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Frequently Asked Basic Electronics Interview Questions and Answers

1) Expand ECE.
Electronics & Counication En!ineerin!.

") #$at is Electronic%
&$e study and use o' electrical devices t$at operate (y controllin! t$e 'low o' electrons or
ot$er electrically c$ar!ed particles.

)) #$at is counication%
Counication eans trans'errin! a si!nal 'ro t$e transitter w$ic$ passes t$rou!$ a
ediu t$en t$e output is o(tained at t$e receiver. *or)counication says as trans'errin! o'
essa!e 'ro one place to anot$er place called counication.

+) ,i''erent types o' counications% Explain.
Analo! and di!ital counication.
As a tec$nolo!y- analo! is t$e process o' takin! an audio or video si!nal *t$e $uan voice)
and translatin! it into electronic pulses. ,i!ital on t$e ot$er $and is (reakin! t$e si!nal into a
(inary 'orat w$ere t$e audio or video data is represented (y a series o' .1.s and ./.s.
,i!ital si!nals are iune to noise- quality o' transission and reception is !ood-
coponents used in di!ital counication can (e produced wit$ $i!$ precision and power
consuption is also very less w$en copared wit$ analo! si!nals.

0) #$at is en!ineerin!%
&$e application o' science to t$e needs o' $uanity and a pro'ession in w$ic$ a knowled!e o'
t$e at$eatical and natural sciences !ained (y study- experience- and practice is applied
wit$ 1ud!ent to develop ways to use econoically t$e aterials and 'orces o' nature 'or t$e
(ene'it o' ankind.

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2) ,i''erence (etween electronic and electrical.
Electronics work on ,C and wit$ a volta!e ran!e o' 3+4v,C to 5+4v,C. I' t$e electronic
device is plu!!ed into a standard wall outlet- t$ere will (e a trans'orer inside w$ic$ will
convert t$e AC volta!e you are supplyin! to t$e required ,C volta!e needed (y t$e device.
Exaples6 Coputer- radio- &.7- etc...
Electric devices use line volta!e *1"/vAC- "+/vAC- etc...). Electric devices can also (e
desi!ned to operate on ,C sources- (ut will (e at ,C volta!es a(ove +4v. Exaples6 are
incandescent li!$ts- $eaters- 'rid!e- stove- etc...

8) #$at is saplin!%
&$e process o' o(tainin! a set o' saples 'ro a continuous 'unction o' tie x*t) is re'erred
to as saplin!.

4) 9tate saplin! t$eore.
It states t$at- w$ile takin! t$e saples o' a continuous si!nal- it $as to (e taken care t$at t$e
saplin! rate is equal to or !reater t$an twice t$e cut o'' 'requency and t$e iniu
saplin! rate is known as t$e :yquist rate.

;) #$at is cut3o'' 'requency%
&$e 'requency at w$ic$ t$e response is 3)dB wit$ respect to t$e axiu response.

1/) #$at is pass (and%
<ass(and is t$e ran!e o' 'requencies or wavelen!t$s t$at can pass t$rou!$ a 'ilter wit$out
(ein! attenuated.

11) #$at is stop (and%
A stop(and is a (and o' 'requencies- (etween speci'ied liits- in w$ic$ a circuit- suc$ as a
'ilter or telep$one circuit- does not let si!nals t$rou!$- or t$e attenuation is a(ove t$e required
stop(and attenuation level.

1") ,i''erence (etween o(ile and a cell p$one.
&$ere is no di''erence- 1ust lan!ua!e use- w$ic$ di''ers 'ro country to country- so in Britain
it is called a o(ile- and in =9A and 9out$ A'rica and ot$er places a cell p$one.
Even in Europe t$e nae di''ers. &$e >erans call it a .$andy.- w$ic$ in En!lis$ $as
copletely anot$er eanin! as an ad1ective- eanin! use'ul.
In Italy it is called a telo'onino or .little p$one..
&$is di''erence in Britis$ and Aerican En!lis$ is also evident in any ot$er t$in!s we use
every day- like li'ts and elevators- nappies and diapers- pickups and trucks. &$e list !oes on
and on- any student o' En!lis$ $as to decide w$ic$ $e or s$e will use- as t$e de'ault settin!.

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1)) Explain ?F%
?adio 'requency *?F) is a 'requency or rate o' oscillation wit$in t$e ran!e o' a(out ) @A to
)// >@A. &$is ran!e corresponds to 'requency o' alternatin! current electrical si!nals used to
produce and detect radio waves. 9ince ost o' t$is ran!e is (eyond t$e vi(ration rate t$at
ost ec$anical systes can respond to- ?F usually re'ers to oscillations in electrical circuits
or electroa!netic radiation.

1+) #$at is odulation% And w$ere it is utiliAed%
Bodulation is t$e process o' varyin! soe c$aracteristic o' a periodic wave wit$ an external
?adio counication superiposes t$is in'oration (earin! si!nal onto a carrier si!nal.
&$ese $i!$ 'requency carrier si!nals can (e transitted over t$e air easily and are capa(le o'
travellin! lon! distances.
&$e c$aracteristics *aplitude- 'requency- or p$ase) o' t$e carrier si!nal are varied in
accordance wit$ t$e in'oration (earin! si!nal.
Bodulation is utiliAed to send an in'oration (earin! si!nal over lon! distances.

10) #$at is deodulation%
,eodulation is t$e act o' reovin! t$e odulation 'ro an analo! si!nal to !et t$e ori!inal
(ase(and si!nal (ack. ,eodulatin! is necessary (ecause t$e receiver syste receives a
odulated si!nal wit$ speci'ic c$aracteristics and it needs to turn it to (ase3(and.

12) :ae t$e odulation tec$niques.
For Analo! odulation33AB- 99B- FB- <B and 9B
,i!ital odulation33CCD- F9D- A9D- <sk- QAB- B9D- C<B- <<B- &CB- CF,B

18) Explain AB and FB.
AB3Aplitude odulation is a type o' odulation w$ere t$e aplitude o' t$e carrier si!nal
is varied in accordance wit$ t$e in'oration (earin! si!nal.
FB3Frequency odulation is a type o' odulation w$ere t$e 'requency o' t$e carrier si!nal
is varied in accordance wit$ t$e in'oration (earin! si!nal.

