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Section 3.1

Key words for when to use the LAME old school slope formula:

2

−

1

2

−

1

= �

ℎ

ℎ ℎ

Section 3.2& 3.3

Limit Problems = Plug & Chug

If you get some crazy ass shit like

0

0

after plugging and chugging then you have to do some

algebra by doing one of the following:

Algebra Manipulation Techniques for

0

0

limit problems

• Factor if dealing with polynomial or difference of square

Example:

2

−5+6

2

−9

=

(−3)(−2)

(−3)(+3)

• Multiply top and bottom by the conjugate of the square root part if problem has a

square in it

Example:

√ + 7

− 49

=

√ + 7

− 49

∙

√ − 7

√ − 7

• FOIL if is have a piece raised to the 2nd power

Example:

(−3)

2

−4

−5

=

(−3)(−3)−4

−5

=

2

−6+9−4

−5

=

2

−6+5

−5

• Get common detonator if there is a fraction in the problem

Example:

7

(+4)(−1)

−

7

+4

=

7

(+4)(−1)

−

7

+4

∙

−1

−1

Basic Algebra Rules

2

−

2

= ( − )( +)

( +)

2

=

2

+2 +

2

7+

+7

= 1 but

7−

−7

= −1

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Exponent Rules

0

= 1

(49)

3

2

= ( √49

2

)

3

and(36)

3

2

→ 6

3

→ 216

5

∙

4

=

9

(

4

)

5

=

20

Big Fuck ups

2

+

2

= ( + )( +)

( +)

2

=

2

+

2

Can do's

( −2)

2

+3( +5)( −2)

( −2)

4

=

( −2)

2 1

+ 3( +5)( −2)

( −2)

4 3

=

( −2) +3( +5)

( −2)

3

Can't do's

( −2)

2

+3( +5)

( −2)

4

=

( −2)

2 1

+ 3( +5)

( −2)

4 3

=

( −1) +3( +5)

( − 2)

3

Section 3.4

Derivative = Subtract an x, multiply by old exponent

Example: =

→

′

=

**When ′() does not exists
**

1. ′()doesn’t exists at sharp points or where it’s pointy.

2. ′()doesn’t exists where there’s a breaks in the graph.

3. ′()doesn’t exists at vertical lines or slope.

TIP: Everywhereelse on the graph ′()exists.

Note: Slanted line are okay because that's where the derivative

64

1

2

= √64 = 8

64

−

1

2

=

1

√64

=

1

8

NOT −8

YOU CAN’T TAKE THE DERVIATIVE….

1) With x’s in the bottom…so bring the shit upstairs

Example:

8

4

= 8

−4

2) With any roots….so change that crap to the fraction power.

Examples:

√

=

1

2

and

√

3

=

1

3

= slope, velocity, marginal , instantaneous rate of change, or rate of change

Four key words for when to take the derivative and then plug & chug

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Section 3.5

Tips for taking the derivative of a long division

• Use the Quotient Rule only when you have a whole bunch of shit on the bottom part of the fraction

• Move that motherfucker upstairs when there is only a single x on the bottom

Section 3.6

How to use the Chain Rule?

Use the chain rule by bringing the exponent of the parentheses in front and subtracting one

from the exponent, and then you multiply it by derivative of what’s inside.

Example:

= ( −4

3

)

8

′

= 8( −4

3

)

7

∙ (1 −12

2

)

When to use the Chain Rule?

Use the Chain Rule when you have a whole bunch of shit raised to a power

Section 3.7

Product rule: ∙

′

+ ∙

′

Quotient rule:

∙

′

−∙

′

2

The equation of the tangent line

Use point-slope equation: −

1

= ( −

1

)

Horizontal tangent line

Set the derivate equal to zero and solve for x

Note: Horizontal tangent line means whenthe derivate is zero.

= ∙

= −

=

=

=

=

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Section 4.1

Section 4.2 & 4.3

Drawing Derivative Graphs

Step 1: Take all the points that are where the graph rounds off at or is flat and “Drop it like it’s

hot” and make point on x-axis of the 2

nd

blank graph

Step 2: Look at the slope of your () to determine where you going to sketch the graph

above the x-axis and below the x-axis.

Negative slope = ′() is drawn below x axis

Positive slope = ′() is drawn above x- axis

What does derivatives tells you about the function / graph?

1

st

derivatives tells you where the graph is increasing or decreasing, as well as if that

point is a local max or min.

2

nd

derivatives tells you where the graph is concaving down or up, as well as if that point

is an inflection point.

Section 4.4

Vertical Asymptote: When asked to find the vertical asymptote, you need to Set the bottom = 0

Horizontal Asymptote: Compare the biggest exponent of the top & bottom

. > .

No Hortiontal Asy.

. < .

= 0

. = .

