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State of Qatar -Public Works Authority

Drainage Affairs


Volume 1 General Page i
1st Edition June 2005 - © Copyright Ashghal
CONTENTS
FOREWORD
1 Introduction ............................................................................................................... 1
1.1 Terms of Reference ...................................................................................................... 1
1.2 Manual Development Process ...................................................................................... 1
1.3 Recommendations for Additional Study ........................................................................ 1
1.4 Manual Updating ........................................................................................................... 2
1.5 Literature/References ................................................................................................... 2
2 Planning Issues ......................................................................................................... 5
2.1 Master Plans ................................................................................................................. 5
2.1.1 Sewerage ............................................................................................................................... 5
2.1.2 Surface and Ground Water .................................................................................................... 6
2.1.3 Irrigation using TSE ............................................................................................................... 7
2.2 Allocation of Lands ....................................................................................................... 7
2.3 Statutory Undertakers ................................................................................................... 8
2.4 Infrastructure Projects ................................................................................................... 8
2.5 Catchments & Flood Plains........................................................................................... 8
2.6 Groundwater ................................................................................................................. 8
2.7 Environmental Planning ................................................................................................ 9
2.7.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 9
2.7.2 Planning ............................................................................................................................... 12
2.7.3 Screening ............................................................................................................................. 12
2.7.4 Scoping ................................................................................................................................ 14
2.7.5 EIA ....................................................................................................................................... 14
2.7.6 Conclusions ......................................................................................................................... 17
3 Investigations .......................................................................................................... 18
3.1 Geotechnical ............................................................................................................... 18
3.1.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 18
3.1.2 Investigation Objectives ....................................................................................................... 18
3.1.3 Desk Study and Site Reconnaissance ................................................................................. 19
3.1.4 Ground Investigation ............................................................................................................ 19
3.1.5 Extent of Ground Investigation ............................................................................................ 21
3.1.6 Field Works .......................................................................................................................... 21
3.1.7 Sampling .............................................................................................................................. 25
3.1.8 Field Tests ........................................................................................................................... 28
3.1.9 Laboratory Tests .................................................................................................................. 29
3.1.10 Reports and Interpretation ................................................................................................... 30
3.2 Hydrogeological Investigations ................................................................................... 37
3.2.1 Purpose of Investigations..................................................................................................... 37
3.2.2 Outline Methodology ............................................................................................................ 37

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3.2.3 Sources of Information ........................................................................................................ 37
3.2.4 Data Requirements: Desk Study Phase .............................................................................. 38
3.2.5 Data Requirements: Site Investigation Phase ..................................................................... 38
3.2.6 Notes on Site Investigation Techniques .............................................................................. 39
3.3 Surveys ....................................................................................................................... 40
3.3.1 Types of Survey ................................................................................................................... 41
3.4 Operating Data ........................................................................................................... 43
3.4.1 Pumping Stations ................................................................................................................ 43
3.4.2 Sewage Treatment .............................................................................................................. 44
3.4.3 Sewerage ............................................................................................................................ 44
3.4.4 Surface Water/Hydrology .................................................................................................... 44
3.5 Asset Condition ........................................................................................................... 44
3.6 Meteorology ................................................................................................................ 44
3.6.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 44
3.6.2 Climate Overview ................................................................................................................ 45
3.6.3 Rainfall ................................................................................................................................. 45
3.6.4 Other Climatological Variables ............................................................................................ 49
3.6.5 Wind Speed and Direction ................................................................................................... 49
3.7 Environmental Investigations ...................................................................................... 53
3.7.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 53
3.7.2 Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) ....................................................................... 53
3.7.3 EIA Investigations ................................................................................................................ 53
4 Design Process ........................................................................................................ 55
4.1 Background Information .............................................................................................. 55
4.1.1 Existing Services and Utilities ............................................................................................. 55
4.1.2 Services Hierarchy .............................................................................................................. 55
4.1.3 Site Investigations ............................................................................................................... 55
4.1.4 GIS / AIS .............................................................................................................................. 56
4.1.5 QNBS/QCS .......................................................................................................................... 56
4.2 Ground Conditions ...................................................................................................... 56
4.2.1 Topography & Regional Geology ........................................................................................ 56
4.2.2 Geology of the Dammam Formation ................................................................................... 59
4.2.3 Hydrogeology ...................................................................................................................... 61
4.2.4 Summary of Relevant Conditions ........................................................................................ 62
4.3 Construction Materials ................................................................................................ 62
4.3.1 Materials Selection .............................................................................................................. 62
4.3.2 Structures ............................................................................................................................ 69
4.3.3 Quality Control and Quality Assurance ............................................................................... 71
4.4 Design Standards, Procedures and Calculations ....................................................... 72
4.5 Standard Drawings ..................................................................................................... 72
4.6 Building Permits .......................................................................................................... 73
4.6.1 Opening a Building Permit File ............................................................................................ 73
4.6.2 Initial DC 1 Approval ............................................................................................................ 73
4.6.3 Utility Approvals ................................................................................................................... 73

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4.6.4 Final DC1 Approval .............................................................................................................. 74
4.6.5 DC 2 Approval ...................................................................................................................... 74
4.6.6 Building Permit ..................................................................................................................... 74
4.7 Environmental Design ................................................................................................. 74
4.8 Tendering and Contract Procedures ........................................................................... 75
4.8.1 Professional Service Agreement ......................................................................................... 75
4.8.2 Conventional Construction Contracts .................................................................................. 76
4.8.3 76
4.8.4 Design and Construct Construction Contracts ..................................................................... 76
4.8.5 Material Supply Contracts .................................................................................................... 76
4.8.6 Hybrid Contracts .................................................................................................................. 77
4.8.7 Work Carried Out Under Work Order Agreements .............................................................. 77
4.9 Health and Safety and Security .................................................................................. 77
4.9.1 Policy Statement .................................................................................................................. 77
4.9.2 Accident Reporting ............................................................................................................... 79
4.9.3 Training ................................................................................................................................ 79
4.9.4 Site Safety Meetings ............................................................................................................ 81
4.9.5 Enforcement Policy .............................................................................................................. 82
4.10 CDM Best Practice...................................................................................................... 83
4.10.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 83
4.10.2 Earliest Involvement ............................................................................................................. 83
4.10.3 Co-ordination ....................................................................................................................... 83
4.10.4 Preparing the Design ........................................................................................................... 83
4.10.5 Health and Safety Plan ........................................................................................................ 84
4.10.6 Health and Safety File .......................................................................................................... 85
5 Reporting Systems .................................................................................................. 86
5.1 General ....................................................................................................................... 86
5.1.1 Quality Control ..................................................................................................................... 86
5.1.2 Format of Documents .......................................................................................................... 86
5.2 Sketch Stage .............................................................................................................. 90
5.2.1 Structure/Content of Report ................................................................................................. 90
5.2.2 Programme .......................................................................................................................... 91
5.2.3 Design Enquiry Status ......................................................................................................... 91
5.2.4 Available Information ........................................................................................................... 91
5.2.5 Investigations ....................................................................................................................... 91
5.2.6 Land Use .............................................................................................................................. 91
5.2.7 Design Criteria ..................................................................................................................... 91
5.2.8 Options ................................................................................................................................. 91
5.2.9 Recommendation ................................................................................................................. 91
5.2.10 Appendices .......................................................................................................................... 91
5.2.11 Typical Drawings .................................................................................................................. 92
5.3 Preliminary Stage Report ........................................................................................... 92
5.3.1 Structure/Content of Report ................................................................................................. 92

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5.4 Detail Design and Tendering Stage ............................................................................ 93
5.5 Documentation ............................................................................................................ 93
5.5.1 Drawings .............................................................................................................................. 93
5.5.2 Specification ........................................................................................................................ 93
5.5.3 Bill of Quantities................................................................................................................... 94
5.6 Engineering Report ..................................................................................................... 94
5.7 Supplementary Reports .............................................................................................. 95
6 Checking Systems ................................................................................................... 96
6.1 Project Quality Plan .................................................................................................... 96
6.2 Stage Approvals ......................................................................................................... 97
6.3 References and Information updating ......................................................................... 97
6.4 Progress Reporting ..................................................................................................... 97
7 Operation and Maintenance.................................................................................... 99
7.1 Normal Operations ...................................................................................................... 99
7.1.1 Operational Objectives and Priorities .................................................................................. 99
7.1.2 Management and Control of Operations ........................................................................... 100
7.1.3 Operating Procedures, Schedules and Organisation ........................................................ 101
7.1.4 Cost Control and Operational Efficiency ........................................................................... 101
7.2 Routine (Scheduled) Maintenance ........................................................................... 101
7.2.1 Definition of Scheduled Maintenance ................................................................................ 102
7.2.2 Classification of Routine Maintenance Tasks.................................................................... 102
7.2.3 Method Statements on Each Activity and Sub-Activity ..................................................... 103
7.2.4 Organisation and Control of Scheduled Maintenance ....................................................... 103
7.2.5 Inspection, Quality Control and Follow-Up ........................................................................ 104
7.2.6 Maintenance and Inspection of Safety/Rescue Equipment............................................... 104
7.3 Non-Scheduled (Non-Routine) Maintenance ............................................................ 105
7.3.1 Definition of Non-Scheduled Maintenance ........................................................................ 105
7.3.2 Classification of Non-Scheduled Maintenance Tasks ....................................................... 105
7.3.3 Identifying the Need for Non-Scheduled Maintenance ...................................................... 105
7.3.4 Management of Non-Scheduled Maintenance .................................................................. 105
7.3.5 Control of Costs and Quality ............................................................................................. 106
7.3.6 Inspection and Follow-Up .................................................................................................. 106
7.4 Emergency Procedures ............................................................................................ 106
7.4.1 Definition and Classification of Emergencies .................................................................... 106
7.4.2 Establishment of Emergency Response Plans/Procedures .............................................. 107
7.4.3 Emergency Plant and Equipment ...................................................................................... 108
7.4.4 Public Health and Environmental Considerations ............................................................. 108
7.4.5 Safety Considerations ....................................................................................................... 109
7.4.6 Feedback and Optimising Emergency Response ............................................................. 109
7.4.7 First Aid Arrangements and Emergency Procedures ........................................................ 109
7.5 Spare Parts and Equipment ...................................................................................... 109
7.5.1 Targets and Objectives ..................................................................................................... 110
7.5.2 Spare Parts Availability...................................................................................................... 110

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7.5.3 Storage Facilities ............................................................................................................... 110
7.5.4 Inventory Control and Stock Management Procedures ..................................................... 110
7.6 Records..................................................................................................................... 111
7.6.1 Operational Records .......................................................................................................... 111
7.6.2 Records of Scheduled Maintenance .................................................................................. 111
7.6.3 Records of Non-Scheduled Maintenance .......................................................................... 112
7.6.4 Records of Emergencies .................................................................................................... 112
7.6.5 Recommendations for Reporting of Operation & Maintenance ......................................... 112
7.6.6 Records of Existing Assets, Including GIS and Electronic Media ...................................... 112
7.6.7 Procedures for Maintenance and Updating of Asset Databases ....................................... 112
7.6.8 Verification, Updating and Maintenance of ‘As-Built’ Drawings, Documents and Manuals113
7.7 Capacity Review ....................................................................................................... 113
7.7.1 Guidelines for Monitoring and Reporting of Operational Capacity .................................... 113
7.7.2 Measurement of Pump Performance Against Design ....................................................... 113
7.7.3 Comparison of System/Part of Actual System Against Design Capacity .......................... 114
8 References ............................................................................................................. 115

APPENDICES
Appendix 1 - Sample Calculation Sheets, Forms, HARA & Report Page Layout
Appendix 2 - Programmes
Appendix 3 - Drawings
Appendix 4 -Tender Procedure Flowchart
Appendix 5 - Industrial Waste Application
Appendix 6 - Soil and Rock Descriptions
Appendix 7 - Sample Letters


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FOREWORD
This Manual is the sole property of the Drainage Affairs (DA) of the Qatar Public Works Authority. It was produced
by Hyder Consulting (ME) Ltd under a Project Service Agreement (PSA), on behalf of the Qatar DA in December
2003.
This is the first of 8 Volumes, as listed below:
• Volume 1 - General
• Volume 2 - Foul Sewerage
• Volume 3 - Surface and Groundwater Drainage
• Volume 4 - Treated Sewage Effluent
• Volume 5 - Sewage Treatment Works
• Volume 6 - CAD Manual
• Volume 7 - Standard Drawings
The Manual is intended for use as a guide to good practice in the design of work on behalf of, and for adoption by
the DA. It is intended to be used by consulting engineers in order to produce a degree of uniform quality and
similarity for future infrastructure developments throughout Qatar.
The content of the Manual has been compiled by a panel of specialists based upon their collective individual
experiences, and in close consultation with DA staff.
The first issue of the Manual is available for general circulation in paper format. Digital master copies will be
retained by the DA. A web-based version of the Manual will be compiled subsequent to the successful launch of
the first issue. Any enquiries regarding this Manual should be directed to the Head of Consultancy Services
Division, Qatar Drainage Affairs. It is intended that the Manual will be reviewed by the DA after the first year of
implementation in June/July 2005.
i Standards
This Manual should be used in accordance with, or as a supplement to the relevant standards, codes, papers and
other documents, as categorised into the three categories below.
A. Contract Documents
B. Local Technical Regulations
C. Technical Codes and Papers
Please note, that the reader should always check with the relevant authority for new standards or revisions of
existing documents pertaining to the task at hand.
A. Contract Documents
The following are examples of relevant contract documents (not exhaustive):
• General Conditions of Contract, Prepared by the Ministry of Public Works;
• Professional Service Agreement General Conditions of Engagement 1984;
• Conditions on Contract Governing the Supply of Materials;
• Conditions of Contract for Design and Build Projects.

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B. Local Technical Regulations
The following are examples of applicable technical regulations (not exhaustive):
• The Qatar National Building Specification ("QNBS") published by the Ministry of Public Works, including all
revisions issued by the Ministry of Industry & Public Works and the Public Works Authority(Qatar Contract
Specification (“QCS”), is currently undergoing revision and not preferred by DA);
• The Survey Manual prepared by the Survey Section of the Ministry of Public Works;
• The Qatar Traffic Manual prepared by the Ministry of Public Works;
• The Traffic Control at Road Works Manual issued by the Ministry of Industry & Public Works;
• Rules, Regulations and Code of Practice for Design and Installation of Air Conditioning, Heating, Ventilation
& Refrigeration (ACHVR) Systems for Government Buildings, 2nd Edition, 1989, prepared by Electricity
and Water Department (MEW);
• Regulations for the Installation of Electrical Wiring by Qatar National Telephone;
• The Regulations for the Installation of Electrical Wiring, Electrical Equipment and Air Conditioning
Equipment, sixth re-issue dated January 1992 prepared by the Ministry of Electricity and Water, PO Box
41, Doha;
• Any current and relevant regulation, notice or circular issued by the Public Works Authority(including the
previous Ministry of Public Works and the previous Ministry of Industry and Public Works), the Ministry of
Electricity and Water or the appropriate local Municipality prior to the date of the letter of invitation to
Tender;
• State of Qatar Law Number (8);
• State of Qatar Law No. 30 of 2002 and all subsequent amendments concerning “The Environment and
Natural Resources Protection” – Articles 6, 17, 19 & 35 obtainable form Government House.

C. Technical Codes and Papers
The following are examples of applicable technical codes/papers (not exhaustive):
• The Code of Practice and Specification for Road Openings in the Highway prepared by the Ministry of
Industry & Public Works;
• The Guide for Civil Users of Explosives in Qatar prepared by the Ministry of Public Works.

ii Authorities
The following utility/planning authorities should be contacted as appropriate for guidance, approvals and applicable
standards/regulations/codes of practice, pertaining to the design task being undertaken.

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Utility/Planning Authorities
The Director of Drainage Affairs
Public Works Authority
PO Box 23337
Doha

The Director of Roads Affairs
Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Agriculture
PO Box 22188
Doha

The Director of Building Engineering Department
Public Works Authority
PO Box 22188
Doha

The Director of Agricultural Development Department
Public Works Authority
PO Box 22188
Doha

The Head of Mapping & Positioning Services
Centre for GIS
Public Works Authority
PO Box 22188
Doha

The Director of Electricity Networks Department
Qatar General Electricity & Water Corporation
PO Box 41
Doha
The Director of Water Networks Department
Qatar General Electricity & Water Corporation
PO Box 41
Doha

The Director of Programmes & Planning
Qatar General Electricity & Water Corporation
PO Box 41
Doha

The Manager of External Planning Division
Q-Tel
PO Box 217
Doha


Engineering Manager of Oil & Gas Operations
Qatar Petroleum
PO Box 70
Doha

The Director of Planning Department
PO Box 3843
Doha



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The Director of Land Information Centre
PO Box 23999
Doha

The Director of Land Acquisition Department
PO Box 2199
Doha

The Director of Land Department
PO Box 2199
Doha


The Director
Supreme Council for the Environment and Natural Resources
PO Box 7634
Doha

The Director of Department of Industrial Development
Ministry of Energy & Industry
PO Box 2599
Doha

REGULATING AUTHORITIES

The Chairman
General Tenders Committee
Public Works Authority
Doha - Qatar

The Chairman
Limited Tenders Committee
Public Works Authority
Doha - Qatar

The Chairman
Small Tenders Committee
Public Works Authority
Doha - Qatar

State Audit Bureau
PO Box 2466
Doha

Department of Legal Opinions & Contracts
PO Box 917
Doha
iii Qatar National Height Datum (QND) and Qatar National Grid
The Qatar National Height Datum is referred to as the Qatar National Datum 1995 (QND95). Both QND and
the Qatar National Grid are regulated by:
The Head of Mapping & Positioning Services
Centre for GIS
Public Works Authority
PO Box 22188, Doha

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Details of benchmarks and co-ordinates of survey stations throughout Qatar can be obtained from the
Centre for GIS (cGIS).


iv Definitions
The following definitions apply to terms used throughout Volumes 1 – 8 of this Manual
Accuracy -is the extent to which a given measurement agrees with the standard value
required for that measurement, or the level of error on measuring instruments.
Aeration -is the addition of oxygen to wastewater.
Aerobic -respiration is respiration in the presence of oxygen.
Ammonia (NH3) -protein breakdown product common in wastewater
Anaerobic -respiration is respiration in the absence of oxygen.
Approved -terms such as “approved”, “approved by”, “to the approval”, “as directed” and the
like refer always to approval or directions given by the Engineer in writing.
Backfill -material used to fill pipe trench to formation level.
Bacteria -single celled organisms, which play a part in the breakdown of organic matter.
Bar screen -catches large objects prior to entering pumping stations, water treatment and
wastewater treatment processes.
Bedding / Bed and Surround -granular material used to bed pipes in trenches.
Belt press -device for mechanical dewatering of sludge.
Bioassays -tests on biota which can be used to determine both the short and long-term impact
of schemes.
Biochemical Oxygen Demand -(BOD) is the quantity of oxygen used by micro-organisms in the aerobic demand
stabilisation of wastewater. It is a measure of the amount of organic matter in the
wastewater.
Catchpit -roadside drainage appurtenance designed to collect silt (also known as silt trap).
Centrifugal separation -is a method of concentrating suspended solids.
Chloramines -product of chlorine and ammonia sometimes used for disinfection.
Chlorination -most common method of disinfection.
Chlorine dioxide (CO2) -less common disinfectant.
Client -the Municipality, Department, Agency or individual for whom the Project is being
undertaken and to whom the hand over of the final product will be made.
Chemical Oxygen -the amount of chemically oxidizable material present in the wastewater.
Demand (COD)

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Coliform bacteria -indicator organisms for faecal contamination in wastewater
Comminutor -mechanism used to shred suspended material in wastewater.
Contract -legally binding agreement.
Contractor -the company or organisation responsible for the construction of the Works under
the terms of the contract.
Cover -depth of fill above pipe, or thickness of concrete surround to reinforcement.
Crown -top of pipe.
Datum -reference level.
Design Flow -flow used for design of facilities such as Sewage Treatment Works (STW) (also
called FFT), for sewer and stormwater (SW) drainage pipes.
Density -mass per unit volume.
Digester -wastewater treatment module to promote breakdown of settled sludge.
Detention time -the time which elapses between wastewater entering and leaving a tank.
Dilution -is the mixing of a strong concentration of solution with water or other liquid to
produce a weaker concentration.
Disease -health disorder caused by pathogens, which can be associated with wastewater.
Disinfection -deactivation of viable pathogens.
DO (Dissolved Oxygen) -refers to the amount of dissolved oxygen in water expressed in milligrams per litre.
Drain -pipe conveying surface or ground water.
Drawings -drawings included in the Project Documentation.
Drying beds -type of facility using evaporation for dewatering digested sludge.
Dry Weather Flow (DWF) -sewer base-flow during dry periods with no inflow due to rainfall.
Efficiency -actual performance expressed as a percentage of theoretical maximum.
Effluent -outflow from a sewer or treatment process.
Engineer -the Director of Drainage Affairs, Director of Roads Affairs, or the Director of
Building Engineering, as appropriate, unless specified otherwise in the Project
Documentation.
Environmental Protection -standards set by the Supreme Council for the Environment and Natural Reserves
(SCENR) for application under the Qatar Environmental Law.
Evaporation (Pan) -measure of water loss to atmosphere from large water surfaces (not to be
confused by evaporation (piche) referring to plant evaporation).
Extended aeration plants -type of activated sludge process.
Flow to Full Treatment (FFT) -design flow at the STW, commonly three times DWF in Qatar.
Formation -Founding level for road construction, or top of excavation level.

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F/M -food to micro-organism ratio.
Facultative bacteria -are able to break down organic matter in the presence or absence of oxygen.
Feasibility -is the viability or likelihood of an event or process taking place.
Fixed media filters -use micro-organisms attached to a medium to treat wastewater.
Government -government of the State of Qatar.
Granular sub base -road construction material.
Grease -long chain hydrocarbons common in wastewater from cooking processes.
Grinder/Macerator pump -comminutor (see above).
Grit -dense, inorganic material in wastewater.
Guarantee -is a written assurance.
Hydraulic loading -is the volume of wastewater treated per unit time.
Hypochlorite -oxidising agent used for disinfection.
Invert -lower inside surface level of pipe, or top of slab level.
Kinetics of growth -conditions for microbial treatment of wastewater.
Mixed Liquor Suspended
Solids (MLSS) -amount of total suspended solid material (organic and inorganic).

Mixed Liquor Volatile
Suspended Solids (MLVSS) -amount of organic material suspended in the mixed liquor sample.