14) #$ere do we use AB and FB%
AB is used 'or video si!nals 'or exaple &7. ?an!es 'ro 0)0 to 18/0 k@A.
FB is used 'or audio si!nals 'or exaple ?adio. ?an!es 'ro 44 to 1/4 B@A.

1;) @ow does a o(ile work%

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#$en you talk into a o(ile telep$one it converts t$e sound o' your voice to radio'requency
ener!y *radio waves). &$e radio waves are transitted t$rou!$ t$e air to a near(y (ase
station. &$e (ase station t$en sends t$e call t$rou!$ t$e telep$one network until it reac$es t$e
person you are callin!. #$en you receive a call on your o(ile p$one t$e essa!e travels
t$rou!$ t$e telep$one network until it reac$es a (ase station near to you. &$e (ase station
sends out radio waves- w$ic$ are detected (y your telep$one and converted (ack to speec$.
,ependin! on t$e equipent and t$e operator- t$e 'requency t$at eac$ operator utilises is
;//B@A- 14//B@A or "1//B@A.
&$e o(ile p$one network operates on t$e (asis o' a series o' cells. Eac$ cell requires a radio
(ase station to ena(le it to 'unction.
&$ere are t$ree types o' (ase station and eac$ $as a particular purpose6
1. &$e Bacrocell is t$e lar!est type and provides t$e ain covera!e 'or o(ile p$one
". &$e Bicrocell is used to iprove capacity in areas w$ere deand to ake calls is
$i!$- suc$ as s$oppin! centres.
). &$e <icocell only $as a ran!e o' a 'ew $undred etres and ay (e used to (oost weak
si!nals wit$in lar!e (uildin!s.
Eac$ (ase station can only cope wit$ a certain nu(er o' calls at any one tie. 9o i' deand
exceeds t$e capacity o' a (ase station an additional (ase station is needed.

"/) #$at is a (ase station%
Base station is a radio receiverEtransitter t$at serves as t$e $u( o' t$e local wireless
network- and ay also (e t$e !ateway (etween a wired network and t$e wireless network.

"1) @ow any satellites are required to cover t$e eart$%
) satellites are required to cover t$e entire eart$- w$ic$ is placed at 1"/ de!ree to eac$ ot$er.
&$e li'e span o' t$e satellite is a(out 10 years.

"") #$at is a repeater%
A repeater is an electronic device t$at receives a si!nal and retransits it at a $i!$er level
andEor $i!$er power- or onto t$e ot$er side o' an o(struction- so t$at t$e si!nal can cover
lon!er distances wit$out de!radation.

")) #$at is attenuation%
Attenuation is t$e reduction in aplitude and intensity o' a si!nal. 9i!nals ay attenuate
exponentially (y transission t$rou!$ a ediu- or (y increents calculated in electronic
circuitry or set (y varia(le controls. Attenuation is an iportant property in
telecounications and ultrasound applications (ecause o' its iportance in deterinin!
si!nal stren!t$ as a 'unction o' distance. Attenuation is usually easured in units o' deci(els

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per unit len!t$ o' ediu *dBEc- dBEk- etc) and is represented (y t$e attenuation
coe''icient o' t$e ediu in question.

"+) #$at is ultiplexin!%
Bultiplexin! *known as uxin!) is a ter used to re'er to a processw$ere ultiple analo!
essa!e si!nals or di!ital data streas are co(ined into one si!nal over a s$ared ediu.
&$e ai is to s$are an expensive resource. For exaple- in telecounications- several
p$one calls ay (e trans'erred usin! one wire.

"0) #$at is C,BA- &,BA- F,BA%
Code division ultiple access *C,BA) is a c$annel access et$odutiliAed (y various radio
counication tec$nolo!ies. C,BA eploysspread3spectru tec$nolo!y and a special
codin! sc$ee *w$ere eac$ transitter is assi!ned a code) to allow ultiple users to (e
ultiplexed over t$e sae p$ysical c$annel. By contrast- tie division ultiple
access *&,BA) divides access (y tie- w$ile'requency3division ultiple access *F,BA)
divides it (y'requency.
An analo!y to t$e pro(le o' ultiple access is a roo *c$annel) in w$ic$ people wis$ to
counicate wit$ eac$ ot$er. &o avoid con'usion- people could take turns speakin! *tie
division)- speak at di''erent pitc$es *'requency division)- or speak in di''erent directions
*spatial division). In C,BA- t$ey would speak di''erent lan!ua!es. <eople speakin! t$e sae
lan!ua!e can understand eac$ ot$er- (ut not ot$er people. 9iilarly- in radio C,BA- eac$
!roup o' users is !iven a s$ared code. Bany codes occupy t$e sae c$annel- (ut only users
associated wit$ a particular code can understand eac$ ot$er.

"2) ,i''erence (etween C,BA and >9B.
&$ese are t$e two di''erent eans o' o(ile counication (ein! presently used worldwide.
&$e (asic di''erence lies in t$e Bultiplexin! et$od used in t$e aerial counication i.e.
'ro Bo(ile &ower to your o(ile and vice versa.

C,BA uses Code ,ivision Bultiple Access as t$e nae itsel' indicates- 'or exaple you are
in a $all occupied wit$ nu(er o' people speakin! di''erent lan!ua!e. Fou will 'ind t$at t$e
one lan!ua!e you know will (e $eard (y you and t$e ot$ers will (e treated like noise. In t$e
sae anner eac$ C,BA o(ile counication takes place wit$ a .code. counicatin!
(etween t$e and t$e ot$er end i' one is knowin! t$at code t$en only it can listen to t$e data
(ein! transitted i.e. t$e counication is in t$e coded 'or.

