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IEEE P1003.

1, Draft 6, April 2001/ Open Group Technical Standard, Issue 6

Draft Standard for Information Technology—
Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX)

Prepared by the Austin Group
(http://www.opengroup.org/austin/)

Copyright  2001 The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.
3 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5997, USA.
Copyright  2001 The Open Group
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Except as permitted below, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or
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without the prior permission of the copyright owners. This is an unapproved draft, subject to change. Permission is hereby granted for Austin Group participants to reproduce this document for purposes of IEEE,
the Open Group, and JTC1 standardization activities. Other entities seeking permission to reproduce this
document for standardization purposes or other activities must contact the copyright owners for an appropriate license. Use of information contained within this unapproved draft is at your own risk.
Portions of this document are derived with permission from copyrighted material owned by Hewlett-Packard Company, International Business Machines Corporation, Novell Inc., The Open Software Foundation,
and Sun Microsystems, Inc.

Copyright (c) 2001 IEEE and The Open Group.
This is an unapproved IEEE Standards Draft, subject to change.

IEEE P1003.1, Draft 6, April 2001/ Open Group Technical Standard, Issue 6
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Technical Standard

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Rationale (Informative)

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The Open Group
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.

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Copyright (c) 2001 IEEE and The Open Group.
This is an unapproved IEEE Standards Draft, subject to change.

| 9 10 11 Except as permitted below. Use of information contained within this unapproved draft is at your own risk.1-200x for standardization purposes or activities must contact the copyright owners for an appropriate license.K. and Sun Microsystems. | | 8 All rights reserved. | 12 Technical Standard | 13 Rationale (Informative) | 14 Document Number: | 15 Published in the U. without the prior permission of the copyright owners. by The Open Group. The Open Group. The Open Software Foundation. no part of this publication may be reproduced. and JTC1 standardization activities. Draft 6. Novell Inc. 2001) Copyright (c) 2001 IEEE and The Open Group. Inc. in any form or by any means. subject to change.html for instructions on commenting on this unapproved draft document. April 2001/ Open Group Technical Standard. Issue 6 | | | 5 6 7  2001. Portions of IEEE Std 1003. Inc. electronic. mechanical. Permission is hereby granted for Austin Group participants to reproduce IEEE Std 1003.opengroup. photocopying.. | Other entities seeking permission to reproduce IEEE Std 1003. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.1-200x are derived with permission from copyrighted material owned by Hewlett-Packard Company. | | ii Technical Standard (2001) (Draft April 16. or transmitted. subject to change.1. | This is an unapproved draft. The Open Group  2001. . This is an unapproved IEEE Standards Draft. | 16 17 See http://www.IEEE P1003. International Business Machines Corporation. 2001. | recording or otherwise.1-200x for purposes of IEEE. stored in a retrieval | system.org/austin/bugreport.

........ 3326 Pathname Resolution ..............................2.........2.......... 3302 Definitions ..............4..........4......... 3293 | Introduction ................................................................................................................... 3302 Conforming XSI Application Using Extensions...........5 A...............................2 A.................................................3 A........................ 3323 File Access Permissions ........................ 3325 Measurement of Execution Time................................................2....3 A...... 3300 XSI Conformance .................4.........................1......................................................................................................12 A.. Draft 6...4 A................................................ 3302 Strictly Conforming XSI Application .................................................. 3295 Normative References . subject to change.................... 3301 Conforming POSIX Application..................... 3328 Scheduling Policy..... 3295 Terminology..... 3302 Language-Dependent Services for the C Programming Language .................2 A........................................................................ 3327 Process ID Reuse ...........2..........1....1 A..2 A................... 3323 File Hierarchy .................. 3323 Extended Security Controls .....................2...................1 A............... 3299 Requirements........2............10 A............. 3302 General Concepts...................................................2 A..........................2 A...................13 Base Definitions ....... 3324 File Times Update.. | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | ..................................1 A.........5 A..... 3298 Codes .........2.....IEEE P1003....................3 A....................1 A......... 3301 Strictly Conforming POSIX Application.4............................1 A.......4 A......................... 3323 Directory Protection ......1 A...4...............................1.........4 A............................................. 3299 POSIX Conformance .................2 A.......................................3 A.....2.............2..... 3295 Portability ...................1..1 A.....................................2........................6 A.......................................................................4 A...........................1....................................4............................................... 3299 Documentation..........................................................................................4..................... 3301 Conforming POSIX Application Using Extensions ............2............4.............1.................5.....................................2..................................1............1... 3325 Memory Synchronization..................................................1...4.............. This is an unapproved IEEE Standards Draft.................................3 A.............. April 2001/ Open Group Technical Standard.................................................. 3301 Options.........................................................................................................5 A...................4.............2....4 A....... 3298 Margin Code Notation..........5...2............ 3323 Concurrent Execution ......................1...2..11 A............................................. 3301 Application Conformance..6 A.......................1...................... 3293 Conformance ... Issue 6 18 Contents 19 Part A 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 Appendix A A............4..................... 3325 Host and Network Byte Order..................... 3301 Option Groups.........................2.............................1......4 A........................................1.........................................................................................................................................................1..... 3329 iii Rationale (Informative) Copyright (c) 2001 IEEE and The Open Group........................... 3299 Conformance .....2.................. 3299 Implementation Conformance......................2 A..............................................................................2.............................. 3291 | Rationale for Base Definitions .....................................................................4.......................7 A.....................4...................2................... 3293 Scope.........5 A.....................................................9 A..............................................................3 A. 3302 Other Language-Related Specifications...........................................8 A............ 3323 Filenames.............2..........

....................... LC_COLLATE............. General .................3....................................4...........................................9......2 A......4..... C Language Wide-Character Codes ........................IEEE P1003..................1 A.....................................................................................6.7.. Other Environment Variables.........................................................4..3.......5 A... ERE Ordinary Characters..........................7. Locale Definition Example..7..................................8...........3........9....................4 A............................... BRE Precedence .....4.....................................................9.........................4 A... Environment Variable Definition .......8 A............ File Format Notation............................................................................3...4..1 A........1 A.......................................................... Variable Assignment .................................................................9.........9 A..............9............................. RE Bracket Expression .......3......2 A................................................7.......................17 A........1...........9.. POSIX Locale .........7..................................................................................................................6............. Utility...7..............7......................................................8..................... 2001) Copyright (c) 2001 IEEE and The Open Group.....9..... Draft 6.......................................... LC_MONETARY.................................................. Internationalization Variables .........................................6 A.....1 A................4 A...4... Semaphore...................................................................... Locale Grammar..1 A.......................................................................7 A.............................................................................................................................1 A.................. LC_NUMERIC.....9........................4..................6....16 A................3..................3.. BRE Special Characters...........................3....3 A....................................3 A............................................................. LC_CTYPE...... Tracing.... State-Dependent Character Encodings ...................................... Character Encoding...8.........1 A..................20 A........................2 A.3. Character Set....3 A................4......................................... Thread-Safety............................................. Locale............................................2 A.... BRE Ordinary Characters.........2 A........... Regular Expressions .. Regular Expression General Requirements.............................. BREs Matching a Single Character or Collating Element....9............................7....3.............................................................................4.........4.................5 A.....................................................................................................................3...................................................... Periods in BREs..1 A.................5 A................ Portable Character Set..3 A...............................................................4.................. LC_MESSAGES ................... Basic Regular Expressions ......4........4 A.............................................................. 3329 3330 3330 3330 3330 3330 3330 3330 3331 3331 3331 3332 3332 3332 3332 3334 3334 3335 3335 3336 3337 3339 3340 3340 3341 3341 3341 3341 3341 3345 3345 3345 3346 3347 3348 3349 3350 3350 3350 3350 3350 3350 3351 3352 3352 3352 3353 3353 Technical Standard (2001) (Draft April 16...............................14 A..... Character Set Description File............ LC_TIME........................ | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | ...............................6..........................7...3...................21 A.6 A.......3 A.................4........ Extended Regular Expressions ..............8 A........ subject to change........9.................5 A.......7.....................................2 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 iv Seconds Since the Epoch ............................... Regular Expression Definitions .......6.............3.........9..15 A.... Environment Variables ..........................7........2 A................. EREs Matching a Single Character or Collating Element..19 A..........7............................................. BRE Expression Anchoring............................................................1 A...........7 A....................4 A..........3 A...................................................................... Issue 6 Contents A.................................3.........9............9.................... Locale Definition.....................6 A.......... BREs Matching Multiple Characters........................ This is an unapproved IEEE Standards Draft........................2 A.............. Treatment of NaN Arguments for Mathematical Functions ......7................ Treatment of Error Conditions for Mathematical Functions ... Locale Definition Grammar..... April 2001/ Open Group Technical Standard......... Locale Lexical Conventions.............................................................18 A...........................9......

