You are on page 1of 42

Jason King, Paula Lobaccaro,

Meghan Olson & Lindsey Rappleyea


Introduction
Welding Joints
Welding Processes
Equipment and Technology
Advantages and Disadvantages
Welding in Present Day Manufacturing
Safety
Economics
Case Study
Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process
that joins materials, such as metals or
thermoplastics, by melting the parts and then
using a filler to form a joint

Estimated: 50% of the gross national product
of the U.S.A. is related to welding in one way
or another

Welding has done in unusual conditions,
including underwater and in outer space
Welding Processes
A materials joining process which
produces coalescence of materials by
heating them to suitable temperatures
with or without the application of
pressure or by the application of
pressure alone and with or without
the use of filler material. - AWS

Bronze Age: Welded Gold Boxes & Egyptian
Tools
Middle Ages: Blacksmiths
1800s: Use of open flames for welding
1880-1900: Development of arc welding
1920s: Automatic Welding
1940s: Development of Heliarc welding and
Gas Shielded Metal Arc Welding
1960s: Plasma Arc Welding
Modern: Friction Welding, Laser Welding


Advantages
Simpler, faster and more cost effective than other
joining methods
Parts do not need to fit together perfectly
Joint can potentially be stronger than the individual
parts that are going to be joined
Can weld a wide range of metals and plastics
Can be used in unique environments
Can be an automatized process
Equipment can be less expensive than other
manufacturing equipment
Disadvantages
Welds can contain defects; less reliable and
predictable
Joint is permanent, preventing future alterations
Not applicable to all materials
Can be a liability due to training, expertise, and
safety required


Geometry and Dimensions
Strength Required
Ease of Welding
Loading
Cost
Number of passes
Joint Efficiency


Pieces to be welded are laid side by side
One piece to be welded in laid down and
another pieces is overlapped




Fillet, plug, and slot welds can be applied to
Lap Joints
One piece to be welded in placed on another
so that a corner is formed
Two pieced to be welded come together and
the two edges are welded
One piece of metal to be welded is placed
vertically on top of another piece that is
horizontal, forming a T




Fillet welds are applied to T Joints
Created in 1890
Commonly known as stick welding
Works with:
carbon steel
high alloy steel
stainless steel
cast iron
ductile iron
copper
nickel

Advantages
Versatility - readily
applied to a variety of
applications and a wide
choice of electrodes
Relative simplicity and
portability of equipment
Low Cost
Adaptable to confined
spaces and remote
locations
Suitable for out-of-
position welding


Disadvantages
Not as productive as
continuous wire
processes
Frequent stop/starts to
change electrodes
Relatively high metal
wastage (electrode
stubs)
Current limits are lower
than for continuous or
automatic processes
(reduces deposition rate)
Advantages vs- Disadvantages
Created in 1948
Commonly known as MIG Welding
Works with:
carbon steel
stainless steel
aluminum
magnesium
copper
nickel
silicon
bronze

Advantages
Higher Productivity
Simple to Learn
Clean and Efficient
Versatile
High Welding Speed
Simple and great
welds

Disadvantages
High start up cost
Limited Positions
Not Suitable for
Outdoor Welding
Fast Cooling Rates
Unsuitable for Thick
Metals
Shielding Gas
Metal Preparation
Time
Advantages vs- Disadvantages
Created in 1941
Commonly Known as TIG Welding
Works with:
Mild Steel
Stainless Steel
Aluminum
Copper
Nickel
Copper Nickel
Inconel
Magnesium
Titanium


Advantages
Applicable to a very
wide range of
materials
Especially good for
welding thin sections
and delicate work
pieces
Capable of producing
welds of high quality
and appearance

Disadvantages
Generally restricted to
flat or horizontal
welding
Requires a higher level
of skill
Slower welds
Advantages vs- Disadvantages
Electrical resistance across the two joining
components produces the heat required for
welding
Typically used when welding particular types of
sheet metal

Disadvantages
Bond strength depends on surface roughness & cleanliness
Requires specialized machinery (generally non-portable)

Advantages:
Many facilities now automated
Commonly selected for use with robotics in automotive
manufacturing

Resistance spot welding
Electrical energy is
the heat source
necessary for the
coalescence of two
or more metals

joins metals without base metal
melting

produces coalescence at
temperatures essentially below
the melting point of the base
materials being joined

brazing filler material is not
required
Two processes:
Electron beam
Laser
Beam can be used to
melt and vaporize
metals because such
high energy intensity
Energy transfer - not
thermal transfer
processes

An electron beam (of high velocity electrons)
generated in a vacuum creates a fusing heat
source
Advantages:
Can unite almost any metals
Deep weld without adding excessive heat that can
adversely affect the properties of the surrounding
material
High Tolerances
Problems/Disadvantages
Undercutting, cracking, lack of fusion, missed
joints, porosity, under fill, and shrinkage voids


Joining takes place without fusion at the
interface
Two surfaces brought together under pressure
No liquid or molten phase is present at the
joint
For strong bond, both surfaces must be
clean:
No oxide films, residues, metalworking fluids,
contaminants
A group of 8 welding processes
cold welding
diffusion welding
explosion welding
forge welding
friction welding
hot pressure welding
roll welding
ultrasonic welding

Wear resistant jackets,
aprons and leggings
Wear high, snug fitting
shoes
Wear cuffless pants
Wear clean clothes
Wear ear protection
Wear a leather cap
Wear helmet with
appropriate lens


Ventilation
Grounded
Protect neighboring
workers from
exposure to arc
radiation by shielding
your station.


11. Time for changing electrodes.
12. Time to move the welder from
one location to another.
13. Time to change welding machine
settings.
14. Time spent by personnel for
personal purposes.
15. Time to repair or re-work
defective welds.
16. Costs associated with any
required stress relief.
17. Cost of electrodes.
18. Cost of shielding materials.
19. Cost of electric power.
20. Cost of fuel gas for pre-heat
(when required).

1. Time for joint preparation.
2. Time to prepare the material for
welding (blasting, removal of oils,
etc.).
3. Time for assembly.
4. Time to preheat the joint (when
required).
5. Time for tack-up.
6. Time for positioning.
7. Time for welding.
8. Time to remove slag (when
applicable).
9. Time to remove spatter.
10. Time for inspection.

Machines: $400-$7000+, Helmets: $20 - $500+,
Guns: $200-$3000+

=
&


Most accurate method
Useful for welded parts that will move throughout a workspace
&

&
Best when applied to single pass welds

=
&


&

=
&



Easiest and most used (and misused)
Best applied to large, multipass welds

=
&


&

=
&



Robotic vs. Fixed
Robotic arm moves on multiple axis
Increased productivity
Improved weld quality
Increased profitability
Reduced labor costs 70% of welding costs
Single machine can replace3 workers
Reduced material waste
Used increasingly more often
The car industry is a huge user of automated
welding


Case study, looking at real time welding in the
automotive world

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=spRyegwBhKg