Cn t$e ot$er $and >9B *>lo(al 9yste 'or Bo(ile Counications)uses
narrow(and &,BA- w$ic$ allows ei!$t siultaneous calls on t$e sae radio 'requency.
&,BA works (y dividin! a radio 'requency into tie slots and t$en allocatin! slots to
ultiple calls. In t$is way- a sin!le 'requency can support ultiple- siultaneous data

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"8) #$at is an Apli'ier%
An electronic device or electrical circuit t$at is used to (oost *apli'y) t$e power- volta!e or
current o' an applied si!nal.

"4) #$at is Bark$ausen criteria%
Bark$ausen criteria- wit$out w$ic$ you will not know w$ic$ conditions- are to (e satis'ied
'or oscillations.
GCscillations will not (e sustained i'- at t$e oscillator 'requency- t$e a!nitude o' t$e product
o' t$e trans'er !ain o' t$e apli'ier and t$e a!nitude o' t$e 'eed(ack 'actor o' t$e 'eed(ack
network * t$e a!nitude o' t$e loop !ain ) are less t$an unityH.
&$e condition o' unity loop !ain 3AI J 1 is called t$e Bark$ausencriterion. &$is condition
iplies t$at K AIKJ 1and t$at t$e p$ase o' 3 AI is Aero.

";) Explain Full duplex and $al' duplex.
Full duplex re'ers to t$e transission o' data in two directions siultaneously. For exaple-
a telep$one is a 'ull3duplex device(ecause (ot$ parties can talk at once. In contrast- a walkie3
talkie is a$al'3duplex device (ecause only one party can transit at a tie.
Bost odes $ave a switc$ t$at lets you c$oose (etween 'ull3duplex and $al'3duplex odes.
&$e c$oice depends on w$ic$counications pro!ra you are runnin!.
In 'ull3duplex ode- data you transit does not appear on yourscreen until it $as (een
received and sent (ack (y t$e ot$er party. &$is ena(les you to validate t$at t$e data $as (een
accurately transitted. I' your display screen s$ows two o' eac$ c$aracter- it pro(a(ly eans
t$at your ode is set to $al'3duplex ode w$en it s$ould (e in 'ull3duplex ode.

)/) #$at is a 'eed(ack% And explain di''erent types o' 'eed(ack.
Feed(ack is a process w$ere(y soe proportion o' t$e output si!nal o' a syste is passed
*'ed (ack) to t$e input. &$is is o'ten used to control t$e dynaic (e$aviour o' t$e syste.
&ypes o' 'eed(ack6

:e!ative 'eed(ack6 &$is tends to reduce output *(ut in apli'iers- sta(iliAes and lineariAes
operation). :e!ative 'eed(ack 'eeds part o' a systeLs output- inverted- into t$e systeLs
inputM !enerally wit$ t$e result t$at 'luctuations are attenuated.

<ositive 'eed(ack6 &$is tends to increase output. <ositive 'eed(ack- soeties re'erred to as
.cuulative causation.- is a 'eed(ack loop syste in w$ic$ t$e syste responds
to pertur(ation *Apertur(ation eans a syste- is an alteration o' 'unction- induced (y
external or internal ec$aniss) in t$e sae direction as t$e pertur(ation. In contrast- a

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syste t$at responds to t$e pertur(ation in t$e opposite direction is called a ne!ative
'eed(ack syste.
Bipolar 'eed(ack6 w$ic$ can eit$er increase or decrease output.

)1) Advanta!es o' ne!ative 'eed(ack over positive 'eed(ack.
Buc$ attention $as (een !iven (y researc$ers to ne!ative 'eed(ack processes- (ecause
ne!ative 'eed(ack processes lead systes towards equili(riu states. <ositive 'eed(ack
rein'orces a !iven tendency o' a syste and can lead a syste away 'ro equili(riu states-
possi(ly causin! quite unexpected results.

)") Exaple 'or ne!ative 'eed(ack and positive 'eed(ack.
Exaple 'or Nve 'eed(ack is 333Apli'iers
And 'or 5ve 'eed(ack is N Cscillators

))) #$at is Cscillator%
An oscillator is a circuit t$at creates a wave'or output 'ro a direct current input. &$e two
ain types o' oscillator are $aronic and relaxation. &$e $aronic oscillators $ave soot$
curved wave'ors- w$ile relaxation oscillators $ave wave'ors wit$ s$arp c$an!es.

)+) #$at is a transducer and transponder%
A transducer is a device- usually electrical- electronic- electro3
ec$anical- electroa!netic- p$otonic- or p$otovoltaic t$at converts one type o' ener!y or
p$ysical attri(ute to anot$er 'or various purposes includin! easureent or in'oration
In telecounication- t$e ter transponder *s$ort3'orTransitter3responder and soeties
a((reviated to O<,?- O<:,?- &<,? or &<) $as t$e 'ollowin! eanin!s6
An autoatic device t$at receives- apli'ies- andretransits a si!nal on a
di''erent 'requency *see also(roadcast translator).
An autoatic device t$at transits a predeterined essa!ein response to a
prede'ined received si!nal.
A receiver3transitter t$at will !enerate a reply si!nal upon
proper electronic interro!ation.
A counications satellitePs c$annels are called transponders- (ecause eac$ is a
separate transceiver or repeater.

)0) #$at is an Inte!rated Circuit%

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An inte!rated circuit *IC)- also called a icroc$ip- is an electronic circuit etc$ed onto a
silicon c$ip. &$eir ain advanta!es are low cost- low power- $i!$ per'orance- and very
sall siAe.

)2) #$at is crosstalk%
Crosstalk is a 'or o' inter'erence caused (y si!nals in near(y conductors. &$e ost coon
exaple is $earin! an unwanted conversation on t$e telep$one. Crosstalk can also occur in
radios- televisions- networkin! equipent- and even electric !uitars.