9.............2 A....................4.............................. Utility Syntax Guidelines .... Format of Entries...... The Controlling Terminal.........................1........................................................9.......................1 A...........................................................................................1.................4 A............................................................13 A.. Periods in EREs. ERE Expression Anchoring........................9 A...................7 A.......8 A...............1 A.............8 A.............................11 A.1.....5 A...........................2...........10 A.........4.......9................................3 A...........1....................................1..............10........................3 A...........1.................. Special Control Characters ..IEEE P1003..............11 A.....11.............2 A......... Output Modes .............2 A........ General Terminal Interface ....11.............................. | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | .............................6 A.. Input Processing and Reading Data... Issue 6 Contents A...1......2.............11......... Draft 6.....1 A......3 A................... EREs Matching Multiple Characters..........13........ Control Modes....12 A.........................11.....................................11......... RE and Bracket Expression Grammar ................... This is an unapproved IEEE Standards Draft........... Output Devices and Terminal Types .......... Parameters that Can be Set ...11...4.............. Input Modes.....................11...............................................................11............................ Utility Conventions ...................4.9.....4. ERE Alternation...........1 A...............11...... Writing Data and Output Processing ...........2... Special Characters..... ERE Bracket Expression..........11..................................1 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 ERE Special Characters............... ERE Precedence ...................................2 A...... Interface Characteristics .10 A..................11............. Regular Expression Grammar.........................2...1.........................................2 A.............................................................................1....1................................5 A........9...............................1 A...................................2 A..................................7 A..............1................... Modem Disconnect........ Utility Argument Syntax ................... Opening a Terminal Device File .... 3353 3353 3353 3353 3353 3353 3353 3353 3354 3354 3354 3354 3354 3355 3355 3356 3356 3356 3357 3357 3358 3358 3358 3359 3359 3359 3359 3359 3359 3359 3360 3360 3360 3360 3361 3361 3362 3364 3364 v Rationale (Informative) Copyright (c) 2001 IEEE and The Open Group........................................................11...9......... The termios Structure ........... BRE/ERE Grammar Lexical Conventions..........................6 A....4 A.......9..5 A...9.....................................5... subject to change.....5 A............................................................................2.............9....................5....1 A...............11................... Directory Structure and Files .............................4.................................12....................................6 A............................................... Directory Structure and Devices ........11............... Headers .............................................................1....... Non-Canonical Mode Input Processing................................................5............................................................... Local Modes ...................3 A............4............................................................................11......11..................... April 2001/ Open Group Technical Standard......................... Terminal Access Control ..............12......10.....................9.............................11... ERE Grammar.................................................. Canonical Mode Input Processing .................................................. Process Groups......................................9...........................2...........11.........................................11................ Closing a Terminal Device File ...........4 A..9 A...................................................................

| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | ..... Realtime Signal Generation and Delivery . Signal Generation and Delivery.......................... Draft 6.....1............2...... POSIX..................................................3.............................4.... Format of Entries................ Signal Actions .................1................1......................................... 3367 | Introduction .................2 B....2 B...................... Additional Error Numbers............................ Asynchronous I/O ...................................IEEE P1003........4 B......... The Compilation Environment .............2..... XSI Interprocess Communication .......... Threads...................8................1.............................................2 B..... April 2001/ Open Group Technical Standard..... This is an unapproved IEEE Standards Draft.......................................2 B..........5.................................. Conformance ..5 B..............................2.. subject to change.......7 B................................2.....1 B.................. Realtime .....................1 Symbols .........................................2..........................................1.....................................2.......... Normative References .. Scope.......................................................2.....2.........3 B...................8.............................................................................. Stream Orientation and Encoding Rules .........................................................9..1 B................................................................2.........9 B...............................................................2..............2................................................... Change History .........................................2...........................2...2 B.........6 B.2............................................3 B............4......................2....... General Information.1 B. IPC General Information.........................................9.......................................................3 B.....1 B..........3 B.........................8....... STREAMS ............ Thread Read-Write Locks............................... Thread IDs ...................................7..........6 B..................................................................................................2..9...........1.......1 B..... Terminology...................................2 B............1........................................ Signal Effects on Other Functions ...........................7 B............. Thread Mutexes........................................1................. Relationship to Other Formal Standards ......2..................... Clocks and Timers .............................1 B.............2...1 B.......................................................4.................. Thread Cancelation .................2.................4 B........ Codes .....1.......................................1....................................................2....................................4 B............................... Error Numbers.............4... 2001) Copyright (c) 2001 IEEE and The Open Group...................................... Sockets...........................5 B............2...................................................................................5 B........9...........................1 B.... Issue 6 Contents 147 Part B 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 Appendix B B.... Signal Concepts..5 B.............................2......10 vi System Interfaces .. Thread-Safety... Realtime Signals ......................7 B.........4 B............8............................2....2 B.............2.....................................8..................6 B.....8 B..2...... Standard I/O Streams......... Thread Scheduling.....................................9...........................................9..........1 B.... 3365 | Rationale for System Interfaces . Memory Management ..9 B.....................................................................................1 B........... 3367 3367 3367 3367 3367 3373 3373 3373 3373 3373 3373 3374 3374 3375 3375 3376 3379 3383 3383 3384 3386 3389 3392 3392 3392 3392 3392 3392 3393 3393 3394 3399 3401 3404 3417 3423 3439 3452 3455 3456 3456 3460 3464 3466 3466 Technical Standard (2001) (Draft April 16..6...... Process Scheduling ...................................2.........................................................2...............2...............2............. Accessing STREAMS..........................5........3 B.............................................8....... Thread Interactions with Regular File Operations .....................8 B..........................................2.................................................................2................................................................2......................................... Use and Implementation of Functions ...........1......1 B...............9..2....... Definitions .....................................................................................................2.. Interaction of File Descriptors and Standard I/O Streams ...........................................................2............................................4 B........................................................1 B.................................2 B................................. The Name Space. Portability ....................................

