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1

Part 2. Mainly based on the text book by D.J. Inman

Week 10

2

2. Eigenvalues and Natural Frequencies

Can connect the vibration problem with the algebraic eigenvalue

problem developed in mathematics

This will give powerful computational skills and some powerful

theory

Sets the background needed for analyzing system with an

arbitrary number of DOF

Which will most likely need the help of computers and a

numerical software, e.g. Matlab

All codes in numerical software have eigen-solvers, so the

painful calculations based on the previous method can be

automated

Week 10

3

Some Matrix Results to Help Us

A matrix M is defined to be symmetric if

M = M

T

A symmetric matrix M is positive definite if

x

T

Mx > 0 for all nonzero vectors x

A symmetric positive definite matrix M can be factored

M = LL

T

Here L is upper triangular, called a Cholesky matrix

Week 10

4

Some Matrix Results to Help Us

If the matrix L is diagonal, it defines the matrix square root

The matrix square root is the matrix M

1/ 2

such that

M

1/ 2

M

1/ 2

= M

If M is diagonal, then the matrix square root is just the root

of the diagonal elements:

L = M

1/ 2

=

m

1

0

0 m

2

¸

(

¸

(

(

(4.35)

It will be more complicated if M is not diagonal, which means that

the system is dynamically coupled.

Based on M

in Eq (4.6)

Week 10

5

Transfomation of Coordinates

For a symmetric positive-definite matrix M, we can calculate:

Now we would like to transform the equation

into a symmetric eigenvalue problem.

Week 10

6

Transfomation of Coordinates

How does the vibration problem relates to the

real symmetric eigenvalue problem?

(4.39)

Week 10

7

Vibration Problem vs Real Symmetric

Eigenvalue Problem

So here we let λ = ω

2

To solve equation (4.39)

2

2

vibration problem real symmetric

eigenvalue problem

(4.40) (4.41)

Assume ( ) in ( ) ( )

, or

j t

j t j t

t e t K t

e K e

K K

e

e e

e

e ì

= + =

÷ + = =

= · = =

q v q q 0

v v 0 v 0

v v v v v 0

λ is called the eigenvalue

v is the corresponding eigenvector

Week 10

8

Real Symmetric Eigenvalue Problem

There are n eigenvalues and they are all real valued

There are n eigenvectors and they are all real valued

The set of eigenvectors v are orthogonal orthogonality property

of normal modes

The set of eigenvectors are linearly independent

The matrix is similar to a diagonal matrix

Useful concepts for any number of DOF!

If the system being modelled has n lumped masses each free to move

with a single displacement labeled x

i

(t), the matrices M, K and hence

will be n x n and the vectors u, q, and v will be n x 1 in dimension.

K

~

x =

x

1

M

x

n

¸

(

¸

(

(

(

, y =

y

1

M

y

n

¸

(

¸

(

(

(

, inner product is x

T

y = x

i

y

i

i =1

n

¿

x orthogonal to y if x

T

y = 0

x is normal if x

T

x = 1

¹

`

¦

)

¦

if a the set of vectores is is both orthogonal and normal it

is called an orthonormal set

The norm of x is x = x

T

x

…

If a set of vectors is both orthogonal and normal, it is called an

orthonormal set.

The norm (magnitude) of vector x is:

We can normalize any vector by calculating so that the

magnitude is 1.

( )

2 1

1

2

(

¸

(

¸

= =

¿

=

n

i

i

T

x x x x

Week 10

9

Normal and Orthogonal Vectors

…

Week 10

10

Example: calculating λ and v

Related to Examples 4.2.2 - 4.2.4 in the text book of D.J. Inman.

Solve the eigenvalue problem for the 2-DOF system of Example 4.1.5.

• m

1

= 9 kg, m

2

= 1 kg, k

1

= 24 N/m and k

2

= 3 N/m

Week 10

11

Example: calculating λ and v

Rewriting Eq. 4.41 gives , where v must be non-zero.

Hence the matrix coefficient must be singular:

These are the eigenvalues of the matriks and the same as ω

i

2

in the

previous method of calculation.

The eigenvectors are now calculated for each eigenvalue.

( ) 0

~

= ÷ v I K ì

K

~

The eigenvector v

1

associated with λ

1

:

Week 10

12

Example: calculating λ and v

0

12 11

= + ÷ v v

v

1

= v

2

defines the

direction of v

1

Normalize the vector so that

the norm (magnitude) = 1

The eigenvector v

2

associated with λ

2

do the same, try yourself !

It can be shown that v

1

and v

2

are orthogonal:

Also, v

i

are orthonormal :

Week 10

13

Example: calculating λ and v

While the eigenvalues are the same as the square of the natural

frequencies, the normalized eigenvectors v are different from the

mode shapes u.