)8) #$at is a recti'ier%
A recti'ier c$an!es alternatin! current into direct current. &$is process is called recti'ication.
&$e t$ree ain types o' recti'ier are t$e $al'3wave- 'ull3wave- and (rid!e. A recti'ier is t$e
opposite o' an inverter- w$ic$ c$an!es direct current into alternatin! current.
@#?3 &$e siplest type is t$e $al'3wave recti'ier- w$ic$ can (e ade wit$ 1ust one diode.
#$en t$e volta!e o' t$e alternatin! current is positive- t$e diode (ecoes 'orward3(iased and
current 'lows t$rou!$ it. #$en t$e volta!e is ne!ative- t$e diode is reverse3(iased and t$e
current stops. &$e result is a clipped copy o' t$e alternatin! current wave'or wit$ only
positive volta!e- and an avera!e volta!e t$at is one t$ird o' t$e peak input volta!e. &$is
pulsatin! direct current is adequate 'or soe coponents- (ut ot$ers require a ore steady
current. &$is requires a 'ull3wave recti'ier t$at can convert (ot$ parts o' t$e cycle to positive
F#?3 &$e 'ull3wave recti'ier is essentially two $al'3wave recti'iers- and can (e ade wit$
two diodes and an eart$ed centre tap on t$e trans'orer. &$e positive volta!e $al' o' t$e
cycle 'lows t$rou!$ one diode- and t$e ne!ative $al' 'lows t$rou!$ t$e ot$er. &$e centre tap
allows t$e circuit to (e copleted (ecause current cannot 'low t$rou!$ t$e ot$er diode. &$e
result is still a pulsatin! direct current (ut wit$ 1ust over $al' t$e input peak volta!e- and
dou(le t$e 'requency.

)4) #$at is resistor%
A resistor is a two3terinal electronic coponent t$at opposes anelectric current (y
producin! a volta!e drop (etween its terinals in proportion to t$e current- t$at is- in
accordance wit$ C$Ls law6 VJ IR.

);) #$at is capacitor%
A capacitor is an electricalEelectronic device t$at can store ener!yin t$e electric 'ield (etween
a pair o' conductors *called .plates.). &$e process o' storin! ener!y in t$e capacitor is known
as .c$ar!in!.- and involves electric c$ar!es o' equal a!nitude- (ut opposite polarity-
(uildin! up on eac$ plate.
Capacitors are o'ten used in electric and electronic circuits asener!y3stora!e devices. &$ey
can also (e used to di''erentiate (etween $i!$3'requency and low3'requency si!nals. &$is
property akes t$e use'ul in electronic 'ilters.

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Capacitors are occasionally re'erred to as condensers. &$is ter is considered arc$aic in
En!lis$- (ut ost ot$er lan!ua!es use aco!nate o' condenser to re'er to a capacitor.

+/) #$at is inductor%
An inductor is a passive electrical device eployed in electrical circuits 'or its property
o' inductance. An inductor can take any 'ors.

+1) #$at is conductor%
A su(stance- (ody- or device t$at readily conducts $eat- electricity- sound- etc. Copper is a
!ood conductor o' electricity.

+") #$at is a sei conductor%
A seiconductor is a solid aterial t$at $as electrical conductivityin (etween t$at o'
a conductor and t$at o' an insulator*AnInsulator is a aterial t$at resists t$e 'low o' electric
current. It is an o(1ect intended to support or separate electrical conductorswit$out passin!
current t$rou!$ itsel')M it can vary over t$at wide ran!e eit$er peranently or dynaically.

+)) #$at is diode%
In electronics- a diode is a two3terinal device. ,iodes $ave two active electrodes (etween
w$ic$ t$e si!nal o' interest ay 'low- and ost are used 'or t$eir unidirectional current

++) #$at is transistor%
In electronics- a transistor is a seiconductor device coonly used to apli'y or
switc$ electronic si!nals. &$e transistor is t$e 'undaental (uildin! (lock o' coputers- and
all ot$er odernelectronic devices. 9oe transistors are packa!ed individually (ut ost are
'ound in inte!rated circuits.

+0) #$at is op3ap%
An operational apli'ier- o'ten called an op3ap - is a ,C3coupled$i!$3!ain electronic
volta!e apli'ier wit$ di''erential inputs
and- usually- a sin!le output. &ypically t$e output
o' t$e op3ap is controlled eit$er (y ne!ative 'eed(ack- w$ic$ lar!ely deterines t$e
a!nitude o' its output volta!e !ain- or (y positive 'eed(ack- w$ic$ 'acilitates re!enerative
!ain and oscillation.

+2) w$at is t$e di''ernce (etween 9C? and diode recti'ier%
ans6 diode is a " terinal device- in scr !ate controls t$e recti'in!.9C? is used in @i!$
'requency applications (ut diode is low 'reuency devices- 9C? can (e in $i!$ teparatures

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(ut not diode.

+8) w$atis intersy(ol inter'erence
ans6In telecounication- intersy(ol inter'erence *I9I) eans a 'or o' distortion o' a
si!nal t$at causes t$e previously transitted sy(ols to $ave an e''ect on t$e currently
received sy(ol. &$is is usually an unwanted p$enoenon as t$e previous sy(ols $ave
siilar e''ect as noise- t$us akin! t$e counication less relia(le. I9I is usually caused (y
ec$oes or non3linear 'requency response o' t$e c$annel. #ays to 'i!$t a!ainst intersy(ol
inter'erence include adaptive equaliAation or error correctin! codes *especially so't3decodin!
wit$ 7iter(i al!orit$).

+4) ,istin!uis$ (etween An!le odulation and Aplitude odulation.
ans6 In aplitude Bodulation as t$e aplitude o' !iven si!nal varies- t$e aplitude o' carrier
si!nal also varies in t$e sae way.
In an!le odulation- t$e 'requency or p$ase ay vary accordin! to t$e aplitude o' !iven

+;) #$at is Biasin!%
ans6 (iasin! is a process o' connectin! dc volta!e to a device (y w$ic$ we can select t$e
operatin! point o' t$e device. (y (iasin! actually we select t$e operatin! point o' t$e device.

0/) #$at do you ean (y A9CII- EBC,IC%
ans6A9CII *Aerican 9tandard Code 'or In'oration Interc$an!e)- is a c$aracter encodin!
(ased on t$e En!lis$ alp$a(et.

