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Opal-RT Technologies Inc.

Product Information & Simulation Applications


1



eMEGAsim and eDRIVEsim
Product Information &
Simulation Application Examples





















Rev. 6.2 (March 2011)
Copyright 2009 Opal-RT Technologies, Inc.
All rights reserved
www.opal-rt.com

Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
2
Contents
1. Opal-RTs Products & Technology 4
1.1 eMEGAsim Real-Time Power Grid Simulator ........................................................................... 4
1.2 eDRIVEsim Real-Time Digital Simulator ................................................................................... 4
1.3 RT-LAB BERTA Test Bench for Speed Governors ................................................................... 5
1.4 TestDrive ECU Development & Testing System ....................................................................... 5
1.5 RT-LAB ...................................................................................................................................... 5
1.6 RT-EVENTS .............................................................................................................................. 7
1.7 RT-EVENTS Time-Stamped Bridges ........................................................................................ 8
1.8 ARTEMiS ................................................................................................................................... 8
1.9 ARTEMiS Advanced Models ..................................................................................................... 8
1.10 RT-XSG ............................................................................................................................... 9
1.11 JMAG-Studio ..................................................................................................................... 10
1.12 Specialized Software Modules & Model Libraries ............................................................. 11
2. AC-Fed Drives & Power Electronic Applications 12
AD-DRIVE-01: Train Traction Drive ............................................................................................... 13
AD-DRIVE-05: Onboard Power System for a Military Vehicle ....................................................... 14
AD-DRIVE-06: PMSM Inverter with AC-side Diode Rectifier ......................................................... 15
AD-DRIVE-07: Doubly-fed Induction Generator for Wind Turbine Applications ............................ 16
AD-DRIVE-08: 9-level PWM Inverter with AC-side, Multi-winding Transformer ............................ 17
AD-DRIVE-12: Naval Combat Survivability Testbed ..................................................................... 18
AD-DRIVE-13: Matrix Converter Drive ........................................................................................... 19
AD-DRIVE-14: AC-DC, 6-pulse Thyristor Converter ..................................................................... 20
AD-DRIVE-17: FPGA-based Simulation of an IGBT H-bridge and RL Load ................................. 21
3. Voltage-Source Drive Applications 22
AD-DRIVE-02: Real-Time, FPGA-based Simulation of a PMSM .................................................. 23
AD-DRIVE-03: Finite Element-based, Real-Time Simulation of Motor Drives .............................. 25
AD-DRIVE-04: Fuel-cell, Hybrid-Electric Vehicle ........................................................................... 26
AD-DRIVE-09: Parallel IGBT-bridge Induction Motor Drive........................................................... 27
AD-DRIVE-10: Switched-reluctance Motor Drive .......................................................................... 28
AD-DRIVE-11: PEM Hydrogen Fuel Cell for a Hybrid Vehicle ...................................................... 29
4. Mechanical System Applications 30
AD-DRIVE-15: RT-LAB DriveLab .................................................................................................. 31
5. Power Grid Applications 32
AD-GRID-01: 48-pulse, GTO-STATCOM-Compensated Power System ...................................... 33
AD-GRID-02: Kundur Power System ............................................................................................. 34
AD-GRID-03: Thyristor-based SVC ............................................................................................... 35
AD-GRID-04: HVDC, 12-pulse, 1 GW, Transmission System ....................................................... 36
AD-GRID-05: 8-Bus 8-Machine HVDC Network ............................................................................ 37
AD-GRID-06: 10 Wind-Turbine Farm and Power Grid .................................................................. 38
AD-GRID-07: Multi-Machine Ship Power Generation .................................................................... 39
AD-GRID-08: 23 bus Network ........................................................................................................ 41
Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
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AD-GRID-09: 23-bus Network with Offshore Wind Farm .............................................................. 43
AD-GRID-10: 35-bus HVAC Network ............................................................................................ 44
AD-GRID-11: 41-bus HVAC/HVDC Network ................................................................................. 46
AD-GRID-12: AC Electric Railway System .................................................................................... 48
AD-GRID-13: 60 Hz, 138/230kV HVAC Power System ................................................................. 50
AD-GRID-14: Small Network Model with Multiple Test Sequencing ............................................. 51
AD-GRID-15: Bipolar HVDC System ............................................................................................. 52
AD-GRID-16: First CIGRE Benchmark for HVDC control studies ................................................. 53
AD-GRID-17: Multi-terminal HVDC System ................................................................................... 54
AD-GRID-18: Train-traction model ................................................................................................. 55
AD-GRID-19: 3-level, 72-pulse STATCOM .................................................................................... 56
AD-GRID-20: Thyristor Controller Series Capacitor test system ................................................... 57
AD-GRID-21: 330-bus HVAC Network .......................................................................................... 58
6. References 60

Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
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Opal-RTs Products & Technology


1.1 eMEGAsim Real-Time Power Grid Simulator
eMEGAsim is ideal for the study, test, and simulation of large in-land power grids,
industrial power systems, commercial and military ships, and electrical train traction
systems and feeding networks. eMEGAsim takes advantage of Intel multi-core CPUs
and FPGA processors to simulate models of power electronics with sub-microsecond
precision.
Ideal for simulation of power electronics found in new distributed generation (DG)
technologies including wind farms, off-grid power systems, photovoltaic cells, and
Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). eMEGAsim is scalable from 4 to 64 CPUs,
enabling it to simulate very large power grids with a time step as low as 20
microseconds


1.2 eDRIVEsim Real-Time Digital Simulator
The ideal real-time platform for designing advanced control systems and performing HIL testing of
controllers used in high-speed electric motors, power converters, and hybrid drives including:
PMSM, BLDC, and IM motor drives
Automotive: Hybrid power trains, power steering, and auxiliary power
systems
Transportation: Train traction and auxiliary systems, ship propulsion
systems
Rectifiers and battery chargers
Wind energy and power electronic distributed generation and
distribution systems
Industrial drives and multi-level converters

Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
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1.3 RT-LAB BERTA Test Bench for Speed Governors
RT-LAB BERTA represents the best tool available today for solving speed regulator problems at the
source, and at the lowest possible cost.

RT-LAB BERTA lets you accurately set speed regulator PID gains, in turn assessing
the stable behavior of the generating unit. RT-LAB BERTA achieves this without taking
the generating unit under test offline from the overall power system, and ensuring that
simulated power system disturbances used by RT-LAB BERTA do not place you or the
overall power system at risk.

RT-LAB BERTA combines a Real-Time Digital Simulator, based on eMEGAsim
technology, and the reprogrammable LabVIEW-based GUI of Opal-RTs TestDrive
testing system.



1.4 TestDrive ECU Development & Testing System
RT-LAB TestDrive is a modular hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) system designed to meet design & testing
challenges involved with next generation ECUs.
An ideal replacement for static simulators and the current
generation of programmable simulators, TestDrive achieves low
unit cost through the use of off-the-shelf hardware technologies
and a common I/O modular design.

TestDrive can serve as an I/O processor when combined with
Opal-RT's eDRIVEsim simulator for closed-loop real-time
simulation using high fidelity plant models. This flexibility enables
you to integrate your TestDrive with, or upgrade directly to, the
more powerful RT-LAB eDRIVEsim Real-Time Simulator, when
you need it.

1.5 RT-LAB
RT-LAB is the core technology behind Opal-RTs flagship Real-Time Simulator products including
eDRIVEsim, eMEGAsim, RT-LAB BERTA and the OP6000 TestDrive ECU Tester. Fully integrated with
MATLAB/Simulink from The MathWorks, RT-LAB enables distributed Real-Time Simulation and
Hardware-in-the-Loop testing of complex electrical, mechanical, and power electronic systems, and
related controllers using commercially available FPGA and Intel-based x86 processors.[27].
RT-LAB can be used for Rapid Control Prototyping to quickly build controllers from block diagrams.

Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
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Rapid Control Prototyping with RT-LAB based Real Time Simulators

HIL (hardware-in-the-loop) testing with RT-LAB based Real Time Simulators

RT-LAB based
Real-Time Simulator

+
-
Controller
RT-LAB based Real-
Time Simulator

+
-
Motor
Plant model
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1.6 RT-EVENTS
RT-EVENTS is a Simulink toolbox for the fixed-time-step simulation of hybrid systems that involve
dynamics and discrete events occurring asynchronous to the simulation clock. RT-EVENTS is compatible
with both RT-LAB and Real Time Workshop (RTW) from The MathWorks making it ideal for use in
Real-Time Simulation applications.









RT-EVENTS library of blocks
The RT-EVENTS toolbox solves
simulation accuracy problems of
dynamic systems that depend on
events not synchronized with the model sample time. In standard fixed-timestep simulations, such events
are only taken into account at the next time step, and therefore can introduce significant errors within the
simulation.
A key feature of RT-EVENTS 3.1 is the blocksets ability to compensate for multiple events occurring
between fixed-time-steps. This means that fixed-time-step simulations using RT-EVENTS can be
executed with a higher degree of accuracy, even when using a relatively large time step. This can also be
beneficial when conducting non-real-time simulations since the use of larger time steps can result in
shorter computation times and more detailed waveforms. RT-EVENTS 3.1 is particularly ideal for use in
the Simulation of fast switching power electronic devices, such as those found in electrical power
networks.
Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
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PWM generation with RT-EVENTS and FPGA-driven digital outputs
1.7 RT-EVENTS Time-Stamped Bridges
Time-Stamped Bridges are fixed-step models of voltage source converters that are designed for real-time
simulation and HIL testing. Applications for these models include, but are not limited to: DC-DC
converters, PWM (pulse width modulation) inverters, and multi-level inverters.
These models are designed to be driven by the gate signals of an FPGA card with nanosecond-resolution
or by Opal-RT`s RT-EVENTS blockset to simulate pulse generation. Time-Stamped Bridge models are
much faster than their SimPowerSystems and ARTEMiS counterparts, and are ideal for the real-time
simulation of inverter drives and converters.
1.8 ARTEMiS
ARTEMiS is a suite of fixed-step solvers and algorithms that optimize Real-Time Simulation of
SimPowerSystems models of electrical, power electronic, and electromechanical systems [23]. ARTEMiS
5 provides full compatibility with MATLAB 2008A and SimPowerSystems 4.6, enabling users to work with,
and enhance, the latest SimPowerSystems demonstration models, as well as a number of new motor
models such as BLDC, step motor, and battery models.
ARTEMiS 5 takes advantage of RT-LABs improved support for simulators using a large number of
processor cores, and comes with an extensive library of real-time models to enable true parallel
simulation of coupled electrical systems on multi-core eDRIVEsim and eMEGAsim simulators. ARTEMiS
5 also has enhanced compatibility with RT-EVENTS which provides for efficient and seamless
interconnectivity between RT-EVENTS interpolated switch control and ARTEMiS/SimPowerSystems
models.
1.9 ARTEMiS Advanced Models
The ARTEMiS Advanced Models blockset is a collection of special models used by ARTEMiS to achieve
real-time performance. Included are Decoupling Transformer (DT) models that permit the decoupling of
secondary circuits, Distributed Parameter Line (DPL) models, and stubline models. DT, DPL, and stubline
models allow the separation of large circuits into sub-systems that can then be processed in parallel using
RT-LAB simulators.

Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
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Simulation of a 6-pulse thyristor convertor with ARTEMiS
1.10 RT-XSG
RT-XSG enables engineers to generate custom, application specific models that can be implemented
onto an FPGA device. Signal conditioning and conversion modules are also available that enable the
custom model to be used for Real-Time Simulation, and Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) data processing.
RT-XSG can be used in standalone mode in order to provide configuration data when operating in the
MATLAB/Simulink environment. It can also be used when modeling within the RT-LAB environment,
Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
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providing the user with a state-of-the-art solution for advanced FPGA-accelerated Real-Time and HIL
system simulation.
RT-XSG provides a convenient, Simulink-based way to build models. Using the RT-XSG toolbox saves
time when conducting FPGA-based co-simulation, since it automatically manages configuration file
generation on each supported platform. It also manages the configuration of the platform, along with the
transfer of high-bandwidth data between RT-LAB simulation models and the user-defined custom model,
built using RT-XSG, and executed on an FPGA device.
1.11 JMAG-Studio
JMAG-Studio is an electromagnetic field analysis software package developed by the Japan Research
Institute. The software supports the design and development of motors, actuators, circuit components,
antennas, and other electric and electronic products.
Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
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1.12 Specialized Software Modules & Model Libraries

Library Main Functions Applications
RT-EVENTS Real-Time Simulation of hybrid events-based systems
- PWM Generation
- Pulse frequency and duty measurement
- Encoder simulation
- Internal combustion engine simulation
RT-Drive Library of electrical components for motor drive simulation
- Voltage source converters
- DC-DC converters
- Specialized drive functions
ARTEMiS
Real-time Simulation of electrical systems Used with SimPowerSystems
from The MathWorks
Power networks including HVDC & SVC line-
commutated drives with:
- Thyristors drives
- Cyclo- converters
- Diode & thyristors rectifiers
RT-XSG Implementation of Xilinx Blockset on RT-LAB FPGA
- Ultra-fast Real-Time Simulation
- High frequency PWM generation
- Special communication protocols
RT-LAB.XSG A library of motor drive models for FPGA targets, based on RT-XSG
PMSM and BLDC RT ultra-fast models
including:
- Resolver
- Encoders
- PWM generation
RT-LAB.JMAG Implementation of Finite-Element JMAG motor models on RT-LAB Simulator
- High-fidelity PM motor model
EMTP-RT Interface to EMTP-RV Electromagnetic Transient Simulation software
- Off-line & Real-Time Simulation of Large
Power Grids
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AC-Fed Drives & Power Electronic
Applications
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AD-DRIVE-01: Train Traction Drive
Keywords: PMSM motor, 3-level inverter, 12-pulse thyristor rectifier
The train traction drive demo is composed of a grid-connected, 12-pulse, thyristor rectifier
connected to a 3-level, GTO (gate turn-off thyristor) inverter feeding a 1 MW permanent magnet
motor.
To achieve hard-real-time simulation of the AC-side rectifier, the inverter was modeled with Time-
Stamped Bridges and ARTEMiS. To artificially decouple the 2 secondary windings of the
transformer, a special transformer model was designed. Thus, ARTEMiS solvers can make a full
precomputation of the two 6-pulse thyristor modes. Without this, the algorithm would have to
precompute 4096 (2
12
) different system equations for the AC-side only.
To decouple the secondary windings, a short transmission line having the same line inductance
modeled the secondary leakage inductance. This approximation has the effect of introducing
some line capacitances that are not present in the actual circuit. However, as long as the sample
time is small, the spurious capacitances are also small and the error is minimal.

Train traction drive circuit
System configuration
Hardware enclosure HILBox
Software modules Time-stamped bridge, ARTEMiS
Additional models Advanced models (DT)
Package D21Q-1

Thyristor
rectifiers
3-level GTO
bridge
Permanent magnet motor
~ 1 MW
SM
12 mF
12 mF 20000V L-L
Y
Y
D
Controller
GTO
pulses
Motor
speed
inverter
currents
1.5MVA, 50 Hz
20000 V - 1000 V
4 mH
4 mH
Thyristor Controller
synchro
signals
DC-link
inductance
currents
DC-link
capacitor
voltage
500 Hz
carrier FPU
12
2
2 12
Thyristor
gate
pulses
CPU 1: (Ts= 50 us) CPU 2: (Ts= 25 us)
Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
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AD-DRIVE-05: Onboard Power System for a Military Vehicle
Keywords: Diesel-driven alternator, diode rectifier, DC power system, PMSM inverter, DC-
motor chopper, AC-voltage inverter
This demo represents a typical onboard power system for a military vehicle. The main power
source is a diesel motor driving an alternator with output rectified to produce a 600 VDC bus
voltage, used primarily for vehicle traction. A DC-DC converter converts this voltage to 26 V for
hotel loads. In this case, the load consists of a DC motor and an AC inverter with its load.
The diode rectifier uses the ARTEMiS blockset to precompute all modes of the rectifier, thus
removing SimPowerSystems mode computation from the real-time loop. The traction motor, DC-
motor chopper, and AC inverter use Opal-RT Time-Stamped Bridges. Time-Stamped Bridges use
special interpolation techniques to accurately compute the voltage application time for the motors
and load.
The model runs in real time at 21 microseconds without I/O on a dual-Xeon-based, 2.4 GHz,
RT-LAB simulator.

Onboard power system for a military vehicle
System configuration
Hardware enclosure HILBox
Software modules Time-stamped bridge, ARTEMiS
Additional models N/A
Package D21Q-1
Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
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AD-DRIVE-06: PMSM Inverter with AC-side Diode Rectifier
Keywords: Diode rectifier, 9 kHz PMSM drive, HIL simulation, small motor drive
This demo implements a permanent magnet motor drive fed by a 3-phase diode rectifier. The
model runs on a dual-Xeon-based, 2.8 GHz, RT-LAB simulator with sample times of
10 microseconds for the motor inverter and 80 microseconds for the diode rectifier. The diode
rectifier uses the ARTEMiS blockset to precompute all modes of the rectifier, thus removing
SimPowerSystems mode computation from the real-time loop. An IGBT bridge using Time-
Stamped Bridges is used to accurately compute the voltage-time application time to the motor
model. This is important because if the model samples the IGBT gate signals at 10 microseconds
without special care, important errors would occur in the motor flux computations with the PWM
carrier set at 9 kHz (~110 microseconds period, ~10 times the simulation time step).
In August 2004, Opal-RT successfully created for Mitsubishi Electric Co. of Japan a real-time
simulator running this model [8]. The model is connected to a real external vector controller with a
sampling rate of 55 microseconds. The external controller reads the motor currents and the
quadrature encoder signals from the simulator and feeds the simulator with the 6 IGBT gate
signals. The complete model runs in this HIL mode at a sample time of 10 microseconds for the
CPU simulating the inverter and 80 microseconds for the CPU running the AC-side of the model.

PMSM inverter with AC-side

System configuration
Hardware enclosure HILBox
Software modules Time-stamped bridge, ARTEMiS
Additional models N/A
Package D21Q-1
permanent
magnet motor
Currents
External controller (sampling rate =55 s)
3-phase
source
reactor
diode
rectifier
x6 x6
PWM
inverter
N
S
Tload
IGBT
pulses
Quadrature
encoder signals
CPU 1: (Ts= 80 us) CPU 2: (Ts= 10 us)
(F
pwm
=9 kHz)
Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
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AD-DRIVE-07: Doubly-fed Induction Generator for Wind Turbine
Applications
Keywords: wind turbine, doubly-fed induction generator, back-to-back PWM inverters,
PWM rectifier
This demo implements a doubly-fed induction generator for a wind-turbine connected to a grid
circuit. The inductive grid, transformers, and induction machine are modeled in
SimPowerSystems. The two PWM inverters are modeled with Time-Stamped Bridges. In all tests,
the PWM carrier frequency is set to 2 kHz and the simulation step size is 50 microseconds. A
more elaborate description of the set-up used for the real-time simulation of this model can be
found in references [9][12].

Doubly-fed induction generator for wind energy generation
Complete system (left) and real-time task distribution with I/O (right)
System configuration
Hardware enclosure HILBox
Software modules Time-stamped bridge, ARTEMiS
Additional models N/A
Package D21Q-1

3~
= 3~
=
DFIM
Grid
Filter
Transformer
PWM inverters
Gearbox
Wind turbine
(X=20%)
1: 4
Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
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AD-DRIVE-08: 9-level PWM Inverter with AC-side, Multi-winding
Transformer
Keywords: multi-level inverter, multi-winding transformer, ARTEMiS decoupling
The multi-level inverter shown in 0 is a high-power, ultra-low harmonic generating inverter drive.
By feeding the DC-stage from winding with different phases, the injected harmonics are
minimized at the primary. A 9-level inverter also provides low harmonics at the load. Time-
Stamped Bridges are used to model the inverter part while a special decoupling transformer, in
conjunction with ARTEMiS, permits full-mode precomputation of this model and allows faster time
steps with real-time simulations. This model was run in real-time with a time-step of
75 microseconds on a dual-Xeon-based, 2.4 GHz, RT-LAB simulator.

9-level inverter with 12-winding, 3-phase transformer

System configuration
Hardware enclosure HILBox
Software modules Time-stamped bridge, ARTEMiS
Additional models Advanced models (DT)
Package D21Q-1
Diode rectifiers
9 -level GTO
bridge inverter
R-L load
SM
3000V L-L
+30 degree
+15 degree
0 degree
-15 degree
Phase A transformer
(6 windings)
Phase B transformers
-rectifier
Phase C transformers-
rectifiers
54 mF
54 mF
54 mF
54 mF
Phase A of Load
9-level GTO
bridge
inverter
phase B
9-level GTO
bridge
inverter
phase C
CPU1: 75 us CPU2: 75 us
internal
neutral point
920 V
3000 V
920 V
920 V
920 V
Network
Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
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AD-DRIVE-12: Naval Combat Survivability Testbed
Keywords: onboard power systems, redundant systems, alternators, buck converters.
Next-generation, all-electric warships will be equipped with highly complex energy generation and
distribution systems that must be capable of operating under very stringent conditions. These
systems will include several power electronics systems interconnected by AC and DC busses to
feed a variety of complex loads and controls. The design, test, commissioning, operation, and
maintenance of such systems will be a challenge due to the complexity of the totally
interconnected system. In particular, the stability assessment of such systems is challenging.
This demo implements an augmented version of the Naval Combat Survivability Testbed (NCST)
distribution with 2 synchronous machine generators. In the system, each generator feeds one of
the DC busses. From each bus, an SSCM (ship service converter module) feeds each load in a
redundant way so that if power fails on one bus, the load can be fed from the other bus. SSCM
are buck converters similar to the CPL (constant power load (CPL). There are 3 different loads
connected to the buses through the SSCM: an induction machine, a power inverter, and a CPL.
On a dual-Xeon-based, 2.4 GHz, RT-LAB simulator with no I/O and using RT-LAB 7.0b4 software
with the RedHawk Linux operating system, this model runs at sample time of 37 microseconds.