..................2............................................................................... Definitions ..................... Examples for Spawn............... Scope........................................................................... Data Types......6 C......2......................1 C........14 B...........................................2.4 B.........................................................12 B..........10........2.......6 B......2...........................10.................2.............................1 C....................1.............8 B................ Rationale on Trace Events Type Filtering ..........1 B................................................2.... Connection Indication Queue ............ Pending Error...1.......10................................... Use of Sockets over Internet Protocols..... Issue 6 Contents B.............IEEE P1003........ Use of Sockets for Local UNIX Connections.........................11..10...........................4 C....................... Relationship to Other Documents......10..................... Tracing..2..2.......................... This is an unapproved IEEE Standards Draft................................ Rationale on Trace for Debugging.....2...... System Interfaces ........................................................................1.......19 B...............2..11..................................................................................................................1..................................................11 B.......................2..................17 B.......................2............................1... Socket Types..........2 Address Families............. Socket Out-of-Band Data State ................3................................. Terminology................... April 2001/ Open Group Technical Standard.....6 B.........................12 B..............................................................................11......................... Signals ..........................................................10....................... Interfaces.............10......... Asynchronous Errors .........5 B..........10.2...........................................................10 B....................................10......1.................................................2....... subject to change............7...............3 B.............................2........................................... Use of Sockets over Internet Protocols Based on IPv4..2 B............ Shell and Utilities........18 B...2 B.................................2.11.......11..........................2.........10.........15 B........................ Routing.....11..1 B.......2 C.......7 C..........................................8 B.....2....2....................................................................................10......... pthread API ... Rationale on Trace Event Type Name Space..................................7 B..................................10...............11......2............................2........10....................... Draft 6......9 B......... 3466 3466 3466 3466 3466 3466 3466 3467 3467 3467 3467 3467 3467 3467 3467 3467 3467 3467 3467 3467 3468 3468 3473 3478 3486 3486 3488 3490 3491 3491 3492 3493 3495 3495 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 3505 | Rationale for Shell and Utilities ....... Tracing................ Normative References ......................................................... Use of Options .........................3 B............................................4 B.................... Concepts Derived from the ISO C Standard................. Trace Programming Examples ...2................2....................... Trace Model................ Change History ....................................2.... Socket Receive Queue........ Socket Queue Limits ..................... Rationale on Timestamp Clock..................................................2.... Objectives ...2............. 3507 3507 3507 3507 3507 3508 3508 3508 3508 3509 vii Rationale (Informative) Copyright (c) 2001 IEEE and The Open Group................................ Socket Owner.........................................3 C.............................. Use of Sockets over Internet Protocols Based on IPv6..1.. System Interfaces ..1...................................................... Rationale on Triggering .................... Rationale on Different Overrun Conditions ......................7.. 3507 | Introduction ..........................10.....13 B........5 C.............2....................3 B.............. | | | | | | | | | | ......................2....................................................................... Addressing ............5 B...........10...............7 B........................... Protocols ......20 B.2..1.....10...................11........................9 B............ Conformance ...............................................10....10........................................................1 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 Part C 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 Appendix C C........................2......11............................................................................................16 B.......10.2............... Socket I/O Mode......................11..............................................................................................10 B......1.........................11 B...................10.......1 C..

..............2 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 viii Portability .2 C..............2............... Redirecting Output.............2..7...........8................................................................. Alias Substitution .7 C..............7..1 C.... Built-In Utilities ...................................... Function Definition Command............................. This is an unapproved IEEE Standards Draft.............3 C...1.............................................2..................................6. Exit Status and Errors ........................................7...................................2..2.6..3 C...............................................2 C........... Pipelines..................................................... Open File Descriptors for Reading and Writing.........5 C.......5 C......................2......................................................4 C.................................12 C......2 C.......................1 C......................................5.......7........6.........................................................7 C.........6 C.... Escape Character (Backslash).. Shell Commands .......................................................................................................................2.....2..........1 C.. Shell Grammar Rules .2............2........ Parameter Expansion .................11 C..................2....................................2................................9................. Utility Limits....................... Token Recognition ..... Grammar Conventions ................................................ Utility Description Defaults..............................3 C........................2.............8 C...............................1..9 C..2............. | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | .............. Shell Variables...................2..........2 C............. Consequences of Shell Errors ....... Redirection ...........2......1..................................................................1 C.................................................9................9......2................................2 C........................ Shell Grammar Lexical Conventions.13 C........................... Quoting ........6........................................ 3509 3509 3509 3512 3512 3516 3516 3518 3518 3518 3518 3518 3518 3520 3520 3521 3522 3522 3522 3523 3524 3525 3526 3526 3527 3529 3529 3529 3529 3530 3530 3531 3531 3531 3531 3531 3531 3531 3531 3532 3532 3534 3535 3536 3537 3539 3540 3540 Technical Standard (2001) (Draft April 16..........................................9................................. Appending Redirected Output .....................................6 C........................... Duplicating an Input File Descriptor..2................... 2001) Copyright (c) 2001 IEEE and The Open Group................................2.......................................4 C...............................2...............10.............................................................. Issue 6 Contents C.... Special Parameters...................................6............. Shell Grammar.......................1 C........6 C.............. Shell Introduction ........2.....................1.......................2....................2...............2................. Codes ..... Positional Parameters.....2..............2...................................1 C..........1...........................................................2..........2......... Command Substitution ... Arithmetic Expansion ................... Parameters and Variables............... Duplicating an Output File Descriptor .................................... Draft 6....................IEEE P1003..10 C...............7.....................................................................3 C............5......6.........................2 C...... Pathname Expansion...................................... subject to change.........2................5.................... Quote Removal........................ Redirecting Input ................. Lists........................................................4 C..............2.. Exit Status for Commands ....................4 C..5 C......................2......10 C............................. April 2001/ Open Group Technical Standard.................................7 C........................8.2............................................ Compound Commands..2...........1...............1 C.......... Simple Commands ..................... Single-Quotes......2..................7...........................................................3 C.......................6.............................................2...................... Word Expansions ........2...............9...... Here-Document....3.........3 C.......................9 C..................2 C.....................1 C.......5 C...............................1................................ Considerations for Utilities in Support of Files of Arbitrary Size ...............................................................2................................2...... Double-Quotes ............................8 C.................................................... Field Splitting.2......2 C.......... Shell Command Language......................................1 C....2.......................... Reserved Words ...........2.......... Tilde Expansion..................7.........................................................................................1 C.8.........2.............10.....2................................................................1......................................................