EBC,IC *Extended Binary Coded ,ecial Interc$an!e Code) is an 43(it c$aracter encodin!
used on IBB ain'rae operatin! systes

01) #$at do you ean (y ) dB cuto'' 'requency% #$y is it ) dB- not 1 dB%
ans6)d( iplies 8/S*o.8o8) o' t$e power-iLe we r interested to consider t$e (andwidt$ ran!e
'ro peak to 8/S (LcoA uptp 8/S its relia(le.$ence )d( is called as $al' power 'req. )d(
value is t$e ean square value w$ic$ is 8/S o' t$e axiu value.

0") #$at is eant (y pre3ep$asis and de3ep$asis%
. Iprovin! t$e si!nal to noise ratio (y increasin! t$e a!nitude o' $i!$er 'requency si!nals
wit$ respect to lower 'requency si!nals.

. Iprovin! t$e si!nal to noise ratio (y decreasin! t$e a!nitude o' $i!$er 'requency si!nals
wit$ respect to lower 'requency si!nals.

0)) #$at is ?ace3around pro(le% @ow can you recti'y it%
ans6 A condition in lo!ic network in w$ic$ t$e di''erence in propa!ation ties t$rou!$ two or

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ore si!nal pat$s in t$e network can produce an erroneous 1k 'lip 'lop race around
pro(le will occur w$en (ot$ t$e inputs are $i!$. it can (e prevented (y usin! aster slave
1k 'lip 'lop

0+) #$at is t$e (asic di''erence (etween Tatc$es and Flip 'lops%
ans6latc$ works wit$out clock si!nal-(ut works wit$ a control si!nal and it is level tri!!ered
device.w$ereas 'lip 'lop is a 1 (it stora!e eleent and works wit$ a clock si!nal.its a ed!e
tri!!ered device. norally latc$es are avoided and 'lip 'lops are pre'erred.

00) w$at is Bark$ausen Criterion%
1.EABEJ1-i.e. t$e a!nitude o' loop !ain ust (e unity
".t$e total prase s$i't around t$e closed loop is Aero or )2/ de!rees.

02) w$at are active and <assive Coponents%
ans6AC&I7E CCB<C:E:&9 &$e coponents w$ic$ produce t$e ener!y in t$e 'or o'
current or volta!e are called as active coponents.Exaple6transistors etc-.

08) #$at is di''erence (etween Bicroprocessor and Bicrocontroller %
Bicroprocessors !enerally require external coponents to
ipleent pro!ra eory- ra eory and InputEoutput.
IntelLs 4/42- 4/44- and 4/)42 are exaples o' icroprocessors.

Bicro controllers incorporate pro!ra eory- ra eory and
inputEoutput resources internal to t$e c$ip. Bicroc$ipLs pic
series and AtelLs A7? series are exaples o' icro controllers.

04) #$y is Uener ,iode always used in ?everse Bias condition %
#$en (iased in t$e 'orward direction it (e$aves 1ust like a noral si!nal diode passin! t$e
rated current- (ut w$en a reverse volta!e is applied to it t$e reverse saturation current reains
'airly constant over a wide ran!e o' volta!es. &$e reverse volta!e increases until t$e diodes
(reakdown volta!e 7B is reac$ed at w$ic$ point a process called Avalanche
Breakdown occurs in t$e depletion layer and t$e current 'lowin! t$rou!$ t$e Aener diode
increases draatically to t$e axiu circuit value *w$ic$ is usually liited (y a series
resistor). &$is (reakdown volta!e point is called t$e .Aener volta!e. 'or Aener diodes.

0;) ,e'ine Analo! and ,i!ital 9i!nal <rocessin!
Analo! si!nal processin!
Analo! si!nal processin! is 'or si!nals t$at $ave not (een di!itiAed- as in classical radio-
telep$one- radar- and television systes. &$is involves linear electronic circuits suc$
as passive 'ilters- active 'ilters- additive ixers- inte!rators and delay lines. It also involves
non3linear circuits suc$ as copandors- ultiplicators *'requency ixers and volta!e3

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controlled apli'iers)- volta!e3controlled 'ilters-volta!e3controlled oscillators and p$ase3
locked loops.
,iscrete tie si!nal processin!
,iscrete tie si!nal processin! is 'or sapled si!nals t$at are considered as de'ined only at
discrete points in tie- and as suc$ are quantiAed in tie- (ut not in a!nitude.
Analo! discrete3tie si!nal processin! is a tec$nolo!y (ased on electronic devices suc$
as saple and $old circuits- analo! tie3division ultiplexers- analo! delay lines and analo!
'eed(ack s$i't re!isters. &$is tec$nolo!y was a predecessor o' di!ital si!nal processin! *see
(elow)- and is still used in advanced processin! o' !i!a$ertA si!nals.
&$e concept o' discrete3tie si!nal processin! also re'ers to a t$eoretical discipline t$at
esta(lis$es a at$eatical (asis 'or di!ital si!nal processin!- wit$out takin! quantiAation
error into consideration.
2/) #$at is ?9 in ?93")" %
?93")" *?ecoended 9tandard 3 ")") is a telecounications standard 'or (inary serial
counications (etween devices. It supplies t$e roadap 'or t$e way devices speak to eac$
ot$er usin! serial ports. &$e devices are coonly re'erred to as a ,&E *data terinal
equipent) and ,CE *data counications equipent)M 'or exaple-
a coputer and ode- respectively

21)#$at is TenA law %
An induced current is always in suc$ a direction as to oppose t$e otion or c$an!e causin!
it w$enever t$ere is an induced electrootive 'orce *e') in a conductor- it is always in suc$
a direction t$at t$e current it would produce would oppose t$e c$an!e w$ic$ causes t$e
induced e'. I' t$e c$an!e is t$e otion o' a conductor t$rou!$ a a!netic 'ield- t$e induced
current ust (e in suc$ a direction as to produce a 'orce opposin! t$e otion. I' t$e c$an!e
causin! t$e e' is a c$an!e o' 'lux t$readin! a coil- t$e induced current ust produce a 'lux
in suc$ a direction as to oppose t$e c$an!e.