NCS Distribution testbed model with alternators
System configuration
Hardware enclosure HILBox
Software modules Time-stamped bridge, ARTEMiS
Additional models Advanced models (DT)
Package D21Q-1


Diode rectifier
x6
CPU 1
CPU 2
Alternator regulator
Exitation
voltage
DC
voltage
3 KW
2 kW
AC inverter regulator
IGBT
pulses
AC load
voltage
Diesel motor &
speed regulator
x6
Alternator regulator
Exitation
voltage
DC
voltage
SSCM SSCM SSCM
SSCM SSCM SSCM
208 V
60 Hz
FPU
IGBT
pulses
Induction
Motor
modulation
index
0.18 O
374 F
20 mH
0.1O
2 O
power regulator
i
+
v
-
IGBT
pulses
Zone 1 : AC inverter and load
Zone 2 : Induction motor inverter
Zone 3 : Constant power load
To zone 1 To zone 2 To zone 3
V
zone 1
V
zone 2
V
zone 3
500 V
500 V
420 V
420 V 420 V
v,i
set-point: 5 kW
Diesel motor &
speed regulator
Diode rectifier
Generator #1
Generator #2
Starboard Bus
Port Bus
Fault
PI
set-point
1600 RPM
e
IM
Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
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AD-DRIVE-13: Matrix Converter Drive
Keywords: matrix converter, direct AC-AC converter
This matrix drive demo is composed of 18 IGBTs, MCTs, or even RB-IGBTs (reverse blocking
IGBTs) grouped in pairs in series-parallel configuration with diodes (except in the case of RB-
IGBT). An input filter and voltage clamp circuit complete the circuit.
This drive topology has some interesting characteristics: It has intrinsic power regeneration
capabilities. It can have a smaller mounting place than conventional AC-AC converters because
neither braking resistors nor large electrolytic capacitors are required. It has low total harmonics
of input current with high efficiency and power factor. Also, because the matrix converter drive
has no large DC-bus capacitor (usually electrolytic) it has a longer lifetime and is more reliable.
This matrix converter model can be accurate at a typical simulator time step (10 microseconds)
and a typical matrix converter switching frequency (10 kHz), and the model takes into account
multiple dead time effects occurring in matrix converters. It can also detect individual IGBT firing
faults like load open-circuits and source short-circuits, and can operate independently from the
commutation technique (e.g., with current commutation or voltage-based methods). Finally, it
takes into account IGBT voltage offset and resistive voltage drops.

Matrix converter drive
System configuration
Hardware enclosure HILBox
Software modules Time-stamped bridge, ARTEMiS
Additional models N/A
Package D21Q-1
S
awn
Input filter
Power grid
Matrix converter
a
b
c
u v w
Clamp
circuit
Inductive
load
S
awp
Bi-directional
switch
on
off
i
u
i
v
i
w
Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
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AD-DRIVE-14: AC-DC, 6-pulse Thyristor Converter
Keywords: thyristor rectifier, ARTEMiS compensation, AC-DC motor
This circuit is a 6-pulse, thyristor rectifier connected to a DC-motor equivalent model. This
converter circuit topology exhibits fast switching dynamics, which in simulations with relatively
large fixed time steps can cause multiple switching events in a single time-step. The DTCSE
algorithm of ARTEMiS deals well with this type of circuit with no extra computational time, as
compared with a single-event case [17].
The psbconverter.mdl is an example of a circuit exhibiting multiple single-step events. In
psbconverter.mdl, closing one branch of the thyristor bridge causes another branch to open
through an inductive current loop in the source. Depending on the time-step and on the
inductance of the source branches, this opening can easily occur a fraction of a time-step after
the opposite branch closes.

6-pulse thyristor converter with a simple DC motor model
Solution Configuration
Solution Package eDRIVEsim package # D21Q-1
Hardware Enclosure HIL Box
Software Components RT-LAB XSG, ARTEMiS
R
C
0.01O 1mH
0.1O
20mH
120V
208Vrms
3|
FPU
PI control
firing angle
load current
synchronisation
voltages
PLL
set point
3
6
thyristor pulses
Y-Y transfo
Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
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AD-DRIVE-17: FPGA-based Simulation of an IGBT H-bridge and RL Load

This demo shows the implementation of an IGBT H-bridge, R-L load being simulated in real-time
on an FPGA chip, along with pulse-width modulation (PWM).

In this example, the PWM fluctuates between 1k-100kHz. The H-bridge is driven in an open-loop
simulation mode by setting the duty cycle in the Console. All parameters of the electrical circuit,
including R and L values; DC-link voltage; PWM frequency; dead time and duty-cycle can be
directly input by the operator via a user-friendly interface on the host PC.

The latency of the model is essentially equal to the 1 s conversion rate of the Analog Outputs.
The console offers the option of routing the IGBT pulse through the Digital Input and Output (I/O)
by an optional, external loop-back connection.

In the present model, the digital I/O are represented as the Front Connector I/O. These I/O can
be easily re-routed to the backplan connector, using a single wire in the XSG model.

By connecting the Digital Output to a real H-bridge, one can drive a DC-motor.


The H-bridge driven R-L load modeled in the FPGA card.

Solution configuration
Solution Package eDRIVEsim package # C11Q-1
Hardware enclosure HIL Box
Software components RT-LAB XSG, RT-EVENTS
Additional Models XSG (FPGA Simulation)
Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
22
Voltage-Source Drive Applications
Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
23
AD-DRIVE-02: Real-Time, FPGA-based Simulation of a PMSM
Keywords: FPGA simulation, PMSM (permanent magnet synchronous motor) simulation,
very-high-bandwidth drive, fixed-point calculations
This example highlights the capacity of RT-LAB XSG to perform real-time simulation of complex
plant models using FPGA technology. In particular, a permanent magnet synchronous motor
(PMSM) is being simulated directly on an FPGA chip.
A 3-phase PMSM with sinusoidal flux distribution (Park model) and no saturation was
implemented using the XSG blockset. Using Xilinx Foundation Tools, RT-LAB XSG automatically
compiles and routes models onto an Opal-RT FPGA card.
Key advantages of RT-LAB XSG are:
Easy Simulink integration and interface of FPGA designs (controllers, small machine
models, PWM modulation units, etc.)
Very fast computation of PMSM motor drive (e.g., latency of 250 ns), permitting very fast
closed-loop testing of high-bandwidth motor controllers
Very fast I/O with RT-LAB. D/A and A/D update rates of 1 s and 2 s respectively, and a
digital I/O resolution of 10 ns.

An FPGA-based PMSM drive simulated using XSG
The PMSM is driven at fixed rotor speed. The 3-phase, IGBT PWM inverter drives the stator with
dead-time capability. The IGBT inverter gate signals can comes from external I/O or from an
internal PWM source. In the latter case, the modulation signal is a 3-phase sinusoidal source with
the exact rotor frequency but with a user-variable phase. The user can also modify the PWM
carrier frequency of the modulator (up to 100kHz) as well as its dead time. Simulation with rotor-
synchronous internal PWM source therefore results in constant Park d q quantities and electrical
torque. By modifying the stator PWM voltage phase shift, one can observe and study its effect on
the electrical torque. Similarly, by modifying the PWM dead time, one can observe the distortions
on motor currents [8]. If external control is used, the machine phase currents also have fast D/A
output with a 1-s conversion rate. The machine model itself has an input-output latency less
than 250 ns (+ 60 ns for the inverter).

Solution Configuration
Solution Package eDRIVEsim package # D11Q-1
Permanent
magnet motor
N
S
e
rotor
& e
Vsource
Phase shift of e
Vsource
internal 3-phase
voltage source
modulator
F
mod
:10-200 kHz
shift
Modulation index
upper IGBT
pulses
lower IGBT
pulses
Internal PWM test source
IGBT gate source selection
Analog Outputs
i
abc
External Digital Inputs
Dead time
IGBT inverter
Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
24
Hardware enclosure Single-CPU MX Station
Software modules RT-LAB, Time-Stamped Bridge
Additional models

Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
25
AD-DRIVE-03: Finite Element-based, Real-Time Simulation of Motor Drives
Keywords: FEM (finite element method), cogging torque simulation, JMAG-studio software
Finite Element Method (FEM) analysis produces highly accurate motor models as compared with
the Park-based models. For example, Park-based models assume a sinusoidal flux linkage and
therefore do not account for the torque effects caused by the motor slots (known as cogging
torque). However, Park-based models are very simple and have traditionally been used for real-
time applications, unlike the more developed complex FEM-based models.
However, with RT-LAB, it is now possible to simulate FEM-based motor models in real-time.
JMAG-Studio and JMAG-RT, developed by the Japan Research Institute (JRI) and available from
Opal-RT, enable engineers to generate very high-precision models, for real-time implementation.
The model can include details such as all inductance values, including saturation, and flux linkage
functions of all motor angles and motor currents. The model can then be incorporated in an
RT-LAB simulation using a standard Simulink DLL file, and interfaced with RT-LAB toolboxes for
drive simulation.
A FEM-based PMSM together with kHz-range (>10 kHz) PWM inverters can be simulated at a
time step of 50 microseconds using an Opteron-based, 2.2 GHz, RT-LAB simulator.
It can be used for design optimization of motor drives and also for testing and calibration of an
externally connected electronic control unit (ECU), using hardware-in-the-loop simulation,

Typical design process using JMAG-Studio and RT-LAB
Solution Configuration
Solution package eDRIVEsim, package # C11Q
Hardware enclosure MX Station or HIL Box
Software components RT-LAB, RT-EVENTS
Additional models JMAG software
Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
26
AD-DRIVE-04: Fuel-cell, Hybrid-Electric Vehicle
Keywords: Fuel cell, Battery, 10 kHz DC-DC converter, 2-level PMSM 10 kHz drive
The example of the fuel-cell, hybrid-electric vehicle is composed of a battery, a fuel cell (modeled
as a voltage source), a DC-DC converter, and motor drive [4][5][6][7]. In this system, the DC-DC
converter controls the power sharing between the battery and the fuel cell. The Opal-RT Time-
Stamped Bridge is required to obtain accurate simulation of the DC-DC converter because its
chopping frequency (10 kHz) represent only 1/10 the period of the 10 s sample time for the
model. Errors on IGBT gate sampling can lead to loss of control in the real-time simulator.