................................................................................................... Internationalization Interaction....... Portability Considerations ....5 D............ Accomplish Multiple Tasks Simultaneously ................................................................................ Access to the Environment ............13 D.......... Operating System-Dependent Profile ............................................2 C...............................................................10 D......................................................................13...................2 D..2.....................................1................1............................19 D...........13................................................. Operating System-Dependent Profile ................. Printing............................... C-Language Extensions ......................... Command Language...............................................................2.......................1..3 D..1 C.......... Internationalization Interaction....... Common Behavior for Batch Environment Utilities ...................................... Batch General Concepts .................................1..13.........10 D...................... Command Language..................... Special Built-In Utilities.......... Inter-User Communication............1..........................1 C...........................................................2 D........................... C-Language Extensions ............... This is an unapproved IEEE Standards Draft....................................2........................... Draft 6........................................3 D.............2..............12 C............6 D........................ File Hierarchy Manipulation .......... Configuration Interrogation ...................6 D.......5 D.................11 Signals and Error Handling ...............................4 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 Part D 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 Appendix D D................................................2 D............. I/O Interaction .........2............1............ Utilities ...... Batch Services ...............................................4 D............2 C........... Issue 6 Contents C........ subject to change...........11 C..................12 D..................................3.............2...............2................ 3555 | User Requirements .... Access to Determinism and Performance Enhancements..............................................................13 C....2......................... Batch Environment Services and Utilities ......2............... Locale Configuration ...................................3 C..................................................1....................................... Access to Data ............14 D...4 D................................................................1.....................2..........2........................1 D................ 3540 3540 3540 3540 3541 3541 3542 3542 3545 3547 3548 3548 | | | | | | | | | | | | 3553 | Portability Considerations (Informative) ...........2.... Pattern Matching Notation ..................................................................................................2..........................2.......2.. | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | .............................1.............................15 D.. 3555 3556 3556 3556 3556 3556 3556 3557 3557 3557 3557 3557 3557 3557 3557 3558 3558 3558 3558 3558 3558 3559 3559 3560 3560 3561 3561 3561 3561 3562 3562 3562 ix Rationale (Informative) Copyright (c) 2001 IEEE and The Open Group. April 2001/ Open Group Technical Standard.....................17 D....... Patterns Matching a Single Character ....3 C......................9 D.... System Environment...........1......................... Complex Data Manipulation... Patterns Used for Filename Expansion ..................3. Access to the Environment ...1.1.................... Bounded (Realtime) Response .........11 D....IEEE P1003.....1...............................................18 D........................................................................8 D..................................... Patterns Matching Multiple Characters ................................................7 D..........2. Process Management .................1.....8 D...................................................... Configuration Interrogation ................................................................. Interactive Facilities................................................................................3 C...................................1........................9 D................. Shell Execution Environment. Process Management ............................. Portability Capabilities ...........16 D..1...........3............2.............................7 D.................................................2...... I/O Interaction .....1..............14 C......................................1 D........................................... Software Development .....................................1............................................................................................1........ Access to Data ...................1.. Interactive Facilities.....................1 D...

..................... Trace Another Process..... Draft 6.....................................................................................12 D.........................................3................18 D.................................................................................................................. April 2001/ Open Group Technical Standard..... Complex Data Manipulation......................................................................... Software Development ............................................................ Issue 6 Contents D.....................................................................................................4 D...................3...................................................... .........................2..1 Accomplish Multiple Tasks Simultaneously ..........................2....14 D...... System Environment........... Configuration Options (Shell and Utilities) ............2 D............2..... Configuration Options.........5 D............. Trace System Overview: for Online Analysis ............... Trace System Overview: for Offline Analysis....2......3........... Trace Name Space Overview: With Third-Party Library...................... File Hierarchy Manipulation .................................3.......................................3 D......... Trace System Overview: States of a Trace Stream . 3412 3473 3475 3476 3486 3487 | | | | | | | Historical Practice for Symbolic Links ........................................................................................1.........2. Inter-User Communication...........................................2....................................................... Future Growth..........3.......................1 D.......................13 D................................................ Locale Configuration ................................................. Configurable Limits .................. Profiling Considerations............16 D.. subject to change..................................2......2.......... Subprofiling Considerations ................... 3579 | Subprofiling Option Groups ...................................6 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 Part E 351 352 Appendix E E. 3579 | Index................3........................... 3320 | | | Technical Standard (2001) (Draft April 16.......................................IEEE P1003.. 3585 | 353 | List of Figures 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 B-1 B-2 B-3 B-4 B-5 B-6 361 List of Tables A-1 362 363 x Example of a System with Typed Memory ...... This is an unapproved IEEE Standards Draft......... 2001) Copyright (c) 2001 IEEE and The Open Group............................... Optional Behavior........20 D........15 D......................................... Configurable Limits ............... 3563 3563 3563 3564 3564 3564 3564 3565 3565 3565 3566 3566 3567 3568 3573 3576 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 3577 | Subprofiling Considerations (Informative) .................................................................17 D..........................19 D...........3 D........ Configuration Options (System Interfaces) ...................................................................................... Printing.......2.........................

xi Rationale (Informative) Copyright (c) 2001 IEEE and The Open Group. 367 Background 368 369 370 The developers of IEEE Std 1003. 371 372 373 374 375 376 Conceptually.n and the parts of ISO/IEC 9945.IEEE P1003. existing definition of the UNIX system. It is both an IEEE standard and an Open Group Technical Standard. software designers. The pronunciation has been published in an attempt to promulgate a standardized way of referring to a standard operating system interface.1-200x codifies the common. This includes at least four groups of people: 386 1. 382 Audience 383 384 385 The intended audience for IEEE Std 1003.1-200x is all persons concerned with an industry-wide standard operating system based on the UNIX system. This is an unapproved IEEE Standards Draft. . IEEE Std 1003. It is expected to be pronounced pahz-icks . Persons buying hardware and software systems 387 2. vendors of operating systems and other software development tools. In earlier editions of the IEEE standard. emerged. as in positive . POSIX. consistent. and others. the name POSIX more correctly refers to a family of related standards: IEEE Std 1003. IEEE Std 1003.1-1988. authors.1-200x: 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 • Application-Oriented The basic goal was to promote portability of application programs across UNIX system environments by developing a clear. Persons implementing operating systems.1. Since this interface enables application writers to write portable applications—it was developed with that goal in mind—it has been designated POSIX. and common utility programs that establish standard semantics and syntax. Draft 6. Persons developing applications where portability is an objective 390 Purpose 391 Several principles guided the development of IEEE Std 1003.1.1-200x has been jointly developed by the IEEE and The Open Group.1 an acronym for Portable Operating System Interface. or other variations. consultants. 377 378 379 380 381 Although originated to refer to the original IEEE Std 1003.1-200x describes a set of fundamental services needed for the efficient construction of application programs. __________________ 1. and unambiguous standard for the interface specification of a portable operating system based on the UNIX system documentation. Persons managing companies that are deciding on future corporate computing directions 388 3. applications programmers.1-200x represent a cross-section of hardware manufacturers. not poh-six . subject to change.1-1988. The name POSIX was suggested by Richard Stallman. a command interpreter. Issue 6 Introduction 364 365 366 IEEE Std 1003. academics. This maintained the advantages of readability of the symbol ‘‘POSIX’’ without being ambiguous with the POSIX family of standards. A preferred term. Access to these services has been provided by defining an interface. using the C programming language. the term POSIX was used as a synonym for IEEE Std 1003. and especially 389 4. April 2001/ Open Group Technical Standard.