2") #$at is &ransission Frequency o' Bluetoot$- #i3Fi and #i3BAO %
Bluetoot$ uses a radio tec$nolo!y called 'requency3$oppin! spread spectru- w$ic$ c$ops
up t$e data (ein! sent and transits c$unks o' it on up to 8; (ands *1 B@A eac$) in t$e ran!e
"+/"3"+4/ B@A. &$is ran!e is in t$e !lo(ally unlicensed Industrial- 9cienti'ic and Bedical
*I9B) ".+ >@A s$ort3ran!e radio 'requency (and. (etween ".+/" >@A and ".+4/ >@A- to (e
#i3Fi stands 'or #ireless Fidelity. #i3Fi is (ased on t$e IEEE 4/".11 'aily o' standards
and is priarily a local area networkin! *TA:) tec$nolo!y desi!ned to provide in3(uildin!
(road(and covera!e.
#iBAO is an I< (ased- wireless (road(and access tec$nolo!y t$at provides per'orance
siilar to 4/".11E#i3Fi networks wit$ t$e covera!e and QC9 *quality o' service) o' cellular
networks. #iBAO is also an acrony eanin! .#orldwide Interopera(ility 'or Bicrowave
Access *#iBAO).

#iBAO is a wireless di!ital counications syste- also known as IEEE 4/".12- t$at is
intended 'or wireless .etropolitan area networks.. #iBAO can provide (road(and wireless

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access *B#A) up to )/ iles *0/ k) 'or 'ixed stations- and ) 3 1/ iles *0 3 10 k) 'or
o(ile stations. In contrast- t$e #iFiE4/".11 wireless local area network standard is liited
in ost cases to only 1// 3 )// 'eet *)/ 3 1//).

2)) #$at is di''erence (etween <iconet and 9catternet %
A piconet is t$e type o' connection t$at is 'ored (etween two or ore Bluetoot$3ena(led
devices- one device takes t$e role o' LasterL- and all ot$er devices assue a LslaveL role 'or
sync$roniAation reasons.
#$ere as a scatternet is a nu(er o' interconnected piconets t$at supports counication
(etween ore t$an 4 devices. 9catternets can (e 'ored w$en a e(er o' one piconet
*eit$er t$e aster or one o' t$e slaves) elects to participate as a slave in a second- separate

2+) #$at is BooreLs Taw %
&$e prediction (y >ordon Boore *co'ounder o' t$e Intel Corporation) t$at t$e nu(er o'
transistors on a icroprocessor would dou(le periodically *approxiately every 14 ont$s).

20) @ow any satellites coprise t$e ><9 and expand it %
&$e iniu satellites recquired to track your position is t$ree. &$at is w$y it is known as
trian!ulation. Currently- t$ere are )" satellites in t$e ><9 syste. &$e exact nu(er varies
as old satellites 'ail or are retired- and new satellites are sent up to replace t$e.

22) #$at is Ui!Bee and its speci'ications %
Ui!Bee is a low3cost- low3power- wireless es$ networkin! standard. First- t$e low cost
allows t$e tec$nolo!y to (e widely deployed in wireless control and onitorin! applications.
9econd- t$e low power3usa!e allows lon!er li'e wit$ saller (atteries. &$ird- t$e es$
networkin! provides $i!$ relia(ility and ore extensive ran!e. Ui!Bee relies on t$e (asic
4/".10.+ standard to esta(lis$ radio per'orance

28) #$at is F<>A %
A Field3pro!raa(le >ate Array *F<>A) is an inte!rated circuit desi!ned to (e con'i!ured
(y t$e custoer or desi!ner a'ter anu'acturin!V$ence .'ield3pro!raa(le.. Applications
o' F<>As include di!ital si!nal processin!- so'tware3de'ined
radio- aerospace and de'ense systes- A9IC prototypin!- edical ia!in!- coputer
vision- speec$ reco!nition-crypto!rap$y- (ioin'oratics- coputer $ardware eulation- radio
astronoy- etal detection and a !rowin! ran!e o' ot$er areas.

24) #$at is BIBC %
BIBC *ultiple input- ultiple output) is an antenna tec$nolo!y 'or wireless
counications in w$ic$ ultiple antennas are used at (ot$ t$e source *transitter) and t$e
destination *receiver). &$e antennas at eac$ end o' t$e counications circuit are co(ined
to iniiAe errors and optiiAe data speed. BIBC is one o' several 'ors o' sart antenna
tec$nolo!y- t$e ot$ers (ein! BI9C *ultiple input- sin!le output) and 9IBC *sin!le input-
ultiple output)

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2;) #$at is 7CI< %
7oI< *voice over I<) is an I< telep$ony ter 'or a set o' 'acilities used to ana!e t$e delivery
o' voice in'oration over t$e Internet.7oI< involves sendin! voice in'oration in di!ital
'or in discrete packets rat$er t$an (y usin! t$e traditional circuit3coitted protocols o' t$e
pu(lic switc$ed telep$one network *<9&:). A a1or advanta!e o' 7oI< and Internet
telep$ony is t$at it avoids t$e tolls c$ar!ed (y ordinary telep$one service.

8/) Cn w$at principle do &rans'orers work %
A trans'orer is a static device t$at trans'ers electrical ener!y 'ro one circuit to anot$er
t$rou!$ inductively coupled conductorsVt$e trans'orerLs coils. A varyin! current in t$e
'irst or priary windin! creates a varyin! a!netic 'lux in t$e trans'orerLs core and t$us a
varyin! a!netic 'ield t$rou!$ t$esecondary windin!. &$is varyin! a!netic 'ield induces a
varyin! electrootive 'orce *EBF) or .volta!e. in t$e secondary windin!. &$is e''ect is
called utual induction.