Fuelcell, HybridElectrical Vehicle Drive
This demo can be run using two distributed, RT-LAB simulators. The first system, an Intel
Pentium M system running RT-LAB, implements a DC-DC converter controller with analog
inputs and PWM outputs. The second system implements the fuel-cell, hybrid-electric vehicle
models including DC-DC converter, battery, fuel cell and permanent magnetic synchronous motor
(PMSM) drive, along with the PMSM controller. This simulator performed with a time step of less
than 25 s using on a dual-Xeon system with 3.0 GHz.
Solution configuration
Solution Package eDRIVEsim, package # C11Q-1
Hardware enclosure MX Station or HIL Box
Software components RT-LAB, RT-EVENTS, ARTEMiS
Additional models N/A
Permanent
magnet motor
DC-DC converter
10 kHz DC-DC converters
80kW
240 -
380 V
2
6
0
0
u
F
5
2
0
0
u
F
240- .
400 V
Battery circuit Fuel cell circuit
CPU 1: (Ts= 10 us)
CPU 2: (Ts= 20 us)
N
S
PWM inverter
FPU FPU
FPU Digital OUT
Digital IN
i
550mH
v
fuel_cell
u
motor
i
motor
V
uvw duty cycle
Motor controller
Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
27
AD-DRIVE-09: Parallel IGBT-bridge Induction Motor Drive
Keywords: detailed Time-Stamped Bridge, interphase transformer, induction motor
This example demonstrates the implementation of an induction motor driven using two IGBT
inverters connected in parallel through an interphase transformer. The DC-link is modeled as a
big capacitor with voltage source and 2 choppers for over-voltage protection. A critical aspect of
the parallel bridge induction motor drive of 0 is the individual firing delay between parallel IGBT,
which can cause huge current spikes in the interphase transformer [13]. The Advanced Time-
Stamped Bridge model allows the variation of individual IGBT characteristics and the study of this
effect in real-time.

Parallel IGBT-bridge induction motor drive
System configuration
Hardware enclosure HILBox
Software modules RT-EVENTS
Additional models N/A
Package C11Q-1

External Controller
6
Induction
Motor
interphase
transformer
DC-Link model
IGBT inverters
+
D
C
-
L
i
n
k
v
o
l
t
a
g
e
C
h
o
p
p
e
r

g
a
t
e
s
i
g
n
a
l
s
I
G
B
T

b
r
i
d
g
e
g
a
t
e

p
u
l
s
e
s
M
o
t
o
r

c
u
r
r
e
n
t
s
M
o
t
o
r

s
p
e
e
d
e
n
c
o
d
e
r

s
i
g
n
a
l
s
Vdc
(set point)
Real-time
simulator
6
Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
28
AD-DRIVE-10: Switched-reluctance Motor Drive
Keywords: switched reluctance motor drive
This demo is a model of a 4-phase (8/6), inductancebased, switched-reluctance motor and its
hysteresis drive. The model was created by Opal-RT in collaboration with Texas A&M University,
who developed the (8/6) switched reluctance motor model.

Switch reluctance motor drive
System configuration
Hardware enclosure HILBox
Software modules RT-EVENTS
Additional models Switched reluctance motor model
Package C11Q-1

a a'
b b' c c' d d'
Vdc
+
a
a'
b
b'
c
d
d'
c'
FPU
CPU 2: (Ts= 25 us)
IGBT pulses
u
motor
i
motor
Motor controller
CPU 1: (Ts=25 us)
Drive
Switched Reluctance Motor
Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
29
AD-DRIVE-11: PEM Hydrogen Fuel Cell for a Hybrid Vehicle
Keywords: PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cell model, 10 kHz DC-DC converter, 2-
level PMSM 10 kHz drive
This fuel cell for a hybrid vehicle circuit is depicted in 0. Its composed of battery, a PEM (proton
exchange membrane) detailed fuel-cell model, a 10 kHz, PMSM motor drive, and a 10 kHz, 3-
phase, DC-DC converter. The model, developed by Emmeskay, is a commercially available,
control-oriented model developed in Simulink. This dynamic model simulates the following
thermo-electro-chemical phenomena occurring in a fuel cell: diffusion of gaseous reactants to the
reaction sites, electrochemical reactions, combustion product diffusion from reaction sites, and
heat generation.

PEM-based fuel cell for a hybrid vehicle drive
System configuration
Hardware enclosure HILBox
Software modules RT-EVENTS
Additional models Fuel Cell Stack
Package C11Q-1

Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
30
Mechanical System Applications
Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
31
Drive Motors
Drive Board
AD-DRIVE-15: RT-LAB DriveLab
Keywords: IGBT inverter, Induction motor drive, BLDC motor drive, PMSM Drive, DC motor
drive
RT-LAB DriveLab is a fully integrated electric drive system ideal for teaching, lab experiments
and research in the field of electric machine drive.
In addition to 4 types of motors and their power electronics drive, it comes with control models
made for Simulink and including I/Os; these models are compatible with and are easily
implemented on RT-LAB real-time PC-based system, for rapidly controlling the motors.
The system has been specially designed to be simple and robust for use in educational
laboratories but is sufficiently open to allow professor or students to expand the system to their
requirements, and to develop new control strategies and test them on this drive lab platform.







DriveLab motors and drive
board
This teaching and research tool kit includes:
Choice of 4 motors: Permanent magnet DC generator, Permanent magnet DC motor, 3-
phase permanent magnet brushless motor, 3-phase induction motor
Drive Board: 2 x 6-pulse inverter
Break-out box
RT-LAB software license and QNX Neutrino license
FPGA-based signal I/Os: Analog inputs, analog outputs, digital inputs, digital outputs
Labview graphical user interface - RT-LAB Labview API

System configuration
Hardware enclosure HILBox
Software modules RT-EVENTS
Package C11Q-1

Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
32
Power Grid Applications
Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
33
AD-GRID-01: 48-pulse, GTO-STATCOM-Compensated Power System
Keywords: STATCOM, power system, multi-level converters
This 48-pulse STATCOM is built with four 3-phase, 3-level inverters coupled with 4 phase shifting
transformers introducing a phase shift of +/- 7.5. This power system has 3 buses and 3 power
lines and the STATCOM device is connected to BUS1. The network is also composed of 3 ideal
inductive sources.
The STATCOM is modeled with Opal-RT Time-Stamped Bridges while the rest of the power
system is modeled with SimPowerSystems and ARTEMiS [18].

48-pulse, STATCOM configuration (left) and test power system (right)
The STATCOM network has been simulated on a dual-Xeon-based, shared-memory,RT-LAB
simulator running RT-LAB 7.1 software under the RedHawk Linux operating system. ARTEMiS
and Time-Stamped Bridges reduced by 10 times the real-time speed to below 40 microseconds
compared to SimPowerSystems alone.
Hard-real-time computational speeds on dual-Xeon-based, 2.4 GHz, RT-LAB simulator
SimPowerSystems (with ARTEMiS) network +
Time-Stamped Bridge for STATCOM switches
36 microseconds
SimPowerSystems only 340 microseconds

System configuration
Hardware enclosure HILBox
Software modules RT-EVENTS, ARTEMiS
Additional models N/A
Package D21Q-1
3-level
3-level
3-level
3-level
STATCOM
Controller
BUS1
currents
voltages
VCap
GTO
pulses
48
3 mF
3 mF
500kV 60 Hz
8500 MVA
200 MW
75 km Line
200 km Line
180 km Line
500kV 60 Hz
6500 MVA
500kV 60 Hz
9000 MVA
300 MW
BUS1
BUS2
BUS3
STATCOM
Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
34
AD-GRID-02: Kundur Power System
Keywords: Electromechanical power system stability, multi-machine power grid, dual-core
Opteron simulation
The Kundur power system consists of 2 fully symmetrical areas linked together by two 230 kV
lines of 220 km length. It was specifically designed in [20][21] to study low-frequency
electromechanical oscillations in large interconnected power systems. Despite its small size, it
mimics very closely the behavior of typical systems in actual operation.
The electromagnetic transient type of simulation made in RT-LAB enables the study of fast and
detailed phenomena like single-phase faults in the Kundur network and to observe their effects on
a larger time scale (i.e., on the electromechanical scale, as with inter-area power oscillations).

Kundur power network
This real-time simulation ran on dual-core, dual-Opteron-based RT-LAB simulator with a time
step of 18 microseconds. Task separation was as follows: Area 1 power system on CPU 1; Area
2 power system on CPU2; All controls, CPU 3; Linux OS (TCP/IP) on CPU 4. Each task had a 12-
14-microsecond calculation time.

System configuration
Hardware enclosure HILBox
Software modules ARTEMiS
Additional models DPL
Package E21Q-1

Fault
P= 413MW
Turbine and
excitation controls
Load: 967 MW
Filter and
compensators
25 km line
220 km line
220 km line
25 km line
Load: 1767 MW
power stabiliser
Turbine and
excitation controls
power stabiliser
Turbine and
excitation controls
power stabiliser
Turbine and
excitation controls
power stabiliser
Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
35
AD-GRID-03: Thyristor-based SVC
Keywords: power system compensation, FACTS simulation, TCR, TSC, MOV protection
The real-time simulation of an SVC (static VAR compensator) was made on 2 independent
RT-LAB simulators. The plant part, which includes the main power system source, transformer, a
thyristor controlled reactor, and 3thyristor, switched capacitor banks, was made on a dual-Xeon-
based RT-LAB simulator. The controller part, which includes a PI compensator, synchronization
unit, and thyristor firing pulse units, was made with a Pentium-M-based RT-LAB simulator. Both
simulators were equipped with the necessary I/O to interface to each other: The controller had
analog input to read the power system voltages and digital output to fire the thyristor. The plant
simulator had complimentary I/O (analog output and digital inputs).
The demo implements a special MOV model to demonstrate capacitor protection, and uses
stublines to effectively and accurately decouple each TSC (Thyristor Switched Capacitor) bank,
allowing full precomputation of circuit modes by ARTEMiS.

Thyristor-based SVC
System configuration
Hardware enclosure HILBox
Software modules RT-EVENTS, ARTEMiS
Additional models N/A
Package E21Q-1

735kV
6000 MVA
333MVA
X=15%
To thyristors
TCR
109 Mvar
TSC1
94 Mvar
TSC2
94 Mvar
TSC3
94 Mvar
735 kV 16 kV
Voltage
regulator
Synchro
Reference
voltage
+
-
24
Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
36
AD-GRID-04: HVDC, 12-pulse, 1 GW, Transmission System
Keywords: HVDC simulation, FACTS simulation, fault protection, dual-core dual-CPU
Opteron simulation.
This demo models a 1000 MW (500 kV, 2 kA), HVDC link used to transmit power from a 500 kV,
5000 MVA, 60 Hz network to a 345 kV, 10 000 MVA, 50 Hz network.
The rectifier and the inverter are 12-pulse converters. The rectifier and the inverter are
interconnected through a 300 km distributed parameter line and two 0.5 H smoothing reactors.
The transformer tap changers arent simulated and fixed taps are assumed. The tap factor used
on the primary voltage is 0.90 on rectifier side and 0.96 on inverter side. Reactive power required
by the converters is provided by a set of capacitor banks plus 11th, 13th and high pass filters for
a total of 600 MVAR on each side. Two circuit breakers are used to apply faults on the inverter
AC side and the rectifier DC side.