Nocardia -bacteria which are a major cause of foaming in activated sludge plants
Organic Loading -amount of BOD applied to a treatment plant.
O.U.R. (Oxygen Uptake
Rate) -rate at which oxygen is consumed by living organisms in the waste stream.
Oxidation Ditch -suspended growth treatment process for wastewater, commonly with large specific
surface area and surface aeration.
Ozone (O3) -strong oxidising agent sometimes used for disinfection.
Package Plant -small treatment plant manufactured in modules.
Peak Flow -maximum value of flow at a point in a sewer or other system. Design flows in pipes
are generally taken as the peak flow.
Pipe Full Flow -pipe capacity with no surcharge.
pH -measure of acidity on a scale of 1-7.
Power -measure of energy consumption or output, expressed as a total or rate.
Precision -degree of accuracy.

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Pre-treatment -is the first phase of the wastewater treatment process. It usually includes
screening and grit removal or in the case of small plants, screening and shredding
the sewage.
Primary Treatment -settlement stage of the wastewater treatment process in a conventional STW
following pre-treatment.
Project Documentation -all documents associated with and applicable to the Project Contract.
Pumps -are mechanical devices that impart additional pressure head at a given flow.
Pumps are most efficient at only one pressure and flow and are rated accordingly.
Rotating Biological
Contactor (RBC) -fixed film bioreactor used in wastewater treatment.

Recirculation -proportion of effluent from a treatment which is recycled to improve treatment.
Sequencing Batch
Reactor (SBR) -activated sludge system which operates sequentially as opposed to continuously.
Sedimentation Chamber -settlement tank.
Seeding -is the process of inoculating the influent with micro-organisms usually for removal
of contaminants.
Septic -anaerobic.
Septic Tank -septic tanks treat sewage by anaerobic means and are installed with soakaways or
tile beds. They are installed primarily for private homes. In Qatar the term is also
used to include cesspits, which do not have soakaways and require emptying
regularly by tanker.
Settling -process in which denser material is separated by gravitation.
Sewage -domestic or industrial wastewater.
Sewer -pipe which conveys sewage.
Sewerage -refers to complete sewer system and appurtenances.
Site -the land allocated for Works to be constructed.
Sludge -is a semi-solid material produced during wastewater treatment processes.
Sludge consists of mostly of dead micro-organisms and inorganic matter.
Sludge – Returned/Activated -Secondary sludge returned to the head of the process to seed influent.
Soakaway -facility for dispersion of water to soil strata, primarily for surface water dissipation,
but also associated with septic tanks.
Soffit -underside of pipe or slab.
Solubility -is the amount of a substance which will dissolve in water.
Specific Gravity -density relative to water.
Supernatant -clear fluid decanted from the top of tanks

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Suspended Solids -Insoluble substances suspended in water.
SVI (Sludge Volume Index) -measure of sludge settleability formally defined as "the volume in millilitres
occupied by 1gm of activated sludge after settling the aerated mixed liquor for 30
minutes".
Tertiary Treatment -polishing stage in wastewater treatment to further improve treatment and remove
nutrients.
Time of Concentration -time required for surface water flow to reach a specific point downstream of entry in
SW drainage system.
Time of Entry -time required for surface water flow to enter SW drainage system.
Toxins -poisonous compounds.
Tricking Filter -are a type of fixed-media filter used in wastewater treatment.
Total Suspended Solids
(TSS) -measure of insoluble content of wastewater.
Ultraviolet (UV) Light -is light beyond the violet end of the visible spectrum, used for wastewater
disinfection.
Valve -flow control device used to limit or isolate flow.
Washout -low point of a pressure pipeline equipped with a tee/branch pipe and isolating
valve, to enable draining of the main and flushing of solids.
Washout -occurs when a great deal of stormwater flows into a treatment plant. Micro-
organisms, sludge, and wastewater are forced through the plant and out into a river
or stream before being properly treated.
Wastewater -domestic and industrial sewage.
Wet well -pumping station chamber receiving inflow.

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v Abbreviations
A. Drainage Affairs Abbreviations
The following definitions refer to Qatar Drainage Affairs Divisions/Areas.
Abbreviation Description
DD Designs Department
DA Drainage Affairs
DODA Director of Drainage Affairs
AMoDD Acting Manager of Designs Department
AMoMD Acting Managerof Maintenance Department
AMoPD Acting Manager of Projects Department
AMoQ&SD Acting Manager of Quality and Safety Division
MMAA Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Agriculture
MD Maintenance Department
PD Projects Department
Q&SD Quality and Safety Department

B. Other Departments/Organisations Definitions
The following definitions refer to Qatar Departments/Organisations other than the Drainage Affairs.
Abbreviation Description
BA Building Affairs
CEBA Contract and Engineering Business Affairs
CTC Central Tenders Committee
DLOC Department of Legal Opinion and Contracts
cGIS Centre for Geographic Information Systems
PDS Prime Document Storage
QGEWC Qatar General Electricity and Works Company
QP Qatar Petroleum
Q-Tel Qatar Telecommunications
RA Roads Affairs
SAB State Audit Bureau
SCENR Supreme Council for the Environmental and Natural Reserves
TAC Tenders and Auction Committee

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C. Technical Definitions
The following definitions relate to technical abbreviations found throughout Volumes 1-8 of this Manual.
Abbreviation Description
% Percent – i.e. 50/100 = 50%
°C Degrees Celsius
A/C Air Conditioner/Conditioning
AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
ABS Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene
AC Alternating Current
AC Asbestos Cement
ACB Air Circuit Breaker
AIS Asset Information System
AMCA Air Movement Conditioning Association
ANSI American National Standards Institute
APIS American Petroleum Institute Specification
ARF Areal Reduction Factor
ACRI Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute
ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers
ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials
BOD Biological Oxygen Demand
BS / BSI British Standards / British Standards Institute
C&CA Cement and Concrete Association
CBGF Cement Bound Granular Fill
CESMM3 Civil Engineering Standard Method of Measurement, 3
rd
Edition, 1991
CFD Computational Fluid Dynamics
cGIS Central Geographical Information System
CI Cast Iron
CIBSE Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers
CIRIA Concrete Industry Research and Information Association
COD Chemical Oxygen Demand
COSHH Control of Substances Hazardous to Health
CPU Central Processing Unit
CPVC Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride
CS Concrete Society
CW Constructed Wetlands
dBa Decibel Amperes (electrical)

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Volume 1 General Page xvii
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Abbreviation Description
DC Direct Current
DCS Distributed Control Systems
DA Drainage Affairs of the Public Works Authority
DI Ductile Iron
DICL Ductile Iron Concrete Lined
dia/diam Diameter
DO Dissolved Oxygen
DOL Direct on Line
DWF Dry Weather Flow
dwg Drawing
EC European Community
EFA Environmental Flooding Areas
EGL Existing Ground Level
EIA Environmental Impact Assessment
EIS Environmental Impact Study
ELCB Earth Leakage Circuit Breakdown
ELV Extra Low Voltage
EPDM Ethylene Propylene Rubber
FGL Finished Ground Level
FLC Full Load Current
F/M Food to Micro-organism Ratio
GGBS Ground Granulated Blastfurnace Slag
GI Ground Investigation
GIR Ground Investigative Report
GIS Geographical Information System
GL Ground Level
GPS Geographical Positioning System
GRE Glass Reinforced Epoxy
GRP Glass Reinforced Plastic
GSB Granular Sub Base
GL Ground Level
GWL Groundwater Level
H2S Hydrogen Sulphide
HCME Hyder Consulting Middle East Ltd
H&S Health and Safety

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Abbreviation Description
HV
High Voltage (exceeding 650 volts between conductor or between any conductor and
earth)
HVAC Heat, Ventilation & Air Conditioning
I/O Input/Output
ICE Institution of Civil Engineers
IDF Intensity Frequency Duration
IEE Institution of Electrical Engineers
IEE Regulations The Institution of Electrical Engineers Regulations for Electrical Installations
ISO International Standard Organisation
KSM Kuwait Stormwater Master Plan
KVA kilo Volt Ampere
LAN Local Area Network
LCD Liquid Crystal Display
LED Light Emitting Diode
LRA Lock Rotor Current
Lux The metric unit of measure for illuminance of a surface (Light intensity)
LV
Low Voltage (exceeding 50 volts but not exceeding 250 volts between any conductor and
earth)
M&E Mechanical & Electrical
Mbgl Metres below ground level
MCB Main Circuit Breaker
MCC Motor Control Centre
ME Middle East
MLSS Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids
MLVSS Mixed Liquor Volatile Suspended Solids
MMAA Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Agriculture
MCCB Moulded Case Circuit Breakdown
MS Mild Steel
MTU Motor Terminal Unit
MV
Medium Voltage (exceeding 250 volts but not exceeding 650 volts between any conductor
and earth)
N/C Normally Closed
N/O Normally Open
NDM Non Destructive Methods (e.g. trenchless)
Ne Not exceeding
NH3 Ammonia
No. Number

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Volume 1 General Page xix
1st Edition June 2005 - © Copyright Ashghal
Abbreviation Description
NPSH Net Positive Suction Head
NPT National Pipe Thread
Nr Number
NRV Non Return Valve
O3 Ozone
OEL Occupational Exposure Limit – e.g. to hydrogen sulphide gas.
OHSA Occupational Health and Safety Act
O&M Operations and Maintenance
OPC Ordinary Portland Cement
O.U.R Oxygen Uptake Rate
PC Personal Computer
PF Power Factor
PFA Pulverised Fuel Ash
PH Measure of acidity, units are pH on a scale of 1-7
PID Proportional, Integral, Derivative
PIMP Percentage Impermeable
PLC Programmable Logic Controller
PLSW Paper Lead and Steel Wire
PM Project Manager
Ppb Parts per Billion
Ppm Parts per Million
PS Pumping Station
PSA Professional Services Agreement
PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network
PTTA Partially Type Tested Assembly
PVC Polyvinyl Chloride
PVC-U Unplasticised Polyvinyl Chloride, also referred to as uPVC
QA Quality Assurance / Assured
QC Quality Control
QGEWC Qatar General Electricity and Water Corporation
QHDM Qatar Highways Design Manual
QNBS Qatar National Building Specification
QND / QNHD Qatar National Datum / Qatar National Height Datum
QR Qatar Riyals
Q-Tel Qatar Public Telecommunications Corporation
R Radius
RBC Rotating Biological Contactor
RC Reinforced Concrete

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Abbreviation Description
RPM Rotations Per Minute
Rpm Revolutions Per Minute
RTU Remote Telemetry Unit
SAR Sodium Absorption Ratio
SBR Sequencing Batch Reactor
SCADA Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition
SKVA Starting kilo Volt Ampere
SLS Serviceability Limit State
SMS Short Message Service
SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol
SPN Single Phase and Neutral
SRC Sulphate Resisting Cement
SRPC Sulphate Resisting Portland cement
SS Stainless Steel
STP Sewerage Treatment Plant
STW Sewerage Treatment Works
SVI Sludge Volume Index
SW Surface Water or Stormwater
SWL Safe Working Load
TDH Total Dynamic Head
TDS Total Dissolved Solids
TSE Treated Sewage Effluent
TSS Total Suspended Solids
TTA Type Tested Assembly
TTW/TTP Tertiary Treatment Works/Tertiary Treatment Plant
TWL Top Water Level, e.g. of a tank or wet-well
UAE United Arab Emirates
ULS Ultimate Limit State
UPS Uninterrupted Power Supply
uPVC Unplasticised Polyvinyl Chloride, also referred to as PVC-U
UV Ultra Violet
v/v Concentration volume/volume
Vac Volt alternating current
VC Vitrified Clay
Vdc Volt direct current
VDU Visual Display Unit
VFD Variable Frequency Drive
VSD Variable Speed Drive
VT Voltage Transformer

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Volume 1 General Page xxi
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Abbreviation Description
WG Wire Gauge
WHO World Health Organisation
WIS Water Industry Specification
WRC Water Research Centre, UK
XML Extensible Markup Language

vi Units and Dimensions
The units used on all projects shall be SI units only, as per the table below
Multiplication factor prefix Symbol
1 000 000 000 000 = 10
12
tera T
1 000 000 000 = 10
9
giga G
1 000 000 = 10
6
Mega M
1 000 = 10
3
Kilo k
100 = 10
2
hectot h
10 = 10
1
deka
b
da
0.1 = 10
-1
deci
b
d
0.01 = 10
-2
centi
b
c
0.001 = 10
-3
milli m
0.000 001 = 10
-6
micro µ
0.000 000 001 = 10
-9
nano n
0.000 000 000 001 = 10
-12
pico p
0.000 000 000 000 001 = 10
-15
femto f
0.000 000 000 000 000 001 = 10
-18
atto a

State of Qatar -Public Works Authority
Drainage Affairs




State of Qatar -Public Works Authority
Drainage Affairs

Volume 1 General Page 1
1st Edition June 2005 - © Copyright Ashghal
1 Introduction
The Drainage Affairs (DA) Design Manual comprises
eight separate volumes. The coverage of each is
designed to reflect the organisational structure of the
DA.
The content in some areas of the Manual, such as
Volumes 2 and 3 (foul and surface water
respectively) is repeated. This is because the
different specialisms are covered by different
sections within the DA. Separate volumes of the
Manual are available corresponding to the different
administrative sections of DA, and are intended to
be complete for the particular section, or provide
references to relevant sections of other volumes
where this is not possible. For this reason, material
is repeated in some volumes in order to provide a
source of information for each department that will
be, on the whole, independent of other volumes.
References to other volumes are provided where
appropriate however.
The Manual is for use by Design Consultants in
developing new infrastructure for the DA. The
Manual will be controlled and administered by the
DA. Sections of the Manual will be revised from time
to time, and it will be the responsibility of all
Consultants using the Manual to ensure that they
are working to the current issue. The DA can be
contacted for information on revisions. Any errors or
omissions, or recommendations should be notified
to the Designs Department DA.
Original drafts were produced using Microsoft Word,
and converted to Adobe Acrobat files for use by the
DA. Paper copies will be distributed to consultants
on request.
A web version of the Manual will also be developed
by the DA following initial launch.
Copyright of the Manual in its current format is the
property of the DA and it may not be reproduced in
any format without written permission of the DA.
Use of the Manual does not absolve design
consultants from their normal responsibilities. The
Manual is be utilised as a guide to good practice and
should be used only by competent practitioners, with
due diligence.
1.1 Terms of Reference
This Manual was written by Hyder Consulting Middle
East Ltd (HCME). under the terms of the DA PSA
DFC1050/D9. The content of the Manual was
developed from Appendices A and B of the PSA
(developed during the period 1997–2000 by staff of
the DA). The initial PSA was issued for competitive
tenders in 2000, and Hyder was commissioned to
prepare the Manual in 2003.
1.2 Manual Development
Process
The initial PSA contents were further developed
during 2003 through a series of meetings between
Hyder specialists and DA staff. Information obtained
during these meetings included DA policy on
drainage planning, operational policies, preferences
for equipment, procurement strategies, and practical
issues associated with the operation of the existing
infrastructure.
Visits were made to Consultants ASCO and KAME
site offices to view typical local construction
conditions including; high water tables, deep
excavations and micro-tunnelling.
1.3 Recommendations for
Additional Study
The Manual will serve as a useful guide for
experienced designers in design for the DA. It is not
exhaustive in its’ coverage, and is not intended to
replace the standard texts or proven theory listed
elsewhere.
Where detailed procedures are considered to be
beyond the scope of the Manual, some
recommendations are made for further reading. For
example, the Trenchless Section within Volume 2,
includes discussion of design of jacking pipes, thrust
and delivery pits for new installations. These
activities are always carried out by experienced
specialist contractors, however, design consultants
may wish to check the adequacy of these designs.
Hence references are provided for this purpose.
With trenchless installation for rehabilitation of
existing sewers, there is a wealth of literature
commonly cited for reference.

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Page 2 Volume 1 General
1st Edition June 2005 - © Copyright Ashghal
As current DA preference in Qatar is for new-build,
the rehabilitation of existing sewers is covered by
cross-references to some of the more commonly
used literature.
1.4 Manual Updating
Updates to the Manual will be issued periodically.
These will incorporate any technical improvements
identified since the last revision, in addition to any
new or updated references/publications included in
the Manual. Descriptions of the updates will be
forwarded to all consultants, whilst both hard and
digital copies will be available on request from the
DA.
1.5 Literature/References
The following list of references has been compiled
from Volumes 1 to 8 of the Manual. References
used within this volume are also included at the end
of the text.
• B Maidl, M. Herrenknecht, L.Anheuser,
Mechanised Shield Tunnelling, Ernst & Sohn
Publications.
• Bazaraa, A.S., Ahmed, S., 1991. Rainfall
Characterization in an Arid Area, Engineering
Journal of Qatar University, Vol. 4, pp35-50.
• Bowker D. G., Smith J. M., and Webster N. A.,
1989, Odour and Corrosion Control in Sanitary
Sewerage Systems and Treatment Plants,
United States, Hemisphere Publishing
Corporation.
• British Standards Institution, 1997, BS 8301:
Code of practice for building drainage, London,
BSI. ISBN 0-89116-067-1.
• Bras, R.L., 1990, Hydrology: An Introduction to
Hydrologic Science, Addison-Wesley.
• Building Research Establishment, Digest 250:
Concrete in sulphate-bearing soils and ground
water. UK, BRE.
• British Standards Institution, 1989, BS 8010-
1:1989 - Code of practice for Pipelines, Part 1:
Pipelines on land: general, London BSI.
• British Standards Institution, 1997, BS 5228-
2:1997 - Noise and vibration control on
construction and open sites — Part 2: Guide to
noise and vibration control legislation for
construction and demolition including road
construction and maintenance. London, BSI.
• British Standards Institution, 1981, BS 5911-
1:1981 Precast concrete pipes and fittings for
drainage and sewerage. Specification for pipes
and fittings with flexible joints and manholes
(No longer current but cited in the Building
Regulations), London, BSI.
• British Standards Institution, 1992, BS
6472:1992: Evaluation of human exposure to
vibration in buildings (1Hz to 80Hz), London,
BSI.
• British Standards Institution, 1990, BS 7385 -
1:1990, Evaluation and measurement for
vibration in buildings. Guide for measurement
of vibrations and evaluation of their effects on
buildings, London, BSI.
• British Standards Institution, 1990, BS 7385 -
1:1990, Evaluation and measurement for
vibration in buildings. Guide for measurement
of vibrations and evaluation of their effects on
buildings, London, BSI.
• British Standards Institution, 1990, BS1377:
1990 - Methods of test for soils for civil
engineering purposes. London, BSI.
• British Standards Institution, 1990, BS 5930:
1981- Code of practice for site investigation,
London, BSI.
• British Standards Institution, 2001, BS 6164:
2001 - Code of practice for safety in tunnelling
in the construction industry, London, BSI.
• British Standards Institution, 1991, BS 7405:
1991: Guide to selection and application of flow
meters for the measurement of fluid flow in
closed conduits. London, BSI.
• British Standards Institution, 1991, BS EN ISO
6817: 1997: Measurement of conductive liquid
flow in closed conduits. London, BSI.
• Chow, V.T., Maidment, D.R., Mays, L.W., 1988.
Applied Hydrology, McGraw-Hill, p140.

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Volume 1 General Page 3
1st Edition June 2005 - © Copyright Ashghal
• Construction Industry Research and
Information Association, 1997, Special
Publication 137: Site Safety for the Water
Industry, London, CIRIA.
• E.J. Cording, T.D. O’Rourke, and
M.D.Boscardin, 1978, Ground Movements and
Damage to Structures, Proc., Int. Conf. On
Evaluation and Prediction of Subsidence,
Florida, pp 516-537.
• Foundation for Water Research, 1993,
Enclosed wastewater treatment plants - health
and safety considerations, FR/W 0001, UK,
FRW.
• British Standards Institution, 1998, BS EN
1508:1998, Water supply - Requirements for
systems and components for the storage of
water, London, BSI.
• British Standards Institution, 2000, BS EN
805:2000, Water supply - Requirements for
systems and components outside buildings,
London, BSI.
• United Nations, 1985 , Food & Agriculture
Organisation of the United Nations, Rome, UN.
• Milligan G., Norris, P., , Pipe jacking: Research
results and recommendations, Pipe Jacking
Association.
• International Society for Trenchless
Technology, 1992, Introduction to trenchless
technology, 2nd edition, ISTT.
• Tyson A., and Harrison K, Irrigation for Lawns
and Gardens, Extension Agricultural Engineers,
The University of Georgia College of
Agricultural & Environmental Sciences.
• Burland J.B., and Wroth C.P, 1975, Settlement
of Buildings and Associated Damage, Building
Research Establishment Current Paper,
Watford, Building Research Establishment.
• Burland J.B., 1997, Assessment of risk of
damage to buildings due to tunnelling and
excavation, Earthquake Geotechnical
Engineering, Ishihara (ed.), Balkema,
Rotterdam, pp. 1189-1201.
• Boon, A.G., 1992, Septicity in sewers: Causes,
Consequences and Containment. JIWEM, Vol
6 No.1, February 1992, pp.79-90.
• Linsley, R.K., Kohler M.A. & Paulhaus, J.L.H.,
1982, Hydrology for Engineers, 3rd Edition,
McGraw-Hill.
• Ministry of Civil Aviation and Meteorology,
State of Qatar, 2002. Long Term Climate
Report –2000, extracted from Long Period
Means & Extremes of Climatological Elements,
Doha International Airport, period (1962-2002),
Qatar Ministry of Civil Aviation and
Meteorology.
• Morin, J., and Benyamini, Y., 1997. Rainfall
Infiltration into Bare Soils, Water Resources
Research, 13(5), pp812-817.
• Water Research Centre, Network analysis - A
code of practice, UK, Water Research Centre.
• Peck, R. B., 1969, Deep excavations and
tunnelling in soft ground. Proc. of 7th Int. Conf.
Soil Mech., Mexico, State of the Art 3, pp. 225-
290.
• Pipe Jacking Association, 1987, A guide to pipe
jacking and microtunnelling design, Pipe
Jacking Association.
• Water Research Centre, 1995, Pipe materials
selection manual - water supply, 2nd edition,
UK, Water Research Centre.
• US Environmental Protection Agency, 1974,
US EPA Report 625/1-74-005 - Process Design
Manual for Sulphide Control in Sanitary
Sewerage Systems, USA, EPA.
• Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Agriculture,
1997, Qatar Highway Design Manual, January
1997, Qatar, MMAA.
• Taylor, R. N., and Bracegirdle, A., 1993,
Subsurface settlement profiles above tunnels in
clay, Geotechnique, 43(2), pp.315-320.
• Reynolds, C.E. and Steedman, J.C, 1988,
Reinforced Concrete Designers Handbook. 10
th

ed. London, Spon Press.

