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You are on page 1of 10

, 33(8), 991–1000 (2012)

DOI 10.1007/s10483-012-1600-6

c Shanghai University and Springer-Verlag

Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Applied Mathematics

and Mechanics

(English Edition)

Calculation of cell face velocity of non-staggered grid system

∗

Wang LI ( )

1

, Bo YU ( )

1

, Xin-ran WANG ()

1

,

Shu-yu SUN ()

2

( 1. Beijing Key Laboratory of Urban Oil and Gas Distribution Technology,

China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249, P. R. China;

2. Computational Transport Phenomena Laboratory, Division of Physical Science

and Engineering, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology,

Thuwal 23955-6900, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia)

Abstract In this paper, the cell face velocities in the discretization of the continu-

ity equation, the momentum equation, and the scalar equation of a non-staggered grid

system are calculated and discussed. Both the momentum interpolation and the linear

interpolation are adopted to evaluate the coeﬃcients in the discretized momentum and

scalar equations. Their performances are compared. When the linear interpolation is used

to calculate the coeﬃcients, the mass residual term in the coeﬃcients must be dropped

to maintain the accuracy and convergence rate of the solution.

Key words collocated grid, staggered grid, momentum interpolation

Chinese Library Classiﬁcation O302, O357.1

2010 Mathematics Subject Classiﬁcation 65M12, 76D05

1 Introduction

The momentum interpolation method and its various modiﬁed versions for non-staggered

grids are now being widely employed in the computational heat transfer

[1–10]

, for which the

unphysical checkerboard pressure can be prevented and the calculation coding can be made

more easily for a non-staggered grid than for a staggered grid, especially for an unstructured

grid. The usually momentum interpolation is used to calculate the cell face velocity at any

occasion. Date

[11–12]

stated that the problem of the checkerboard prediction of pressure could

be eliminated by interpolating the pressure-gradient in the nodal momentum equations while

the cell face velocity was still evaluated by linear interpolation. Wang et al.

[13]

and Nie et

al.

[14]

calculated the cell face velocity on a collocated grid system by utilizing the momentum

interpolation and the linear interpolation in the continuity equation and the momentum equa-

tion, respectively, and they obtained satisfactory results. The use of the linear interpolation in

the momentum equation and the scalar equation can simplify the coding. But the diﬀerence

between the linear interpolation and the momentum interpolation employed in these equations

has not been clariﬁed. In this study, we adopted both the momentum interpolation and the lin-

∗ Received Nov. 28, 2011 / Revised Mar. 31, 2012

Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51176204 and

51134006)

Corresponding author Bo YU, Professor, Ph. D., E-mail: yubobox@cup.edu.cn

992 Wang LI, Bo YU, Xin-ran WANG, and Shu-yu SUN

ear interpolation to evaluate the coeﬃcients in the discretized momentum and scalar equations,

and compare their performances on the numerical accuracy and convergence rate.

2 Discretization of governing equation

For simplicity, a two-dimensional general incompressible governing equation listed below is

considered to illustrate the numerical discretization of the transport equation,

∂(ρuϕ)

∂x

+

∂(ρvϕ)

∂y

=

∂

∂x

Γ

∂ϕ

∂x

+

∂

∂y

Γ

∂ϕ

∂y

+ S

ϕ

, (1)

where ϕ is any dependent variable, u and v are the velocity components in the x- and y-

directions, and ρ, Γ, and S represent the density, the diﬀusion coeﬃcient, and the source term,

respectively. A ﬁnite volume method is used to discretize the governing equation. Integrating

Eq. (1) over a control volume as shown in Fig. 1, we have

n

s

e

w

∂(ρuϕ)

∂x

dxdy +

e

w

n

s

∂(ρvϕ)

∂y

dydx

=

n

s

e

w

∂

∂x

Γ

∂ϕ

∂x

dxdy +

e

w

n

s

∂

∂y

Γ

∂ϕ

∂y

dydx +

n

s

e

w

S

ϕ

dxdy. (2)

Fig. 1 Non-staggered grid arrangement

The diﬀusion term is discretized by the central diﬀerence scheme, and the source term is

treated by linearization. The discretized equation can be obtained as follows:

((ρuϕ)

e

−(ρuϕ)

w

)∆y + ((ρvϕ)

n

−(ρvϕ)

s

)∆x

=

Γ

e

(δx)

e

(ϕ

E

−ϕ

P

) −

Γ

w

(δx)

w

(ϕ

P

−ϕ

W

)

∆y +

Γ

n

(δy)

n

(ϕ

N

−ϕ

P

)

−

Γ

s

(δy)

s

(ϕ

P

−ϕ

S

)

∆x + (S

C

+ S

P

ϕ

P

)∆x∆y. (3)

Calculation of cell face velocity of non-staggered grid system 993

By rearranging the above equation, we obtain the following discretized algebraic equation:

A

P

ϕ

P

= A

E

ϕ

E

+ A

W

ϕ

W

+ A

N

ϕ

N

+ A

S

ϕ

S

+ b

P

, (4)

where

A

E

=

Γ

e

∆y

(δx)

e

+ max(−(ρu)

e

∆y, 0),

A

W

=

Γ

w

∆y

(δx)

w

+ max((ρu)

w

∆y, 0),

A

N

=

Γ

n

∆x

(δy)

n

+ max(−(ρv)

n

∆x, 0),

A

S

=

Γ

s

∆x

(δy)

s

+ max((ρv)

s

∆x, 0),

A

P

= A

E

+ A

W

+ A

N

+ A

S

+ A

b

−S

P

∆x∆y,

A

b

= (ρu)

e

∆y −(ρu)

w

∆y + (ρv)

n

∆x −(ρv)

s

∆x,

b

P

= S

C

∆x∆y + b

1

,

b

1

= −max((ρu)

e

∆y, 0)(ϕ

e

−ϕ

P

) + max(−(ρu)

e

∆y, 0)(ϕ

e

−ϕ

E

)

−max(−(ρu)

w

∆y, 0)(ϕ

w

−ϕ

P

) + max((ρu)

w

∆y, 0)(ϕ

w

−ϕ

W

)

−max((ρv)

n

∆x, 0)(ϕ

n

−ϕ

P

) + max(−(ρv)

n

∆x, 0)(ϕ

n

−ϕ

N

)

−max(−(ρv)

s

∆x, 0)(ϕ

s

−ϕ

P

) + max((ρv)

s

∆x, 0)(ϕ

s

−ϕ

S

).

Here, u

e

, u

w

, v

n

, and v

s

are the interface values which can be evaluated by the diﬀerence

schemes, e.g., the central diﬀerence scheme and the QUICK scheme

[15]

. b

1

results from the

adoption of the deferred-correction procedure

[16]

. For the momentum equation, the pressure

gradient term is included in S

C

.

The continuity equation can be discretized as follows:

(ρu)

e

∆y −(ρu)

w

∆y + (ρv)

n

∆x −(ρv)

s

∆x = 0. (5)

From Eqs. (4) and (5), we can clearly see that the cell face velocities (u

e

, u

w

, v

n

, and v

s

)

are used in the continuity equation, in the cell face ﬂow rate computation for the determination

of the coeﬃcients in the discretization equation, and in the calculation for the mass residual

A

b

in the coeﬃcient A

P

. We can use both linear interpolation and momentum interpolation to

calculate the cell face velocity. The expressions of u

e

are

u

e

= f

+

e

u

E

+ (1 −f

+

e

)u

P

. (6)

The momentum interpolation is

[1]

u

e

=

α

u

i

A

i

u

i

+ b

P

e

(A

P

)

e

−

α

u

∆y(p

E

−p

P

)

(A

P

)

e

, (7)

where

f

+

e

=

∆x

2(δx)

e

,

1

(A

P

)

e

= f

+

e

1

(A

P

)

E

+ (1 −f

+

e

)

1

(A

P

)

P

,

i

A

i

u

i

+ b

P

A

P

e

= f

+

e

i

A

i

u

i

+ b

P

A

P

E

+ (1 −f

+

e

)

i

A

i

u

i

+ b

P

A

P

P

.

994 Wang LI, Bo YU, Xin-ran WANG, and Shu-yu SUN

It should be emphasized that if momentum interpolation is used in the continuity equation

while linear interpolation is used to determine the coeﬃcients of the discretization equation,

due to the inconsistence, A

b

is not zero.