1-200x has been written so that a program written and translated for execution on one conforming implementation may also be translated for execution on another conforming implementation.1. both are referred to as functions. . Minimally Defined In keeping with the historical design principles of the UNIX system. an implementation of the standard interface may also implement features not in IEEE Std 1003. However. and functions usable only by the superuser have not been included. 417 418 419 420 421 • 422 Minimal Interface.IEEE P1003. IEEE Std 1003. there was a broad consensus on a set of functions. Not Object. Not Implementation IEEE Std 1003.1-200x. Additional capabilities have been added as optional extensions.1 was published. No distinction is made between library functions and system calls. including: 429 430 1. Symbolic names are given for constants (such as signals and error numbers) rather than numbers. System administration facilities and functions are excluded from IEEE Std 1003. Emulations hosted on entirely different operating systems 433 4.1-200x. This is an unapproved IEEE Standards Draft. 423 424 425 • 426 Broadly Implementable 427 428 The developers of IEEE Std 1003. Systems running on a broad range of hardware No direct references to this goal appear in IEEE Std 1003. Draft 6. definitions. even if the underlying hardware is identical. types. and concepts that formed an interface that was common to most historical implementations. All of the current major systems that are ultimately derived from the original UNIX system code (Version 7 or later) 431 2.1-200x have been kept as minimal as possible. IEEE Std 1003. 439 440 441 442 xii Technical Standard (2001) (Draft April 16. 414 415 • 416 No Superuser.1-200x is also not concerned with hardware constraints or system maintenance. Portability IEEE Std 1003. the mandatory core facilities of IEEE Std 1003. there were no known historical implementations that did not have to change. April 2001/ Open Group Technical Standard. No details of the implementation of any function are given (although historical practice is sometimes indicated in the RATIONALE section). 436 437 • 438 Minimal Changes to Historical Implementations When the original version of IEEE Std 1003.1-200x endeavored to make all specified functions implementable across a wide range of existing and potential systems. 2001) Copyright (c) 2001 IEEE and The Open Group. subject to change.1-200x.1-200x. 402 403 404 405 406 • 407 Source. 408 409 410 411 412 • 413 The C Language The system interfaces and header definitions are written in terms of the standard C language as specified in the ISO C standard.1-200x does not guarantee that executable (object or binary) code will execute under a different conforming implementation than that for which it was translated. Networked systems 434 5. No System Administration There was no intention to specify all aspects of an operating system.1-200x defines an interface. Still. Issue 6 Introduction • 401 Interface. Distributed systems 435 6. but some results of it are mentioned in the Rationale (Informative) volume of IEEE Std 1003. Compatible systems that are not derived from the original UNIX system code 432 3. not an implementation.

for example. These functions should be considered ‘‘obsolescent’’ and the standard functions used for new applications. 465 466 467 However.IEEE P1003. Issue 6 Introduction 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 The adoption of the 1988 and 1990 IEEE interface standards. some applications will have to change. subject to change. It contains historical information concerning the contents of IEEE Std 1003. and these are now reflected in this revision. emphasizing the consequences of some aspects of IEEE Std 1003. and backwards compatible with.1. Applications portability is similarly affected. These need to be used with careful management to be able to adapt to future IEEE Std 1003. Some will reflect ‘‘historical usage’’ and will be preserved for execution of pre-existing applications.1-200x is specifically not a codification of a particular vendor’s product. and presenting it in what had been proven in practice to be a more effective way. The authors of the original versions tried.1-200x is being published to assist in the process of review. and the subsequent revisions and addenda to all of them have consolidated this consensus. xiii Rationale (Informative) Copyright (c) 2001 IEEE and The Open Group. and this revision reflects the significantly increased level of consensus arrived at since the original versions. the sigaction ( ) function 457 458 459 460 461 462 463 464 This revision tries to minimize the number of changes required to implementations which conform to the earlier versions of the approved standards to bring them into conformance with the current standard. historical implementations. Specifically. By specifying an interface that. will not conflict with it. or which became apparent when bringing the various pieces together. directories 452 453 454 2. primarily as a consequence of resolving conflicts found in prior revisions. 480 General 481 482 483 484 485 486 This Rationale (Informative) volume of IEEE Std 1003. since it references the 1999 versions of the ISO C standard.1-200x. However. April 2001/ Open Group Technical Standard. This is an unapproved IEEE Standards Draft. 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 It should be noted that implementations will have different kinds of extensions. By specifying an interface that is readily implementable in terms of. to follow the principles below when creating new specifications: 450 451 1. when added to an historical implementation. 476 477 478 479 • Minimal Changes to Existing Application Code A goal of IEEE Std 1003. By standardizing an interface like one in an historical implementation.1-200x was to minimize additional work for the developers of applications. the 1992 common standards. but rather collecting into a single document what had been spread across a number of documents. It also contains notes of interest to application programmers on recommended programming practices. Some extensions will represent functions beyond the scope of IEEE Std 1003.1-200x and why features were included or discarded by the standard developers. the various Open Group (formerly X/Open) versions. the scope of this work excluded doing any ‘‘new’’ work. The earlier standards and their modifications specified a number of areas where consensus had not been reached before.1-200x extensions and/or port to implementations that provide these services in a different manner. and no longer supports ‘‘Common Usage C’’. 468 IEEE Std 1003. because every known historical implementation will have to change at least slightly to conform. as much as possible. such as the extended tar format defined in the pax utility 455 456 3.1-200x that may not be immediately apparent. there are a number of unavoidable changes. Draft 6. . for example. Some changes to prior conforming implementations were unavoidable.

IEEE Std 1003.1.2). This is an unapproved IEEE Standards Draft.1. The Open Group Base working group. are mandated by ISO/IEC.1-200x that are not optional. and the member bodies and technical experts of ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC22/WG15.1). and. 2001) Copyright (c) 2001 IEEE and The Open Group. 498 499 500 501 The base document for the revision was The Open Group’s Base volumes of its Single UNIX Specification.1 working groups.1-200x. Due to the size of the overall document. the IEEE. adopt everywhere. with a separate part for each of the three normative volumes. .1-200x is organized in chapters as follows: 529 xiv Technical Standard (2001) (Draft April 16. with the deliverables being a single set of specifications that carry both the IEEE POSIX designation and The Open Group’s Technical Standard designation. Draft 6. 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 This revision was developed by a joint working group known as the Austin Common Standards Revision Group.1-200x is organized in parallel to the normative volumes of IEEE Std 1003. Issue 6 Introduction 487 Development of IEEE Std 1003. Version 2.1 and POSIX. and other standards bodies. 502 Organization of the Rationale 503 504 Within the Rationale (Informative) volume of IEEE Std 1003. 527 The three volumes are as follows: • 528 Base Definitions This volume of IEEE Std 1003. an ISO/IEC designation. IEEE Std 1003. Some of these. equivalent to the definitions of classic POSIX. April 2001/ Open Group Technical Standard.1-200x.1-200x has been divided logically into three normative volumes.1-200x.1-200x outlines the organizations and documents involved in developing IEEE Std 1003.2 specifications and had some organizational aspects that would benefit the audience for the new revision.2. This joint technical working group was convened in late 1998 to consider the matter of a common revision of ISO/IEC 9945-1 (POSIX. 508 509 510 XSI extension The portions of IEEE Std 1003. ISO/IEC 9945-2 (POSIX.1-200x is organized into sections. or Austin Group for short. the following terms are used: 505 506 507 base standard The portions of IEEE Std 1003. The approach to specification development was to write once.2.1-200x addressing the extension added for support of the Single UNIX Specification. and appropriate parts of the Single UNIX Specification. subject to change.IEEE P1003. These were selected since they were a superset of the existing POSIX. The alphabetical ordering of the large sections including system interfaces and utilities was to make it easier for the documents to be used as reference documents. 520 Organization of This Document 521 522 523 524 525 526 IEEE Std 1003. if adopted. 511 512 513 514 515 516 standard developers The individuals and companies in the development organizations responsible for IEEE Std 1003. such as the Scope. for the convenience of the standards developers and others. 517 518 519 The remainder of the Rationale (Informative) volume of IEEE Std 1003.1 and POSIX. advised by the hundreds of individual technical experts who balloted the draft standards within the Austin Group. IEEE Std 1003.1-200x 488 489 This portion of the Rationale (Informative) volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-200x: the IEEE P1003.