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1st Edition June 2005 - © Copyright Ashghal
• Boone S.J., 1996, Ground Movement Related
Building Damage, Journal of Geotechnical
Engineering, ASCE, 122(11), pp. 886-896.
• State of Kuwait Ministry of Planning & Hyder
Consulting, 2001, Kuwait Stormwater
Masterplan Hydrological Aspects - Final
Report. Cardiff, (AU00109/D1/015), Hyder
Consulting.
• State of Qatar, 2002, Law No. 30:
Environmental Protection, Qatar, State of
Qatar.
• HR Wallingford and DIH Barr, 2000, Tables for
the Hydraulic Design of Pipes, Sewers and
Channels, 7
th
Edition, Trowbridge, Wiltshire,
UK Redwood Books.
• Construction Industry Research and
Information Association, 1994, Guide to the
Design of thrust blocks for buried pressure
pipelines, Report 128, London CIRIA.
• UK Health and Safety Executive, 2002,
Occupational Exposure Limits, EH40/2002, UK,
Health and Safety Executive.
• Various publications arising from time to time
From the Regional Centre for Environmental
Health Activities (CEHA), a subgroup of WHO,
dealing specifically with issues relating to the
Eastern Mediterranean Countries, having a
similar climate to the Gulf Region. They
publish notes of their programmes on the
internet.
• Vincent A.J., 2001, Sources of odours in
wastewater treatment, eds. Stuetz R. and
Frechen F.B., Odours in Wastewater
Treatment, IWA Publishing.
• Twort, A.C., Ratnayaka, D.D., Brandt, M.J.,
2000,Water Supply, 5th Edition, Arnold and
IWA Publishing.
• Washington State Department of Health, 2001,
Water System Design Manual, Washington,
State Department of Health.
• Blumenthal et al, 2000, Guidelines for the
Microbiological Quality of Treated Wastewater
Used in Agriculture: Recommendations for
Revising WHO Guidelines, World Health
Organisation.
• World Health Organisation, 2000, WHO EHC
216 Environmental Health Criteria –
Disinfectants and Disinfectant By products,
World Health Organisation.
• World Health Organisation, WHO Guidelines
for the Safe Use of Wastewater and Excreta in
Agriculture and Aquaculture, World Health
Organisation.
• World Health Organisation, 1987, Air Quality
guidelines for Europe, WHO Regional
Publications Series No. 23, Regional Office for
Europe Copenhagen, World Health
Organisation.
• Building Research Establishment, 1991,
Soakaway Design, BRE Digest 365, BRE
Watford.

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Volume 1 General Page 5
1st Edition June 2005 - © Copyright Ashghal
2 Planning Issues
2.1 Master Plans
Master Plans set the policy for each particular
service and will be carried out on a regional scale to
suit the specific requirements. The three main types
of Master Plans undertaken by the DA are:
• Sewerage;
• Surface and Ground Water Drainage;
• Treated Sewage Effluent/Irrigation.

Each Master Plan should incorporate the main three
elements:
• Data Collection and Scoping;
• Capability of Existing Facilities;
• Recommendations for Future Requirements.
Design Consultants should contact the DA for
information regarding Master Plans
2.1.1 Sewerage
Sewage Treatment Works
Sewage treatment works are the focal point of each
sewerage system. Provision of sufficient treatment
capacity is the most important factor in the planning
of a sewerage network. Disposal of the arisings,
sludge, and TSE, also have to be planned to enable
a balanced system to be constructed.
Existing Assets
Identification of existing and proposed assets is
essential to the development of a Master Plan. This
will include:
• Details of the network: i.e. plots connected;
manhole locations; pipe diameters/materials;
and levels;
• Contributing pumping stations;
• Schemes under design and construction.
Land Use
Fundamental to the planning of the scheme is the
type of land use, as this will set the criteria on which
generated sewerage and surface flow will be
determined. Information in this respect can be
obtained from the Lands Department. Where
information is not available, the consultant should
clearly state on what assumptions the planning has
been undertaken, in terms of land use and
estimated flows to the sewerage system.
Population Estimates
Data on existing and future populations are essential
to the overall planning of an area. The expected
timing of population growth is important so as to set
the programme for the network development and
sewage treatment requirements. Information in this
respect can be obtained from the Planning Council
who undertake the population census in Qatar.
Adequacy of Existing Systems
Implementation of a new Master Plan will result from
a change to the criteria on which the design of
existing works was based. This would either imply a
surplus or deficiency in the existing works. The
consultant must, in the preparation the Master Plan,
ensure that any upgrading or redundancy is carried
out in an economical fashion.
Utilisation of Natural Topography
Having assessed the population in all areas of the
catchment, and thus the predicted flows, the best
route for conveyance to the treatment facilities
needs to be determined. In this determination the
natural ground topography must be used to
minimise the depth of sewers and reduce the
number and size of forwarding pumping stations.
Land Acquisition
During the development of the Master Plan there
may be a need for land to be purchased. In this
event, the consultant is to make the requirements
clear to the DA so the feasibility of purchasing the
land can be determined.


Preparation of Options

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The process described above will lead to the
development of several options with differing merits
and demerits, such as reduced sewer depths or
fewer pumping stations. The consultant is to prepare
a detailed study of the different options and make a
recommendation as to which is to be adopted.
2.1.2 Surface and Ground Water
Discharge Points
The identification of existing and potential discharge
points is the first stage in the assessment of any
Surface Water Master Plan. These vary greatly in
capacity and availability and include:
• Sea Outfalls;
• Flooding Areas;
• Existing Facilities;
• New Pumping Stations and Pumping Mains;
• Infiltration system such as chamber and
trench soakaways.
• Storage Tanks
The consultant is to identify and assess the usage of
all available options.
Natural Topography
This is of the utmost importance in preparing a
Master Plan, as it will determine the catchment area
and natural surface water flow routes. A full-scale
topographical survey would not be appropriate at the
Master Planning stage so the consultant must
carefully assess the accuracy of the available data.
It is also noted that future development can change
the surface flow characteristics of surface water due
to land use change or road construction. The
bearing these would have on the flow need to be
identified and incorporated into the Master Plan.
Ground Water Control
Ground water levels can have a significant effect on
the design of surface water systems, as it will affect
the surface absorption and potential for the use of
infiltration systems. Master Plans should therefore
identify any requirements for ground water control
and methods by which this can be achieved.
Existing and Proposed Assets
Identification of existing/proposed assets is essential
to the development of a Master Plan. This will
include:
• Details of networks;
• Type of surface/ground water disposal
employed;
• Pumping stations and rising mains;
• Outfalls available;
• Schemes under design and construction.
• Historical information
Definition of Rainfall Characteristics
These are to be identified and quantified at the
Master Planning stage as they are fundamental to
any design and will be required for the analysis
described below.
Analysis
Computerised modelling is to be undertaken at the
Master Planning stage to assess the overall run-off
and flow characteristics. This will demonstrate the
need for major works such as pumping stations,
attenuation tanks, and main pipeline routes and
sizes. This will be used to develop the various
options for the Master Plan.
Land Use
Fundamental to the planning of the scheme is the
land use, as this effects the development type, run-
off characteristics, and more importantly, the design
storms applicable to a specific area. Information in
this respect can be obtained from Lands
Department.
Land Acquisition
During the development of the master plan there
may be a need for land to be purchased. In this
event the consultant is to make the requirements
clear to the DA so the feasibility of purchasing the
land can be determined. This is a critical factor in
determining the overall scheme, especially where
flooding areas or large attenuation tanks are
desirable options.
Preparation of Options

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Volume 1 General Page 7
1st Edition June 2005 - © Copyright Ashghal
The process described above will lead to the
development of several options with differing merits
and demerits such as use of attention tanks or large
diameter pipelines. The consultant is to prepare a
detailed study of the different options and make a
recommendation as to which is to be adopted.
2.1.3 Irrigation using TSE
Identification
The identification of existing and proposed assets
will be the first stage in master planning as this will
define the existing supply points and sources.
Existing TSE irrigation assets may include:
• Pumping Stations;
• Elevated Towers;
• Supply and Distribution networks.
Land Use
Fundamental to the planning of the scheme is the
land use, as this affects the development type and
will effect the irrigation requirements and TSE
demands. Information in this respect can be
obtained from the Lands Department.
Planting Scenarios
The purpose of the irrigating system is to support
plant life, therefore assessing likely plant irrigation
regimes and resultant demand is of the utmost
importance. The consultant is to produce various
planting options and assess the effect on the overall
scheme and TSE supply/demand balance.
Supply Facilities
The next major factor in the development of a
Master Plan is the main supply method, e.g.
pumping stations, or elevated towers. The
consultant is to identify the options, outline the
advantages and disadvantages of each, and the
suitability of the various methods available.
Distribution Networks
Computerised modelling of the distribution system is
to be undertaken to establish the pipeline routes,
diameters and materials. This should demonstrate
that all the necessary hydraulic design parameters
are achieved.
Land Acquisition
As noted in previous sub-sections the consultant is
to ensure that any need to purchase land is made
clear to the DA.
Preparation of Options
The process described above will lead to the
development of several options with differing merits
and demerits such as the use of pumping stations or
elevated towers. The consultant is to prepare a
detailed study of the different options and make a
recommendation as to which is to be adopted.
2.2 Allocation of Lands
Land in Qatar has generally been allocated with
certain plots owned by the Government. The DA are
allocated some of these plots for existing and future
works.
When the need for land is identified on a particular
project the following procedure should be followed:
• Check that a plot has already been allotted
to the DA. If this is the case, confirmation
with the DA is required to check that the plot
is available for the specific use intended;
• Check that a Government plot is available.
In this case, a check is required to assess if
the plot has been allocated to a specific
Government authority. If the plot is available
for use, then an application for transfer to
the DA should be made. If a plot has been
allocated to another authority but is
undeveloped then that authority’s
requirement for the plot is to be ascertained,
and potential for transfer to the DA;
• Where no Government plots are available,
an undeveloped plot will need to be
identified. Once this has been done,
permission for the proposed use will need to
be obtained from Lands Department. When
it has been obtained, the matter will be
referred to Lands Acquisition Department for
Government purchase.

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2.3 Statutory Undertakers
The process for applying for and monitoring receipt
of information from the statutory authorities is
described in Section 5. These enquires should
highlight the need for any particular requirements for
service co-ordination, or special measures required
for the project.
If the need for such measures becomes apparent,
then the consultant is to undertake all the necessary
co-ordination and design work to ensure the
authority’s requirements are met.
2.4 Infrastructure Projects
The DA usually administers projects that are solely
for their own assets. However, where infrastructure
projects are undertaken, this will bring together the
design aspects of several Departments and
authorities. The Roads Affairs usually administers
these types of projects. However it is imperative that
the design of any DA works is undertaken with its
full knowledge and approval.
2.5 Catchments & Flood
Plains
Catchments, subcatchments and floodplain areas
have been identified in most areas by the DA.
Designers must check these against current
developments.
Where such master plans identify areas that need to
be reserved, i.e. not developed, then the land
acquisition measures described in Section 2.2
above need to be followed.
2.6 Groundwater
Groundwater control is a key aspect of drainage
design because:
• Parts of Doha City experience severe
drainage problems associated with high and
rising groundwater levels and low
permeability rates (i.e. perched water
tables);
• The ability of soakaways to function is
critically dependent on the local
hydrogeological conditions.
Variations in geological, hydrogeological and
topographic conditions, together with the extent of
urban development, are the main influences on
groundwater conditions. The geological conditions
control hydrogeological properties, especially the
ability of the ground to accept, store and transmit
groundwater. Topography is an issue because of the
shallowness of the water table in low-lying areas.
New development is particularly important because
it is almost always associated with enhanced
recharge to groundwater, due to the installation of
soakaways, septic tanks, excess irrigation etc. and
this results in a rise in water table levels.
These issues have significant practical implications
that designers of drainage systems must recognise.
For example, the ability of soakaway systems to
function properly depends on the permeability and
effective porosity of the soil medium. In some cases
the ground is effectively impermeable and standard
chamber-type soakaways will simply not function.
Similarly, groundwater levels may rise to the extent
that there is no significant head difference between
the water level in the soakaway after a storm and
the pre-storm groundwater level outside it. Under
such circumstances the soakaway will not function
effectively.
Numerous studies, reports and internal documents
have addressed the groundwater issue and the
adverse consequences of high and rising
groundwater levels are well documented. The
principal adverse effects are reported as:
• Unsightly, unhygienic and disruptive
accumulation of water at the surface;
• Damage to infrastructure such as telephone
and power cables;
• Damage to the fabric of buildings;
• Leakage to basements in old properties;
• Possible geotechnical instability.
It is generally regarded that groundwater levels
should be no higher than four metres (4m) below
ground level. In practice, three metres is a safe
level but using four metres builds in a factor of
safety allowance to cater for temporary rises due to

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rainstorms and the more extreme effects of urban
development. Four metres is taken as being a target
level that can safely be adhered to.
In strategic planning terms it should be noted that
several different government departments have a
direct interest in groundwater. These include: the DA
for reasons explained above; the Roads Affairs
because of its use of soakaways for roads drainage;
the Agriculture Department because of its use of
groundwater for irrigation; and the Ministry of
Electricity and Water which is understood to
maintain a network of groundwater monitoring
boreholes in Doha City. The Roads Affairs is
particularly important because of the opportunity
some of its works present to help deal with the
groundwater drainage problem. The private sector
also has an interest because of the need to consider
groundwater levels and drainage requirements in
building design.
It may be noted that these different interests cause
the organisations involved to focus on different parts
of the hydrogeological system and this is reflected in
the publications produced. The Department of
Agriculture is concerned with water resources and
will tend to concentrate on the deeper groundwater
in the freshwater lens, typically more than 50m
below ground level (i.e. down to the Rus / Umm er
Rhaduma interface). By contrast, the DA needs a
detailed understanding of the conditions that
characterise the 0-15m depth range (i.e. above
Midra shale), particularly the 0-10m section. Also,
whereas the other departments are concerned with
groundwater per se., the Roads Affairs is concerned
primarily with ground strength.
In general terms, what results from the above
discussion, is as follows:
• There is a need to understand the
hydrogeological conditions that characterise
an area as a basis for designing schemes
guaranteed to maintain acceptably low
groundwater levels;
• There is a need to maintain liaison between
government departments in respect of
groundwater drainage, including free
exchange of information where possible.
Meeting these needs is the objective that underpins
the references to groundwater that are contained
within the Design Manual.
It is recognised that this manual is expected to be a
guide to drainage requirements in the whole of the
State of Qatar. However most attention will be given
to the greater Doha area because of the rapid
development compared to the rest of the country. It
is inevitable that the level of understanding of the
critical hydrogeological conditions that characterise
the shallower geological formations is better for the
greater Doha area than for elsewhere, as reflected
in this part of the Manual.
It is intended that the techniques used to acquire
this level of hydrogeological understanding in
greater Doha, may be applied to ensure appropriate
drainage design wherever it is needed in Qatar. It
may be noted in this regard that as long ago as
1983, preliminary studies were carried out that took
into account the hydrogeological conditions relevant
to drainage in the Umm Said, Al Wakrah and Wukair
areas south of Doha.
2.7 Environmental Planning
2.7.1 Introduction
This Section introduces a general overview of the
importance of environmental issues as part of the
planning process for sewerage and drainage
infrastructure projects in Qatar. Further guidance on
environmental impact assessment (EIA) is also
included in: specific sections on Investigations
(Volume 1, Section 3.7); EIA and the design process
(Volume 1, Section 4.7); surface water and ground
water control (Volume 3, Section 3.2); treated
sewage effluent (Volume 4, Section 1.5); and
sewage treatment plant design and odour (Volume
5, Section 1.5).
Increasing environmental awareness and global
concerns over sustainability have broadened the
range of issues that need to be examined in the
assessment of the potential impacts of proposed
projects and programmes. Three different concepts
of sustainable development may be identified.
These are based on economic, ecological and
socio-cultural criteria.

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The economic approach to sustainability is based on
the concept of maximising the flow of income that
could be generated through maintaining assets
and/or capital. The ecological view of sustainable
development focuses on the stability of biological
and physical systems and overall ecosystems.
Protection of biological diversity is a key component
of the approach. The socio-cultural concept of
sustainability seeks to maintain the stability of social
and cultural systems. These concepts should be
considered during the impact assessment process.
he identification of sustainable development options
requires:
• A good understanding of the physical,
biological and social impacts of human
activities;
• Good estimates of the real economic value
of investment proposals.
General sustainability objectives for various
environmental parameters are identified in Table
2.7.1 below.
Sustainable development is achieved most
efficiently when negative and positive environmental
impacts are identified and addressed at the earliest
possible project planning stage.
The environmental sections within this manual
provide practical guidance for designing sustainable
sewerage and drainage projects in Qatar. The aim
is to provide specific information and guidance as
common ground for discussion among those
involved – designers, operators, EIA professionals,
planners, regulators and the Government in general.

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Table 2.7.1 - General Sustainability Objectives
Parameter Objective
Community Cohesion and Social Equity
To provide benefits for local communities and minimise
disruption from development and training activities
Land Use
To help provide a good quality of life for all who live and
work on the estate, take full account of environmental
considerations, and encourage public access within
operational, safety and conservation constraints
Biodiversity and Nature Conservation
To reverse trends of damage to biodiversity, in the sea
and on land, and identify enhancement opportunities
Landscape and Townscape
To reverse trends of damage to landscape character and
identify enhancement opportunities
Archaeology & Cultural Heritage
To protect and enhance all aspects of the historic,
archaeological and cultural environment for their own
sake, and as a central part of our cultural heritage
Climate Change & Air Quality
To achieve major long term cuts in greenhouse gas
emissions and improve the quality of air
Water and Drainage
To safeguard marine resources, reduce the threat of
pollution, and prevent death, property damage, and
distress from flooding
Traffic and Transport
To reduce the need to travel, especially by road and air,
and increase the use 0f coastal shipping
Geology and Soils
To protect soil as a limited resource, remove unacceptable
risks to human health and the environment from
contamination, and seek to bring damaged land back into
beneficial use
Energy Consumption and Supply
To ensure the prolonged availability of finite fossil fuels,
improve energy efficiency and support the development
and use of renewable energy sources such as solar power
Waste Management
To move away from the disposal of waste towards
reduction, recycling and recovery
Efficient Use of Land, Buildings and Construction
Materials
To maximize the efficient use of land and construction
materials, and pursue opportunities for sustainable
building design
Economic Prosperity
To maintain and encourage a diverse and thriving
economy

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2.7.2 Planning
Decisions on the type and location of sewerage and
drainage infrastructure are crucial and should not be
made without adequate information (see also
Section 2.1). Full consultation must be made with
the DA in all stages of the planning process.
The level of sewage treatment depends on the
performance standards that apply to the system
(see also Volume 1, Section 4.7). These are usually
expressed as limitations on the concentration of
regulated substances permitted in the treated
effluent. In cases where Treated Sewage Effluent
(TSE) is applied to crops or otherwise used on land
(as is often the case in arid states such as Qatar),
the standards are set to prevent crop and
groundwater contamination.
A second component of planning involves the
sequencing and phasing of projects as part of long-
term pollution abatement programmes, and in
relation to activities in other sectors. In addition to
the aspiration for sustainable development, there
are specific environmental laws in Qatar that require
compliance.
The SCENR are the Licensing Authority and must
be involved as statutory consultees. EIA Procedures
have been developed by SCENR. These relate to
the legal requirement of the State of Qatar for
polluting industries to conduct an EIA (Law No. 30,
2002), the policy of the State, and its commitment to
the outcomes of the United Nations Conference on
Environment and Development, 1992.
Law 30 dictates that EIAs be undertaken for specific
projects, including ‘waste disposal or treatment
facilities, including hazardous waste treatment’, and
‘projects which may effect ground water including
irrigation and drainage projects’. As a result,
sewerage and drainage projects require submission
of an ‘Application form for Initial Environmental
Authorisation’ to the SCENR. Prior to the
submission of this form it is good practice to consult
with SCENR and the Planning Department to
discuss the scale of the proposed project and its
location. This will enable confirmation that the
proposed works location falls in an approved zone
on the basis of land use planning, and whether or
not an EIA is required.
2.7.3 Screening
In the strategic planning context, given the
importance of the environment on planning
development, it is good practice to consult with
SCENR and the Planning Department prior to
project conception. This enables key areas to be
identified that might inhibit a project developing
further in the future, for example, the proposed
works may be located in:
• an ‘Environmental Protection Area’;
• land use zone inappropriate for sewerage or
drainage works; or
• dense human population areas.
Screening out potentially sensitive projects with
unacceptable environmental impacts, or with no
agreement on ‘environmental clearance’ ensures
optimised, efficient and effective use of resources. A
useful tool which can be used during the screening
process is the environmental matrix, giving a simple
visual representation of potential hold points during
the anticipated stages of a project. An example is
shown in Table 2.7.2.

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Table 2.7.2 - Environmental Screening Matrix
P
l
a
n
n
i
n
g

D
e
s
i
g
n

C
o
n
s
t
r
u
c
t
i
o
n

O
p
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

D
e
c
o
m
m
i
s
s
i
o
n
i
n
g

Social
○ ○
Land Amenity
● ● ● ○ ○
Public Health
● ● ● ○
Economic

Visual

Marine
● ● ○
Air pollution
● ○
Noise
● ● ●
Ecological
● ●

Archaeological


○ Denotes positive impact
• Denotes negative impact


Location of Projects
The environmental sensitivity of geographical areas
likely to be affected by projects must be considered,
in particular, having regard to:
• the existing land use;
• the relative abundance, quality and
regenerative capacity of natural resources in
the area;
• the absorption capacity of the natural
environment, paying particular attention to
the following areas:
1) coastal zones;
2) nature reserves and parks;
3) areas classified or protected under
Qatari legislation;
4) landscapes of historical, cultural or
archaeological significance.
Characteristics of Projects
The following must be considered:
• the size of the project;
• the cumulative effect with other projects;
• the use of natural resources;
• the production of waste;
• pollution and nuisances;
• the risk of accidents, having regard in
particular to substances or technologies
used.
Characteristics of the Potential Impact
The following must be considered:
• the geographical extent of the impact;
• probability;
• duration, frequency and reversibility.
Assuming that an EIA is required for a particular
sewerage or drainage project, then the EIA
Procedures (available from SCENR) should be
closely followed, with frequent consultation with
SCENR.
It should be noted that it is often the case that an
EIA is prepared prior to, or during preparation of the
Initial Environmental Authorisation (IEA) process.
This is because EIA is often undertaken during the
preliminary design process, with environmental
mitigation being built into the final designs (see
Volume 1, Section 4.7). Early consultation with
SCENR may have identified a clear need for an EIA,
and as such, the EIA can then be submitted with the
IEA application at a later date, as at this stage more
detailed design information may be available.