All cell face velocities of the control volumes are often calculated by the momentum interpo-

lation method when the pressure-velocity coupling computation is conducted under collocated

grids

[1–10]

. Recently, Wang et al.

[13]

and Nie et al.

[14]

used linear interpolation to determine the

coeﬃcients in the discretization equation. Apparently, the utilization of linear interpolation can

simplify coding. However, the eﬀects of this treatment on the accuracy and convergence rate

have not been illustrated in these papers. To clarify the eﬀects, both momentum interpolation

and linear interpolation are utilized to evaluate the coeﬃcients in the discretized momentum

and scalar equations, and their performances are compared. For the comprehensive compar-

ison, we design ﬁve practices named A, B, C, D, and E as shown in Table 1. In the design

of practices, A

b

is treated in two manners, i.e., remain and dropped. From Table 1, it is seen

that in all the practices, momentum interpolation is used in the continuity equation to prevent

the unphysical pressure ﬁeld, while either momentum interpolation or linear interpolation is

employed for the momentum equation or the scalar equation. Apparently, the mass residual

term (A

b

) has great eﬀects on the solution, especially for the computation with coarse meshes.

Table 1 Interface velocity interpolation method and disposal of A

b

Practice Continuity equation Momentum equation Scalar/energy equation A

b

A MI MI MI Remain

B MI MI LI Dropped

C MI LI LI Dropped

D MI MI LI Remain

E MI LI LI Remain

*MI represents momentum interpolation; LI represents linear interpolation

3 Results and discussion

We compare the performances of ﬁve practices (A, B, C, D, and E) in two computational

examples. The ﬁrst example is a lid-driven cavity ﬂow

[17]

, which is shown in Fig. 2. The walls

are held at a constant scalar Φ = 100 and the dimensionless diﬀusion coeﬃcient is set as 1/Re

where the Reynolds number Re is deﬁned by Re = ρU

lid

L/µ. The other example is a mixed

convection example, whose schematic diagram is shown in Fig. 3. The side length of the cavity

is L = 1.0 m, while the left and right temperatures are 1

◦

and 0

◦

, respectively. Both the bottom

Fig. 2 Lid-driven cavity ﬂow Fig. 3 Schematic diagram of mixed convection

Calculation of cell face velocity of non-staggered grid system 995

and the top walls are thernmally insulated. The non-slip boundary condition is employed for all

the walls. The lid velocity is 1.0 m/s. The Reynolds number Re, the Prandtl number Pr, and

the Grashof number Gr are set as 10

3

, 0.71, and 10

6

, respectively. The semi-implicit method

for pressure-linked equations (SIMPLE) is used to couple the velocity and pressure, and the

QUICK scheme is employed for the convective term in those computational examples.

In the ﬁrst example, the calculations are carried out for Re = 100 and Re = 1 000, and two

sets of uniform grids, i.e., 13 × 13 and 41 × 41, are employed. Apparently, for the lid-driven

cavity ﬂow with the uniform scalar boundary condition, it is expected that the uniform scalar

ﬁeld Φ should be 100 by solving the scalar equation. Uniform ﬁelds can be obtained by practices

A, B, and C. Therefore, it is not necessary to show their scalar contours. Figures 4–7 show the

scalar contours of practices D and E. It can be clearly seen that unphysical non-uniform ﬁelds

are predicted by the two practices, and both the Reynolds number and the grid size have an

important eﬀect on the scalar ﬁeld. For the grid of 13×13, the scalar ﬁeld is further non-uniform

with larger Reynolds numbers and wider scalar distribution in a wider range. When the mesh is

denser, the scalar ﬁeld becomes much uniform, but it still greatly deviates the real ﬁeld. These

unphysical predictions are due to the non-zero mass residual term A

b

. For practices A, B, and

C, A

b

is always equal to zero, either automatically for practice A or compulsively for practices

B and C. Therefore, reasonable results are obtained by the three practices.

