Ship Structural Elements

Burak Acar
• Ship’s Structures are unique for a variety of
reasons. For example:
– Ships are BIG!
– Ships see a variety of dynamic and random
– The shape is optimized for reasons other
than loading.
What are they optimized for?
– Ships operate in a wide variety of
Ship Structural Loads
• Up until now we have used Resultant
(single point) Forces through “ G” (∆
) and
“ B” (F
Stern Bow
Recall M=F x D!
• If the beam sags, the top fibers are in
compression and the bottom fibers are in
•Buoyant force is greater at wave crests.
•If the wave crest is at the bow and stern, the
vessel is said to be sagging. The net effect is
that the middle has less support.
Trough Amidships
• If sagging loads get too large...
• Hogging - Buoyancy Support in the Middle
• Sagging - buoyancy support at the ends
The ship in still water. The water supports the ship's weight
evenly along the length. Notice that discontinuities cause stress risers
even in still water -- for example, around the aft expansion joint
(look at the area of lighter blue).
The ship would have been at when the first three compartments
flooded. This imbalance between the weight and buoyancy causes
the bow to droop downward . Stresses in the bow are generally higher
than they were in the still condition. Notice that the increase in
stresses around the forward expansion joint causes a light blue peak.
The condition of the ship just before sinking.
The first six compartments are flooded, and the stern has risen
out of the water. This huge imbalance causes severe bending of
the hull in the midship region.
This huge imbalance causes severe bending of the
hull in the midship region. This large red area surrounds
the aft expansion joint, while a smaller red area occurs
around the forward expansion joint. During the sinking,
the forward expansion joint opened up sufficiently to
break the two stack stays which crossed it. The hull
broke into three pieces. The middle piece was a 60-foot
long section centered about the aft expansion joint. This
matches the location of the large red area in the image.
Along with the remaining windows and glass, the large gap
in the center of the photo is one of Titanic's two expansion joints.
These joints were a structural addition to accommodate for
mechanical stresses on the ship.
• A ship structure usually consists of a network of
frames and plates.
• Frames consist of large members running both
longitudinally and transversely. Think
“ picture frame.”
– Plating is attached to the frame providing
transverse and longitudinal strength. Think
“ dinner plate.”
• Keel: Longitudinal center plane girder along
ship bottom “ Backbone” .
• Plating: Thin skin which resists the hydrostatic
• Frame: Transverse member from keel to deck.
• Floor: Deep frames from keel to turn of the
• Longitudinals: Parallel to keel on ship
bottom, provide longitudinal strength.
• Stringers: Parallel to keel on sides of
ship, also provide longitudinal strength
• Transverse Framing
– Combats hydrostatic loads
– Consists of closely spaced continuous
frames with widely spaced longitudinals.
– Best for short ships (lengths less than
typical ocean waves: ~ 300ft) and submarines.
– Thick side plating is required.
– Longitudinal strength is relatively low.
• Longitudinal Framing
– Consists of closely spaced longitudinals and
widely spaced web frames.
– Longitudinal framing resists longitudinal
bending stresses.
– Side plating is thin, primarily designed to
keep the water out.
• Double Bottoms
– Double bottoms are two watertight bottoms
with a void (air) space in between.
– They are strong and can withstand the
upward pressure of the sea in addition to
the bending stresses.
– Provide a space for storing fuel oil, fresh
water (not potable), and salt water ballast.
– Withstand U/W damage better, but rust
Double Bottom
Locations and Directions Aboard Ship
Bulkheads and Decks
External Parts of the Hull
Weather Decks
Köprüüstü ve Yaşam Mahalleri
Boru Devreleri
Ambarlar ve Ambar Kapakları
Makine Dairesi
Makine Dairesi
• Thank you for listening...

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