Issue 6 Introduction 530 — Introduction (including Scope and Normative References) 531 — Conformance 532 — Definitions 533 — General Concepts 534 — File Format Notation 535 — Character Set 536 — Locale 537 — Environment Variables 538 — Regular Expressions 539 — Directory Structure and Devices 540 — General Terminal Interface 541 — Utility Conventions 542 — Headers (organized alphabetically) 543 544 545 546 547 The presence of this volume of IEEE Std 1003. 548 • System Interfaces 549 This volume of IEEE Std 1003.) 566 567 xv Rationale (Informative) Copyright (c) 2001 IEEE and The Open Group.1-200x occurs. subject to change. Where terminology and definitions common to both the System Interfaces volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-200x.1-200x to refer to the elements of the POSIX Realtime Extension amendment. . Draft 6. then additions have been made to this volume of IEEE Std 1003.1. (This was earlier referred to as POSIX.1-200x and Shell and Utilities volume of IEEE Std 1003. it is used in the Rationale (Informative) volume of IEEE Std 1003. April 2001/ Open Group Technical Standard.0 Although this term is not used in the normative text of IEEE Std 1003.1-200x.1-200x to refer to IEEE Std 1003. it is used in the Rationale (Informative) volume of IEEE Std 1003. 563 564 565 POSIX.1-200x is organized as follows: 555 — Introduction 556 — Shell Command Language 557 — Batch Environment Services 558 — Utilities (organized alphabetically) 559 Abbreviations 560 561 562 POSIX.1-200x reduces duplication in the other volumes and ensures consistency of use of terminology.1b Although this term is not used in the normative text of IEEE Std 1003.4 during the standard development process. This is an unapproved IEEE Standards Draft.1-200x.1-200x is organized as follows: 550 — Introduction 551 — General Information 552 — System Interfaces (organized alphabetically) 553 • Shell and Utilities 554 This volume of IEEE Std 1003.IEEE P1003.0-1995.

1-200x to refer to the POSIX Threads Extension amendment. it is used in the Rationale (Informative) volume of IEEE Std 1003.) 568 569 570 571 572 xvi Technical Standard (2001) (Draft April 16. (This was earlier referred to as POSIX.IEEE P1003.1.4a during the standard development process. | . Issue 6 Introduction POSIX. 2001) Copyright (c) 2001 IEEE and The Open Group. April 2001/ Open Group Technical Standard.1-200x.1c Although this term is not used in the normative text of IEEE Std 1003. Draft 6. This is an unapproved IEEE Standards Draft. subject to change.

and other countries. subject to change. TM    Motif . 580 BSD 574 575 576 577 578 581 582 583 584 585 586 587 588 TM is a trademark of the University of California.1-200x and does not constitute an endorsement by The Open Group or IEEE of these products. April 2001/ Open Group Technical Standard. There may be other products mentioned in the text that might be covered by trademark protection and readers are advised to verify them independently.  POSIX is a registered trademark of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. U.1. the International Network of UNIX System | Users. and HP-UX are registered trademarks of Hewlett-Packard Company.  IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation. Inc. Berkeley. Issue 6 573 Trademarks 579 The following information is given for the convenience of users of IEEE Std 1003.A. .S. This is an unapproved IEEE Standards Draft. and the ‘‘X Device’’ are registered trademarks and IT DialTone and TM The Open Group are trademarks of The Open Group in the U.S. and other countries.  AIX is a registered trademark of IBM Corporation. OSF/1 .IEEE P1003.  /usr/group is a registered trademark of UniForum.  AT&T is a registered trademark of AT&T in the U.S.   Sun and Sun Microsystems are registered trademarks of Sun Microsystems.A. UNIX . HP . xvii Rationale (Informative) Copyright (c) 2001 IEEE and The Open Group. Draft 6. Inc.    Hewlett-Packard .

Cragun Lee Damico Ulrich Drepper Paul Eggert Joanna Farley Clive D. Murphy Joseph S. 595 596 This document was prepared by the Austin Group. Cragun [IEEE PASC] Nicholas Stoughton [ISO/SC22 WG15] Mark Brown [The Open Group] 605 606 Editor Cathy Hughes 607 Technical Reviewers Peter Anvin Bouazza Bachar Theodore P. Myers Sandra O’Donnell Frank Prindle Curtis Royster Jr. Feather Andrew Gollan 608 609 610 611 612 613 614 615 616 617 618 619 620 621 Michael Gonzalez Joseph M. . Johnson Andrew Josey Michael Kavanaugh David Korn Marc Aurele La France Jim Meyering Gary Miller Finnbarr P. Draft 6.0 documentation. Hammons Frank Prindle Francois Riche John D. subject to change. This is an unapproved IEEE Standards Draft. Riley Andrew K. Gwinn Yvette Ho Sang Cathy Hughes Lowell G. and ISO SC22 WG15. Roach Working Group 622 Harold C. Gordon Joseph M.1-200x was approved. 2001) Copyright (c) 2001 IEEE and The Open Group. April 2001/ Open Group Technical Standard. Baker Walter Briscoe Dave Butenhof Mark Brown Geoff Clare Donald W. 597 Austin Group Common Standards Committee 598 At the time IEEE Std 1003. Adams Pierre-Jean Arcos Jay Ashford Peter Anvin 623 624 625 626 xviii Technical Standard (2001) (Draft April 16.W. Glen Seeds Keld Simonsen Raja Srinivasan Nicholas Stoughton Donn S.IEEE P1003. Gwinn Steven A. Haaser Charles E.1. the membership was as follows: 599 600 Chair Andrew Josey 601 602 603 604 Organizational Representatives Donald W.1-200x are gratefully acknowledged: 590 591 592 593 • AT&T for permission to reproduce portions of its copyrighted System V Interface Definition (SVID) and material from the UNIX System V Release 2. 594 • The SC22 WG14 Committees. Issue 6 Acknowledgements 589 The contributions of the following organizations to the development of IEEE Std 1003. Terry Fred Tydeman Peter Van Der Veen James Youngman Jim Zepeda Jason Zions Karen D. The Open Group. a joint working group of the IEEE.