1000 MW, HVDC, 12-pulse, transmission system
The real-time simulation of this HVDC network on a dual-core, dual-Opteron-based, RT-LAB
simulator achieved a time step of 15 microseconds (with no I/O). Task separation was as follows:
Rectifier power system on CPU 1; Inverter power system on CPU 2; All controls on CPU 3; Linux
OS (TCP/IP) on CPU 4. Each power system task had a 12-microseconds calculation time, while
the controller CPU had a 22-microseconds calculation time (the controller ran at twice the basic
simulation time step).
System configuration
Hardware enclosure HILBox
Software modules RT-EVENTS, ARTEMiS
Additional models DLP, Stubline transformers
Package E21Q-1



12-pulse
thyristor
rectifier
500kV 60 Hz
0.5 H smoothing
reactor (Q=150)
Line (300 km)
345kV 50 Hz
AC filters (600 MVars)
0.5 H smoothing
reactor (Q=150)
AC filters (600 MVars) Inverter
controls &
protection
1200 MVA
Z=0.25 pu
1200 MVA
Z=0.25 pu
Rectifier
controls &
protection
12-pulse
thyristor
inverter
Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
37
AD-GRID-05: 8-Bus 8-Machine HVDC Network
Keywords: Electromechanical stability, Transient analysis, 12-pulse HVDC link, Kundur
network, Alternators with controls and power stabilizers


8-bus, 8 machine, HVDC network
This demo is an 8-bus, 8 machines network with a 12-pulse HVDC link. The network is composed
of two 4-machine Kundur systems connected together with a 12-pulse HVDC links [28].
Each of the two Kundur power systems consists of two fully symmetrical areas linked together by
two 230 kV lines of a 220 km length. An HVDC link rated at 500 MW (500 kV, 1kA) connects
these two Kundur network. A 300 km distributed parameter line connects the two ends of the
HVDC link. The rectifier and the inverter of the HVDC are 12-pulse converters. Other interesting
characteristics are listed next:
- Each machine is a 6 states synchronous machine model.
- Each machine has its own controller and power stabilizer.
- Single/multi-phase faults can be modeled on the system as well as thyristor misfires.
The electromagnetic transient type of simulation made in RT-LAB enables the study of fast and
detailed phenomena like single-phase faults in the Kundur network and observe their effects on a
larger time scale, i.e. on the electromechanical scale, like inter-area power oscillations and HVDC
link controllability. These test results can be observed on the TestDrive interface, a convivial
LabView-based GUI that enables dynamic signal view selection with scripting capabilities.
This complete model runs under RT-LAB on a dual-core dual-CPU Opteron 2.2 GHz PC at a real-
time step size of 40 microseconds.

System configuration
Hardware enclosure HILBox
Software modules ARTEMiS
Additional models DT, DPL, Stubline

Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
38
AD-GRID-06: 10 Wind-Turbine Farm and Power Grid
Keywords: Renewable Energy, Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG), Wind Turbine
Generation System (WTGS)
Ten detailed doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) based WTGS models, containing individual
power electronics component, were connected to a three-section transmission system through a
transformer. Each WTGS had its own distribution transformer connected to the sub-collector bus
(cBx).
To form a high-resolution benchmark for protective device and power electronics controller
design, fault responses of the wind farm was investigated with 50s time-step. During the 100s
simulation, three kinds of grid fault including single-line-to-ground, three-phase, and two-phase-
to-ground were introduced.
Using high fidelity simulation of all doubly-fed generators and power electronic IGBT switching,
this complete model runs under RT-LAB using 6-CPU on a quad-core dual-CPU Xeon 2.2 GHz
PC at a real-time step size of 28 microseconds.

10 Wind-Turbine Farm - 6-CPU configuration
System configuration
Hardware enclosure HILBox
Software modules RT-EVENTS, ARTEMiS
Additional models N/A
Package E
Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
39
AD-GRID-07: Multi-Machine Ship Power Generation
Keywords: Shipborne Power Generation System,
The modeled system, shown in 0, is primarily composed of two generation groups and five
induction machine drive loads interconnected by a DC bus. More specifically, each generation
group includes four ideal sources behind R-L circuits rated 230V at a frequency of 60Hz. The AC
voltage provided by each generator is rectified by a 6-pulse ideal diode rectifier with R-C
snubbers and is isolated using a Yg-Y transformer of unary windings ratio. The diode rectifier that
is used is the SPS Universal bridge model. Stublines are essential for real-time performances as
it produces decoupling of the underlying computational models. In order to lighten the calculation
task of the two CPUs assigned to the generation groups, the system is therefore decoupled by
one stubline at the end of each rectifier.
Every load component is a squirrel cage induction motor, rated 4 HP at 220V and 60 Hz, fed by a
DC/AC converter, isolated with a unary windings ratio Y-D transformer. They are all rotating at
constant speed hence mechanically coupled to an infinite mass. The three-phase, 2-level
inverters are Time-Stamp Bridges from the RTeDrive Blockset and are each gate-controlled by an
RT-Event PWM generator (constant frequency modulation ratio and constant amplitude
modulation ratio).
Short decoupling lines (stublines) simulate the smoothing reactors in order to provide a virtual
separation of the subsystems (each subsystem is assigned to a single CPU). The model
capacitors (C1 to C5) have large values and provide the smoothing and stabilization of the DC
bus voltage.

The model was simulated in real-time at a time step of 20 s on a Dual quad-core PC running
under RT-LAB. Tests have also show the accuracy of the stubline and TSB models at even larger
time step. These tests permit to conclude that a larger time step than 20 s could be used (on a
lower cost 4-core system for example) because the model is still accurate in the 50-70 s time
Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
40
step range.

Shipborne Power Generation System

System configuration
Hardware enclosure HILBox
Software modules RT-EVENTS, ARTEMiS
Additional models N/A
Package E
Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
41
AD-GRID-08: 23 bus Network
Keywords: Transport network, Transient analysis, synchronous machine

This model simulates a 500 kV transport network consisting of 45-distribution lines that supplies
power to 17 loads of 120 MW and 30 MVar. The frequency of the network is 60 Hz. There are
seven 1000 MVA hydraulic generation turbine plant (synchronous machines and regulators)
connected to the network.
eMEGAsim makes possible to see the behaviour of the network when faults occur during
simulation (A to ground, AB to ground, ABC to ground ). It makes also possible to study the
electromagnetic transient when the network lost machines or lines. Instability, islanding and
resonance are some of the phenomenon that can be study and validate with the model.
This transport network represented a typical electric network with loads, generation machines and
distribution lines. It shows the capacity of eMEGAsim to simulate this kind of network in real time
with good performance. This model is separated in 4 CPUs and the step size of each cpu are 58
us on a dual quad core machine running at 2.3 GHz.



23 Bus Network
Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
42
System configuration
Hardware enclosure HILBox
Software modules RT-EVENTS, ARTEMiS
Additional models N/A
Package E
Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
43
AD-GRID-09: 23-bus Network with Offshore Wind Farm
Keywords: Transport network, Transient analysis, synchronous machine, Renewable
Energy, Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG)
This model simulates a 500 kV transport network consisting of 45-distribution lines and supplies power to 17
loads of 120 MW and 30 MVar. The frequency is 60 Hz. There are seven 1000 MVA hydraulic generation
turbine plants (synchronous machines and regulators) connected to the network. A wind farm consisting of
10 wind turbines (double fed induction generator) was connected in the middle of the transport network.
This model represents a typical electric network with loads, generation machines, electronic devices and
distribution lines. The model is distributed across 6 CPUs of a PC equipped with dual quad-core Intel
processors operating at 2.3GHz. Step sizes of CPUs as follows: 58 us for the network (4 CPUs), 120 us for
controls (1 CPU) and 35 us for the wind turbine (1 CPU). eMEGAsim makes it possible to see the effects of
one fault on the network (A to ground, AB to ground, ABC to ground ) and wind farm. It also makes it
possible to see the loss of machines or lines and the consequences for the network and wind farm.

23 - Bus Network with Wind Farm
System configuration
Hardware enclosure HILBox
Software modules RT-EVENTS, ARTEMiS
Package E
Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
44
AD-GRID-10: 35-bus HVAC Network
Keywords: Transport network, Transient analysis, synchronous machine

This model simulates a 500 kV transport network consisting of 35 buses, 67 distribution lines, 8
hydraulic generation turbine plants (synchronous machines and regulators), and 15 loads. The
frequency of the network is 60 Hz.
With eMEGAsim, it is possible to see the behaviour of the network when faults occur during
simulation (A to ground, AB to ground, ABC to ground ). It also makes it possible to study the
electromagnetic transient when the network loses machines or lines. Instability, islanding and
resonance are some of the phenomenon that can be studied and validated with the model.
This transport network represented a typical electric network with loads, generation machines and
distribution lines. It shows the excellent capacity of eMEGAsim to simulate this kind of network in
real-time. This model is separated into 4 CPUs and the minimum step size of each CPU is 46 us
on a dual quad-core machine running at 2.3 GHz.


35-Bus HVAC Network
B16
System Diagram
M35
B35
B34
B33
B30
B29
B32
B31
B19
B21
B20
M20
B14
B15
B18 B17
B11
B12
M11
B13
B28
B9
B27
B25
B26
M10
B5 B6 B7 B8
B4
B3
B2
B1
M1
B24
B23
B22
M24
M23
PLANT
TRANSFORMER
BUS
LOAD
500KVHVAC
M31
B10
B36
Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
45
System configuration
Hardware enclosure HILBox
Software modules RT-EVENTS, ARTEMiS
Additional models N/A
Package E
Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
46
AD-GRID-11: 41-bus HVAC/HVDC Network
Keywords: Transport network, Transient analysis, synchronous machine, HVDC

This model simulates a 500 kV transport network consisting of 41 buses, 70 distribution lines, 11
plants (including hydraulic generation turbine, synchronous machines and regulators), 15 loads,
and 3 HVDC lines. The frequency of the network is 60 Hz.
With eMEGAsim, it is possible to see the behavior of the network when faults of HVAC or/and
HVDC occur during simulation (A to ground, AB to ground, ABC to ground). It also makes it
possible to study the electromagnetic transient when the network loses machines or lines.
Instability, islanding and resonance are some of the phenomenon that can be studied and
validated with the model.
This transport network represented a typical electric network with HVDC, loads, generation
machines and distribution lines. It shows the excellent capacity of eMEGAsim to simulate this
kind of network in real-time. This model is separated into 7 CPUs and the minimum step size of
each CPU is 46 us on a dual quad-core machine running at 2.3 GHz.


