This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
GDJP Anna Uni ver si t y
Introduction
Ø The Fanno flow of an ideal gas through a constant area duct
under adiabatic condition is achievable in practice when the
duct is not very long.
Ø Avoiding heat transfer to the environment is not convenient
when a gas line is taken over long lengths.
Ø The supply of natural or byproduct gases over long pipe
lines from an industrial area to a consuming city.
The pipe is exposed to the atmosphere and heat
transfer through the pipe wall is a reality. The pipe gas
attains the environment temperature by heat exchange.
Ø The study of isothermal flow of an ideal gas through a
constant area pipe is applicable to long pipe lines. Friction is
accounted for.
PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com
Cont ..
GDJP Anna Uni ver si t y
Ø The Reynolds number may be written in the form
where, G  mass velocity or mass flow density
D  duct diameter
μ  viscosity of the fluid
For a constant temperature the viscosity of the flowing
fluid μ is a constant. Since G is constant, the Reynolds
number is constant at all points in the flow.
Friction coefficient for a given pipe surface is a function
of the Reynolds number alone, it follows that in isothermal
flow friction coefficient is invariant along the pipe.
µ µ
ρ GD VD
· · Re
PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com
Isot her mal f l ow pr ocess Ts di agr am
GDJP Anna Uni ver si t y
Isothermal line
Stagnation temperature line
γ
1
> M
γ
1
· M
γ
1
< M
PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com
Isot her mal f l ow – Assumpt i ons
GDJP Anna Uni ver si t y
The following assumptions are used to derive
equations for T=constant flow :
1. Perfect gas
2. Constant diameter duct
3. Absence of body forces
4. Steady, one dimensional flow
5. Simple Diabatic, frictional flow at T=cons.
PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com
Isot her mal f l ow – Fundament al equat i ons
GDJP Anna Uni ver si t y
To describe isothermal flow process, the following
governing relationships are generally used :
Ø Continuity equation
Ø Equation of state
Ø Energy equation
Ø Momentum equation
PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com
Cont ..
GDJP Anna Uni ver si t y
From continuity G =ρc = constant
c
dc d
− ·
ρ
ρ
From first law of thermodynamics 2 1
;
o
h
o
h
o
dh Q ≠ · δ
From equation of state p = ρRT
ρ
ρ d
p
dp
·
From momentum equation
D
dx
f
M
M
p
dp
4
2
1 2
2
,
`
.

−
− ·
γ
γ
PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com
Di r ect i on of i sot her mal f l ow pr ocess
GDJP Anna Uni ver si t y
D
dx
f
M
M
p
dp
4
2
1 2
2
,
`
.

−
− ·
γ
γ
Case (a)
ve M + · −
2
1 γ
γ
γ
1
M
1
2
M
< ∴
< gives This
γ
γ
γ
1
1
2
2
M  1 (b) Case
> ∴
>
− ·
M
M gives This
ve
γ
1
*
M
Case Limiting
t
·
PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com
Var i at i on of f l ow par amet er s Isot her mal f l ow
GDJP Anna Uni ver si t y
Par amet er M < 1/ √γ M > 1/ √γ
Pr essur e
Densi t y
Vel oci t y
M ach number
St agnat i on Temper at ur e
St agnat i on pr essur e
Decr eases
Decr eases
Incr eases
Incr eases
Incr eases
Decr eases
Incr eases
Incr eases
Decr eases
Decr eases
Decr eases
1
2
M
1
2
M
+
>
+
<
γ
γ
for Decreases
for Increases
(Cooling) (Heating)
PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com
Pr oper t y Var i at i ons Isot her mal Fl ow
GDJP Anna Uni ver si t y
0.845 0.912
PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com
Isot her mal Fl ow – Pr oper t y r at i os
GDJP Anna Uni ver si t y
Velocity and Density
1
2
2
1
1
2
M
M
C
C
· ·
ρ
ρ
Stagnation Pressure
]
]
]
]
]
]
−
+
−
+
·
2
2
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
02
01
M
M
T
T
γ
γ
Stagnation Temperature
1
2
2
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
2
02
P
01
P
−
]
]
]
]
]
]
−
+
−
+
·
γ γ
γ
γ
M
M
M
M
Impulse Function
2
2
1
2
1
1
1
2
2
1
M
M
M
M
F
F
γ
γ
+
+
× ·
Change of Entropy
1
M
2
M
ln R
2
p
1
p
ln
1 2
,
`
.

·
,
`
.

· − R S S
Duct Length
2 1
max
4
max
4 4
M
D
L
f
M
D
L
f
D
L
f
,
`
.

−
,
`
.

·
PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com
Li mi t i ng Condi t i ons
GDJP Anna Uni ver si t y
Choking velocity
Ø As the gas flows along the pipe, its static pressure
decreases. Eventually a limiting condition is reached where
the pipe cannot be increased in length without altering the
upstream conditions; that is the flow has become choked.
Ø Hence the limiting or choking velocity for the isothermal
flow of a perfect gas in a constantarea duct in the
presence of wall friction alone is
L
T
1
T
1
L
1
1
· · ⇒ ·
·
Q
γ γ
γ
a or
L
a
C
L
a
L
c
L
M
PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com
Isot her mal f l ow Pr obl em
GDJP Anna Uni ver si t y
Air flows in a long pipe (diameter=0.150 m) under isothermal
conditions. At the pipe inlet, the static temperature and
pressure are 300 K and 3.5 bar, respectively, and the velocity
is 175 m/s. The friction coefficient is 0.005
Calculate (a) the length of pipe required to choke the flow,
(b) the limiting velocity and pressure, and (c) the length of
pipe at the station where the Mach number is 0.60
Solution:
(a) The inlet speed of sound and Mach number are
50 . 0
2 . 347
175
1
1
1
sec / 2 . 347 300 287 4 . 1
1
*
1
· · ·
· × × · · · ·
a
c
M
m RT a a a γ
PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com
Cont ..
GDJP Anna Uni ver si t y
2 1
max
4
max
4 4
M
D
L
f
M
D
L
f
D
L
f
,
`
.

−
,
`
.

·
We know that
m
f
D
D
L
at
05 . 6
005 . 0 4
150 . 0 807 . 0
4
807 . 0
max
L 807 . 0
max
f 4
table flow isothermal refer 50 . 0
1
M
·
×
×
·
×
· ⇒ ·
·
(b) Limiting velocity and pressure
bar
M
M
p p
M
M
that know We
s m
a M For
07 . 2
84515 . 0
50 . 0
5 . 3
2
1
1
*
2
p
2
1
1
p
2
p
/ 44 . 293 2 . 347 84515 . 0
* * *
c 84515 . 0
1
*
M flow isothermal
· × ·
×
· · ⇒ ·
· × ·
· ⇒ · ·
γ
PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com
Cont ..
GDJP Anna Uni ver si t y
(c) the length of pipe at the station where the Mach no. is 0.60
2 1
max
4
max
4 4
M
D
L
f
M
D
L
f
D
L
f
,
`
.

−
,
`
.

·
m L
L
D
L
at
D
L
at
81 . 3
005 . 0 4
150 . 0 508 . 0
508 . 0 299 . 0 807 . 0
150 . 0
4(0.005)
299 . 0 f 4 table isothermal from 60 . 0
2
M
and 807 . 0 f 4 table isothermal from 50 . 0
1
M
·
×
×
· ∴
· − ·
· ·
· ·
PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.