81) #$at is E,FA %
Er(iu ,oped Fi(er Apli'ier *E,FA) A device t$at (oosts t$e si!nal in an optical
'i(er. E,FA is an optical repeater device t$at is used to (oost t$e intensity o' optical si!nals
(ein! carried t$rou!$ a 'i(er optic counications syste. An optical 'i(er is doped wit$ t$e
rare eart$ eleent er(iu so t$at t$e !lass 'i(er can a(sor( li!$t at one 'requency and eit
li!$t at anot$er 'requency. An external seiconductor laser couples li!$t into t$e 'i(er at
in'rared wavelen!t$s o' eit$er ;4/ or 1+4/ nanoeters. &$is action excites t$e er(iu atos.
Additional optical si!nals at wavelen!t$s (etween 10)/ and 12"/ nanoeters enter t$e 'i(er
and stiulate t$e excited er(iu atos to eit p$otons at t$e sae wavelen!t$ as t$e
incoin! si!nal. &$is action apli'ies a weak optical si!nal to a $i!$er power- e''ectin! a
(oost in t$e si!nal stren!t$.

8") #$at are di''erent types o' antennas %
An antenna *or aerial) is a transducer t$at transits or receives electroa!netic waves. In
ot$er words- antennas convert electroa!netic radiation intoelectric current- or vice versa.
&$ey are used to transit and receive electroa!netic radiation o' radio 'requency- t$at
is- radio waves- and are a necessary part o' all radio equipent
&$ere are di''erent types o' antennas-t$ey can ainly divided into directional & undirectional
a siply type o' directional antennas6 $elical antenna
a siple type o' undirectional antennas6ya!i & loop antennas

8)) #$at is Fa!i3=da antenna %
,irectional antenna systeconsistin! o' an array o' a dipole and additional closely
coupled parasitic eleents *usually a re'lector and one or ore directors). &$e dipole in t$e
array is driven- and anot$er eleent- typically 0S lon!er- e''ectively operates as a re'lector.
Ct$er parasitic eleents s$orter t$an t$e dipole ay (e added in 'ront o' t$e dipole and are
re'erred to as directors

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8+) w$y t$e input resistance o' an op3ap is $i!$ w$ereas itLs output resistance is low%
Toadin! at t$e input point and to pass t$e axiu output to t$e load is t$e requireent o'
Cp3Ap w$ic$ is a current exc$an!e device 'ro input side to output side.

80) w$at do you understand (y icrowaves% w$y t$ese are called icro
Bicro waves are t$ose waves w$ose wavelen!t$ is less t$an a 'oot*)/ cs) or 'req ran!in!
'ro 1 >@A to 1/// >@A.Because o' t$ere tinyness t$ese are called icro.

82) $ow do icrowave oven works%%
@eart o' icrowave oven is a!natron w$ic$ !enerates 'requency o' appox. ".+ >@A.explain
workin! o' a!natron.

88) #$at is CB??% Explain (rie'ly.
CB?? stands 'or coon ode re1ection ratio. It is a easure o' t$e a(ility o' a test
instruent to re1ect
inter'erence t$at is coon to (ot$ o' its easureent input terinals. It is expressed in
deci(els and it is t$e ratio o' t$e actual or coon si!nal level appearin! on t$e
two input terinals to!et$er to t$e easured level.

84) #$at is eant (y ,3FF% , Flip Flop
&$e , Wip3Wop is t$e ost coon 'lip3'lop in use today. It is (etter known as delay 'lip3'lop
or data latc$.

8;) #$at is t$e (asic di''erence (etween Tatc$es and Flip 'lops%
'lip 'lops are ed!e3tri!!ered devices w$ereas latc$es are level tri!!ered devices.
latc$ does not $ave clock si!nal w$ereas 'lip 'lop does.
Flip 'lop $as two values w$ile latc$ $as only one value.
*Tatc$es do not store in'oration- $ere- a (it)

4/) #$at is a ultiplexer%
A ultiplexer- soeties re'erred to as a .ultiplexor. or siply .ux.- is a device t$at
selects (etween a nu(er o' input si!nals. In its siplest 'or- a ultiplexer will $ave two
si!nal inputs- one control input- and one output.

An everyday exaple o' an analo! ultiplexer is t$e source selection control on a $oe
stereo unit.
Bultiplexers are used in (uildin! di!ital seiconductors suc$ as C<=s and !rap$ics
In t$ese applications- t$e nu(er o' inputs is !enerally a ultiple o' " *"- +- 4- 12- etc.)- t$e
nu(er o' outputs is eit$er 1 or relatively sall ultiple o' "- and t$e nu(er o' control
si!nals is related to t$e co(ined nu(er o' inputs and outputs.

41) #$at do you ean (y an ideal volta!e source%

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In electric circuit t$eory- an ideal volta!e source is a circuit eleent w$ere t$e volta!e across
it is independent o' t$e current t$rou!$ it. 9ources in'inite current to any load wit$out any
c$an!e in oEp volta!e.

4") #$at do you ean (y Aener (reakdown and avalanc$e (reakdown%
Uener (reakdown
In Uener (reakdown t$e electrostatic attraction (etween t$e ne!ative electrons and a lar!e
positive volta!e is so !reat t$at it pulls electrons out o' t$eir covalent (onds and away 'ro
t$eir parent atos. ie Electrons are trans'erred 'ro t$e valence to t$e conduction (and. In
t$is situation t$e current can still (e liited (y t$e liited nu(er o' 'ree electrons produced
(y t$e applied volta!e so it is possi(le to cause Uener (reakdown wit$out daa!in! t$e

Avalanc$e (reakdown
Avalanc$e (reakdown occurs w$en t$e applied volta!e is so lar!e t$at electrons t$at are
pulled 'ro t$eir covalent (onds are accelerated to !reat velocities. &$ese electrons collide
wit$ t$e silicon atos and knock o'' ore electrons. &$ese electrons are t$en also accelerated
and su(sequently collide wit$ ot$er atos. Eac$ collision produces ore electrons w$ic$
leads to ore collisions etc. &$e current in t$e seiconductor rapidly increases and t$e
aterial can quickly (e destroyed.