This is an unapproved IEEE Standards Draft. Kurihara Marc Aurele La France C. subject to change. Terry Marc J. Johnson Michael B. Karels Michael Kavanaugh David Korn Steven Kramer Thomas M. Feather Pete Forman Mark Funkenhauser Lois Goldthwaite Andrew Gollan Michael Gonzalez Chris J. Henley Karl Heubaum Jon Hitchcock Yvette Ho Sang Niklas Holsti Thomas Hosmer Cathy Hughes Jim D Isaak Lowell G. Murphy Joseph S.W. Meyer Jim Meyering Gary Miller Finnbarr P. Draft 6. Jones Andrew Josey Michael J. Dovich Richard P. Harding Barry Hedquist Vincent E. . Enslow Joanna Farley Clive D. Webb Paul A. Olin Sibert Glen Seeds Keld Jorn Simonsen Raja Srinivasan Nicholas Stoughton Donn S. Blackwood Shirley Bockstahler-Brandt James Bottomley Walter Briscoe Mark Brown Eric W. Valcourt Michael W. Curtis Smith W.1. Burger Alan Burns Dave Butenhof Keith Chow Geoff Clare Donald W. Shroads Jr. Stephen C.T. Teller Fred Tydeman Mark-Rene Uchida Scott A. Draves Ulrich Drepper Paul Eggert Philip H.IEEE P1003. Vannier Frederick N. Issue 6 Acknowledgements 627 628 629 630 631 632 633 634 635 636 637 638 639 640 641 642 643 644 645 646 647 648 649 650 651 652 653 654 655 656 657 Bouazza Bachar Theodore P. Obermayer James T. James Youngman Oren Yuen Janusz Zalewski Jim Zepeda Jason Zions | xix Rationale (Informative) Copyright (c) 2001 IEEE and The Open Group. Baker Robert Barned Joel Berman Andries Brouwer David J. Cragun Lee Damico Juan Antonio De La Puente Ming De Zhou Steven J. Schwarm Richard Seibel David L. Myers John Napier Peter E. Wolfgang Garrett Wollman Peter Van Der Veen Eric Vought X/Open Company Ltd. April 2001/ Open Group Technical Standard. Douglass Locke Roger J Martin Nick Maclaren Craig H. Oblinger Sandra O’Donnell Helmut Roth Jaideep Roy Curtis Royster Jr.

Frank and Pennello. Third Edition. xx Technical Standard (2001) (Draft April 16. Programming Language Common LISP. The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company. ISBN: 0-12-128470-0. 683 684 FIPS 151-1 Federal Information Procurement Standard (FIPS) 151-1. Inc. . Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX)—Part 1: System Application Program Interface (API) [C Language]. 2001) Copyright (c) 2001 IEEE and The Open Group. 1989.226-1994. Programming Language C. 678 679 680 DeRemer and Pennello Article DeRemer. 695 696 IEEE Std 854-1987 Standard for Radix-Independent Floating-Point Arithmetic. August 1979. 672 673 674 ANS X3. Highly Parallel Computing. 693 694 IEEE Std 754-1985 Standard for Binary Floating-Point Arithmetic.. 1989.1 (NCEG).159-1989. 666 667 668 Almasi and Gottlieb George S. August 1992. April 2001/ Open Group Technical Standard. No.. Volume 15. 669 670 671 ANSI C American National Standard for Information Systems: Standard X3. 688 689 HP-UX Manual Hewlett-Packard HP-UX Release 9. Binary Floating-Point Arithmetic for Microprocessor Systems (previously designated IEC 559: 1989). Introduction to Parallel Programming. Almasi and Allan Gottlieb. 662 Informative References 663 The following documents are referenced in IEEE Std 1003.0 Reference Manual.1 IEEE Floating Point draft report of ANSI X3J11.1-200x are defined in the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003. Academic Press. Thomas J. Efficient Computation of LALR(1) Look-Ahead Sets. CA.1. subject to change.IEEE P1003. Issue 6 Referenced Documents 658 659 Normative References 660 661 Normative references for IEEE Std 1003. 8. 685 686 687 FIPS 151-2 Federal Information Procurement Standards (FIPS) 151-2. This is an unapproved IEEE Standards Draft.226-1994 American National Standard for Information Systems: Standard X3.1-200x: 664 665 1984 /usr/group Standard /usr/group Standards Committee. 675 676 677 Brawer Steven Brawer. SigPlan Notices. UniForum 1984. ISBN: 0-8053-0177-1. 690 691 692 IEC 60559: 1989 IEC 60559: 1989. Draft 6.1-200x. 681 682 Draft ANSI X3J11. Santa Clara.

July 1993. J. October 1984. . P. Borenstein. Version 6 (IPv6). Hinden. 715 716 IETF RFC 1034 Domain Names — Concepts and Facilities. Part 1: Format of Internet Message Bodies.1. xxi Rationale (Informative) Copyright (c) 2001 IEEE and The Open Group. published by The Open Group. J. Mogul. Version 6 (IPv6). Postel. including Amendment 1: 1995 (E). Thomson. S. Internationalisation Guide. October 1984. 713 714 IETF RFC 922 Broadcasting Internet Datagrams in the Presence of Subnets.9-1992 Standard for Information Technology — POSIX FORTRAN 77 Language Interfaces — Part 1: Binding for System Application Program Interface API. 735 736 737 ISO C (1990) ISO/IEC 9899: 1990: Programming Languages — C.IEEE P1003. Crocker. October 1984. Braden. Su. November 1987. 702 703 704 IETF RFC 819 The Domain Naming Convention for Internet User Applications. Freed. Mockapetris. July 1998. This is an unapproved IEEE Standards Draft. subject to change. 721 722 723 IETF RFC 1886 DNS Extensions to Support Internet Protocol. Postel. December 1995. 700 701 IETF RFC 791 Internet Protocol. Version 6 (IPv6) Addressing Architecture. November 1987. Deering. October 1984. August 1982. R. Draft 6. December 1998. P. D. 727 728 729 IETF RFC 2373 Internet Protocol. November 1996. S. J. Version 4 (IPv4).H. S. Mockapetris. Hinden. 732 733 734 Internationalisation Guide Guide. August 1982. 724 725 726 IETF RFC 2045 Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME). 730 731 IETF RFC 2460 Internet Protocol. 738 739 ISO 2375: 1985 ISO 2375: 1985. 709 710 IETF RFC 920 Domain Requirements. 705 706 IETF RFC 822 Standard for the Format of ARPA Internet Text Messages. September 1981. G304). J. Version 2 (ISBN: 1-859120-02-4. Data Processing — Procedure for Registration of Escape Sequences. April 2001/ Open Group Technical Standard. Reynolds. Z. 711 712 IETF RFC 921 Domain Name System Implementation Schedule. R. N. C Integrity (Multibyte Support Extensions (MSE) for ISO C). N. October 1989. J. R. Mogul. Issue 6 Referenced Documents 697 698 699 IEEE Std 1003. Huitema. C. Postel. J. 707 708 IETF RFC 919 Broadcasting Internet Datagrams. 719 720 IETF RFC 1123 Requirements for Internet Hosts — Application and Support. 717 718 IETF RFC 1035 Domain Names — Implementation and Specification. Deering.