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2.7.4 Scoping
It is a requirement of Law 30, to undertake an EIA
Scoping Study prior to undertaking a full EIA. This
stimulates early consultation with SCENR, and
others. The Scoping Study should consider the
following sections:
Project description:
• a description of the physical characteristics
of the project and land-use requirements
during the project lifetime;
• a description of the main characteristics of
any production processes, for instance,
nature and quantity of the material used;
• an estimate, by type and quantity, of any
expected residues and emissions (water, air
and soil pollution, noise, vibration, light, heat,
radiation, etc).
An outline of the main alternatives studied by the
developer, and an indication of the main reasons for
the proposed alternative, taking into account the
environmental effects.
A description of the receiving environment,
population, fauna, flora, soil, water, air, climatic
factors, material assets, architectural and
archaeological heritage, landscape and the inter-
relationship between the above factors.
A description of the environmental impact which
should cover the direct effects and any indirect,
secondary, cumulative, short, medium and long-
term, permanent and temporary, positive and
negative effects of the project), resulting from:
• the existence of the project;
• the use of natural resources;
• the emission of pollutants, the creation of
nuisances and the elimination of waste;
• the description by the developer of the
forecasting methods used to assess the
effects on the environment.
Proposed mitigation steps.
A non-technical summary.
An indication of any difficulties encountered in
compiling the required information.
The ‘Scoping’ approach encourages efficient and
effective use of resources, by focusing any required
EIA on the important issues only.
2.7.5 EIA
An EIA may be required by the DA for larger
projects. This will be indicated in the PSA.
It is good practice to submit a Draft EIA to SCENR
prior to IEA application. This approach should be
incorporated into the project programme.
On finalisation, the EIA should be submitted with the
IEA Application. A ‘clearance’ decision should be
reached by SCENR within 30 days. A key
component of the decision is the EIA report and its
contents. The EIA should include (following similar
lines to 2.7.4 above, but in greater detail) the
following sections indicated as follows:
Information Describing the Project
• Purpose and physical characteristics of the
project, including details of proposed access
and transport arrangements, and of numbers
to be employed and where they will come
from;
• Land use requirements and other physical
features of the project:
1) during construction;
2) when operational;
3) after use has ceased (where
appropriate).
• Production processes and operational
features of the project:
1) type and quantities of raw materials,
energy and other resources
consumed;
2) residues and emissions by type,
quantity, composition and strength
including:
i) discharges to water;
ii) emissions to air;
iii) noise;
iv) vibration;

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v) light;
vi) heat;
vii) radiation;
viii) deposits/residues to land
and soil;
ix) others.
3) Main alternative sites and processes
considered, where appropriate, and
reasons for final choice.
Information Describing the Site and its
Environment
• Physical features;
• Population - proximity and numbers;
• Flora and fauna (including both habitats and
species) - in particular, protected species
and their habitats;
• Soil - agricultural quality, geology and
geomorphology;
• Water - aquifers, wadis, shoreline, including
the type, quantity, composition and strength
of any existing discharges;
• Air - climatic factors, air quality, etc.;
• Architectural and historic heritage,
archaeological sites and features, and other
material assets;
• Landscape and topography;
• Recreational uses;
• Any other relevant environmental features.
The Policy Framework
Where applicable, the information considered under
this section should include all relevant statutory
designations. These may include nature reserves
and any area allocated for the preservation of a
species of plants, animals, birds or aquatic life in
danger of becoming extinct, in which it is prohibited
to eliminate, hunt or kill such species, and which
shall be determined by a decision of SCENR.
Consideration should additionally be given to areas
and sites of environmental importance as defined by
the Qatari Environmental Protection Standards
(2003).
This should also include references to relevant
national policies and to regional and local plans and
policies (including approved or emerging
development plans).
Reference should also be made to international
designations, for example. those defined under the
Biodiversity Convention and the Ramsar
Convention.
Assessment of Effects
This includes direct and indirect, secondary,
cumulative, short, medium and long-term,
permanent and temporary, positive and negative
effects of the project. The following effects should be
considered:
Effects on human beings, buildings and man-
made features:
• Change in population arising from the
development;
• Visual effects;
• Levels and effects of emissions during
normal operation;
• Levels and effects of noise.
Effects of the development on local roads and
transport.
Effects of the development on buildings, the
architectural and historic heritage,
archaeological features, and other human
artifacts, e.g. through pollutants, visual intrusion,
vibration.
Effects on flora, fauna and geology:
• Loss of, and damage to, habitats and plant
and animal species;
• Loss of, and damage to, geological,
palaeontological and physiographic features;
• Other ecological consequences.
Effects on land
• Physical effects of the development, e.g.
change in local topography, effect of earth-
moving on stability, soil erosion, etc.;
• Effects of chemical emissions and deposits
on soil of site and surrounding land;

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• Land use/resource effects:
1) quality and quantity of agricultural
land to be taken;
2) sterilisation of mineral resources;
3) other alternative uses of the site,
including the `do nothing' option;
4) effect on surrounding land uses
including agriculture;
5) waste disposal.
Effects on water
• Effects of development on drainage pattern
in the area;
• Changes to other hydrographic
characteristics, e.g. groundwater level, water
courses, flow of underground water;
• Effects on coastal or estuarine hydrology;
• Effects of pollutants, waste, etc. on water
quality.
Effects on air and atmosphere
• Level and concentration of chemical
emissions and their environmental effects;
• Particulate matter;
• Offensive odours;
• Any other climatic effects.
Other Indirect and Secondary Effects Associated
with the Project
• Effects from traffic (road, rail, air, water)
related to the development;
• Effects arising from the extraction and
consumption of materials, water, energy or
other resources by the development;
• Effects of other development associated with
the project, e.g. new roads, sewers, housing,
power lines, pipe-lines, telecommunications,
etc.;
• Effects of association of the development
with other existing or proposed development;
• Secondary effects resulting from the
interaction of separate direct effects listed
above.
Mitigating Measures
Where significant adverse effects are identified, a
description of the measures to be taken to avoid,
reduce or remedy those effects, for example:
• site planning;
• technical measures, including:
1) process selection;
2) recycling;
3) pollution control and treatment;
4) containment (e.g. bunding of storage
vessels).
• aesthetic and ecological measures, e.g.:
1) mounding;
2) design, colour, etc;
3) landscaping;
4) tree planting;
5) measures to preserve particular
habitats or create alternative
habitats;
6) recording of archaeological sites;
7) measures to safeguard historic
buildings or sites.
• Assessment of the likely effectiveness of
mitigating measures.
Risk of Accidents and Hazardous Development
Risk of accidents as such is not covered in the
Qatari Environmental Protection Law or,
consequently, in the implementing Rule on EIA.
However, when the proposed development involves
materials that could be harmful to the environment
(including people) in the event of an accident, the
environmental statement should include an
indication of the preventive measures that will be
adopted so that such an occurrence is not likely to
have a significant effect. This could, where
appropriate, include reference to compliance with
Health and Safety legislation.
There are separate arrangements in force relating to
the keeping or use of hazardous substances and the
Health and Safety agency provides local planning
authorities with expert advice about risk assessment

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on any planning application involving a hazardous
installation.
Nevertheless, it is desirable that, wherever possible,
the risk of accidents and the general environmental
effects of developments should be considered
together, and developers and planning authorities
should bear this in mind.
2.7.6 Conclusions
Any approval might be accompanied by specific
conditions, normally related to capacity and
processes specified (if these change, then re-
application is required), mitigation and/or monitoring
measures, which are identified in the EIA. Prior to
operation of new works a ‘Permit to Operate’ is
required from SCENR. This is the mechanism by
which SCENR can check that the IEA Approval
Clearance conditions (if any) have been actioned.
The environment has a significant impact on the
planning process for sewerage and drainage
projects. Consultation with SCENR and the Planning
Department, environmental impact screening,
scoping and detailed assessment are often key
components of securing regulated clearance to
proceed with a project proposal. Strict adherence to
the EIA Procedure is required.
Detailed examples of International Best Practice for
EIA as part of the project cycle for sewerage and
drainage projects are as follows:
• UK Environment Agency Scoping Guidelines
for EIAs, May 2002;
• UK Office of the Deputy Prime Minister EIA
Guidance on Procedures;
• World Bank Environmental Assessment
Sourcebook Volume 1 Policies, Procedures,
and Cross Sectoral Issues, 1992;
• World Bank Environmental Assessment
Sourcebook Volume 2 Sectoral Guidelines
Wastewater Collection, Treatment, Reuse,
and Disposal Systems, 1992;
• Asian Development Bank Environmental
Guidelines for Selected Infrastructure;
More detailed information regarding the
investigations and content required for sewerage
and drainage project scoping studies and EIA’s are
included in Volume 1, Section 3.7, and Section 4.7,
Volume 3, Section 3.2, and Volume 4, Section 1.5.
EIA as part of the planning process assists in
making good decisions, to screen strategies and
projects efficiently for their environmental impacts, to
clarify to Governments what is needed for
sustainable projects, and to design them effectively.

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3 Investigations
3.1 Geotechnical
3.1.1 Introduction
This section of the Design Manual provides general
guidance on the investigation of sites in Qatar for
the purposes of assessing their suitability for the
construction of sewerage and drainage works. It
also covers the acquisition of knowledge on the
characteristics of a site that affect the design and
construction of such works, and the security of
adjacent land and properties. Guidance on the
selection of construction sites with regard to the
wider environmental and economic considerations
affecting the community is outside the scope of the
Geotechnical Section of the Design Manual.
This Design Manual describes design
considerations for site investigations and all involve
some risk to safety unless an appropriate safety
plan has been prepared and implemented. It is
emphasised that safety is of paramount importance
for every activity in site investigation.
An understanding of the geology is fundamental to
the planning of Geotechnical investigations. The
general topography and regional geology in Qatar
are described in Section 4.2 of this Volume.
3.1.2 Investigation Objectives
Investigation of the site is essential to the
construction of sewerage and drainage works. The
purpose and objectives of the investigation are as
follows.
Purpose
The purpose of the investigation is to examine the
general soil conditions at a construction project site,
which will impact any proposed features of a project.
Identifying problem soil conditions prior to schematic
development will enable the designers to produce
the most efficient and cost effective design. Problem
soil conditions may even dictate a different project
alignment than that initially proposed.

Objectives
The investigation should accomplish the following
objectives:
• Assess existing soil data;
• Identify soil and groundwater conditions at
the site;
• Delineate any areas of exceptionally soft
soils;
• Identify any soil instabilities such as slope
failures or geologic faults. In Qatar, natural
soil/rock instability is generally not a cause
for concern due to the landscape topography
of the region. However, this is particularly
relevant to the design of deep cuttings for
underground structures where excavations
may expose soil and rock faces that may
lead to instability;
• Identify long term instabilities such as
uncontrolled earthworks.
The ground is naturally variable and often the nature
of these variations is not known in advance. A site
investigation is a process of continuous exploration
and interpretation, with the scope of the
investigation requiring regular amendment in the
light of the data being obtained. In order to evaluate
properly the nature of the ground and the
groundwater and so to achieve the objectives of the
site investigation, it is essential that the work be
planned, undertaken and supervised by personnel
who have appropriate qualifications, skills and
experience in geotechnical work. If this is not done,
the results and conclusions of an investigation may
be inadequate or even misleading and result in a
considerable over-run of time and expenditure when
the proposed works are under construction.
The extent of the investigation depends primarily
upon the magnitude and nature of the proposed
works and the nature of the site. The former use of a
site and the presence of contamination of the
ground or groundwater can also have a significant
impact on the extent of the investigation.
A site investigation should proceed in stages as
follows:
Stage 1 Desk study and site reconnaissance.

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Stage 2 Detailed ground investigation for
design including ground
investigation, topographic,
hydrographic surveying and any
special studies plus interpretative
reports.
Stage 3 Construction review, including any
follow-up investigations during
construction, and the appraisal of
performances.
3.1.3 Desk Study and Site
Reconnaissance
The purpose of the desk study is to examine all
information in the project files and literature, which
might yield useful information for the project. The
desk study should cover
Published Literature
Typical soils information sources are:
• Geological maps;
• Geological memoirs;
• Flooding, erosion, landslide and subsidence
history;
• Data held by central and local authorities;
• Construction and investigation records of
adjacent sites;
• Seismicity.
General Land Survey
Typical existing data, which is normally available,
includes:
• Location of site on published maps and
charts;
• Aerial photographs, all dated where
appropriate;
• Site boundaries, outlines of structures and
building lines;
• Ground contours and natural drainage
features;
• Obstructions to sight lines and aircraft
movement, for example transmission lines;
• Indication of obstructions below ground;
• Record of differences and omissions in
relation to published maps;
• Position of survey stations and benchmarks
(the latter with reduced levels);
• Meteorological information.
Site Reconnaissance
At an early stage, a thorough visual examination
should be made of the site to evaluate such
conditions as:
• EFA’s and / or other low lying areas with
perched water tables which may need
special consideration;
• Soft soils indicated by wet areas or
characteristic wet land vegetation;
• Unstable slopes or stream banks;.
3.1.4 Ground Investigation
Consultants should note that the work of all staff and
contractors involved in ground investigation (GI)
would be subject to DA approval.
The objectives of ground investigations are to obtain
reliable information to produce an economic and
safe design, to assess any hazards (physical or
chemical) associated with the ground, and to meet
tender and construction requirements. The
investigation should be designed to verify and
expand information previously collected.
Of primary importance is the establishment of the
soil profile or soil and rock profile, and the
groundwater condition. The profile should be
obtained by close visual inspection and systematic
description of the ground, and by correlation of the
engineering properties of the soils and rocks in
detail. Where appropriate the geometry and nature
of discontinuities should be established.
The investigation should cover all ground in which
significant temporary or permanent changes may
occur as a result of the works. These changes
include: changes in stress and associated strain;
changes in moisture content and associated volume
changes; changes in groundwater level and flow
pattern; and changes in properties of the ground,

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such as strength and compressibility. Materials
placed in the ground may deteriorate, especially in
landfill and contaminated former industrial sites. It is
therefore necessary to provide information from
which an estimate of the corrosivity of the ground
can be made.
On many occasions, , a preliminary investigation is
necessary in order that the main investigation may
be planned to best advantage. The main
investigation obtains the bulk of the information
required, but it may be necessary to carry out
supplementary investigations after the main work to
gather more detailed information related to specific
matters.
The ground investigation should be completed
before the works are finally designed. It is therefore
important that sufficient time for ground
investigation, including reporting and interpretation,
is allowed in the overall programme for any scheme.
Should changes in the project occur after completion
of the main investigation, additional ground
investigation may be required.
Sometimes conditions necessitate additional
investigation after the works commence. In
tunnelling, for example, probing ahead of the face
may be required to give warning of hazards or
changes in ground conditions. The properties of the
ground and also the groundwater levels may vary
with the seasons. In planning the investigation,
consideration should be given to predicting the
ground conditions at other times of the year.
The imposition (for reasons of cost and time) of
limitations on the amount of ground investigation to
be undertaken may result in insufficient information
being obtained to enable the works to be designed,
tendered for and constructed adequately,
economically, and on time. Additional investigations
carried out at a later stage may prove more costly
and result in delays.
It is essential that there be adequate direction and
supervision of the work by a competent person who
has appropriate knowledge, training and experience
and the authority to decide on variations to the
ground investigation when required.
Investigations for new works are required to yield
information to assist in selecting the most suitable
location for the works. For instance, when an
excavation has to be carried out, knowledge of the
subsurface strata and groundwater conditions
should indicate, for example:
• whether removal of the material is difficult;
• whether the side of the excavation is stable
if unsupported or requires support;
• whether groundwater conditions necessitate
special precautions such as groundwater or
other geotechnical processes;
• whether the nature of the excavated material
will change;
• whether the excavated materials can be re-
used as backfill to pipework;
• whether any of the soil or groundwater is
contaminated, therefore requiring special
controls on excavation, movement, disposal,
and additional safety measures;
• whether environmental or ecological
considerations might impose any constraints
on the scope of the new works.
On the design side, it is necessary to assess such
considerations as bearing capacity and settlement of
foundations, stability of pipe trenches, earth
pressures on supporting structures, and the effect of
any chemically aggressive or hazardous ground
conditions.
Groundwater control is also a key aspect of
drainage design. Guidance on groundwater
considerations and hydrogeological investigations
are given in Sections 2.6, 3.2 and 4.2 of this
Volume.
For the design of new works, it is important that the
range of conditions, including least favourable
conditions, should be known. This entails not only a
study of the degree of variability in the strata over
the area of the site, but also an appreciation of the
possible injurious effects of groundwater variation
and weather conditions on the properties of the
various strata. Where works require excavations into
or within rock, the orientation and nature of
discontinuities in the rock may be the most important
factor.

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3.1.5 Extent of Ground
Investigation
The extent of the ground investigation is determined
by the character and variability of the ground and
groundwater, the type of sewerage and drainage
works, and the amount and quality of existing
information. It is important that the general character
and variability of the ground be established before
deciding on the basic principles of the design of the
works.
A range of methods is used to carry out ground
investigations for sewerage and drainage works.
These include excavations, boreholes and probing.
The greater the natural variability of the ground, the
greater the extent of the ground investigation
required to obtain an indication of the character of
the ground. The depth of exploration is usually
determined by the depth of sewerage and drainage
works, but it may be necessary to explore to greater
depths at a number of points to establish the overall
geological structure. The technical development of
the project should be kept under continuous review
since decisions on the design influence the extent of
the investigation.
The investigation should yield sufficient data on
which to base an adequate and economical design
of the project. It should, in addition, be sufficient to
be able to decide which of the various possible
methods of construction would be desirable and,
where appropriate, to suggest sources of
construction materials. The lateral and vertical
extent of the investigation should cover all ground
that may be significantly affected by the new works
or their construction.
3.1.6 Field Works
Successful ground investigation requires careful
advance planning to be conducted in the most
expedient manner. Proper exploratory location
selection and preparation are essential to minimise
site operational standby time and associated
charges. Utility clearance is an essential item that
must be considered. Disrupted utilities can result in
a tremendous liability to all parties concerned. The
following are some detailed items to consider prior
to commencing field works:
• Site preparation;
• Access;
• Utility clearance;
• Traffic control;
• Mechanical excavator and borehole/core drill
equipment and their impact on groundwater
profiles;
• Probing;
• Geophysical surveying;
• Groundwater;
• Barge work;
• Trial pit/drill hole filling.
Site preparation - Drilling sites need to be prepared
prior to arrival of the drill crew to avoid standing
time. A levelled terrain or working platform is often
necessary to accommodate the drill rig, particularly
where the site is at or adjacent to any excavation or
slope formed by other construction activities. Prior
to site work, consultation should be made with the
drilling operatives for specific site preparation
requirements.
Overhead clearance - Overhead must be clear of
obstructions. It is not safe to work adjacent to an
overhead power. Consultation should be made with
the Power Company to determine the minimum
standoff distance from overhead power. If it is
necessary to work closer, the Power Company must
be contacted in order to cut the power during site
works period.
Underground utility locations must be determined,
including:
• High pressure gas lines;
• Water lines;
• Sewer and storm sewer lines;
• Electrical and telephone conduits and
cables.
All locations proposed for drilling must be cleared for
utilities prior to arrival of the drill crew. When utilities
are present, their exact location should be clearly
marked by the utility company. The drilling operative
must verify the locations of underground utility on
site prior to drilling.

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Access permit must be secured from the land
owner to ensure that the drill crew has access to drill
sites upon arrival to avoid difficulties associated with
farm animals and uncooperative landowners, for
instance.
Traffic control may be required where the
investigation location is adjacent to highways /
public roads.
Shallow trial pits are usually dug using a hydraulic
backhoe excavator, preferably mounted on a tractor
for ease of mobility. This expedient is used in
ground that can temporarily stand unsupported and
in suitable conditions. For practical reasons, the
maximum depth of excavation is 4m to 5m. Where
personnel are required to enter pits, it is essential
that the sides are safe or made safe, particularly
from sudden collapse, by supporting the sides.
Ideally, the support system should consist of
purpose-made metal frames that can be quickly
inserted and extracted. Entry by personnel into
unsupported pits deeper than 1.2m is not allowed for
health and safety reasons.
By providing access for taking samples and carrying
out in-situ tests, shallow trial pits permit the in-situ
condition of the ground to be examined in detail both
laterally and vertically; they also provide a means of
determining the orientation of discontinuities in the
ground. The field record should include a plan giving
the location and orientation of the pit with details of
which face(s) was logged, and a dimensioned
section of each side and the floor. Whenever
possible, the record should include photographs.
Shallow pits without side support can be used for
making a rapid check on the condition of the ground.
It may be unsafe for personnel to enter a pit but,
working from ground surface, a visual log of the
strata can be made and disturbed samples using the
excavator bucket can be taken.
Tube samplers can be driven into the floor of the pit,
using jarring link and drill rods, and then extracted
by the excavator. In-situ testing, such as the vane
shear strength test, can also be carried out. Pits that
are unsupported may collapse soon after being dug,
so any logging, sampling and in-situ testing should
be carried out immediately after the pit has been
dug. It is advisable to backfill pits as soon as
possible after logging, sampling and testing have
been completed, since open pits can be a hazard to
the general public.
Light cable percussion boring is an adaptation of
standard well-boring methods, and normally uses a
mobile rig specially designed for ground
investigation work.
The clay cutter is used in cohesive soil in a damp or
dry borehole. The shell is used in cohesionless soils
and requires there to be sufficient water in the
bottom of the borehole to cover the shell (about
2.5m). It is therefore necessary to add water to a
borehole in order to bore through dry cohesionless
strata that require the use of the shell.
Light cable percussion boring is suitable for soil and
weak rock. The sizes of borehole casings and tools
are usually 150mm and 200mm. For deeper
boreholes, 250mm and 300mm are available. This
gives a maximum borehole depth of about 60m in
suitable strata. This type of rig may have a hydraulic
power take-off to drive a rotary drilling attachment
for coring rock. The drill tools, which are worked on
a wire rope using the clutch of the winch for the
percussive action, consist of the clay cutter for dry
cohesive soils, the shell or baler, for cohesionless
soils and the chisel for breaking up rock and other
hard layers. The clay cutter and shell bring up
disturbed material, which is usually sufficiently
representative to permit identification of the strata.
Mechanical augers for ground investigations
normally use a continuous-flight auger with a hollow
stem and these are suitable for auguring in cohesive
soils. When auguring, the hollow stem is closed at
its lower end by a plug, which may be removed so
that the sampler can be lowered down through the
stem and driven into the soil below the auger bit.
The use of hollow-stemmed augers in cohesionless
soils often presents practical problems because it
may be difficult to prevent material from flowing into
the hollow stem on removal of the plug.
When rock is encountered, boring can be extended
by core-drilling through the hollow stem. Typically,
augers with hollow stems of approximately 75mm
and 125mm diameter produce boreholes of about
150mm and 250mm diameter respectively, to a
depth of 30m to 50m.