4)) #$at are t$e di''erent types o' 'ilters%
low pass- $i!$ pass- (and pass- (and stop- resonant

4+) #$at is saplin! t$eore%
9aplin! &$eore6 A (andliited si!nal can (e reconstructed exactly i' it is sapled at a
rate atleast twice t$e axiu 'requency coponent in it.

40) #$at is ipulse response%
Ipulse response is t$e response o' a syste to a unit ipulse at its input. &$e ipulse
response 'unction is t$e inverse Taplace trans'or o' t$e syste trans'er 'unction @*s).

42) Explain t$e advanta!es and disadvanta!es o' FI? 'ilters copared to II? counterparts.
II? 'ilters are recursive and FI? 'ilters are non3recursive. Also FI? 'ilters are linear p$ase and
II? 'ilters are not. 'ir 'ilter are $i!$ly sta(le.we can o(tain linear p$ase in 'ir 'ilter. roundin!
error is a(scent in 'ir 'ilter.

48) #$at is CB??% Explain (rie'ly.
&$e ratio o' t$e !ain o' an apli'ier 'or di''erence si!nals (etween t$e input terinals- to t$e
!ain 'or t$e avera!e or coon3ode si!nal coponent.

44) #$at do you ean (y $al'3duplex and 'ull3duplex counication% Explain (rie'ly.
$al' duplex 3 (ot$ sender & receiver can counicate wit$ eac$ ot$er- (ut not
siultaneously...'ull duplex 3 sae (ut siultaneous counication possi(le.

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4;) #$at are t$e 'la!s in 4/42%
Carry 'la!- <arity 'la!- Auxiliary carry 'la!- Uero 'la!- Cver'low 'la!- &race 'la!- Interrupt
'la!- ,irection 'la!- and 9i!n 'la!.

;/) #$at are t$e various interrupts in 4/42%
Baska(le interrupts- :on3Baska(le interrupts

;1) #$at is eant (y Baska(le interrupts%
An interrupt t$at can (e turned o'' (y t$e pro!raer is known as Baska(le interrupt.

;") #$ic$ interrupts are !enerally used 'or critical events%
:on3Baska(le interrupts are used in critical events 9uc$ as <ower 'ailure- Eer!ency- 9$ut
o'' etc.

;)) #$at is t$e Baxiu clock 'requency in 4/42%
0 B$A is t$e Baxiu clock 'requency in 4/42.

;+) #$at are t$e various se!ent re!isters in 4/42%
Code- ,ata- 9tack- Extra

;0) #$ic$ 9tack is used in 4/42%
FIFC *First In First Cut) stack is used in 4/42.In t$is type o' 9tack t$e 'irst stored
in'oration is retrieved 'irst.

;2) #$at are t$e various re!isters in 4/40%
Accuulator re!ister- &eporary re!ister- Instruction re!ister- 9tack <ointer- <ro!ra
Counter are t$e various re!isters in 4/40 .

;8) #$at is 9tack <ointer
9tack pointer is a special purpose 123(it re!ister in t$e Bicroprocessor- w$ic$ $olds t$e
address o' t$e top o' t$e stack

;4) #$at is <ro!ra counter%
<ro!ra counter $olds t$e address o' eit$er t$e 'irst (yte o' t$e next instruction to (e 'etc$ed
'or execution or t$e address o' t$e next (yte o' a ulti (yte instruction- w$ic$ $as not (een
copletely 'etc$ed. In (ot$ t$e cases it !ets increented autoatically one (y one as t$e
instruction (ytes !et 'etc$ed. Also <ro!ra re!ister keeps t$e address o' t$e next instruction.

;;) #$ic$ 9tack is used in 4/40%
TIFC *Tast In First Cut) stack is used in 4/40.In t$is type o' 9tack t$e last stored in'oration
can (e retrieved 'irst.

1//) #$at is eant (y a (us%
A (us is a !roup o' conductin! lines t$at carriers data- address- & control si!nals.

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1/1) #$at is &ri3state lo!ic%
&$ree To!ic Tevels are used and t$ey are @i!$- Tow- @i!$ ipedance state. &$e $i!$ and
low are noral lo!ic levels & $i!$ ipedance state is electrical open circuit conditions. &ri3
state lo!ic $as a t$ird line called ena(le line.

1/") >ive an exaple o' one address icroprocessor%
4/40 is a one address icroprocessor.

1/)) In w$at way interrupts are classi'ied in 4/40%

In 4/40 t$e interrupts are classi'ied as @ardware and 9o'tware interrupts.

1/+) Exaples o' 9o'tware interrupts%
?9&/- ?9&1- ?9&"- ?9&)- ?9&+- ?9&0- ?9&2- ?9&8.

1/0) Exaples o' @ardware interrupts%
&?A<- ?9&8.0- ?9&2.0- ?9&0.0- I:&?.

1/2) #$ic$ interrupt $as t$e $i!$est priority%
&?A< $as t$e $i!$est priority.

1/8) :ae 0 di''erent addressin! odes%
Iediate- ,irect- ?e!ister- ?e!ister indirect- Iplied addressin! odes.

1/4) @ow any interrupts are t$ere in 4/40%
&$ere are 1" interrupts in 4/40.

1/;) #$at is clock 'requency 'or 4/40%
) B@A is t$e axiu clock 'requency 'or 4/40.

11/) In 4/40 w$ic$ is called as @i!$ order E Tow order ?e!ister%
Fla! is called as Tow order re!ister & Accuulator is called as @i!$ order ?e!ister.

111) #$y crystal is a pre'erred clock source%
Because o' $i!$ sta(ility- lar!e Q *Quality Factor) & t$e 'requency t$at doesnPt dri't wit$
a!in!. Crystal is used as a clock source ost o' t$e ties.

11") #$at does Quality 'actor ean%
&$e Quality 'actor is also de'ined- as Q. 9o it is a nu(er- w$ic$ re'lects t$e lossness o' a
circuit. @i!$er t$e Q- t$e lower are t$e losses.