9 778 779 This standard character set comprises 191 graphic characters covering the requirements of most of Western Europe. Information Technology — Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX) — Part 1: System Application Program Interface (API) [C Language] (identical to ANSI/IEEE Std 1003. private communication networks. 2001) Copyright (c) 2001 IEEE and The Open Group. 7 Part 14: Latin Alphabet No. 758 759 760 761 762 ISO/IEC 8802-3: 1996 ISO/IEC 8802-3: 1996. Programming Languages — Ada (technically identical to ANSI standard 1815A-1983). 8 Part 15: Latin Alphabet No. 743 744 745 ISO/IEC 1539: 1990 ISO/IEC 1539: 1990. such as magnetic tapes and discs. 2 Part 3: Latin Alphabet No.1-1996). Draft 6. Information Technology — Telecommunications and Information Exchange Between Systems — Local and Metropolitan Area Networks — Specific Requirements — Part 3: Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Access Method and Physical Layer Specifications.1b-1993. Information Technology — Portable Operating System Interface xxii Technical Standard (2001) (Draft April 16. Information Technology — Coded Character Set for Text Communication — Latin Alphabet. 785 786 ISO POSIX-2: 1993 ISO/IEC 9945-2: 1993. subject to change. Information Technology — ISO 8-bit Code for Information Interchange — Structure and Rules for Implementation. 4 Part 5: Latin/Cyrillic Alphabet Part 6: Latin/Arabic Alphabet Part 7: Latin/Greek Alphabet Part 8: Latin/Hebrew Alphabet Part 9: Latin Alphabet No. 5 Part 10: Latin Alphabet No. Information Technology — Control Functions for Coded Character Sets. 763 764 ISO/IEC 8859 ISO/IEC 8859.1c-1995. Information Technology — 8-Bit Single-Byte Coded Graphic Character Sets: 765 766 767 768 769 770 771 772 773 774 775 776 777 Part 1: Latin Alphabet No. 3 Part 4: Latin Alphabet No.1. or interchange media.1-1990. . Information Technology — Programming Languages — Fortran (technically identical to the ANSI X3. Incorporating ANSI/IEEE Stds 1003. 6 Part 13: Latin Alphabet No. 1003. April 2001/ Open Group Technical Standard.1i-1995. 746 747 748 ISO/IEC 4873: 1991 ISO/IEC 4873: 1991. 780 781 782 783 784 ISO POSIX-1: 1996 ISO/IEC 9945-1: 1996.9-1978 standard [FORTRAN 77]). 752 753 754 ISO/IEC 6937: 1994 ISO/IEC 6937: 1994. 1 Part 2: Latin Alphabet No. This is an unapproved IEEE Standards Draft. 749 750 751 ISO/IEC 6429: 1992 ISO/IEC 6429: 1992. and 1003. Issue 6 Referenced Documents 740 741 742 ISO 8652: 1987 ISO 8652: 1987. 755 756 757 ISO 7-bit or 8-bit coded character set for text communication using public communication networks.IEEE P1003. 1003.

C605) 824 • Commands and Utilities (XCU). January 1989. XO/XPG/89/004) 807 808 809 810 • Headers Interface.2-1992. August 1994. C604) 825 • System Interfaces and Headers (XSH). as amended by ANSI/IEEE Std 1003. Issue 6 Referenced Documents 787 788 (POSIX) — Part 2: Shell and Utilities (identical to ANSI/IEEE Std 1003. 791 792 Issue 2 X/Open Portability Guide. C213). February 1992: 797 798 799 • Commands and Utilities. Issue 4 (ISBN: 1-872630-46-4. C211). July 1992. Chapter 19. Issue 3 (ISBN: 1-872630-38-3.1. 1989. Chapters 9 to 14 inclusive.. Issue 4. this specification was formerly X/Open Portability Guide. Issue 5 (ISBN: 1-85912-186-1. 1988. April 2001/ Open Group Technical Standard. Version 2 (ISBN: 1-85912-037-7. published by The Open Group: 823 • System Interface Definitions (XBD). Issue 3 (ISBN: 1-872630-36-7. xxiii Rationale (Informative) Copyright (c) 2001 IEEE and The Open Group. Issue 4. Issue 5 (ISBN: 1-85912-181-0. Issue 3. subject to change. C435) 821 822 Issue 5 Technical Standard. Volume 2. published by The Open Group: 813 • System Interface Definitions (XBD). . January 1989. January 1989. this specification was formerly X/Open Portability Guide. C212).IEEE P1003. this specification was formerly X/Open Portability Guide Issue 3. January 1987: 793 • Volume 1: XVS Commands and Utilities (ISBN: 0-444-70174-5) 794 • Volume 2: XVS System Calls and Libraries (ISBN: 0-444-70175-3) 795 796 Issue 3 X/Open Specification. C434) 819 • Commands and Utilities (XCU). Version 2 (ISBN: 1-85912-036-9.2a-1992). XSI Supplementary Definitions (ISBN: 0-13-685850-3. contained in Supplementary Definitions. July 1985 (ISBN: 0-444-87839-4). Issue 3. Information and Control. C204) 814 • Commands and Utilities (XCU). Issue 4 (ISBN: 1-872630-47-2. This is an unapproved IEEE Standards Draft. January 1989. Issue 4. C203) 815 • System Interfaces and Headers (XSH). Issue 3. published by The Open Group: 818 • System Interface Definitions (XBD). XSI System Interface and Headers (ISBN: 0-13-685843-0. Volume 3. Donald E. Issue 5 (ISBN: 1-85912-191-8. C202) 816 817 Issue 4. XO/XPG/89/004) 811 812 Issue 4 CAE Specification. Version 2 CAE Specification. Volume 3. XO/XPG/89/002) 800 801 802 • System Interfaces and Headers. Issue 4 (ISBN: 1-872630-48-0. Issue 3 (ISBN: 1-872630-38-3. C436) 820 • System Interfaces and Headers (XSH). Version 2 (ISBN: 1-85912-034-2. Issue 3 (ISBN: 1-872630-37-5. this specification was formerly X/Open Portability Guide. C213). Draft 6. Issue 3. On the Translation of Languages from Left to Right. 789 790 Issue 1 X/Open Portability Guide. C606) 826 827 Knuth Article Knuth. XSI Commands and Utilities (ISBN: 0-13-685835-X. contained in Supplementary Definitions. Issue 3. XO/XPG/89/003) 803 804 805 806 • Curses Interface. XSI Supplementary Definitions (ISBN: 0-13-685850-3. Cpio and Tar Headers. February 1997. Volume 1.

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Issue 2). . Revision A (ISBN: 0-13-043522-8). 919 System V Release 2.0 Programmer’s Reference Manual (April 1984 . Draft 6. UNIX SVR4.0 Programming Guide (April 1984 .1.IEEE P1003. April 2001/ Open Group Technical Standard.Issue 2). subject to change. This is an unapproved IEEE Standards Draft. System V Release 4. 923 924 xxvi Technical Standard (2001) (Draft April 16. Issue 6 Referenced Documents Volume. 2001) Copyright (c) 2001 IEEE and The Open Group.0 920 921 — UNIX System V Release 2.2 Operating System API Reference. 922 — UNIX System V Release 2.2 (1992) (ISBN: 0-13-017658-3).