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Continuous-flight auguring requires considerable
mechanical power and weight so that the machine is
therefore usually mounted on a heavy vehicle. The
debris from drilling is brought to the surface by
auger flights and gives only a very rough indication
of the levels and character of the strata. A precise
intermittent identification of the strata may be
obtained from drive samples taken through the
hollow stem of the auger.
In self-supporting strata, solid rods and a suitable
auger tool can be used, the auger tool being drawn
up to the ground surface each time it has to be
emptied. Drive sampling and testing can be carried
out in the borehole.
Rotary drilling methods, in which the drill bit is
rotated on the bottom of the borehole, are used to
drill rocks and sometimes soils for investigation
purposes. The drilling fluid, which is passed from the
surface through hollow drill rods to the face of the
bit, cools and lubricates the bit, transports drill
cuttings to the ground surface and, when using
particular types of drilling fluids, stabilises the
borehole.
Drilling fluids are commonly clean water, air, or a
mixture of both. In some cases mud, polymers or
foam are used to maintain or assist borehole
stability, aid the transport of drill cuttings to the
surface and maximise core recovery, particularly in
superficial deposits and weak rock formations. It is
essential that the cleaning and recirculation of the
drill fluid is arranged so that the cuttings transported
from the bottom of the borehole are not recirculated
and that the condition of the drill fluid is maintained
to achieve its objectives.
There are two basic types of rotary drilling: open
hole (or full hole) drilling, where the drill bit cuts all
the material within the diameter of the borehole; and
core drilling, where an annular bit, fixed to the
bottom of the outer rotating tube of a core barrel,
cuts a core, which is recovered within the innermost
tube of the core barrel assembly and brought to the
surface for examination and testing.
Rotary drilling for ground investigation is usually
core drilling. When open hole drilling or coring,
temporary casing is normally used to support
unstable ground or to seal off fissures or voids,
which cause excessive loss of drilling fluid. Drilling
fluid additives or cement grouting may sometimes
be satisfactory alternatives. The rotary drilling rig
should be well maintained and should be capable
both of controlling rotational speed and providing
axial load and torque to suit the nature and
hardness of the material penetrated, the diameter of
the core barrel and drill string, drilling fluid and
flushing system, weight of drill string and installation
of temporary casing(s).
Probing and penetration testing - Probing from
the surface probably represents the oldest method
of investigating the depth to a hard stratum where
the overburden is weak and not unduly thick. The
simplest probe is a sharpened steel rod, which is
pushed or driven into the soil until it meets
resistance. The method is still of use where other
means of site investigation have disclosed relatively
thin layers of very soft soils overlying much harder
ones, when the thickness of the soft stratum may be
determined over a wide area very quickly and
economically. Two distinct types of probe have been
developed: one where the probe is driven into the
soil by means of some form of hammer blow; and
the other where the probe is forced into the soil by a
static load.
Dynamic probing - The apparatus for dynamic
probing comprises a sectional rod with a cone fitted
at the base of a slightly greater diameter than the
rod. It is driven into the ground by a constant mass
that is allowed to fall on the rod through a constant
distance, and the arrangement should be such that
the mass falls through the constant distance without
judgement to be made by the operator. This is
usually achieved using a mechanical latch on
machine-driven equipment, and mechanical
indication on hand-operated apparatus.
The main uses of dynamic probing are for
preliminary investigations of a site using hand-
operated equipment, followed by machine-operated
equipment during the main investigations, thereby
allowing the interpolation of data between boreholes
using site specific correlations with known ground
property data. Where a site investigation has been
carried out by more conventional means, it may be
possible to use dynamic probing to check rapidly
and cheaply that conditions on neighbouring sites
are similar.
Static cone penetration test or static probing -
The basic principle of static probing is that a

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cylindrical probe, fitted to the lower end of a string of
hollow rods, is pushed into the ground at a slow
uniform rate by a static thrust. The probe has a cone
at its base, which is fitted with a sensor, so that its
resistance to penetration can be measured. If
required, probes can also incorporate a friction
sleeve, by which the local frictional resistance can
be measured, and also a piezometer for measuring
the pore water pressure in the vicinity of the cone
and sleeve. The most frequently used probe has
electrical sensors, which can permit continuous
recording throughout the test.
Mechanical penetrometers are occasionally used in
very isolated sites, where the more sophisticated
electrical read-out systems are not readily
applicable, and employed as preliminary probing to
assess whether the ground conditions are suitable
for the use of the much more expensive electrical
probe.
Geophysical surveying - The primary objectives in
the use of engineering geophysical surveys in
sewerage and drainage works are:
• Geological investigation: geophysical
methods have a major role to play in
mapping geological boundaries between
layers; determining the thickness of
superficial deposits and depth to rockhead;
establishing weathering profiles; and the
study of particular erosional and structural
features, such as the location of buried
channels, faults, dykes, etc.;
• Hazard assessment: detection of voids and
buried artefacts; location of buried
mineshafts and adits, natural cavities, old
foundations, pipelines etc.; detection of leaks
in barriers; pollution plumes on landfill sites;
• Determination of engineering properties of
the ground, such as dynamic elastic moduli,
rock rippability and rock quality; soil
corrosivity for pipeline protection studies etc.
There are many different geophysical techniques,
each based on different theoretical principles, such
as seismic velocity or electrical resistivity, and
consequently producing different sets of information
relating to the properties of subsurface materials.
For any given geophysical technique the variations
in the information obtained can give an indication of
the geological structure. Invariably interpretation of
geophysical survey data involves some degree of
prior knowledge of the underlying geological
structure derived from the preliminary
reconnaissance and from boreholes. For optimum
interpretation of the data from a geophysical survey
it is essential that adequate direct control is
available, such as boreholes or trial pits. In
comparison with borehole investigations,
geophysical surveys can offer considerable savings
in both time and money.
On sites where contamination is suspected, a
geophysical survey may form part of a preliminary
risk assessment prior to drilling or sampling. During
the drilling programme on the site, geophysical
surveys may be used to check the interpretation of
the geological structure between the boreholes.
Later in the site investigation further geophysical
surveys may be carried out within and between the
boreholes and on the ground surface; these are to
determine the geological, hydrogeological and
geotechnical properties of the ground mass in which
the construction is taking place.
The performance of all geophysical methods used in
site investigation is influenced by four fundamental
controlling factors:
• depth penetration;
• vertical and lateral resolution;
• signal-to-noise ratio;
• contrast in physical properties.
Prior to the employment of geophysical methods, it
is necessary to determine the quality of information
required, taking the above four factors into
consideration, in order to yield an effective
investigation.
Groundwater - The determination of groundwater
pressures is of the utmost importance, because
these have a profound influence on the behaviour of
the ground during and after the construction of
engineering works. Various strata, particularly those
separated by relatively impermeable layers, can
have different groundwater pressures, some of
which may be artesian. The location of highly
permeable water-bearing strata and the
measurement of water pressure in each is
particularly important where deep excavation or

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tunnelling is required, since special measures may
be necessary to deal with the groundwater. To
measure groundwater pressures accurately, it is
usually necessary to install special measuring
devices called piezometers.
The groundwater pressure may vary with time owing
to seasonal, tidal, or other causes, and it may be
necessary to take measurements over an extended
period of time so that such variations may be
investigated. When designing drainage works, it is
often helpful to determine the contours of the water
table or piezometric surface to ascertain the
direction of the natural drainage, the seasonal
variation and the hydrological controls.
Borehole permeability tests and large scale pump
tests should be considered. These tests require
some flow of water into or out of the measuring
system before the recorded pressure can reach
equilibrium with the actual groundwater pressure.
For an excavation or a borehole, a large volume of
water may flow before the water level reaches
equilibrium with the groundwater pressure. On the
other hand, some types of piezometer require only a
very small change in the volume of water for the
groundwater pressure to be read. The rate at which
water flows through the soil depends on the
permeability. The time required for a measuring
system to indicate the true groundwater pressure is
known as the response time and depends both on
the quantity of water required to enter the system
(including all pipes and tubes) to operate the
pressure measuring device, and on the permeability
of the ground. Depending on the response time, a
suitable method for measuring the groundwater
pressure should be employed.
Barge work - When the sewerage must cross large
bodies of water, barges are used to obtain ground
information. Sufficient lead-in time must be allowed
for mobilisation of barges.
Trial pit/drill hole filling - Upon completion of trial
pitting works, the pits should be filled and
compacted to better than its original conditions. If
the materials arising from the trial pits could not be
compacted (e.g. some silty or clayey soils), then the
arising should be disposal off site and the pit be
filled with imported materials.
Drill holes must be filled or plugged. This prevents
injury to livestock or people in the area and also
minimises the entry of surface water into the
borehole. If surface contamination of lower aquifers
or cross contamination is a concern, backfill the hole
with bentonite pellets or grout. This is especially
important in urban areas where ground
contamination from leaking underground storage
tanks is a common occurrence.
3.1.7 Sampling
The selection of sampling technique depends on the
quality of the sample that is required and the
character of the ground, particularly the extent to
which it is disturbed by the sampling process.
There are four main techniques for obtaining
samples:
• taking disturbed samples from the drill tools
or from excavating equipment in the course
of boring or excavation;
• drive sampling, in which a tube or split tube
sampler having a sharp cutting edge at its
lower end is forced into the ground, either by
a static thrust or by dynamic impact;
• rotary sampling, in which a tube with a cutter
at its lower end is rotated into the ground,
thereby producing a core sample;
• taking block samples specially cut by hand
from a trial pit.
Samples obtained by techniques as noted in the
second, third and fourth points above are often of
sufficient quality to enable the ground structure
within the sample to be examined. The quality of
such samples can vary considerably, depending on
the technique and the ground conditions, and most
exhibit some degree of disturbance.
When taking samples for chemical testing and in
particular, on potentially contaminated sites,
additional care is needed to avoid cross-
contamination and chemical or biological reactions,
which may affect the result. The risks of cross-
contamination are reduced by:
• using dry drilling or air flush methods for
progressing the boreholes;
• using casing to isolate upper layers of soil
and groundwater;

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• ensuring that all sampling and boring
equipment are clean;
• implementing strict sample handling
protocols.
Any sample of ground that might be contaminated
by substances hazardous to health should have a
warning to that effect on the sample label so that
personnel can follow appropriate safety procedures.
Sampling in sand and gravel should be carried out
at the top of each new stratum and thereafter at
1.5m interval of depth; a disturbed sample should be
obtained from a split-barrel sampler.
Sampling in cohesive soil should be carried out at
the top of each new stratum and thereafter at 1.5m
intervals of depth for undisturbed samples, and at
each metre of depth, a disturbed sample should be
obtained.
If with the sampler there is inadequate recovery or
the sampler cannot be driven, this should
immediately be followed by a standard penetration
test using a split-barrel sampler.
Sampling in rock should use continuous rotary
core. In cases where the core recovery is poor and
the rock is weak, the split-barrel standard
penetration test sampler should be used after each
core run in an attempt to recover a small sample of
the rock. Depending on the rock type, it may also be
useful to take a disturbed sample from the drill fluid
return, and thereafter at 1 m intervals of depth.
Handling and labelling of samples - Samples
obtained should be treated with great care. The
usefulness of the results of the laboratory tests
depends on the quality of the samples at the time
they are tested, so it is important to establish a
satisfactory procedure for the handling and labelling
of the samples, as well as their storage and
transport both to prevent their deterioration, and to
ensure that they can be readily identified and drawn
from the sample store when required.
The samples should be protected from excessive
heat and temperature variation, which could lead to
deterioration in the sealing of the sample containers
and subsequently damage the samples. The
temperature of the sample store is influenced by the
climate, but it is recommended that the samples be
stored at the lowest temperature practicable and
below 45
0
C. The daily temperature variation within
the store should not exceed 20
0
C.
All samples should be labelled with a unique
reference number immediately after being taken
from a borehole or excavation. If they are to be
preserved with their natural moisture content, they
should be sealed in an airtight container or coated in
wax at the same time. The label should show all
necessary information about the sample. If the
sample is of ground which might be contaminated
and contain hazardous substances, then the label
should carry a warning to that effect. The sample is
normally recorded on the daily field report. It should
carry more than one label or other means of
identification so that the sample can still be identified
if one label is damaged. The label should be marked
with indelible ink and be sufficiently robust to
withstand the effect of its environment and the
transport of the sample. An additional record copy of
the sample should also be kept separately.
Disturbed samples of soil and hand specimens of
rock may be required for testing, or where it is
desirable to keep them in good condition over long
periods for later inspection. Immediately after being
taken from a borehole or excavation, the sample
should be placed in a glass container of at least 1
litre capacity, which the sample should fill with the
minimum of air space. The container should have an
airtight cover or seal so that the natural moisture
content of the sample can be maintained until tested
in the laboratory. The sample containers should be
labelled. For rock samples, an alternative procedure
is to coat the sample in a layer of paraffin wax. A
microcrystalline wax is preferred because it is less
likely to shrink or crack. Larger disturbed samples
that are required for certain laboratory tests may be
packed in robust containers or plastic sacks. For
hand samples of rock, the reference number should
be recorded by painting directly on the surface of the
sample or attaching a label. Samples should then be
wrapped in several thicknesses of paper and packed
in a wooden box.
During the interval when the samples are on site or
in transit to the sample store, they should be
protected from excessive heat.
For Undisturbed samples that are retained in a
tube or liner, procedure a) below should be followed.

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For other samples, procedure b) below should be
followed:
a) Immediately after the sample has been taken
from the boring or excavation, the ends of the
sample should be removed to a depth of about
25mm and any obviously disturbed soil in the
top of the sampler should also be removed.
Several layers of molten wax, preferably
microcrystalline wax, should then be applied to
each end to give a plug of about 25mm in
thickness. The molten wax should be as cool
as possible. It is essential that the sides of the
tube be clean and free from adhering soil. If the
sample is very porous, a layer of waxed paper
should first be placed over the end of the
sample. Any remaining space between the end
of the tube or liner and the wax should be
tightly packed with a material that is less
compressible than the sample and not capable
of extracting water from it. There should be a
close-fitting lid or screw-cap on each end of the
tube or liner. If necessary, the lids should be
held in position with adhesive tape.
b) Immediately after being removed from the
sampling tool, samples that are not retained in
a tube should be wholly covered with several
layers of molten paraffin wax, preferably
microcrystalline wax, and these should then be
tightly packed with a suitable material into a
metal or plastics container. The lid of the
container should be held in position with
adhesive tape. If the sample is very porous, it
may be necessary to cover it with waxed paper
before applying the molten wax.
The liners or containers should be packed in a
way that minimises damage by vibration and
shock during transit.
Rotary core samples should be kept in a sample
store as described above.
Block samples - After labels have been attached to
the sample to indicate its location and orientation the
sample should be coated with a succession of layers
of microcrystalline wax. It may be advisable to
reinforce these with layers of porous fabric (e.g.
muslin) or plastic film. Additional labels should be
fixed to the outside of samples. The sample should
be packed in a suitable material and placed in a
strong box or crate. Large samples should be
protected with tight-fitting formwork or packed in
rigid cement, wax or resin to prevent fissures from
opening up under the weight of the samples.
Groundwater samples - Care should be taken to
ensure that the samples are representative of the
water-bearing stratum and have not been
contaminated or diluted by water entering the
borehole from other strata, or by contact with any
water or drilling fluid used to advance the borehole.
The depth and method of sampling, as well as the
subsequent storage and handling of samples, may
influence the results of analyses undertaken on
groundwater samples.
Sample containers should be made from glass,
polyethylene or polypropylene, be clean and
completely filled with the water sample so as to
minimise contact with oxygen. The samples should
be stored in the dark, at low temperatures and
tested as soon as possible after sampling.
When groundwater samples are to be taken from a
stratum that has been contacted while advancing
the borehole, all water-bearing strata from higher
levels should first be sealed off by borehole casings.
As far as possible, all the water in the borehole
should be removed by baling or pumping and the
sample taken from water that collects by seepage.
About one litre should be collected in a clean
polyethylene, polypropylene or glass bottle, which
should be rinsed three times with the water being
sampled before filling.
More stringent requirements may apply in certain
circumstances, particularly when accurate or
extensive chemical testing is to be undertaken in
order to investigate possible chemical
contamination. Additional requirements may include
special sampling techniques, multiple samples in
different sample containers with different fixing
agents, duplicate sampling, and special sample
handling procedures.
Some investigations require the use of permanent
monitoring wells from which groundwater samples
can be taken at various times. Before taking a
sample, it is essential that the well be purged, i.e.
the water standing in the well is removed by baling
or pumping, and groundwater allowed to flow in until
the water in the standpipe is representative of the

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groundwater. The sample is then taken using a baler
type sampler or a suitable pump.
3.1.8 Field Tests
During ground investigation field works, in-situ tests
in boreholes should be carried out concurrent with
soil/rock sampling. Numerous tests in boreholes
have been developed. Routine tests that are
considered relevant to sewerage and drainage
design include:
• Standard penetration test;
• Vane test;
• Permeability test;
• Packer test.
Other specialist tests in boreholes, e.g. plate load
tests, or pressure meter tests may be relevant to
foundation design of pumping stations and tunnels.
These tests should also be considered as
appropriate.
In addition to tests performed in boreholes, pump
tests may also be relevant to sewerage and
drainage works, particularly for the design and
construction of deep shafts where the mass
permeability of the ground and its groundwater
response to pumping during construction phases.
Other in-situ tests, including field density, in-situ
stress measurement, lateral and inclined loading
tests, pressurised chamber tests, and in-situ shear
tests are not usually employed for sewerage and
drainage works. However, the merits of these tests
may be relevant to particular sites and design
requirements.
Standard penetration test is a dynamic penetration
test carried out using a standard procedure, which is
described in BS 1377-9:1990, 3.3. The test uses a
thick-walled sample tube, the outside diameter of
which is 50mm. This is driven into the ground at the
bottom of the borehole by blows from a standard
weight falling through a standard distance. The blow
count gives an indication of the density of the
ground. The small sample that is recovered will have
suffered some disturbance but can normally be used
for identification purposes.
When the test is being performed in gravel of
coarser soil or in rock, the cutting shoe of the split-
barrel sampler may be replaced by a solid cone of
the same outside diameter and an included angle of
60
0
. It is important that the test is carried out
precisely as described in BS 1377-9:1990, 3.3, since
even minor variations from the specified procedure
can seriously affect the results and its interpretation.
The main purpose of the test is to obtain an
indication of the relative density of sands and
gravels, but it has also been used to find out the
consistency of other soils (silts and clays) and of
weak rocks (e.g. chalk).
In sand and gravel, at the top of each new stratum,
and thereafter at one metre intervals of depth, a
standard penetration test should be carried out.
In cohesive soil, when the recovery of samples from
the sampler is inadequate or the sampler cannot be
driven, a standard penetration test using a split
barrel sampler should be carried out.
Vane test - A cruciform vane on the end of a solid
rod is forced into the soil below the bottom of the
borehole and then rotated. The torque required to
rotate the vane can be related to the shear strength
of the soil. The method of carrying out the test is
described in BS 1377-9:1990, 4.4.
The test can be extended to measure the remoulded
strength of the soil. This is done by removing the
torque-measuring instrument from the extension
rods and turning the vane through six complete
rotations. A period of five minutes is permitted to
elapse after which the vane test is repeated in the
normal way.
The test is normally restricted to fairly uniform,
cohesive, fully saturated soils, and is used mainly for
clay having undrained shear strength up to about
100 kPa. Results are unreliable in materials with
significant coarse silt or sand content.
Permeability tests are carried out in boreholes to
determine the hydraulic conductivity, a measure of
the rate of water flow of soils.
Before carrying out any tests, it is important to
identify the aquifer and understand whether it is
confined or unconfined. The determination of in-situ
permeability by tests in boreholes involves the
application of a hydraulic pressure in the borehole
different from that in the ground, and the

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measurement of the rate of flow due to this
difference.
The pressure in the borehole may be increased by
introducing water into it, which is commonly called a
“falling head” test, or it may be decreased by
pumping water out of it in a “rising head” test. The
pressure may be held constant during a test
(constant head test) or it may be allowed to vary (a
variable head test).
The Packer or Lugeon test gives a measure of the
acceptance by in-situ rock of water under pressure.
In essence, it comprises the measurement of the
volume of water that can escape from an uncased
section of borehole in a given time under a given
pressure. Flow is confined between known depths
by means of packers, hence the more general name
of the test.
The flow is confined between two packers in the
double packer test, or between one packer and the
bottom of the borehole in the single packer test. The
test is used to assess the amount of grout that rock
accepts, to check the effectiveness of grouting, to
obtain a measure of the amount of fracturing of rock,
or to give an approximate value of the permeability
of the rock mass local to the borehole.
The results of the test are usually expressed in
terms of Lugeon units. A rock is said to have a
permeability of 1 Lugeon if, under a head above
groundwater level of 100m, a 1m length of borehole
accepts 1l/min of water. A simple rule that is
sometimes used to convert Lugeon units into
permeability is to take one Lugeon unit as equal to a
permeability of 1027m/s.
Pump test - In principle, a pumping test involves
pumping at a steady known flow from a well and
observing the drawdown effect on ground water
levels at some distance away from the pumped well.
In response to pumping, phreatic and piezometric
levels around the pumping well fall, creating a “cone
of depression”. The permeability of the ground is
obtained by a study of the shape of the cone of
depression, which is indicated by the water levels in
the surrounding observation wells.
The shape of the cone of depression depends on:
the pumping rate; the duration of pumping; the
nature of the ground; the existence, or otherwise, of
intermediate or other boundaries; the shape of the
ground water table; and nature of recharge. From
the data obtained from the test, the coefficients of
permeability, transmissivity and storage can be
determined.
The results obtained are averages for the entire
mass of ground which has been influenced by the
pumping test. In permeable ground, pumping from
the well may have a significant effect on piezometric
pressures to a distance of 100m or more. Flows
from a well pumping test are accumulated from
contributions coming from strata that may have very
different values of permeability individually and may
not be of consistent thickness within the radius of
influence of the well. The overall result could be
dominated by the flow from one highly permeable
layer or discontinuity; hence a thorough
understanding of the geological sequence of the
ground is vital in the interpretation of the pump test
results.
3.1.9 Laboratory Tests
Soil and water samples obtained from the field
works should be tested to evaluate their engineering
properties and to complement field observations.
Before samples are passed to the laboratory, care
should be taken to assess the possibility that some
may be contaminated with harmful substances. If
such a possibility exists, appropriate safety
precautions should be implemented and preliminary
tests done to determine the nature of any
contamination. The results of these preliminary tests
establish whether it is necessary to impose any
special procedures to ensure the safety of the
laboratory personnel.
The purpose of laboratory testing of samples of soil
and rock is to determine the following properties:
• Classification;
• chemical and electro-chemical;
• soil corrosivity;
• compaction-related properties;
• compressibility;
• permeability and durability;
• shear strength (total stress and effective
stress).

