ic5 !\$ %o (e+ice acco'i"& to
cetai" 'i(ci\$li"e= act!al (e+ice a"' 'e\$at!e o% c!(tome2
92 ?hat i( mea"t ,/ -!e!e 'i(ci\$li"e@
The ma""e i" 4hich (e+ice i( \$o+i'e' o a c!(tome i( (electe' %o (e+ice i( 'e%i"e' a( the
-!e!e 'i(ci\$li"e2
9F2 ?hat ae the cla((i%icatio"( o% -!e!i"& mo'el(@
m Y m Y I Y< m Y m Y I Y" m Y m Y cY< m Y m Y c Y"
992 ?hat ae the chaactei(tic o% -!e!i"& \$oce((@
Ai+al \$atte" o% c!(tome(= (e+ice \$atte" o% (e+e(= -!e!e 'i(ci\$li"e= (/(tem ca\$acit/=
"o2 o% (e+ice cha""el(= "o2 o% (e+ice (ta&e2
922 De%i"e Poi((o" \$oce((@
The Poi((o" \$oce(( i( a co"ti"!o!( \$aamete 'i(cete (tate \$oce(( 7ie: a &oo' mo'el %o ma"/
\$actical (it!atio"(2 i% P7t:e\$e(e"t( the "o2 o% Occ!e"ce( o% a cetai" i" 7F= t: the" the 'i(cete
a"'om \$oce(( ZP 7t:[ i( calle' the Poi((o" \$oce((2 i% it (ati(%ie( the %ollo4i"& \$o(t!late(
I2 P\9 occ!e"ce i" 7t=tI]t:^ HW]t I O7]t:
II2 P\F occ!e"ce i" 7t=tI]t:^ H9#W]t I O7]t:
III2 P\2 o moe occ!e"ce i" 7t=tI]t:^ HO7]t:
I.2 P7t: i( i"'e\$e"'e"t o% the "!m,e o% occ!e"ce( o% the e+e"t i" a"/
i"te+al \$io 7o: a%te the i"te+al7F=t:
.2 The \$o, that the e+e"t occ!( a (\$eci%ie' "!m,e o% time( i" 7t
F
= t
F
It:
'e\$e"'( o"l/ o" t ,!t "ot o" t
F2
9B2 Gi+e" a"/ t4o e*am\$le( o% Poi((o" \$oce((@
92 The "!m,e o% i"comi"& tele\$ho"e call( ecei+e' i" a \$atic!la time
22 The ai+al o% c!(tome at a ,a"5 i" a 'a/
942 ?hat ae the \$o\$etie( o% Poi((o" \$oce((@
92 The Poi((o" \$oce(( i( a ma5o+ \$oce((2
22 S!m o% t4o i"'e\$e"'e"t \$oi((e" \$oce((e( i( a \$oi((o" \$oce((2
B2 Di%%ee"ce o% t4o i"'e\$e"'e"t \$oi((o" \$oce((e( i( "ot \$oi((o" \$oce((2
42 The i"te ai+al time o% a \$oi((o" \$oce(( ha( a" e*\$o"e"tial 'i(ti,!tio" 4ith mea" 98W2
9>2 C!(tome ai+e( at a o"e#ma" ,a,e (ho\$ acco'i"& to a Poi((o" \$oce(( 4ith a" mea" i"te
ai+al time o% 92 mi"!te(2 C!(tome( (\$e"' a a+ea&e o% 9F mi"!te( i" the ,a,e0( chai"2?hat i( the
e*\$ecte' "o o% c!(tome( i" the ,a,e (ho\$ a"' i" the -!e!e@
Gi+e" mea" ai+al ate 98W H 922
Thee%oe W H 9892 \$e mi"!te2
Mea" (e+ice ate 98X H 9F2
Thee%oe X H 989F \$e mi"!te2
E*\$ecte' "!m,e o% c!(tome( i" the (/(tem
L
(
H W8X#W
H 98928989F#9892 H > c!(tome(2

9C2 De%i"e \$!e ,ith \$oce((@
I% the 'eath ate( X5 H F %o all 5 H 9= 2JJ 4e ha+e a \$!e ,ith \$oce((2
9D2 ?ite 'o4" the \$o(t!late( o% ,ith a"' 'eath \$oce((@
9: \$ \9 ,ith 7t= t I ]t:^ H W"7t:]t I F7]t:
2: \$ \F ,ith i" 7t= t I ]t:^ H 9 # W"7t:]t I F7]t:2
B: \$ \9 'eath i" 7t= t I ]t:^ H X"7t:]t I F7]t:
4: \$ \F 'eath i" 7t= t I ]t:^ H 9 # X"7t:]t I F7]t:2
9E2 ?hat i( the %om!la %o the \$o,lem %o a c!(tome to 4ait i" the -!e!e !"'e
7m8m89 N8FCFS:
?
(
H L
(
8W2
992 ?hat i( the a+ea&e "!m,e o% c!(tome( i" the (/(tem !"'e
7m8m8e; <8FCFS:@
WX 7W8X:
c
8 7c#9:_7cX # W :
2
I W8X2
2F2 ?hat i( the 'i%%ee"ce ,et4ee" \$o,a,ili(tic 'etemi"i(tic a"' mi*e' mo'el(@
Po,a,ili(tic; ?he" thee i( !"cetai"t/ i" ,oth ai+al( ate a"' (e+ice ate ae
a((!me' to ,e a"'om +aia,le(2
Detemi"i(tic; 1oth ai+al ate a"' (e+ice ate ae co"(ta"t(2
Mi*e'; ?he" eithe the ai+al ate o the (e+ice ate i( e*actl/ 5"o4" a"' the othe i( "ot 5"o4"2
292 ?hat ae the a((!m\$tio"( i" m8m89 mo'el@
7i: E*\$o"e"tial 'i(ti,!tio" o% i"te ai+al time( o \$oi((o" 'i(ti,!tio"
o% ai+al ate2
7ii: Q!e!e 'i(ci\$li"e i( %i(t come= %i(t (e+e2
7iii: Si"&le 4aiti"& li"e 4ith "o e(tictio" "o le"&th o% -!e!e2
7i+: Si"&le (e+e 4ith e*\$o"e"tial 'i(ti,!tio" o% (e+ice time(2
222 Peo\$le ai+e at a theate tic5et ,ooth i" \$oi((o" 'i(ti,!te' ai+al ate o% 2>8ho!2 Se+ice time i(
co"(ta"t at 2 mi"!te(2 Calc!late the mea"@
W H 2>8h X H 7`:CF H BF \$e ho!2
T H W8X H 2>8BF H >8C H F2EBB
L- H T
2
8 9#T H 72EBB:
2
8 9 # 2EBB H 429>>F2
Mea" 4aiti"& timeHL-8W H 482> H 482> a CF H 92C mi"!te(2