=

Coefficients of Top Bully

Coefficients of Bottom Bully

lim

→#

() = ±∞ → Vertical Asymptote at = #

lim

→±∞

() = # → Horizontal Asymptote at = #

Cases of functions that are NOT continuous

1. Any square roots where you make it negative inside of it

2. Any fraction where you can plug in a number in the bottom that can make it zero.

NOTE: In other words, you can’t divide by zero or take the square root of a negative

′() = 0 means the points where it rounds off.

′() does not exist means the points that are pointy.

′() has local extrema means the inflection points that are

NOT pointy!!!

Inflection points are the points where the concavity changes.

′() > 0 MEANS increasing.

′() < 0 MEANS decreasing.

′′() > 0 MEANS concave upward.

′′() < 0 MEANS concave downward.

′() is increasing MEANS concave upwards.

′() is decreasing MEANS concave downwards.

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Section 4.5

Absolute Max/Absolute Min:

• [Brackets] means you plug in numbers into the original equation

• No brackets means you put numbers on a number line

= ∙

= −

= (ℎ − 2)(ℎ −2) ∙

Section 5.1

The LOG properties to memorize

=

**Compounded continuously equation
**

A = Amount grown

P = Principle invested

e = e (“e” stays “e”)

r = rate of interest (in decimals)

t = time (in years)

ln 0 =

ln( −4) =

Note: You can’t take the LN of a

zero or a negative number,

those cases would be undefined.

ln( ∙ ) = ln +ln

ln

= ln −ln

ln

26

= 26 ln

ln 26

= 26

ln

26

= 26

Note: LN next to e cancels each other out and

the exponent survives.

ln = 1

log 10 = 1

log

26

26 = 1

ln 1 = 0

log 1 = 0

log

26

1 = 0

log

2

8 =

ln 8

ln 2

ln = , ℎ =

ln → ∞ → ∞

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Section 5.2

Section 5.3

Section 6.1

Anti-derivative = Add an x and divide by new exponent.

Derivative = Subtract an x and multiply by old exponent.

�5 = 5 +

�5

2

=

5

3

3

+

�5

=5

+

�

5

= 5 ln|| +

Special Anti-Derivative Rule

�5

−1

=

5

0

0

‼! → 5 ln|| +

=

′

=

= 1ln

′

=

1

=

′

∙

ln =

′

log

5

=

1

ln5

∙

′

**Keyword or term for when to do anti-derivatives. Anti ⨜
**

Find

5

= 5

∙

′

∙ ln5

ln1 = 0

Example: 7 ln1 = 0

(−1)

= 1

(−1)

= −1

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Section 6.2

Section 6.5

− ≈ ∙ [ ( − 1) +( − 2) +⋯]

where w (the width) is calculated by using the equation: =

−

Section 7.1

= � ( equation) − ( equation)

Section 8.1

= ∙ + ∙

= −

(49)

3

2

= ( √49

2

)

3

(36)

3

2

→ 6

3

→ 216

0

= 1 NOT 0

Example: 7

0

= 7

ln1 = 0

Example: 6 ln1 = 0

5 = ℎ ℎ

′

= ℎ

�5()

2

=

5()

3

3 ∙ ′

�5

=

5

′

�

5

=

5 ln||

′

The anti-derivative Rules for Section 6.2

Case 1:

Tip: “u” is the piece inside the parentheses that’s raised to a power and the “5” is equal to the other piece (most

of the times, the other term is in back).

Case 2:

Tip: “u” is the whole exponent piece and the “5” is equal to the other piece (the other term that’s in back).

Case 3:

Tip: “u” is the whole bottom piece of the fraction and the “5” is equal to the other piece (the term that’s on the top)

NOTE: Your “5” (the other piece) will ALWAY somehow cancel out with your ′ (the derivative of ).

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Section 8.2

Section 8.3

Section 8.6

Volume means find the regular double anti-derivative of the equation

The NEW average formula

Average =

1

( −)( −)

∙

= 5ln

′ =

5 ∙ ′

**Easier case of the derivative of LN
**

HINT: The variable you are taking the derivative in

respect to appears only once in the problem in the

inside of the LN.

ONLY one “” in problem means easy case for

ONLY one “” in problem means easy case for

NOTE: 5 = ℎ

= ln

′ =

′

**Harder Funnier case of the derivative of LN
**

HINT: The variable you are taking the derivative in respect

to appears twice in the problem both in front of the LN

and in the inside of the LN.

Two “” in problem means harder case for

Two “” in problem means harder case for

Product rule: ∙ ′ + ∙ ′

−

2

=

=

=

−

2

> 0

−

2

< 0

−

2

= 0

The ABC Rule for determining if your (, ) equation has a local max, min, or saddle point

If < 0 →

If > 0 →

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