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The selection of tests depends on the design
requirements. It is often not necessary to specify
the whole range of tests listed above. Conversely, it
is essential to assign appropriate tests to be
undertaken, as late schedule of tests may adversely
impact on the design and construction programme.
Classification tests are used to determine the
following characteristic properties of soil/rock
samples:
• Moisture content or water content;
• Suction for desiccated soils;
• Liquid and plastic limits (Atterberg Limits);
• Soil volumetric shrinkage limit;
• Soil linear shrinkage;
• Swelling clay content;
• Soil particle density;
• Mass density or unit weight;
• Soil particle size distribution.
Soil suction, volumetric shrinkage, linear shrinkage,
and swell clay content tests are not usually required.
Particle density test is required occasionally to verify
the commonly adopted value of 2.65 is valid.
Chemical and electro-chemical tests are used to
determine the following properties of soil/rock and
water samples:
• Dispersion for fine grained soils;
• Chemical contaminants for soils and water;
• Organic matter in soils, in particular, peats;
• Sulphate content of soil and ground water;
• Magnesium content as a supplement to the
sulphate content test to assess the
aggressiveness of soil or groundwater to
buried concrete;
• pH value for soils and water;
• Carbonate content to determine the
presence of carbonates, which often
indicates cementing;
• Chloride content, where pH of ground is less
than 5.8. Results are used in conjunction
with those for sulphate, nitrate and pH to
assess the aggressiveness of the ground,
especially to concrete;
• Total dissolved solids in groundwater.
Soil corrosivity is determined by bacteriological,
Redox potential, and Resistivity tests on undisturbed
specimens stored in sterilised containers.
Compaction tests require the determination of dry
density; standard compaction tests at different
moisture contents and compaction efforts;
maximum, minimum density and density index tests
of coarse grained soil; and moisture condition value
used for control of materials for earthworks.
Compressibility tests include: one-dimensional
compression and consolidation tests to determine
the coefficient of volumetric changes and the
coefficient of consolidation.
Permeability and durability tests include: constant
head tests; falling head tests; triaxial permeability
tests; and Row consolidation tests.
Strength tests for soils include: triaxial compression
tests, unconfined compression tests; laboratory
shear vane tests; direct shear box; and residual
shear strength tests. Strength tests for rocks
include: point load tests; uniaxial compression tests;
direct and indirect tension tests; and triaxial
compression tests.
3.1.10 Reports and Interpretation
Reports on ground investigation should distinguish
between factual report and interpretative report.
Factual reports should record all information
obtained from the actual ground investigation carried
out. This includes results from field and laboratory
works.
Interpretative reports should contain all information
obtained from desk study and site reconnaissance,
and interpretation of the data contained in the
factual report. Often it is convenient to produce
separate desk study reports and interpretative
reports. In such cases, references to relevant desk
study reports should be made in the interpretative
reports.
Factual Report

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The content of a factual report should include the
following (not necessary exhaustive):
• Introduction
This should state who the client is the works
were undertaken for, the dates and nature of
the investigation, the nature of the proposed
development for which the investigation was
carried out, and the general location.
• Site description
The report should contain a description of
the geographical location of the site and
comment on features outside the site
boundary. Where appropriate this should
include street names and grid reference. It
may also include a reproduced section of the
relevant map of the appropriate scale for
clarity. Details of all relevant topographic
features should be included. The description
should also include details of what was
present on the site at the time of the
investigation, including the possibility or
knowledge of any contaminated ground or
landfill gases. In addition, details of any past
or present man-made underground features,
such as basements, mineral or other
extractive workings, access or drainage adits
and other tunnels, should be included. Some
comment should be made on the relative
levels between the site and its surroundings,
and whether there are conspicuous
differences in level over the site itself.
• General geology
An account should be given of the geology
of the site, and the sources from which the
information was obtained should be stated.
Information from previous ground
investigations on or adjacent to the site
should be emphasised. The soil and rock
types identified and described in the report
should be linked with the known geology of
the site.
• Fieldwork
This should describe the methods of
investigation and testing used. It should
include a description of all the equipment
used, e.g. types of drilling rigs and tools,
together with the relevant standards for
testing, sampling or drilling to which the work
has been carried out. A note should be
made of any difficulties experienced, e.g.
problems in recovering samples. It is
essential that any testing for gases and other
contaminants, or observations of these in the
boreholes and around the site generally be
reported. The dates when the exploratory
work was done should also be recorded,
together with a note about the weather
conditions, if relevant. The report should
contain a drawing indicating the positions
and ground levels of all pits, boreholes, field
tests, etc. It should contain sufficient
topographical information so that the several
positions can be located at a later date.
• Exploratory hole (including trial pit) logs.
Logs of exploratory holes should contain the
following data as a minimum:
1) title of investigation, report number,
and name of client;
2) location detailed by a national or site
grid reference;
3) date of start and finish of boring;
4) unique borehole number;
5) type of boring, e.g. cable, percussion
or rotary, and other details, including
sizes of boring tools or drilling
equipment used;
6) ground level related to recognised
national datum;
7) diameter of borehole and/or types of
core barrel including depths of any
reductions in size;
8) diameter of casings and depth to
which taken;
9) a depth scale so that the depth of
sampling, tests and change in strata
can be readily determined;
10) a description of each stratum
together with its thickness. For trial
pits, a record of the ease of
excavation of the strata and stability
of the sides of the excavation should
be taken. Soils and rocks should be
described in accordance with Table

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A6.1 and A6.2, and with symbols as
given in Table A6.3 (see Appendix
6).
11) the depth and level of each change
of stratum;
12) the depth of the top and bottom of
each tube sample, or bulk sample
and its and the depth of each small
disturbed sample; or the depth of the
start and finish of each core run; the
core recovery for each rock core run
expressed in percentage of total core
recovery, the fracture state
expressed in terms of rock quality
designation, solid core recovery, and
fracture index; zones of core loss
and voids; rock cores, cores should
be photographed when fresh and
before any destructive logging is
carried out. The photographs should
be in colour, to a consistent format
on any investigation, include job,
borehole and depth references,
together with a scale and standard
colour chart, and be free from
distortion. The photographs should
be presented in the report.
13) the depth at the top and bottom of
each borehole test and the nature of
the test;
14) where standard penetration tests are
being recorded, tests made with the
thick-walled sampler should be
distinguished from those made with
a solid cone; and should include all
incremental blow counts and
penetrations;
15) the date when each section was
bored or cored/drilled;
16) details of tools in use, including
sizes; for trial pits, a description of
excavator type, bucket size, shoring
arrangement and pumps as
appropriate;
17) an indication of the type of drilling
flush and return proportion for each
core run, with note of any change in
colour;
18) water levels (including changes) and
related casing depths at all samples,
tests and water inflows; incidence
and behaviour of groundwater.
Where no groundwater was
encountered, this should also be
recorded. In addition, where
groundwater observations could not
be observed this should be noted; for
instance, drilling with water flush or
over water, or boring at a rate much
faster than water can make its way
into the borehole. Where the
information derived from boreholes is
concise, it should be included in the
logs. The position of the borehole
casing and the borehole depth at the
time of an observation should be
stated. All other data, including those
from separate observation wells,
should be given in a separate table.
Where water has been added to or
removed from the ground by the
boring or drilling process, this should
be recorded.
19) a record of each water strike,
including rate of rise of water level,
depth of water in the borehole at
start and finish of shift, depth of
water at the time of each test or
sample and depth of casing when
each observation was made. The
final reading to be determined after a
minimum of 3 readings at 24 hour
intervals, when steady state has
been reached;
20) a record of any water added to
facilitate boring;
21) where observation wells or
piezometers have been installed,
their depths should be given,
together with details of the
installation, preferably in the form of
a diagram, and often on a separate
report sheet;

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22) water levels in observation wells
measured subsequent to the
completion of the borehole; these
may be recorded separately.
23) a record of tests carried out, such as
permeability and packer tests;
24) the orientation of the exploratory
holes;
25) depth of termination of borehole;
26) details of backfilling or instruments
installed;
27) ground and surface water records;
28) details of all samples and tests
taken, including depth at top of each
sample; the core recovery for each
rock core run expressed in
percentage of total core recovery,
the fracture state expressed in terms
of rock quality designation, solid core
recovery, and fracture index.
• In-situ tests
In-situ tests should be reported giving full
details of the test type, location, equipment
used, start and finish date and time, weather
conditions, particular difficulties
encountered, and details of the testing
procedure and results obtained.
• Location of exploratory holes and in-situ
tests
These should be indicated on a plan
showing the precise position of each
borehole so that it is possible to locate each
position accurately even after demolitions
and excavations have taken place.
Extensive tracts of open featureless country
present problems that are best solved by
linking the position of the borehole to a land
survey. Ground levels related to a
permanent datum are also required.
• Results of laboratory tests
These should be reported in accordance
with BS 1377
1
. A summary should be


provided in addition to the detailed results.
The precise test carried out should also be
stated.
A description of samples should be given.
Soil and rock samples should be described
in accordance with Table A6.1 and A6.2,
Appendix 6.
• Special reports
Special reports, such as penetration tests,
well-point pumping, and geophysical survey
should be reported separately as
appropriate.
Interpretative Report
The content of an interpretative report should
include the following (not necessary exhaustive):
• Introduction
The Introduction to the interpretative report
should state who was the client for the
proposed scheme, the nature of the
proposed scheme, the contractor who
carried out the field and laboratory works,
the dates and nature of the investigation,
and the general location of the scheme.
References to factual reports should be
made.
• Desk study
Desk study information should be included in
the interpretative report, unless a separate
report has been compiled, in which case a
reference to the desk study report should be
made.
• Ground type and stratigraphy
Ground type and stratigraphy should be
described. Where appropriate, the ground
should be divided into a series of soil and
rock types for which the engineering
properties may be regarded as sensibly
constant for the purpose in hand. This
division is usually, though not always,
closely related to the geological succession.



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A description of each ground type should be
given and any anomalies that have been
observed should be noted and commented
on.
An account should be given of the sequence
of ground types as they occur in the various
parts of the site. Wherever possible the
stratigraphy of the site should be tied into its
topographical, geological and
geomorphological features. Attention should
be specifically drawn to any anomalies that
may have a significant effect on the works
being considered.
Discussions on ground type and stratigraphy
should be supplemented by geotechnical
cross-sections illustrating the ground profile,
simplified as required, with groundwater
level shown.
The presentation of a borehole section
would usually include joining up the
boreholes by stratum boundaries, using all
the available information and suitably
qualified in any areas of doubt. Accurate and
integrated interpretation of geological maps,
boreholes and other data is a prerequisite to
a thorough understanding of the ground. It
can be helpful to indicate relevant soil
parameters on sections, e.g., results of
standard penetration tests, triaxial tests or
earthworks relationship tests.
• Geotechnical design parameters
There is no universally accepted method of
selecting these parameters, but the following
approach may help to arrive at reliable
values:
1) compare both laboratory and in-situ
test results with ground descriptions;
2) cross-check, where possible,
laboratory and in-situ results in the
same ground;
3) collect individually acceptable results
for each formation and decide
representative values appropriate to
the number of results;
4) where possible, compare the
representative values with
experience and published data for
similar geological formations;
5) consider and explain apparently
anomalous or extreme results.
• Groundwater
Groundwater is a very important factor in the
design and also in the selection of methods
of construction. Inadequate or erroneous
assessment of groundwater conditions is
one of the biggest single contributors to
problems on-site during construction. The
report should describe regional groundwater
conditions and the presence or otherwise of
perched, artesian or downward draining
conditions. Comment should be made on
any anomalies and the possibility of the rise
or fall of groundwater with the season, tide
or other long term variation. Further
guidance is given in Sections 3.2 and 4.2 in
this Volume.
• Chemical conditions
Comment should be made on chemical
conditions in the ground and groundwater,
not only with regard to attack on buried parts
of the structure, but also with regard to
possible effects in construction and service
life, whether these be due to natural causes
or to human activities. Any conditions that
could affect health and safety during
construction or in subsequent use should be
mentioned.
• Engineering considerations
Engineering considerations should relate to
the nature of the scheme. The following list,
which is by no means exhaustive, indicates
the topics on which advice and
recommendations are often required, and
also what should be included. Given the
availability of a wide and ever-changing
range of proprietary systems, all of which
interact with the ground in subtly different
ways, it is important that the report does not
overstate the technical analysis of the
engineering works in relation to the ground
interactions. However, it is essential for the

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report to provide adequate information
needed to assess the suitability of various
design and construction options.
1) Spread foundations: level, either in
terms of a depth or to a stated
stratum; safe or allowable bearing
capacity; estimated total and
differential settlements; possible
alternative types of foundation;
possible ground treatment.
2) Piles: types suited to the ground
profile and environment; estimated
safe working loads, or data from
which they can be assessed;
estimated settlements of structures.
3) Retaining walls: lateral pressures or
data from which they can be derived;
wall friction; bearing capacity;
groundwater conditions.
4) Basements/shafts: comment on the
possibility of flotation. An estimate of
the rise of the basement floor/shaft
base during construction, and where
appropriate, groundwater levels.
5) Ground anchorages: bearing stratum
and estimated safe loads, or data
from which they may be calculated;
6) Chemical attack: most commonly
takes the form of recommendations
for protecting buried concrete
against attack from sulphate-bearing
soils and groundwater. Also to be
considered is the possibility of
corrosion of steel in saline waters or
in the presence of sulphate-reducing
bacteria. The effect of acidic or
highly alkaline soils may also need to
be considered. Contaminated soils,
especially those containing high
concentrations of organic chemicals,
should be considered for their effects
on all building materials, including
effects on services. These factors
should also be considered with
regard to health and safety during
construction and in subsequent use
of the structure.
7) Pavement design: assessment of
appropriate design parameters or
California Bearing Ratios; type and
thickness of pavement; possibility of
using soil stabilisation for forming
pavement bases or sub-bases;
recommendations, where
appropriate, for sub-grade drainage;
comment on susceptibility of soil at
formation level to frost heave.
8) Slope stability: recommendations on
temporary and permanent slopes for
excavations, including where
appropriate, drainage measures.
Comment should be made, where
relevant, on the possibility of
weathering of rock faces and the
available methods of dealing with
this hazard. Recommendations for
the monitoring of unstable slopes
may also be required.
9) Mining subsidence: This is not a
common issue in Qatar. However, if
any voids are identified,
recommendations for methods of
filling known cavities near the
surface; the design of structures to
withstand movements without
damage or measures to limit the
damage and simplify repairs.
10) Tunnels and underground works: a
description of the ground through
which the tunnel is to be driven, by
chainage; possible covering of the
following points: methods and
sequence of excavation; whether
excavation is likely to be stable
without support; suggested methods
of lining in unstable excavations;
potential use of rock bolting;
likelihood of encountering
groundwater and recommendations
for dealing with it; special features
for pressure tunnels; risk of
encountering ground or water
contamination; possibility of natural
or man-made gases.
11) Safety of neighbouring structures: an
assessment of the likely amount of

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movement caused by adjacent
excavations and groundwater
lowering, compressed air working,
grouting and ground freezing or
other geotechnical processes. The
possibility of movement due to
increased loading on adjacent
ground may also need to be
considered.
12) Monitoring of movements: comment
on the necessity for measuring the
amount of movement taking place in
structure and slopes, together with
recommendations for the method to
be used; recommendations for taking
photographs before the
commencement of works.
13) Embankments: comment on stability
of embankment foundations and pipe
trenches; assessment of amount and
rate of settlement and the possibility
of hastening it by such means as
vertical drains; recommendations for
side slopes; choice of constructional
materials and methods; parameters
for control of earthworks.
14) Drainage: comment on possible
drainage methods during
construction for works above and
below ground; general permanent
land drainage schemes for extensive
areas.
• Construction expedients
Comments and recommendations are often
required on the points listed below. Safety
aspects should be included where
appropriate. These matters are often given
insufficient attention, although they are
comparable in importance to the design of
the permanent works.
1) Open excavations: method and
sequence of excavation; what
support is needed; how to avoid
boiling and bottom heave; estimated
upward movement of floor of
excavation. Comment on relative
merits of sheet piling and diaphragm
or bored pile walls where
appropriate.
2) Underground excavations: method
and sequence of excavation and the
need for temporary roof and side
support; dealing with gases.
3) Groundwater: likely flow, head and
quantity and how to deal with it.
4) Driven piles, bored piles and ground
anchors: methods of driving or
construction suited to the ground
profile, environment and
neighbouring buildings.
5) Grouting: types of grouts likely to be
successful in the ground and
recommended method of injection.
6) Mechanical improvement of soil
below ground level. Comment on the
suitability of techniques for the
consolidation of loose soils.
7) Contamination: known or suspected
contaminants and gases in soil,
groundwater and any cavities.
Comment on health and safety
aspects both during and after
construction.
8) Sources of materials. The following
are suggested:
i) Fill: possibility of using
excavated material for this
purpose as an assessment
of the proportions of usable
material; methods and
standards of compaction;
possible off-site sources of
fill; bulking factor.
ii) Aggregates: in areas
where no commercial
sources are available, the
possibilities of winning and
processing materials
available locally.

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3.2 Hydrogeological
Investigations
This Section should be read with reference to:
• Section 4.2 (Ground Conditions) which
contains a general review of the
hydrogeological conditions that characterise
Qatar;
• Section 3.1, which describes the
requirement for geotechnical investigations.
There is considerable overlap between the
components of work that make up a geotechnical
investigation and that of a hydrogeological
investigation with much of the data obtained being of
use in both types of interpretation. In addition it is
most cost-effective to combine the two in one
seamless operation.
3.2.1 Purpose of Investigations
In the context of drainage issues, the purpose of a
hydrogeological investigation is to obtain a sufficient
understanding of the groundwater conditions that
characterise an area to enable suitable and cost-
effective drainage solutions to be designed,
constructed, and operated.
3.2.2 Outline Methodology
The recommended methodology is as follows:
Phase 1: Desk Study
• Consider data requirements relevant to the
drainage problem under consideration (e.g.
dewatering, drainage for a single building,
drainage for a larger development, drainage
for a district etc.);
• Procure and review currently available
information on general geological and
hydrogeological conditions;
• Procure and review relevant data on the
area concerned e.g. from previous site
investigations;
• Carry out field visits and reconnaissance
inspections to verify conditions at the site;
• Make a preliminary hydrogeological
interpretation i.e. of the groundwater regime
that characterises the area under current
conditions;
• Make a preliminary assessment of the
possible drainage solutions in the context of
the hydrogeological interpretation;
• Identify uncertainties in the interpretation
that require resolution by further site
investigation;
• Draw up a scope for the additional
investigations, amalgamate the work
required with any geotechnical
investigations, and produce a schedule of
works required for tendering purpose or
other procurement method as required;
• Produce an interim report on findings as
necessary or otherwise record project status
to date for record purposes.
Phase II: Intrusive Investigations
• Procure investigations through tender and
award procedures as appropriate;
• Supervise works to ensure compliance with
specification;
• Take responsibility for (or have provided by
site investigation contractor) factual and
interpretative reports on ground conditions;
• Carry out longer-term monitoring as required
e.g. of groundwater levels and quality;
• Produce final interpretation for detailed
design.
3.2.3 Sources of Information
A considerable amount of work has already been
done to understand the hydrogeological conditions
that characterise Qatar, especially the Greater Doha
area and a summary is given in Section 4.2. The
main source of this information are consultant’s
reports that have been produced, particularly since
1981, mainly for government ministries and their
executive agencies such as the DA. Subsequently,
groundwater investigations have been carried out for
various kinds of infrastructure development and
longer term groundwater level monitoring is
continuing.

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The available information includes the results of site
investigations that have produced borehole logs with
detailed strata descriptions. Some investigations
have included determination of key hydrogeological
parameters such as permeability, specific yield and
up-to-date groundwater level information may also
be available.
It follows therefore that there is much more detailed
and possibly site-specific information relevant to a
particular area that may be available in addition to
the general description contained in this manual.
3.2.4 Data Requirements: Desk
Study Phase
The following is a summary of information
requirements at Desk Study stage:
• Information relevant to the physical setting,
including; geomorphology, ground elevation
relevant to the surrounding area, proximity to
coastline, and the current extent of urban
development etc.;
• Any information that can be obtained relating
to the functioning of drainage systems in the
new project area e.g. the propensity for
flooding, or the performance of soakaways;
• Geological Information:
1) The strata succession in the 0-50m
depth range;
2) Rock types in the sequence to the
top of the Midra Shale, including
lithological descriptions, extent of
fissuring, and degree of weathering.
• Hydrogeological Information:
1) Rock properties (permeability and
porosity) estimated from lithological
description, if possible supported by
information from previous site
investigations;
2) Groundwater level information
including likely depth to the water
table and its elevation (the latter
providing the basis for deducing
groundwater flow patterns), and the
likely extent of seasonal variation;
3) Indicative information on
groundwater quality, for construction
materials, design purposes and also
as an indicator of the extent of urban
leakage.
The above information will then be collated to
provide a preliminary interpretation of groundwater
conditions with a view to uncertainties being
resolved through additional site investigation, as
discussed in the following section.
3.2.5 Data Requirements: Site
Investigation Phase
The following describes the components of work
likely to form the hydrogeological part of a typical
site investigation:
• Digging of trial pits to allow inspection of
shallow, in-situ ground conditions;
• Drilling of boreholes to provide:
1) Lithological details of strata
penetrated, and their distribution
spatially (across the site) and with
depth;
2) Zones of groundwater occurrence as
the borehole is drilled, as an
indicator of depth to water and
permeability;
3) A means of carrying out in-situ
permeability tests using one of the
standard techniques such as falling
or rising head tests.
• Completion of boreholes with standpipes to
provide:
1) A means of measuring groundwater
levels;
2) A facility for water sampling for
chemical analysis.
• Performance of pumping tests to provide
data on permeability, specific yield etc. if
required;
• Longer-term monitoring of groundwater
levels and quality to assess seasonal
change and post-construction monitoring to
validate the completed scheme.