Fig. 4 Contours of Φ for practice D with Re = 100

Fig. 5 Contours of Φ for practice D with Re = 1 000

996 Wang LI, Bo YU, Xin-ran WANG, and Shu-yu SUN

Fig. 6 Contours of Φ for practice E with Re = 100

Fig. 7 Contours of Φ for practice E with Re = 1 000

Moreover, Figs. 8 and 9 show the scalar proﬁles along the vertical centerline of the square

cavity. For diﬀerent Reynolds numbers and diﬀerent grid numbers, the scalar values for practices

A, B, and C are all exactly 100, but the scalar values for practices D and E have large oscillations.

The oscillation produced by practice E is more serious because the mass residual term in this

case is not equal to zero in the discrtized coeﬃcients for both the momentum equation and the

scalar equation.

The convergence process of the continuity equation, the U momentum equation, the V

momentum equation, and the scalar equation are shown in Figs. 10–13, in which R

m

, R

U

, R

V

,

and R

Φ

present the residuals of the continuity equation, the U momentum equation, the V

momentum equation, and the scalar equation, respectively. As it can be seen, the convergence

rates of practices A, B, and C are almost the same and are much faster than those of practices

D and E, especially for larger Reynolds numbers. This indicates that A

b

aﬀects not only the

solution but also its convergence rate. When A

b

= 0, either automatically or compulsively, the

convergence rate is similar regardless of the interpolation used in the momentum and scalar

equations.

In the second example, four sets of uniform grids, i.e., 12×12, 22 ×22, 42 ×42, and 62×62,

Calculation of cell face velocity of non-staggered grid system 997

are employed for the calculation. When we calculate the example by using the 12 × 12 mesh,

practices A, B, and C are convergent with the relaxation factor of 0.5, practice D is convergent

when the relaxation factor is below 0.1, while practice E is divergent in any relaxation factor.

Fig. 8 Φ proﬁles along vertical cavity centerline for diﬀerent practices with grid of 13 ×13

Fig. 9 Φ proﬁles along vertical cavity centerline for diﬀerent practices with grid of 41 ×41

Fig. 10 Convergence curves of continuity equation for diﬀerent practices with grid of 13 ×13

998 Wang LI, Bo YU, Xin-ran WANG, and Shu-yu SUN

Fig. 11 Convergence curves of U momentum equation for diﬀerent practices with grid of 13 ×13

Fig. 12 Convergence curves of V momentum equation for diﬀerent practices with grid of 13 ×13

Fig. 13 Convergence curves of scalar equation for diﬀerent practices with grid of 13 ×13

When we calculate the example by using the grids of 22×22, 42×42, and 62×62, practices A,

B, C, D, and E are all convergent with the relaxation factor of 0.5. Figure 14 shows the Nusselt

number on the left wall of practices A, B, C, D, and E, from which it can be observed that

the Nusselt number is reasonable for practices A, B, and C while is unreasonable for practices

D and E. The only diﬀerence between practices D, E and practices B, C is that A

b

does not

compulsively set to be zero. Therefore, the unreasonable solution must be caused by A

b

.

Calculation of cell face velocity of non-staggered grid system 999

Fig. 14 Distribution of Nusselt number on left wall

4 Conclusions

In the discretization of governing equations, the calculation of the cell face velocity is often

encountered. In this paper, its treatment in various situations is discussed on a collocated

grid system. It is found that momentum interpolation should be always used to calculate the

cell face velocity in the discretized continuity equation to prevent the checkerboard pressure

ﬁeld, while both momentum interpolation and linear interpolation can be used in the other

discretization equations. When linear interpolation is utilized to obtain the cell face velocity,

employed to calculate the coeﬃcients of other equations, mass conservation cannot be satisﬁed

which results in an additional mass residual term in the coeﬃcients. Due to the eﬀect of the

mass residual term, the convergence rate decreases and the solutions accuracy deteriorates. If

the mass residual term in the coeﬃcients is enforced to be zero, both the convergence rate and

the solution accuracy are the same as those obtained by the use of momentum interpolation.

In a word, on a collocated grid system, linear interpolation can be used to calculate the cell

face velocity in the momentum equation and other scalar equations on the condition that the

mass residual term is forced to be zero. This treatment simpliﬁes coding, and maintains the

solution accuracy and convergence rate.

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1000 Wang LI, Bo YU, Xin-ran WANG, and Shu-yu SUN

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