35-Bus HVAC Network
B16
B41
HVDC3
B38
System Diagram
M35
B35
B34
B33
B30
B29
B32
B31
B19
B21
B20
M20
B14
B15
B18 B17
B11
B12
M11
B13
B28
B9
B27
B25
B26
M10
B5 B6 B7 B8
B4
B3
B2
B1
M1
B24
B23
B22
M24
M23
B40
PLANT
TRANSFORMER
BUS
LOAD
500KVHVAC
500KVHVDC
RECT/INV
B39
HVDC2
B37
HVDC1
M31
B10
B36
Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
47

System configuration
Hardware enclosure HILBox
Software modules RT-EVENTS, ARTEMiS
Additional models N/A
Package E
Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
48
AD-GRID-12: AC Electric Railway System
Keywords: AC electric railway system, distributed parameter line, PI line model, Transient
analysis

This model simulates an AC electric railway system, which is mainly composed of Scott-
transformers, autotransformers, running rails, protection wires, feeders, messenger wires, and
contact wires. The AC electric railway system is based on single phase 55/27.5 kV. AC feeding
circuits supply electric trains with the electric power through three-phase to two-phase Scott
transformers, feeders, contact wires and rails. Autotransformers are installed approximately at
every 10 km with circuit breakers which connect adjacent up and down tracks at the parallel post.


AC electric railway system (source: [29]])
The system models containing different feeders and the contact wires models, namely the
distributed parameter line (DPL) model, 1-section PI line model, and multi-section PI line model,
were built up for the system transient studies. For the DPL model, the short length of the lines
sets a limitation on the maximum time step, i.e. 33.3us corresponding to the propagation delay of
a 10km line. The PI line model has no such limitation. However, on one hand, the simulation
accuracy of high-frequency transients decreases as the model time step increases. On the other
hand, the calculation time for the PI line model is larger than that of the DPL model and increases
as the number of PI section increases.
This model represents a typical AC electric system with short length lines or cables. It shows the
excellent capacity of eMEGAsim to simulate this kind of system with DPL model or PI line model
in real-time. In real-time simulation of the system, four models, namely 4-CPU DPL model, 2-CPU
DPL model, 2-CPU 1-section PI model, and 2-CPU 2-section PI model, achieved the minimum
step size of 9us, 29us, 34us, 58us respectively on a dual quad-core machine running at 2.3 GHz.
With eMEGAsim, it is possible to study the system steady state and transient during fault
conditions. eMEGAsim and the models would be a powerful tool for the design and planning of
AC electric railway system and other AC electric systems with short length line/cables.

System configuration
Hardware enclosure HILBox
Software modules RT-EVENTS, ARTEMiS
Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
49

Additional models N/A
Package E
Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
50
AD-GRID-13: 60 Hz, 138/230kV HVAC Power System
Keywords: HVAC, distributed parameter line, PI line model, Transient analysis

This 60 Hz, 138/230kV HVAC power system model is an 86-bus electrical network. Its 86
transmission lines supply power to a total of 23 loads, rated at 413 MVA (403 MW, 91MVAR)
each. Nine ideal voltage sources with lumped equivalent impedance are representing the
generators. Full machine dynamics can easily be added.
Distributed parameters line models are used for the representation of long lines. As in the
following equation, this type of lines transport delay (in seconds) is defined by:

where d is the line length in km, L is the line inductance in H/km and C is the line capacitance in
F/km. Since its transport delay is proportional to its line length, the distributed parameters line can
only be accurately simulated with very small sampling times for very small lengths. PI section
models have to be used for the representation of smaller lines for real-time simulation using
practical fixed-time step within 10 to 50 microseconds to achieve hard real-time performance. In
the studied network, some lines were sectionalized into multiple short parts for the study of faults
at various locations. Sixty (60) three-phase PI section lines with self and mutual impedance
representation and 26 distributed parameter lines were used. All line sections with a length of 20
km and shorter were simulated using PI sections to achieve a time step of 50 s. The shortest
line length is 0.85 km.

60 Hz, 138/230kV HVAC power system model
The model was separated for the parallelization of the computation tasks on 7 processor cores of
an 8-core processor eMEGAsim target computer. Most of the system separation was done using
optimized distributed parameter lines from the eMEGAsims ARTEMiS toolbox. As they are long
lines, their intrinsic delay permits reliable distribution without affecting the dynamic property of the
system.


LC d = t
System configuration
Hardware enclosure Dual Intel Core 2 Quad Processors with a clock speed of 2.3
GHz and 2 GB RAM
Software modules ARTEMiS
Number of CPUs 8 (7 used)
Time Step 50 microseconds
Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
51
AD-GRID-14: Small Network Model with Multiple Test Sequencing
Keywords: distributed parameter line, PI line model, Transient analysis, Automated Fault
Sequencing

This model simulates a 2 bus 154 kV, 50Hz transmission system. It has 2 parallel transmission
lines (4 half-lines in total), modeled using ARTEMiS Distributed Parameter Lines. It has a total of
5 current breakers, one on the main of the generation side bus and one on each line side. A total
of 7 fault positions were implemented to conduct multiple tests on the model.

2 bus 154 kV, 50Hz transmission system model
A large number of tests can be pre-programmed and run several times using Python scripts. The
Automated Fault Sequencer synchronizes on the positive zero crossing of Phase-A voltage as
measured from BUS1 (generator side). After zero crossing, the fault is started at t =
fault_starttimes, a parameter set via the Python script. The fault lasts for t = fault_duration, which
is also a variable set via Python script. Then, the waveforms are acquired from synchronization to
time t = acquisition_time. Waveform data is then saved in MATLAB .MAT format for future
analysis. This can then be used to conduct statistical studies such as Monte Carlo-style power
system studies.
A custom Interface was built using the RT-LAB TestDrive GUI. TestDrive has an interface based
on LabVIEW software from National Instruments and can also be scripted using Python.
TestDrive uses the LabVIEW runtime engine, enables users to build on-the-fly LabVIEW displays
and control panels by virtually wiring real-time simulation signals to graphical displays. TestDrive
also has built-in display triggering capability that enables the display of complex waveforms in
real-time and the synchronization of those waveforms to specific events like a fault or control
signal step.

System configuration
Hardware enclosure Dual Intel Core 2 Quad Processors with a clock speed of 2.3
GHz and 2 GB RAM
Software modules ARTEMiS, Python API, TestDrive GUI
Number of CPUs 1
Time Step 50 microseconds
Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
52
AD-GRID-15: Bipolar HVDC System

Keywords: Bipolar HVDC simulation, FACTS simulation, 12-pulse thyristor converters





This demo models a detailed bipolar HVDC system. A 1000 MW (500 kV, 1kA per pole) DC link
is used to transmit power from a 500 kV, 5000 MVA, 60 Hz network (SCR of 5) to a 345 kV, 10
000 MVA, 50 Hz network (SCR of 10).
The rectifiers and the inverters are composed of one (1) 12-pulse converter per pole. The
rectifiers and the inverters are interconnected through 300 km distributed parameter lines and two
0.5 H smoothing reactors. The reactive power required by the converters is provided by a set of
capacitor banks plus 11th, 13th and high pass filters for a total of 600 MVAR on each side. Two
circuit breakers are used to apply faults on the inverter AC side and rectifier DC side.
On the inverter side, a resonant RLC circuit is included to study controller interaction. This circuit
is modeled without SPS so the inverter-side grid impedance Z, defined by short-circuit power,
resonance frequency and damping, is continuously adjustable during run-time.

System Configuration
Hardware enclosure Dual Intel

Core
TM
2 Quad Processors with a clock speed of 2.3GHz and 2 GB
RAM
Software modules ARTEMiS
Number of CPUs 3
Time Step 50 microseconds



CPU3: Tc = 17 s
CPU1:
Tc = 30 s
CPU3: Tc = 16 s
Image adapted from:
S.A. Zidi, S. Hadjeri, M. K. Fellah, "The performance analysis
of an HVDC link", Electronic Journal <Technical Acoustics>,
November 2004
Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
53
AD-GRID-16: First CIGRE Benchmark for HVDC control studies
Keywords: HVDC simulation, FACTS simulation, 12-pulse thyristor converters, weak AC
systems

This demo models the first CIGRE benchmark for HVDC link protection studies rated at 1000 MW
with a DC voltage of 500 kV and a DC current of 2 kA. The monopolar DC-link is modeled as a
back-to-back link with a smoothing reactor on each side and a capacitor in the middle. Tap
changers are not simulated and fixed taps are assumed. Both AC systems are modeled with a
short-circuit ratio (SCR) of 2.5, which is considered as a weak AC system. This condition makes
the AC systems voltage stability harder and thus, the HVDC controls more difficult because they
are bound to operate near the stability margin. The benchmark is also defined in a way that
creates composite resonances between the AC and the DC system, also creating tough
conditions for HVDC controls. Two circuit breakers are used to apply faults on the inverter AC
side and the rectifier DC side.





System Configuration
Hardware enclosure Dual Intel

Core
TM
2 Quad Processors with a clock speed of 2.3GHz and 2 GB
RAM
Software modules ARTEMiS
Number of CPUs 1
Time Step 50 microseconds


Image taken from :
M. Szechtman, T. Wess, C.V. Thio, "First Benchmark Model
for HVDC Control Studies", Electra, No. 135, April 1991.
345kV,50Hz
CIGRE Benchmark equivalent network
CIGRE
Inverter
Filters
CIGRE
Rectifier
Filters
230kV,50Hz
CIGRE Benchmark equivalent network
12 pulse
thyristor
rectifier
12 pulse
thyristor
inverter
Rectifier
controls &
protection
Inverter
controls &
protection
1 CPU: Tc = 29 s
Image taken from:
M. Szechtman, T. Wess, C. V. Thio, "First Benchmark Model for
HVDC Control Studies", Electra, No. 135, April 1991
Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
54
AD-GRID-17: Multi-terminal HVDC System
Keywords: HVDC simulation, 12-pulse thyristor rectifier, FACTS simulation

This demo models a multi-terminal HVDC system. It includes eight 12-pulse valve groups with
converter transformers, smoothing reactors and generic controls. There are three HVDC
converter stations. One station has four 12-pulse valve groups (two bi-polar in parallel), and the
other two stations have 2 12-pulse valve groups (one bi-polar) each. In each station, there are 15
3-phase AC filter sub-banks on the AC side and eight branches of filter banks on the DC sides
(four at positive pole and four at negative pole) with breakers. The AC filter sub-banks are tuned
to filter harmonics of 11
th
, 13
th
, and above 24
th
, and gives 15 tiers of VAR compensation. In each
station, there are two simplified SVCs (Static Var Compensator), six synchronous generators
along with their controls, and a grid source (represented by ideal source via an impedance), are
connected to the AC systems.