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3.2.6 Notes on Site Investigation
Techniques
As referred to in section 3.1, this section covers the
following general issues applicable to site
investigation:
• Physical extent of investigation and timing;
• Health, safety and environment Issues;
• Site preparation and existing utilities issues;
• Techniques of intrusive investigation
including:
1) Trial Pits;
2) Light Cable Percussion Boring;
3) Mechanical Augers;
4) Rotary Drilling, including use of
circulation fluids;
5) Types of probing and penetration
testing.
• Use of Geophysics;
• Site restoration;
• Sampling protocols (soil and groundwater);
• In-situ testing (including permeability tests
and packer tests)
• Field pumping tests;
• Laboratory testing;
• Reporting.
Additional points to note in respect of investigations
focussed on hydrogeological conditions are as
follows:
• Trial pits offer a particularly useful
opportunity to examine rock lithology in
detail and in a relatively undisturbed state;
aspects such as fracture spacing, degree of
weathering and infill can all be examined at
first hand, but the data are applicable to the
first 3-4m only, this being the standard depth
of a trial pit;
• In the context of the conditions that will
generally be found in Qatar, only rotary
coring will allow lithological properties to be
studied with the rock intact;
• Use of non-biodegradable mud as a
circulation fluid during drilling may seal off
fissures and hence provide misleadingly low
permeability values in subsequent in-situ
testing;
• Air-flush drilling will displace water as well as
drill cuttings and provides a useful guide as
to the groundwater level. This is used to
record the depths at which most water is
produced, with the most permeable zones
being below the water table;
• Standpipes slotted over the full length of the
hole may provide an artificial connection to
permeable layers otherwise separated by
impermeable ones, thus confusing hydraulic
relationships and providing mixed-water
samples. If a lack of vertical hydraulic
continuity is suspected, casagrande-type
piezometers may be considered. Standpipes
with restricted open areas (i.e. with the
annular space above and below the
response zone sealed with an impermeable
grout) may also be considered;
• Whilst tests on individual boreholes will
provide values of permeability, either depth-
related or bulk for the whole depth of the
borehole, the most comprehensive testing
regime for obtaining aquifer parameters over
substantial parts of the site is through a
pumping test, the main components of which
are:
1) Installation of a pumping well from
which groundwater can be
abstracted at a constant rate,
continuously for one - two weeks
minimum;
2) A means of measuring the discharge
from the pumping well and the taking
of water level measurements within it
in response to pumping;
3) A means of conveying the pumped
water away from the test site so that
it does not re-circulate;
4) Installation of one or more
observation wells from which water
level measurements can be taken in
response to pumping;

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5) The taking of water level
measurements for at least seven
days before pumping begins in order
to identify any background effects;
6) The taking of water level
measurements after pumping stops
in order to obtain recovery data for
further analysis;
7) The taking of water samples at
intervals to check for changes in
quality as the cone of depression in
the water table expands in response
to pumping;
8) Analysis of the data using graphical
techniques or computer models but
in all cases using methods whose
inherent assumptions approximate to
the field conditions (e.g. for
unconfined conditions).
• When planning pumping tests (or dewatering
schemes) in areas where there are adjacent
properties it must be recognised that the
cone of depression may extend beyond the
site boundaries, leading to the possibility of
settlement beneath adjacent buildings.
Monitoring of settlement is mandatory under
such circumstances;
• With respect to the taking of water levels
under any circumstances, the following may
be noted:
1) It may be most cost effective to
monitor groundwater levels
automatically using data-loggers that
can be either manually downloaded
or be configured to automatically
transmit the data to a designated
source;
2) Basic data should include the survey
of the measuring benchmark (e.g.
the top of the borehole casing) to
QNHD so that the water levels can
be plotted as absolute levels;
3) Groundwater levels in boreholes or
piezometers should not be regarded
as representative of in-situ
conditions unless they are taken at
least 24 hours after completion of
drilling.
• Regarding water quality, a more detailed
understanding of the hydrochemical
conditions may be required. In these cases,
sampling protocols require rigorous
attention. The following comments apply:
1) The need for wellhead (field)
determination of parameters such as
temperature, pH, electrical
conductivity, dissolved oxygen and
redox potential (Eh) should be
considered, including use of a flow-
cell;
2) Samples should be obtained in clean
containers, preferably supplied by
the laboratory responsible for the
chemical analysis;
3) Samples should be stored in a cool
place away from sunlight, and should
be taken to the laboratory as soon as
possible, preferably on the day that
they are taken;
4) The analytical suite should include
all major anions and cations but at
least sodium, potassium, calcium,
magnesium, sulphate, chloride,
carbonate/bicarbonate and nitrate,
so that an ionic balance can be
carried out as a check on the
accuracy of the analyses;
5) Other parameters may require
determination to suit the
requirements of particular
investigations;
6) The laboratory should as far as
possible, be independently
accredited for the testing carried out.
3.3 Surveys
Early collection of accurate survey data is crucial to
the success of all design projects, but is frequently
also necessary during planning stages in order to
assess the viability of different options.

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The nature of the work in hand will determine the
type of survey work required. Almost all new
pipeline installations will require at least some
topographical work, but other types of survey are
also frequently necessary.
This should be considered in the early stages of
project programming, so that appropriate contractors
with the necessary expertise can be sourced and
mobilised. Some of the less common survey
expertise may only be available outside Qatar and
can take six or more months from first inquiry to
mobilisation to Qatar.
3.3.1 Types of Survey
Types of survey required may include:
Conventional Topographic Using Total Station or
Manual Instruments
Conventional topographic surveys will be
appropriate for most smaller scale projects and the
designer should consider carefully the information
requirements for the success of the project.
It is not appropriate to write a general specification
covering all projects because they all differ.
However, the general guidelines below should be
followed.
1) All levels should be reported in metres
above QND.
2) For most hard ground, levels in millimetres
can be rounded to 2 decimal places e.g.
6.01m. If extreme accuracy is required, this
should be noted specifically. In open
unmade ground, levels to 1 decimal place
e.g. 6.1m will be sufficient.
3) For design purposes, proposed levels
should be quoted to three decimal places.
4) Co-ordinates should always be tied in with
QND.
5) Survey data should be provided in digital
and hard copy.
6) Digital survey data should be presented in
AutoCAD files at 1:1 scale
7) Paper copies should be at 1:100, 1:500,
1:1250 or 1:2500. Other scales are not
acceptable.
8) Survey grid sizes should be carefully chosen
to the suit the needs of the project. For a
new treated urban area, a grid of spots at
5m x 5m may be sufficient.
9) For laying of pipelines over long distance
spot levels at 50m intervals should be
sufficient in flatter areas, reducing to 10m on
inclines.
10) For a pipeline route, the width of study
corridor surveyed may be as much as 50m
wide to each alternative route at planning
stage. This may reduce to 10m wide where a
final route has been chosen and levels are
required for detailed design. It is important to
give sufficient coverage at planning stage,
as the results of other surveys (such as
geotechnical) will frequently have an impact
on choice of route, resulting in the need for
changes and more survey information at
later stages.
For pipelines laid by trenchless techniques
the only points of real interest are at the
beginning and end points. If ground levels
do not vary significantly in between, they are
of no interest. The location of topographical
features may, however, be important in
relation to other considerations, such as
property boundaries and legal notices.
All surveys should pick up relevant
topographical features in the vicinity of the
study area, such as ground types, manholes,
kerblines, boundaries, fences and barriers,
overhead cables, wadis, trees, buildings and
all other obstructions.
The surveyor should be instructed to
maintain effective checking systems at all
stages of the production of the survey. The
object should be to ensure accurate work
and/or detect errors and omissions before
the issue of the final survey record. The
surveyor should record the locations and
value of all survey stations used during the
survey.
Aerial Photogrammetry

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Aerial Photogrammetry is commonly used for
planning major developments in inaccessible areas.
It may be of use for planning routes of long
transmission pipelines; however, its use is now
becoming superseded by satellite imagery.
Satellite Imagery
Satellite Images have now been prepared for most
developed parts of the world. Although originally
developed for military purposes, these can now be
obtained commercially. Again, they can be of use
during the planning stages of a project.
GPS Surveys
GPS Surveys also use satellite information.
Handheld GPS units are very useful for quick
determination of co-ordinates in relation to the
National Grid, but collection of accurate data
requires more sophisticated equipment. Current
mobile models, carried in backpacks should be
capable of providing co-ordinate and levels to sub-
metre accuracy. Quoted accuracy is typically ±
005m horizontal and ±0.01m vertical. These units
provide an excellent method of obtaining data
quickly in remote locations.
Manhole Location (Confined Space) Surveys
Manhole Location Surveys will be necessary when
compiling computer models of existing sewers and
when tying new works into existing. These must be
carried out by specialist contractors with appropriate
experience. The work involves entry into confined
spaces, and often requires traffic management.
Survey contracts should be carried out in
accordance with the requirements of WRC/WSA
Model contract
2
, adapted for use in Qatar.
Impermeable Area Surveys
Impermeable Area Surveys are sometimes
necessary for the design of new drainage in existing

2
The UK Water Industry Engineering and
Operations Committee. 2003. Model Contract for
Manhole Location Surveys and The Production of
Record Maps. 2
nd
ed. Marlow, Buckinghamshire:
Water Research Centre (WRc) Publications.

urbanised areas. The ultimate aim is to provide an
accurate estimate of the percentage impermeable
areas of all of the subcatchments in order to
determine more accurate times of concentration and
critical storm durations. Such surveys are generally
carried out during the process of information
collection and should be carried out by an
experienced engineer or technician. The procedure
involves a systematic visual survey of the whole
catchment on foot, marking up all of the paved areas
onto a topographical survey map of appropriate
scale. Ground types should be noted, and colour
coded. It is not generally practical to measure
accurately all of the contributing areas, but the areas
marked up on the survey drawing can be measured
in the office with the use of a planimeter
House Connection Surveys
House Connection Surveys may also be necessary
for design of foul sewers to service existing
catchments. Again, there is no set procedure for
this, but it involves a systematic investigation of all
the properties in the catchment to determine
whether they are already connected to the system,
or served by septic tank or other means. Data
should be reported on a proforma, the format of
which will be determined by the DA in the PSA. This
form will be different for each project. An example
of such a form is included in Appendix 1. Each
property will need to be visited, and information to
be determined will, as a minimum, include:
1) Type of property and number of inhabitants.
2) Water and Electricity Department Numbers.
3) Co-ordinates, size, materials and level of
septic tanks.
4) Terminal manhole information, co-ordinates,
cover level and depth.
5) Connection pipe diameter, length and
material.
6) Buried utility locations.
Buried Utilities Location
The normal procedure for location of buried services
should initially follow the guidelines laid out in
Section 2.3. It is conceivable that information
received by this method may need to be
supplemented by site surveys. These will normally

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include a variety of methods, such as trial pits to
confirm locations, use of probes to confirm pipe
routes between manholes, ground radar to locate all
non-metallic pipes, and pipe tracing using hand held
electrolocation detectors (not suitable for plastic
pipes).
CCTV Surveys
CCTV Surveys are necessary for assessing the
condition of existing sewers. Work should be carried
out in accordance with the WRC Model Contract
3
,
and results reported according to the WRC Manual
4
.
Flow Surveys
Flow Surveys are sometimes necessary for
confirmation of sewer flows for the purpose of sewer
modelling and design. They should be carried out in
accordance with the Model Contract for Short Term
Flow Surveys
i
.
Again, this could be adapted for conditions in Qatar
and careful consideration given to timing in relation
to local weather patterns.
Bathymetric and Drogue Surveys
Bathymetric and Drogue Surveys (current
monitoring) will be necessary for the design of
coastal outfalls. Also specialist in nature, the survey
requirements will be dependent upon the modelling
software to be used.
Structural Condition Surveys
Structural Surveys should be recommended for
existing structures adjacent to tunnelling or other
deep excavations. These will generally include a

3 Water Research Centre (WRc). 1990. Model
Contract for Non Man-Entry Sewer Inspection. 3
rd

ed. Marlow, Buckinghamshire: Water Research
Centre (WRc) Publications.

4 Water Research Centre (WRc). 1993. Manual of
Sewer Classification. 3
rd
ed. Marlow,
Buckinghamshire: Water Research Centre (WRc)
Publications.

pre-condition survey, and monitoring of any existing
cracks during construction.
3.4 Operating Data
Operating data is available or can be
measured/obtained for the existing DA facilities as
outlined in the following sub-sections.
3.4.1 Pumping Stations
Fixed Data
• Pump type/manufacturer;
• Pump numbers and configuration;
• Pump duty/operating arrangements;
• Wet-well capacity;
• Pump on/off/alarm levels;
• Rising main diameter, length and material;
• MCC manufacturer;
• Pump control sensors;
• Flow measurement facilities;
• Inflow screening equipment;
• Surge protection measures;
• SCADA/Telemetry facilities.

Variable Data
• Levels in wet well (e.g. low, high water and
alarm levels);
• Pump running details (hours run and start
stop times);
• Flow meter records.
Test data
• Actual pump flow Q and head losses H in
rising main (i.e. actual H/Q diagram);
• Pump efficiency, energy use and other
relevant performance data.
• Data from drop tests

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3.4.2 Sewage Treatment
Fixed Data
Sewage treatment plants contain extensive
electromechanical, civil and instrumentation
facilities. As required for a project, these can be
surveyed and reported on so as to define the actual
details of the plant.
Variable Data
Numerous data can be recorded at a sewage
treatment plant such as:
• Operating levels in tanks, chambers etc.;
• Operating details of electromechanical
equipment;
• Flows through the various elements of the
plant.
Test Data
• Extensive testing can be done on the
sewage, effluent, and sludge at the various
stages in the process to determine the
physical, chemical and biological properties;
• Other data arising from the operation of the
plant such as odour and noise;
• Testing of electromechanical plant to
determine actual operating performance
characteristics can also be undertaken.
3.4.3 Sewerage
Operating data for sewerage networks would be
limited to:
• Flow logging;
• Physical inspection: man entry for manholes
and CCTV of pipelines to check for
blockages, pipe damage, and other aspects
that might affect the flow characteristics of
the system.
3.4.4 Surface Water/Hydrology
Operating data for drainage networks would be
limited to:
• Flow logging;
• Physical inspection: man entry for manholes
and CCTV of pipelines to check for
blockages, pipe damage, and other aspects
that might affect the flow characteristics of
the system;
• Measurement of rainfall, especially if it can
be combined with flow logging, provides very
useful information;
• Groundwater monitoring can also be
undertaken.
The data listed in the above sub-sections can be
obtained by various means.
• Existing data record by the DA. The
Department’s central SCADA control is
continually expanding its capability and
extensive information on sewerage network
pumping facilities is available;
• The DA can award specific data collection
contracts;
• Data collection requirements can be
incorporated into design PSAs.
3.5 Asset Condition
Asset condition can be determined by two methods:
• Review of existing reports and studies;
• Actual surveys of the assets.
The process of undertaking surveys is described in
Section 3.3 of this volume. Where existing reports
and studies exist, these can be obtained from the
DA.
3.6 Meteorology
3.6.1 Introduction
Section 3.6 provides an overview of the climate and
meteorological conditions in Qatar. It includes
sufficient information for Designers to gauge the
degree of weather severity in the State in relation to
sewerage and drainage design, and provides
maximum values for design purposes.

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3.6.2 Climate Overview
This overview of the climate in Qatar has been
developed from a number of sources including the
‘Long Term Climate Report – 2000’ (LTCR)
ii
,
together with information from relevant journal
articles detailing specifics of Qatar’s climate
iii
. The
LTCR is based on data recorded at Doha
International Airport (Latitude 25 15’N and Longitude
51 34’E) between 1962 and 2000.
The State of Qatar occupies a peninsula situated on
the eastern coast of the Arabian Gulf, covering an
area of 11 437km
2
. Qatar also comprises a number
of offshore islands. The topography of mainland
Qatar is generally flat and low-lying except for a
slight rise in the Dukhan area in the west. Almost
the whole area of the State of Qatar is a desert, with
very similar climatic conditions throughout the Arab
State. The climatic regime of the area is classed as
arid. Essentially, this means that the potential water
loss by evaporation and transpiration exceeds the
amount of water supplied by precipitation
iii
.
The climate throughout the year in Qatar is closely
related to climatic conditions in other Gulf States
such as Bahrain, Kuwait and Sharjah in the United
Arab Emirates (UAE). The climate is typically
represented by high humidity throughout the year
except when hot, dry winds blow from the mainland.
Annual rainfall is very low and falls mainly between
the months of December and April.
The weather in Qatar over the summer months is
dominated by semi-permanent heat low-lying over
the Arabian Gulf. Cloud formation is inhibited by the
sub-tropical anticyclonic cell situated above the low
pressure areas on the surface. Temperatures
between June and September are extremely hot,
with maximum temperatures reaching close to 50
0
C.
Rainfall in the summer months is very infrequent
and, when it occurs, in very low quantities
For the rest of the year, the weather is greatly
influenced by the mid-latitude frontal systems.
These systems mostly originate over the
Mediterranean Sea and can give rise to
precipitation, sometimes in the form of
thunderstorms.
The peninsula of Qatar is also subject to a land-sea
breeze effect, caused by the quick radiation cooling
of the land as compared to the sea during the night.
The following sections outline key climatic features
of Qatar and provide an analysis of existing data. It
should be noted that climate characteristics are
determined from a single climate station located in
Doha, with available and sufficient data. Therefore,
the DA deems that it is reasonable to make the
assumption that the climatic data collected in Doha
is representative of the entire State of Qatar.
3.6.3 Rainfall
An important climatic feature for sewerage and
drainage design is rainfall. The average annual
rainfall in Qatar is low at around 82.8mm
iii
. Rain
mainly falls during the months of December to April,
with February and March accounting for almost half
of the annual total. In comparison, rain in Qatar is
commonly absent in the summer months between
June to September. Thunderstorms occur mainly in
March and April.
In line with other arid regions of the world, inter-
annual variations in rainfall are very large in Qatar.
The highest annual total on record is 302.8mm in
1964. Over half of this fell in December to give the
highest ever recorded monthly total. However, in
1962, the annual rainfall was just 0.4mm, the lowest
on record. This effectively classifies Qatar as lying in
an ‘extremely arid area’ which, according to one
definition, is an area where precipitation totally lacks
any rhythm and remains at zero for at least twelve
consecutive months
iii
.
Average and extreme rainfall values in Qatar are
summarised in Table 3.6.1, below.
Table 3.6.1 –Summary of Qatar Rainfall
Characteristics (1962-2000)
Rainfall Characteristics Value (mm)
Annual Average 83
Highest Annual Rainfall 302.8
Lowest Annual Rainfall 0.4

At the time of compilation of this Manual, 39 years of
comprehensive rainfall data from 1962-2000 was
available from a single rain gauge at Doha
International Airport. The rain gauge is operated by
the Department of Civil Aviation and Meteorology, of

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the Ministry of Communication and Transport, and
provides the largest record in Qatar.
The Department of Civil Aviation and Meteorology
processes the daily rainfall data from this rain gauge
and produces climate reports which contain a
summary of annual rainfall depth, maximum rainfall
in 24-hours and the number of rainfall days in a
year.
Table 3.6.2, below, provides a comparison of the
average and peak monthly rainfall values over the
period of 1962-2000. Peak monthly rainfall is
defined as the highest rainfall value recorded for
each respective month over the entire rainfall data
period.
The monthly maximum rainfall in 24-hours and the
mean number of rainfall days over the 39-year
record are provided in Table 3.6.2 below.




Table 3.6.2 - Average and peak monthly rainfall
in Qatar taken at Doha Airport (1962-2000)
Month
Average Monthly
Rainfall (mm)
Peak Monthly
Rainfall (mm)
Jan 13.9 101.8
Feb 17.5 130.5
Mar 21.4 141.6
Apr 7.4 68.1
May 3.1 106.4
Jun 0.0 0.0
July 0.0 Tr
Aug 0.0 0.7
Sep 0.0 Tr
Oct 1.1 17.3
Nov 5.6 110.5
Dec 12.8 115.4
Note: Tr- indicates a trace amount of rainfall. Source:
LTCR, (2000).
Table 3.6.3, summarises statistical parameters for
existing rainfall data, including mean, maximum and
minimum values for annual rainfall, maximum rainfall
in 24-hours and number of rainfall days for the 39-
year record.
A comparison of maximum and minimum values in
Table 3.6.4 indicates a large variation in rainfall. In
addition, the coefficient of variation for rainfall depth,
which is defined as the ratio of the standard
deviation and the mean, was found to be 0.85. This
value is high in comparison to well-watered regions
where coefficients are as low as 0.1
iii
.
From 1978, a second climatological station was
installed at the Doha Port, approximately 4km from
the station at Doha International Airport. Table 3.6.5
outlines the variation in rainfall characteristics in
Qatar through a comparison of data at Doha Port
Station and Doha International Station
vii
. The
correlation of the annual rainfall depth and the
number of rainfall days is high as compared to the
maximum rainfall in 24-hours.
Table 3.6.3 - Maximum Rainfall in 24 Hours and
Mean Number of Days with Rainfall 1mm or
More. (1962-2000), taken at Doha Airport
Month
Maximum Rainfall
in 24hrs &
Year of
Occurrence
Mean No. of
Days with
Rainfall 1mm or
More
Jan 58.0 1969 1.8
Feb 44.6 1993 2.0
Mar 58.2 1995 2.2
Apr 34.4 1976 1.3
May 64 1963 0.2
Jun 0.0 - 0.0
July 0.0 - 0.0
Aug 0.7 1983 0.0
Sep 0.0 - 0.0
Oct 17.3 1977 0.1
Nov 45 1976 0.5
Dec 80.1 1964 1.3

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Table 3.6.4 - Summary of Statistical Parameters for Rainfall Data (1962-2000) taken at Doha Airport
Variable Mean
Maximum
& Year
Minimum
& Year
Standard
Deviation
Coefficient of
Variation
Total Annual Rainfall (mm) 82.8 302.8 1964 0.4 1962 70.0 0.85
Maximum Rainfall in 24 hrs (mm) 26.4 80.1 1964 0.2 1962 18.6 0.70
No of Rainfall Days per year in excess of 1mm 9.4 22 1964 0 1962 5.8 0.62



Table 3.6.5 - Variation of Rainfall Characteristics in Qatar- Doha Port and Doha International Airport
(for Data between 1979-1989)
Year
Annual Rainfall Depth
(mm)
Max Rainfall in 24 hrs
(mm)
No. of Rainfall Days
>1mm
D.I.A D.P D.I.A D.P D.I.A D.P
1979 101.9 107.4 48.8 34.3 7 9
1980 50.8 71.4 20.2 25.1 10 15
1981 33.8 31.1 12.7 12.1 6 6
1982 167.3 130.3 40.1 44.6 20 17
1983 68.1 59.8 17.5 24.1 8 8
1984 40.9 45.9 16.2 13.1 4 5
1985 9.7 11.4 3.8 8.6 3 2
1986 78.0 72.2 17.1 17.9 12 12
1987 61.3 65.9 28.0 37.5 4 2
1988 152.8 170.1 41.3 39.8 12 14
1989 69.7 129.7 34.9 104.0 11 11
Mean 75.85 81.38 25.51 32.83 8.82 9.18
Correlation
Coefficient
0.880 0.591 0.908
Note: D.I.A =Doha International Airport Station; D.P= Doha Port Station.
Source: Bazaraa & Ahmed (1991) and LTCR (2000).