However, they are related:

Week 10

14

Example: calculating λ and v

The orthonormal set of vectors is used to form an Orthogonal Matrix

Week 10

15

Orthogonal Matrix

| |

| |

1 2

1 1 1 2

2 1 2 2

1 2 1 1 2 2

1 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 2

1 2

2

1 2 1 2 2 2

1 0

0 1

0

diag( , )

0

T T

T

T T

T T T

T T

T T

P

P P I

P KP P K K P ì ì

ì

ì ì

e e

ì

ì ì

=

(

(

= = =

(

(

¸ ¸

¸ ¸

( = =

¸ ¸

(

(

= = = = A

(

(

¸ ¸

¸ ¸

v v

v v v v

v v v v

v v v v

v v v v

v v v v

P is called an orthogonal matrix

P is also called a modal matrix

called a matrix of eigenvectors (normalized)

(4.47)

Week 10

16

Example: calculate λ, ω, v, P and Λ

Related to Examples 4.2.5 in the text book of D.J. Inman.

Figure 4.4

The equations of motion:

1 1 1 2 1 2 2

2 2 2 1 2 3 2

( ) 0

(4.49)

( ) 0

m x k k x k x

m x k x k k x

+ + ÷ =

÷ + + =

1 2 2 1

2 2 3 2

0

0 (4.50)

0

k k k m

k k k m

+ ÷

( (

+ =

( (

÷ +

¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

x x

Week 10

17

Example: calculate λ, ω, v, P and Λ

1 2 2 1

2 2 3 2

0

0 (4.50)

0

k k k m

k k k m

+ ÷

( (

+ =

( (

÷ +

¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

x x

m

1

=1 kg, m

2

= 4 kg, k

1

= k

3

=10 N/m and k

2

=2 N/m

( )

1/ 2 1/ 2

2

1 2

1 2

1 0 12 2

,

0 4 2 12

12 1

1 12

12 1

det det 15 35 0

1 12

2.8902 and 12.1098

1.7 rad/s and 12.1098 ra

M K

K M KM

K I

ì

ì ì ì

ì

ì ì

e e

÷ ÷

÷

( (

¬ = =

( (

÷

¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

÷

(

¬ = =

(

÷

¸ ¸

÷ ÷

(

¬ ÷ = = ÷ + =

(

÷ ÷

¸ ¸

¬ = =

¬ = = d/s

Week 10

18

Example: calculate λ, ω, v, P and Λ

Next compute the eigenvectors.

1

11

21

11 21

1

2 2 2 2 2

1 11 21 11 11

11

For equation (4.41 ) becomes:

12- 2.8902 1

0

1 3- 2.8902

9.1089

Normalizing yields

1 (9.1089)

0.

v

v

v v

v v v v

v

ì

÷

( (

=

( (

÷

¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

¬ =

= = + = +

¬ =

v

v

21

1 2

1091, and 0.9940

0.1091 0.9940

, likewise

0.9940 0.1091

v =

÷

( (

= =

( (

¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

v v

Week 10

19

Example: calculate λ, ω, v, P and Λ

Next form P and Λ, check the value of P to see if it behaves as its

suppose to:

| |

1 2

0.1091 0.9940

0.9940 0.1091

0.1091 0.9940 12 1 0.1091 0.9940 2.8402 0

0.9940 0.1091 1 3 0.9940 0.1091 0 12.1098

0.1091 0.9940 0.1091 0.9940

0.9940 0.1091 0.9940 0.109

T

T

P

P KP

P P

÷

(

= =

(

¸ ¸

÷ ÷

( ( ( (

= =

( ( ( (

÷ ÷

¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

÷

(

=

(

÷

¸ ¸

v v

1 0

1 0 1

( (

=

( (

¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

OK !!

= Λ

Week 10

20

A Note on Eigenvectors

In the previous section, we could have chosed v

2

to be

v

2

=

0.9940

÷0.1091

¸

(

¸

(

instead of v

2

=

-0.9940

0.1091

¸

(

¸

(

because one can always multiple an eigenvector by a constant

and if the constant is -1 the result is still a normalized vector.

Will this make any difference?

No! Try it in the previous example

Week 10

21

A Note on Previous Examples

All of the previous examples can and should be solved

by “hand” to learn the methods.

However, they can also be solved on calculators with

matrix functions and with the codes listed in the last

section.

In fact, for more than 2-DOF one must use a code to

solve for the natural frequencies and mode shapes.

We will have a look at Matlab later (if time permits)

Week 10

22

3 Approaches to Compute Mode Shapes

and Frequencies

(i) e

2

Mu = Ku (ii) e

2

u = M

÷1

Ku (iii) e

2

v = M

÷1

2

KM

÷1

2

v

i. Is the Generalized Symmetric Eigenvalue Problem,

easy for hand computations, inefficient for computers

ii. Is the Asymmetric Eigenvalue Problem, very

expensive computationally see in Rao or Kelly

iii. Is the Symmetric Eigenvalue Problem, the cheapest

computationally

This was discussed today

Week 10

23

To compute the inverse of the square matrix A: inv(A) or use

A\eye(n) where n is the size of the matrix

[P,D]=eig(A) computes the eigenvalues and normalized

eigenvectors (watch the order). Stores them in the eigenvector

matrix P and the diagonal matrix D (D=A)

To compute the matrix square root use sqrtm(A)

To compute the Cholesky factor: L= chol(M)

To compute the norm: norm(x)

To compute the determinant det(A)

To enter a matrix: K=[27 -3;-3 3]; M=[9 0;0 1];

To multiply: K*inv(chol(M))

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