System Configuration
Hardware enclosure Dual IntelCoreTM 2 Quad Processors with a clock speed of 2.3GHz and 2 GB
RAM
Software modules ARTEMiS
Number of CPUs 7
Time Step 50 microseconds and 100us for controller

Line (300km)
Line (300km)
0.5H smoothing
reactor
0.5H smoothing
reactor
0.5H
smoothing
reactor
0.5H smoothing
reactor
0.5H smoothing
reactor
Line (300km)
Line (300km)
A
C

F
i
l
t
e
r
(
3
0
0
M
V
a
r
)
A
C

F
i
l
t
e
r
(
3
0
0
M
V
a
r
)
SVC Group
& Controls
SVC Group
& Controls
A
C

F
i
l
t
e
r
(
3
0
0
M
V
a
r
)
HVDC Controls
& Protections
0.5H smoothing
reactor
Generator
group
Generator
group
Generator
group
12 pulse
thyristor
inverter
12 pulse
thyristor
rectifier
12 pulse
thyristor
rectifier
12 pulse
thyristor
rectifier
CPU5: Tc = 35 s
CPU6: Tc = 35 s
CPU7: Tc = 22 s
CPU4: Tc = 40 s
CPU2: Tc = 40 s
CPU3: Tc = 40 s
CPU1: Tc = 20 s
Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
55
AD-GRID-18: Train-traction model
Keywords: 2-level Inverter, DC-Link Fault, deadtime
This demo models a Train Traction Drive System, with two separate identical DC systems. To
achieve hard-real-time simulation the rectifier and inverter were modeled with RT-EVENTS Time-
Stamped Bridges and ARTEMiS. The VSC-based 2-arm rectifiers providing the DC voltage (1500
V rating) to each link are AC-fed by a single-phase Catenary Panto rated 25 kV, 50 Hz, through a
double secondary traction transducer. The two DC links are parallel connected through diodes, to
a simple RL load. Each DC-link has a filter tuned at 100 Hz (2
nd
harmonic). The drive systems
(one on each DC-link) consist in two (2) sets of two (2) asynchronous motors, with each set being
fed by 3-arm IGBT inverters. The asynchronous machines are star connected machines, rated
297 kW and 991 Vrms LL. The machines are speed controlled.


This model allows the study and validation of various phenomena, such as DC-Link to ground
fault, three- or single-phase fault at IGBT output, loss of the catenary as well as multiple
contingencies on the gating signals of the IGBT drives.


System Configuration
Hardware enclosure Dual IntelCoreTM 2 Quad Processors with a clock speed of 2.3GHz and 2 GB
RAM
Software modules ARTEMiS, RT-EVENTS
Number of CPUs 2
Time Step 50 microseconds

4
4
25kV
1PH,50Hz
external secondary
impedance of
Transformer
external secondary
impedance of
Transformer
100Hz
filter
100Hz
filter
ASM
ASM
ASM
ASM
Traction
Motor 1
Traction
Motor 4
Traction
Motor 3
Traction
Motor 2
6
6
Load
smoothing
inductor
smoothing
inductor
1500 VDC
Bus
1500 VDC
Bus
Control for
Inverter
Control for
Rectifier
CPU2: Tc = 18 s CPU2: Tc = 22 s
Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
56
AD-GRID-19: 3-level, 72-pulse STATCOM
Keywords: Multi-level converters, Multi-pulse converters, STATCOM, FACTS
This model is a 3-level STATCOM with 72 switches for the voltage stabilization of a 77 kV bus. A
multi-pulse transformer allowing for a three-phase to 18-phases AC system is interfacing the
FACTS system to the grid. A relatively low frequency PWM switching algorithm is applied (300 Hz
carrier frequency) to reduce switching losses in the STATCOM. However, the multi-pulse
topology with six (6) 3-level bridges allows for characteristic harmonics elimination as each bridge
carrier signals are interlaced with a phase shift of 1/6 of the carrier period.

Figure 1. A simplified STATCOM schematic (72-switch).

System Configuration
Hardware enclosure Dual IntelCoreTM 2 Quad Processors with a clock speed of 2.3GHz and 2 GB
RAM
Software modules RT-EVENTS
Number of CPUs 1
Time Step 50 microseconds


Inspired from Operating
performance of the
STATCOM in the Kanzaki
substation, CIGRE 2005,
by H. Yonezawa, et al.
1 CPU: Tc = 36 s
Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
57
AD-GRID-20: Thyristor Controller Series Capacitor test system
Keywords: power system compensation, FACTS, simulation, TCR, TCSC, power transfer
improvement

This demo models a Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor placed on a 500kV, long transmission
line, to improve power transfer. The TCSC consists of a fixed capacitor and a parallel Thyristor
Controlled Reactor (TCR) in each phase. When the TCSC is bypassed, the power transfer is
around 110MW. The test system is as described in [32].

The effects of operating the TCSC in capacitive, inductive or manual alpha modes can be
analyzed. The effects of varying the reference impedance on the power transfer can also be
viewed. In the capacitive mode the range for impedance can be varied from 120 to 136 Ohm.
This range corresponds to approximately 490 to 830MW power transfer range (100%-110%
compensation). When compared with the power transfer possible of 110 MW with an
uncompensated line, the TCSC enables significant improvement in power transfer level. In the
inductive and alpha modes the range for impedance can be varied from 19 to 60 Ohm to see that
the power transfer ranges varies from 100 to 85 MW.

TCSC Test System

TCSC
control
system
TCR pulses V
TCSC
I
ABC
Z
REF
Control Mode
Line
Firing Unit
AC system 2 AC system 1
TCSC
System configuration
Hardware enclosure Dual Intel Core 2 Quad Processors with a clock speed of 2.3
GHz and 2 GB RAM
Software modules ARTEMiS,
Number of CPUs 1
Time Step 50 microseconds
Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
58
AD-GRID-21: 330-bus HVAC Network
Keywords: Transmission network, Transient analysis, synchronous machine, multi-target
simulation

Introduction
This model demonstrates the capability of eMEGAsim to simulate large-scale power systems in
real-time across multiple targets. A large 500 kV transmission network consisting of 330 3-phase
buses is modeled and simulated.
Model description
The power system in this model is a 500 kV 60Hz network, consisting of 330 3-phase buses, 517
transmission lines (ARTEMiS distributed parameter line model), 42 generation plants and one
swing bus, and 90 loads. Each plant is simulated as one combined synchronous machine (SM)
with turbine and governor, excitation system, and power system stabilizer, connected to grid
through a 3-phase 2-winding step-up transformer. The swing bus is simulated as an ideal voltage
source connected to the bus through equivalent impedance. In each load bus, the load is
simulated as a combined load of three-phase series RLC.
This entire system is decoupled into 18 zones and each zone is simulated on one subsystem. All
generator controllers are simulated in a separate control subsystem. In real time, the 19
subsystems are simulated on 19 CPUs across 3 eMEGAsim targets. Signals are communicated
between the targets through the use of a low-latency Dolphin PCIexpress connection.
Phenomena
This model can be used to study typical power system phenomena of steady state and
electromechanical/electromagnetic transients. Four types of fault, namely bus grounding, line
grounding, line open, and generator loss, can be applied to the system. For different faults, one-,
two-, or three-phase fault can be selected. Other phenomena, such as system stability, islanding,
and resonance, can be studied and validated with this model.

System information
Num. of CPU/Target CPU type Min. step size Software modules Package
19 / 3
2 Quad-Core
Intel Xeon 2.33GHz
51 us ARTEMiS, RT-LAB E1 Series

Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
59




Figure 1. 330-Bus 500kV Network




System Diagram
2B6
3M15
3B15
3B14
3B13
3B10
3B9
3B12
3B11
2B9
2B11 2B10
2M10
2B4
2B5
2B8 2B7
2B1
2B2
2M1
2B3
3B8
1B9
3B7
3B5
3B6
1M10
1B5 1B6 1B7 1B8
1B4
1B3
1B2
1B1
1M1
3B4
3B3
3B2
3M4
3M3
3M11
1B10
1B11 1B12
1B13
1B16
2B12
1B15 1B14
2B13
2B14
2B15
2B16
3B1
3B16
PLANT
TRANSFORMER
BUS
LOAD
500KVHVAC
5B6
6B9
5B9
5B11 5B10
5M10
5B4
5B5
5B8 5B7
5B1
5B2
5M1
5B3
6B8
4B9
6B7
6B5
6B6
4M10
4B5 4B6 4B7 4B8
4B4
4B3
4B2
4B1
4M1
6B4
6B3
6B2
6M4
6M3
4B10
4B11 4B12
4B13
4B16
5B12
4B15 4B14
5B13
5B14
5B15
5B16
6B1
6B15
6B14
6B13 6B12 6B11
6M11
6B16
6B10
8B6
9M15
9B15
9B14
9B13
9B10
9B9
9B12
9B11
8B9
8B11 8B10
8M10
8B4
8B5
8B8 8B7
8B1
8B2
8M1
8B3
9B8
7B9
9B7
9B5
9B6
7M10
7B5 7B6 7B7 7B8
7B4
7B3
7B2
7B1
7M1
9B4
9B3
9B2
9M4
9M3
9M11
7B10
7B11 7B12
7B13
7B16
8B12
7B15 7B14
8B13
8B14
8B15
8B16
9B1
9B16
11B6
12B9
11B9
11B11 11B10
11M10
11B
4
11B5
11B8 11B7
11B1
11B2
11M1
11B3
12B8
10B9
12B7
12B5
12B6
10M10
10B5 10B6 10B7 10B8
10B4
10B3
10B2
10B1
10M1
12B4
12B3
12B2
12M4
12M3
10B10
10B11 10B12
10B13
10B16
11B12
10B15 10B14
11B13
11B14
11B15
11B16
12B1
12B15
12B14
12B13
12B12 12B11
12M11
12B16
12B10
14B6
15B15
15B14
15B13
15B10
15B9
15B12
15B11
14B9
14B11 14B10
14M10
14B4
14B5
14B8 14B7
14B1
14B2
14M1
14B3
15B8
13B9
15B7
15B5
15B6
13M10
13B5 13B6 13B7 13B8
13B4
13B3
13B2
13B1
13M1
15B4
15B3
15B2
15M4
15M3
15M11
13B10
13B11 13B12
13B13
13B16
14B12
13B15 13B14
14B13
14B14
14B15
14B16
15B1
15B16
17B6
18B9 17B9
17B11 17B10
17M10
17B4
17B5
17B8 17B7
17B1
17B2
17M1
17B3
18B8
16B9
18B7
18B5
18B6
16M10
16B5 16B6 16B7 16B8
16B4
16B3
16B2
16B1
16M1
18B4
18B3
18B2
18M4
18M3
16B10
16B11 16B12
16B13
16B16
17B12
16B15 16B14
17B13
17B14
17B15
17B16
18B1
18B15
18B14
18B13
18B12 18B11
18M11
18B16
18B10
Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
60
AD-GRID 22: 7-Three-Phase Bus Transmission and Distribution System




This model simulates a 230-kV, 60 Hz transmission system consisting of
- 7 3-phase busses.
- 4- Lines with a fault point (7 half-lines in total).
- 2 fixed impedance loads of 40 MW each.
- 4 100-MVA hydraulic generation plant (detailed synchronous machine models with turbines and all
regulators).
- 6 transformers.
- 1 ideal source.
- 17 three-phase breakers (including 3 breakers to simulate the faults).

REAL TIME SIMULATION PERFORMANCE

This real time simulation ran on a dual-Xeon-based, 3.33 GHz and RT-LAB simulator with a time step of 25s.
The overall system was run using only one CPU core out of 12 processor cores available. The processors
allocation and Real-Time Performance are summarized in Table below.

CPUs Descriptions Components Content Model Calculation Time Minimum
time step
Acceleration
factor
CPU 1: (25 s)
SM_Transmission
(complete system of Figure 1)
15 s 22 s 70


Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
61
AD-GRID 23: 6-Three-Phase Bus Transmission and Distribution System




This model simulates a 230-kV, 60 Hz transmission system consisting of
- 6 3-phase busses.
- 3- Lines with a fault point (6 half-lines in total).
- 2 100-MVA hydraulic generation plant (detailed synchronous machine models with turbines and all
regulators).
- 4 transformers.
- 1 ideal source.
- 9 three-phase breakers (including 3 breakers to simulate the faults).

REAL TIME SIMULATION PERFORMANCE

This real time simulation ran on a dual-Xeon-based, 3.33 GHz and RT-LAB simulator with a time step of 20s.
The overall system was run using only one CPU core out of 12 processor cores available. The processors
allocation and Real-Time Performance are summarized in Table below.

CPUs Descriptions Components Content Model Calculation Time Minimum
time step
Acceleration
factor
CPU 1: (20 s)
SM_Transmission
(complete system of Figure 1)
8 s 12 s 33




Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
62
AD-GRID 24: 8- Bus, 2 mutually coupled transmission lines, 6-machines Transmission and
Distribution System



This model simulates a 230-kV, 60 Hz transmission system consisting of
- 8-3-phase busses.
- 2- Lines with a fault point (2* 2- lines mutually coupled).
- 5-100-MVA hydraulic generation plant (detailed synchronous machine models with turbines and all
regulators).
- 1-120-MVA hydraulic generation plant (detailed synchronous machine models with turbines and all
regulators).
- 6 - transformers.
- 7- tree-phase breakers (including 2 breakers to simulate the faults).
- 1-Three phase resistive load

REAL TIME SIMULATION PERFORMANCE
This real time simulation ran on a dual-Xeon-based, 3.33 GHz and RT-LAB simulator with a time step of 30s.
The overall system was run using only one CPU core out of 12 processor cores available. The processors
allocation and Real-Time Performance are summarized in Table below.

CPUs Descriptions Components Content Model Calculation Time Minimum
time step
Acceleration
factor
CPU 1: (30 s)
SM_Transmission
(complete system of Figure 1)
16 s 27 s 66

Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
63
AD-GRID 25: 8- Bus, 6-machines Transmission and Distribution System



This model simulates a 230-kV, 60 Hz transmission system consisting of
- 8-3-phase busses.
- 3- lines with a fault point (6-half lines in total).
- 4-100-MVA hydraulic generation plant (detailed synchronous machine models with turbines and all
regulators).
- 1-120-MVA hydraulic generation plant (detailed synchronous machine models with turbines and all
regulators).
- 5 - Transformers.
- 10- tree-phase breakers (including 6 breakers to simulate the faults).
- 1-Three phase 100MW resistive load

REAL TIME SIMULATION PERFORMANCE
This real time simulation ran on a dual-Xeon-based, 3.33 GHz and RT-LAB simulator with a time step of 35s.
The overall system was run using only one CPU core out of 12 processor cores available. The processors
allocation and Real-Time Performance are summarized in Table below.

CPUs Descriptions Components Content Model Calculation Time Minimum
time step
Acceleration
factor
CPU 1: (35 s)
SM_Transmission
(complete system of Figure 1)
18 30 66






Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
64
AD-GRID 26: 16- Bus, 3-machines Transmission and Distribution System




This model simulates a 230-kV, 60 Hz transmission system consisting of
- 16-3-phase busses.
- 9- Lines including one mutually coupled line and one line with a fault point.
- 3-100-MVA hydraulic generation plant (detailed synchronous machine models with turbines and all
regulators).
- 2 Ideal sources
- 4 - Transformers.
- 5- three-phase breakers (including 1 breaker to simulate the faults).
- 4-Three phase 20MW resistive load

REAL TIME SIMULATION PERFORMANCE
This real time simulation ran on a dual-Xeon-based, 3.33 GHz and RT-LAB simulator with a time step of 30s.
The overall system was run using only one CPU core out of 12 processor cores available. The processors
allocation and Real-Time Performance are summarized in Table 1.

CPUs Descriptions Components Content Model Calculation Time Minimum
time step
Acceleration
factor
CPU 1: (30 s)
SM_Transmission
(complete system of Figure 1)
20 27 51


Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
65
References
[1] RT-LAB 8.1, Opal-RT Technologies inc., 1751 Richardson, bureau 2525, Montral, Qc, H3K 1G6 www.opal-rt.com
[2] S. Abourida, C. Dufour, J. Blanger, Real-Time and Hardware-In-The-Loop Simulation of Electric Drives and Power
Electronics: Process, problems and solutions, Proceedings of the International Power Electronics Conference Niigata
(IPEC-Niigata 2005), 2005
[3] C. Dufour, J. Blanger, T. Ishikawa, K. Uemura, Advances in Real-Time Simulation of Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles,
Proceedings of 21st Electric Vehicle Symposium (EVS-21), Monte Carlo, Monaco, April 2-6 2005
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[7] C. Dufour, S. Abourida, J. Belanger, Real-Time Simulation of Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Drives, Proceedings of the
2003 Global Powertrain Congress (GPC-03), Sept. 23-25, 2003, Ann Harbor, MI, USA.
[8] M. Harakawa, H. Yamasaki, T. Nagano, S. Abourida, C. Dufour and J. Blanger, Real-Time Simulation of a Complete PMSM
Drive at 10 us Time Step, Proceedings of the 2005 International Power Electronics Conference (IPEC 2005) April 4-8, 2005
, Niigata, Japan.
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Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE-2005), Dresden, Sept. 11-14, 2005
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using RT-LAB, Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Power Systems Transients (IPST-05), June 19-23, 2005,
Montral, QC, Canada.
[11] C. Dufour, J. Blanger, A Real-Time Simulator for Doubly Fed Induction Generator based Wind Turbine Applications,
Proceedings of IEEE 35th Power Electronics Specialists Conference (PESC 2004), Aachen, Germany, June 20-25, 2004
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Proceedings of the 11th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (EPE-PEMC 2004), Sept. 2-4 2004,
Riga, Latvia
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of the 10th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE-2003), Toulouse, Sept. 2-4, 2003.
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an Induction Motor, Proceedings of Electrimacs, 2002, Montreal, Canada.
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drives, Proceedings of the IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2002.
[16] C. Dufour, J. Blanger, S.Abourida, Accurate Simulation of a 6-pulse Inverter with Real Time Event Compensation in
ARTEMiS, Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Modeling and Simulation of Electrical Machine, Converters
and Systems, (ELECTRIMACS 2002), Montreal, Canada, August 2002
[17] C. Dufour, J. Blanger, Discrete Time Compensation of Switching Events for Accurate Real-Time Simulation of Power
Systems, Proceedings of the 27th IEEE Industrial Electronics Society Conference (IECON'01), Nov 29-Dec 2 2001, Denver,
Colorado, USA
[18] C. Dufour, J. Blanger, S.Abourida, Real-Time Simulation of Onboard Generation and Distribution Power Systems,
Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Modeling and Simulation of electrical Machine, Converters and Systems,
(ELECTRIMACS 2005), April 17-20, 2005, Hammamet, Tunisia
Opal-RT Technologies Inc. Product Information & Simulation Applications
66
[19] C.A. Rabbath, M. Abdoune, J. Belanger, Effective real-time simulations of event-based systems, Proceedings of the 2000
Winter Simulation Conference.
[20] P. Kundur, Power System Stability and Control, McGraw-Hill, 1994, Example 12.6, p. 813
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[22] C. Dufour, S. Abourida, J. Blanger,V. Lapointe, Real-Time Simulation of Permanent Magnet Motor Drive on FPGA Chip for
High-Bandwidth Controller Tests and Validation, 32nd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society(IECON-
06),, Paris, France, November 7-10, 2006.
[23] C. Dufour, S. Abourida, J. Blanger,V. Lapointe, InfiniBand-Based Real-Time Simulation of HVDC, STATCOM, and SVC
Devices with Commercial-Off-The-Shelf PCs and FPGAs, 32nd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society
(IECON-06), Paris, France, November 7-10, 2006
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Motor Drives with RT-LAB and JMAG, Proceedings of the EVS-22 Symposium, Yokohama, Japan, October 23-28, 2006.
[25] R. Majumber, B.C. Pal, C. Dufour, P. Korba, Design and Real-Time Implementation of Robust FACTS Controller for
Damping Inter-Area Oscillation, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 809-816, May 2006.
[26] C. Dufour, Deux contributions la problmatique de la simulation numrique en temps rel des rseaux de transport
dnergie (in French), Ph.D. thesis, Laval University, Qubec, Canada, may 2000
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[28] C. Dufour, J.-N. Paquin, V. Lapointe, J. Blanger, L. Schoen, PC-Cluster-Based Real-Time Simulation of an 8 synchronous
machines network with HVDC link using RT-LAB and TestDrive, Paper accepted for the Proceedings of the 7th International
Conference on Power Systems Transients (IPST 2007), Lyon, France, June 2007.
[29] Hanmin Lee, Gildong Kim, Sehchan Oh, Gilsoo Jang, Sae-hyuk Kwon, Fault analysis of Korean electric railway system,
Electric Power Systems Research 76, pp 317 326, 2006
[30] C. Dufour, J. Blanger, S. Abourida, V. Lapointe, FPGA-Based Real-Time Simulation of Finite-Element Analysis Permanent
Magnet Synchronous Machine Drives, Proceeding of the 38th Annual IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference (PESC
07), Orlando, Florida, USA, June 17-21, 2007
[31] C. Dufour, J. Blanger, V. Lapointe, S. Abourida, Real-Time Simulation of Finite-Element Analysis Permanent Magnet
Synchronous Machine Drives on a FPGA card, Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Power Electronics and
Applications (EPE-2007), Aalborg, Danemark, Sept. 2-5, 2007
[32] D.Jovcic, G.N.Pillai "Analytical Modelling of TCSC Dynamics" IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol 20, Issue 2, April
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