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3.6.4 Other Climatological
Variables
A summary of other key climate characteristics in
Qatar is provided in Tables 3.6.6–3.6.8. The
following sections provide an overview of some of
these characteristics, including surface air
temperature, wind speed and direction, and relative
humidity. Climate data was collated from only one
station (Doha International Airport), as there is
insufficient climate data elsewhere in Qatar.
Therefore, in the absence of data to indicate
otherwise, it is recommended that the climate details
presented in this Manual are used for all other
locations in the State of Qatar, unless site specific
data becomes available (for example, through a
dedicated monitoring programme of specific climate
variables).
3.6.5 Wind Speed and Direction
Surface Air Temperature
As mentioned in previous sections, the climate in
Qatar consists of extremely hot and humid summers
and mild winters. The summer months are from
June to September, whilst the winter months run
from December to February.
The maximum surface temperature ever reached in
Qatar was recorded on 9 July 2000 at 49.6
0
C, whilst
the minimum was 3.8
0
C, recorded on 21 January,
1964.
In general, the highest temperatures occur in the
mid-summer month of July, with a mean monthly
temperature of 34.9
0
C.
As summarised in the LTCR (2000)
ii
, the surface
wind flow over Qatar is influenced by different
pressure systems. In winter and transition months,
the mid-latitude frontal systems dominate the wind
regime, whereas in summer months the wind regime
is primarily influenced by thermal lows over the
Indian subcontinent and Sudan (extending to Saudi
Arabia and Qatar). Concurrently, the direction and
speed of surface winds in Qatar is also influenced
by the Zagros Mountains of Iran, and the highlands
of the Arabian Peninsula.
Wind characteristics recorded at Doha International
Airport during the period 1974-2000 are summarised
in Table 3.6.6.
Relative Humidity
Typically, the months of May and June have the
lowest relative humidity with an average value of
43%, but mostly within the range of 40-50%. In
comparison, the humidity gradually increases
towards the winter months to about 70% in the
months of December- February.
In addition to the variables examined, Table 3.6.7
and Table 3.6.8, below, provide peak and average
monthly values for Atmospheric Pressure and
Vapour Pressure, Fog Days, Sunshine Hours,
Global Solar Radiation and Evaporation (Pan).

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Table 3.6.6 - Summary of Wind Characteristics in Qatar
Wind Characteristic Units Value
Predominant wind direction - Northwest
Highest wind speed (10 min duration) Knots 40
Highest wind speed (1 Hr duration) Knots 36
Highest wind speed reported (gust) Knots 54 (achieved March 1995)
Mean wind speed from December to January Knots 8.9-9.3
Mean wind speed from February to May Knots 7.8-8.2


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Table 3.6.7 - Summary of Climatological Characteristics in Qatar
Month
Air Temperature ( C) Fog
Atmospheric
Pressure (hPa)
Vapour
Pressure
(hPa)
Relative Humidity (%)
Peak
Monthly
Average
Monthly
No of Days
with visibility
<1000 m
MSL Average
Monthly
Average
Monthly
Peak
Monthly
Average
Monthly
Jan 21.9 17.2 3.4 1019.1 14.0 88 71
Feb 23.1 18.1 2.6 1017.1 14.4 87 70
March 26.7 21.2 1.0 1014.3 15.5 84 63
April 32.1 25.9 0.3 1010.9 17.2 75 53
May 38.3 31.2 0.4 1006.7 19.1 66 43
Jun 41.3 34 0.6 1000.6 21.4 67 43
Jul 41.6 34.9 0.7 997.6 26.2 73 49
Aug 40.8 34.5 0.6 999.5 29.9 78 56
Sep 38.7 32.4 1.6 1005.4 29.4 83 62
Oct 35.2 29.1 2.2 1012.2 25.0 83 63
Nov 29.5 24.3 1.4 1016.7 20.0 84 66
Dec 24.3 19.4 3.1 1019.0 16.3 88 71
Yrs. of
Data
39 39 39 27 27 27 27
Years 1962-2000 1962-2000 1962-2000 1974-2000 1974-2000 1974-2000 1974-2000


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Table 3.6.8 - Summary of Climatological Characteristics in Qatar
Month
Wind
Sunshine
Hours
Global Solar
Radiation
(mWh/cm
2
)
Evaporation Pan
(mm/day)
Average
Speed (kt)
Speed (Kt)
based on
10 mins
Direction
(degrees) based
on 10 mins
Average
Daily
Peak
Daily
Average
Daily
Peak
Monthly
Average
Daily
Jan 8.2 28 330 7.9 502.4 374.9 11.56 3.91
Feb 8.9 30 350 8.2 663.1 436.6 11.17 5.00
March 9.3 40 340 7.9 757.8 489.3 14.87 6.69
April 8.9 33 360 9.2 781.9 569.9 20.25 9.73
May 9.3 38 340 10.6 777.1 620.4 28.50 13.42
Jun 10 38 330 11.6 799.5 646.3 30.60 15.60
Jul 8.4 30 340 10.6 802.7 605.1 27.79 13.61
Aug 8.1 33 330 10.7 718.2 584.7 32.02 11.80
Sep 6.7 30 350 10.2 697.6 545.8 21.20 9.44
Oct 6.9 30 350 9.9 673.2 481.7 18.78 7.64
Nov 7.6 40 350 9.1 560.6 414.9 14.40 5.51
Dec 7.8 28 350 7.9 455.2 349.8 10.58 3.83
Yrs. of
Data
27 26 26 26 18 18 25 25
Years 1974-2000 1975-2000 1975-2000 1795-2000 1976-
1993
1976-1993 1976-2000 1976-2000
Source: LTCR, (2000).

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3.7 Environmental
Investigations
3.7.1 Introduction
This section provides general guidance on the
various types of environmental investigations
required for sewerage and drainage projects.
3.7.2 Strategic Environmental
Assessment (SEA)
The following items require environmental
investigation during the planning process:
• The current and evolving features of the
State of Qatar National Physical
Development Plan;
• Associated population growth trends,
expectations and projections for various time
horizons;
• Land use plans associated with national and
local physical development plans;
• National conservation areas and the
identification of protected ecological areas;
• Internal investigations should be made
relating to DA Environmental Policy – e.g.
final effluent standard targets may be more
onerous than those applicable under
SCENR Environmental Protection
Standards
vi
;
• DA Environmental Management Plan
(ISO14001) – e.g. has an environmental
audit been undertaken across the sewerage
and drainage sector, or a particular works,
and what were the findings?;
• DA Monitoring Programme – laboratory
quality accreditation, sampling location,
frequency, criteria analysed, results,
database storage, equipment used, staff
training for monitoring, response to
unacceptable data, as well as any other
outstanding issues.
3.7.3 EIA Investigations
A EIA might include the following types of
investigations:
Walk Over Surveys
These are a qualitative overview of the site,
surrounds, and potential issues meriting more
detailed investigation.
These surveys should provide general baseline
information and allow the assessor to have a
general appreciation of the site and surrounding
area. From this survey, the most significant impacts
may be defined. Impact interactions, secondary
impacts and cumulative effects would also be
identified through this procedure.
Ecological (Flora and Fauna) Surveys
An initial ecological site survey should provide a
description of the baseline environment in terms of
habitats and species present. This would identify the
potential need for further surveys to be conducted
should the presence of statutorily protected species
or habitat be identified. Ecological Surveys should
be conducted by an appropriately qualified ecologist.
Baseline Noise Levels and Predictions
The site survey should provide baseline information
on ambient noise levels in order to ensure
compliance with Qatari Environmental Regulations.
Following the survey, the data should be
manipulated and run through various models to
determine projected noise levels during both
construction and operation following the
development of the works.
Baseline Odour Level and Predictions
Guidance on investigations required for odour
assessment is included in Volume 5, Section 1.5.
Baseline Air Quality and Predictions
The site survey should provide baseline information
on ambient air quality levels in order to ensure
compliance with Qatari Environmental Regulations.

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Incoming Effluent Quantity and Quality Sampling
Specific requirements and suggested methodologies
are detailed in Volume 5, section 1.15.
Existing Wastewater Quantity and Quality
Sampling
Specific requirements and suggested methodologies
are detailed in Volume 5, section 1.15.
The breadth and depth of detail required for these
investigations should be agreed in advance with the
DA, and in consultation with SCENR. Typical
outline investigation methods and data collection
requirements are included for certain types of
activities in Volume 3, Section 3.2, Volume 4,
Section 1.5, and Volume 5, Section 1.5).
Water quality, noise and odour surveys are
particularly important for the EIA process. More
detailed guidance on water quality and odour
surveys are presented in Volume 1, Section 3.4, and
Volume 5, Section 1.5, respectively.
The surveys and their subsequent assessments aim
to ensure that both existing and future potential
receptors will not be significantly adversely impacted
as a result of any construction works or operation.
Results from the surveys should be tested against
pre-determined criteria defined and agreed through
consultation with SCENR.
Existing and future potential receptors include
operations and maintenance staff, nearby residential
properties and inhabitants of any future proposed
housing in the vicinity. All parameters should be
tested for compliance to the relevant Qatari
Environmental Standards. If the case arises where
it is deemed that there would be a significant
adverse impact, appropriate mitigation measures
should be assessed in order to reduce or eliminate
the potential adverse effect.

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4 Design Process
4.1 Background Information
4.1.1 Existing Services and
Utilities
On commencement of a design project, the parties
listed in the Foreword, Section ii, of this Volume.
should be contacted to request any service
information relevant to the design project. These
requests are hereafter referred to as design
enquires. All requests must be accompanied by a
letter of authorisation from the DA, indicating
consent for the consultant to collect information on
the behalf of the DA. Example letters are included in
Appendix 7.
When information is not forthcoming, the consultant
is to pursue this matter with the concerned authority
and notify the DA. In the event that receipt of
information is unduly delayed or not received, the
consultant must advise the DA of any delays to the
project or design assumptions made in it’s absence.
4.1.2 Services Hierarchy
Service reservations are shown on standard Drg.
No. SR 1 and SR 2 in Vol. 8 of this manual. Service
reservation corridor widths of 16, 20, 24, 32, 40 and
64m are possible, and consistent with the Qatar
Highway Design Manual, with the exception of the
surface water reservations, which are not shown.
Service reservations for surface water are not
included in the Qatar Highway Design Manual.
Consultants must therefore consult with DA on each
project to confirm surface water corridors.
The standard service corridor sections are not
applicable at junctions and interchanges. In such
cases, the general guidelines listed in the following
sub-sections are to be followed.
Roundabouts
Drainage works should extend into the roundabout
with the intersection point in-line with the corridors
on either side, as there is usually sufficient space
within the roundabout to accommodate the
necessary manholes and chambers. If obstacles
within the roundabout prevent this, the services
should be located within the road close to service
reservations, but the number of direction changes
should be minimised.
Split Level Interchanges
Underpasses effectively provide a barrier to services
therefore they must be diverted. Such diversions
must be undertaken even when such schemes are
only at master planning stage and the consultant is
to liase with the Roads Affairs to ensure sufficient
provision is made.
Major Junctions
These will usually be signalised, with road layouts to
suit the necessary turning and holding lanes.
Provision must be made within the drainage design
works for the specific layout and this is to be done in
co-ordination with, and to the approval of, the Roads
Affairs.
Non-perpendicular Junctions
In order to avoid changes in direction of flow
exceeding 90
o
pipes may have to locate outside of
the designated corridors. In this event, permission
must be obtained from any service authority
affected.
Existing Services
Existing services may not be within the designated
corridors, resulting in a change to standard
hierarchy. In this event, the changes are to be
carried out in co-ordination with the authorities
concerned, and with their full approval.
4.1.3 Site Investigations
Investigations of the types detailed in section 3 will
be undertaken as per the specific requirements of
the project brief. The scope of the investigation must
be finalised by the consultant and approved by the
DA prior to work commencing.
In determining the scope of the investigations, the
consultant is to formally ask the DA for any reports
from previous investigations to avoid any
unnecessary works. The consultant is to also
prepare a schedule of other organisations that may
have carried out relevant investigations and make
appropriate requests on behalf of the DA and update

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the schedule to show responses received. The DA
are to be advised of updates to the schedule.
A statement from the consultant confirming that all
enquires have been undertaken and due cognisance
taken of previous investigations is required when the
proposal for the scope of the investigations is
proposed.
4.1.4 GIS / AIS
The DA has it’s own GIS section that handles the
input and abstraction of information that relates to
the DA’s assets. This is linked to the Ministry’s main
Centre for GIS (cGIS). Requests can be made
through the CSD for information on DA existing and
proposed assets. Information on plot boundaries,
roads layout, and any other information on the cGIS
network can also be reproduced. It is, however, the
consultants’ responsibility to confirm the accuracy of
such data.
Design information produced by the consultant is to
be in a format that is compatible with the GIS.
Adherence to Vol. 7 - CAD Manual, will ensure this.
4.1.5 QNBS/QCS
The basic specification for DA works is the Qatar
National Building Specification (QNBS) published by
the Ministry of Public Works. This is comprised of
the following sections:
• 1 – General
• 2 – Demolitions and Alterations
• 3 – Excavations and Earthworks
• 5 – Concrete Work
• 6 – Blockwork
• 7 – Roofing
• 8 – Carpentry, Joinery and Ironmongery
• 9 – Structural Steelwork
• 10 – Miscellaneous Metalwork
• 14 – Finishes
• 15 – Glazing
• 16 – Painting and Decorating
• 19 – Roadworks
• 20 - Drainage
The QNBS has been the subject of numerous
variations and these are to be included in tender
documentation. The tender document is also to
contain a further specification (Clause 21) that will
contain any project-specific clauses and variations
required to the QNBS for the particular project.
The Qatar Construction Specification (QCS) is a
more recent document in use by other departments,
but it is still undergoing revision with supplementary
clauses for DA projects. Until such time as these are
complete, it should not be used on DA projects.
4.2 Ground Conditions
An understanding of the geology is fundamental to
interpretation of hydrogeological conditions. This
Section presents a review of the geological
conditions that characterise the State of Qatar,
followed by a description of the hydrogeology. In
both aspects there is a focus on the upper parts of
the sequence because it is the shallower zone that
is most relevant to drainage projects.
The general objective of this section is to provide a
guide to the general conditions that are likely to be
encountered. However because of variability, there
is always a need for site-specific information and the
review presented here is intended as a basis for the
additional investigations described in section 3.2.
4.2.1 Topography & Regional
Geology
Qatar is a peninsula of low-moderate relief, the
highest elevation being 103mQND in the south.
There is a gentle slope towards the sea from inland
areas.
A significant landscape feature is the series of
shallow depressions that are caused by dissolution
of gypsiferous and calcareous strata at depth,
resulting in collapse at the surface. Some 850 such
features have been identified, ranging in size from a
few hundred metres to 3km in diameter. The
resulting occurrence of low-lying areas is of
particular significance in drainage projects.

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The regional geological sequence is summarised in
Table 4.2.1 below.
The modern-day topography and surface geology
was created largely as a result of post-Eocene
tectonic and geomorphic activity. Following
deposition of the Dammam Formation, widespread
emergence of the landmass from the sea occurred,
accompanied by considerable erosion.
Submergence and the re-establishment of marine
conditions then occurred again, leading to
deposition of the Dam Formation. The Qatar
peninsula finally emerged at the end of the Miocene
at which time the Hofuf gravels were laid down. In
the Quaternary period beach deposits accumulated
and with the onset of arid conditions, dunes and
sabkha deposits formed.
At the present time, some 80% of the land surface of
the Qatar peninsular is formed by the Dammam
Formation. The geology of the Dammam Formation
is described in more detail later in this chapter.

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Table 4.2.1 - Regional Geological Succession of Qatar
Age
Formation
Name
Thickness
Range (m)
Formation Description
Pleistocene-
Holocene
0-20
Made Ground (including reclaimed land), residual soils, dunes,
beach deposits and sabkha.
Miocene
Hofuf

Dam
0-10

0-30
Residual gravels

Marls, chalk and limestone
Eocene
Dammam

Rus
0-75

10-120
Chalky and dolomitic limestones, marls and shales

Chalky limestone, anhydrite, marls and shale
Palaeocene
Umm er
Rhaduma
270-370
Limestone and dolomites with siliceous and marly zones;
basal shales
Upper
Cretaceous
Aruma Dolomites and shales

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Certain structural features are apparent that have
had a strong influence on the depositional
environments that created the Rus sequence. The
sedimentary rock sequence beneath Qatar has been
subject to folding, with the present peninsular
located in a zone that has been active since early
Tertiary times. North - South trending anticlinal
(positive) and synclinal (negative) structural areas
can be recognised, with clayey, gypsiferous
(sulphate-rich), sediments deposited in the deeper
marine environments created by the negative areas,
and calcareous dolomitic limestones deposited in
the warmer, shallower, positive structural areas.
As a consequence, calcareous, shallow depositional
rocks characterise the Rus sequence in the northern
and western parts of Qatar and gypsiferous rocks
characterise most of the remainder. This distribution
is more applicable in the upper parts of the Rus
formation than in the lower.
4.2.2 Geology of the Dammam
Formation
The geology of the Dammam Formation and the
upper parts of the Rus are summarised in Table
4.2.2 overleaf.
The strata descriptions are summarised from
published reports and from an examination of
borehole logs compiled on an ad-hoc basis by the
DA. It may be noted that consideration is being
given to systematic compilation of such information
on a geological database.
The main features of significance are as follows.
The upper 10–15m of the Dammam Formation, the
Simsima Limestone, is often weathered and altered,
especially where the limestone is fractured and
these are opened up to fissures by solution
processes. Some of the fissures are infilled with
secondary products such as silt, clay, and gypsum.
It may be noted that there are places where the
upper part of the limestone is not fissured and is
more massive. Below 15m the fractures are more
closely spaced and free of weathering.
The lithology of the deeper layers is less well-
recorded in detail. The Midra Shale is reported to
consist of a series of laminated shaley horizons
separated by silty sand. The shales are not
necessarily persistent laterally and the unit may be
fissured. The Rus is reported to be a chalky,
dolomitic limestone.
The weathering of fractures to produce fissures is a
particularly important feature in hydrogeological
terms

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Table 4.2.2 - Geology of the Dammam and Upper Rus Formations (characteristic of the Greater Doha area)
Formation Member
Typical
Thickness
(m)
Lithological Description
Recent
Deposits

>1
Residual soils from weathering of the Simsima Limestone below, in
the form of sand and gravel.
Upper
Dammam
Simsima
Limestone
20-30
White or cream coloured microcrystalline or chalky and dolomitic
limestone with secondary siltstone or gypsum in cavities. Fissured
and weathered to a variable extent to10-15m depth from the surface,
becoming fresher with more closely space fracturing at depth.
Lower
Dammam
Alveolina
Limestone
0-1
White, compact, fossiliferous chalky limestone that marks the
boundary between the Upper and Lower Dammam. Not present in
northern Qatar.
Lower
Dammam
Midra
Shale
5-10
Brown, weak, shale interbedded with silty sandstone.
Rus (>10) Interbedded cream and light brown chalky and dolomitic limestone


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4.2.3 Hydrogeology
The principal components of the hydrogeological
system are as follows:
• The Simsima Limestone is characterised by
unconfined (water-table) groundwater
conditions, with groundwater stored and
transmitted via fissures that are especially
prevalent in the upper 10–15m;
• The Midra Shale is characterised by low
permeability and is an aquiclude;
• The Rus (and the upper parts of the
underlying Umm er Rhaduma) combine to
form a significant aquifer over many parts of
Qatar.
The Rus and Umm er Rhaduma formations owe
their aquifer designations to enhanced permeability
produced by dissolution. Recharge to the Rus
occurs from infiltrating rainfall in central Qatar, as
evidenced by the presence of a recharge mound,
and groundwater flow is then seawards. As a result,
a freshwater lens has formed that is important over
large areas of Qatar in water resources terms.
In the context of drainage issues, the most
significant attribute of the Rus is that dissolution of
the anhydrite (gypsum) by groundwater movement
within it, has led to collapse of the formations above,
producing depressions at the ground surface.
The permeability within the Dammam Formation is
similarly attributable to dissolution effects, especially
by infiltrating rainfall and resulting groundwater flow.
In the greater Doha area, natural recharge has been
significantly enhanced from sources such as garden
watering, soakaway drainage systems, and leakage
from water mains. Increased runoff as the extent of
paved areas grows, encourages storm water to
pond in the low-lying areas created by collapse of
the Rus, enhancing recharge and standing water at
those locations.
The artificially enhanced recharge has resulted in a
general rise in groundwater levels in the greater
Doha area as it has in many other Arabian Gulf
cities. A network of observation boreholes has
shown a net but variable rise in water table levels in
many areas since 1983. In areas where a sewerage
network has been installed, levels have fallen again.
Rises of 1-2 metres for the period 1983-1991 are
fairly typical.
In Doha there is a general gradient on the water
table in the Simsima Limestone towards the coast
and again, in general, the closer a location is to the
coast the shallower the depth to water table is likely
to be. The water table is typically less than 2.5m
depth within 3km of the West Bay Lagoon area and
typically 2.5 – 5m outside of it. However there are
many local exceptions to this general pattern,
particularly in low lying areas such as Abu Hamour
where standing water persists into the dry season.
It may be noted that where the natural groundwater
condition is high, either district-wide drainage
schemes will need to be installed to achieve the
desired level of at least 4mbgl or, bespoke designs
will be required to dewater the area around
individual building structures. This is particularly
applicable to coastal areas where groundwater
levels are generally the shallowest.
Seasonal variation in groundwater levels is
significant. It is reported that over most of greater
Doha a range of 1-1.5m may be observed as a
seasonal effect, reducing to 0.5-0.6m near the
coast. In low-lying areas, the rise may take
groundwater levels above ground level.
Because of the nature of the permeability in the
Simsima Limestone as secondary due to fissuring, it
is unevenly distributed throughout the formation.
Apart from generally decreasing with depth as
overburden pressure closes up the fractures and the
solution action of water is less prevalent, it also
varies spatially. Thus fissured zones in which bulk
permeability may reach 10-4m/s are interspersed
with zones where it may be 3-4 orders of magnitude
lower.
Both groundwater levels and variations in
permeability have a significant effect on the ability of
chamber-type soakaways to function.
The porosity of the limestone is relatively low and
consequently, so is the specific yield (a
dimensionless aquifer parameter) for an unconfined
aquifer, estimated in one area to be 0.02.
Groundwater quality is an issue because of potential
effects on construction materials. Infiltrating waters
are under-saturated with respect to the minerals in

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the rock fabric and the recharge-through flow
process causes these minerals to be taken into
solution. Using Electrical Conductivity (EC) as a
guide to total dissolved solids, background levels of
10,000-20,000µohms may be expected in
groundwater but a study in 1983 showed that in
many parts of central Doha, the levels were 3000-
6000µohms due to dilution by urban leakage.
Highest levels may be found in the coastal areas
reclaimed from the sea.
4.2.4 Summary of Relevant
Conditions
A summary of the main conditions relevant to
drainage design is as follows:
• Most of the country is directly underlain by
the Simsima Limestone member of the
Dammam Formation which stores and
transmits groundwater via fissures that are
opened up by solution;
• Below the Simsima are the Midra Shales, an
aquiclude, and below that, a major aquifer,
the Rus Formation;
• Dissolution of anhydrite in the Rus causes
collapse in the strata above it and the
occurrence of depressions in the
topography;
• In Doha, the water table in the Simsima is
shallowest near the coast and beneath
depressed areas. Superimposed on
seasonal variations due to recharge from
rainfall, is a general rise in water table levels
due to urban leakage;
• In several areas of low elevation, recharge
events, coupled with shallow groundwater
levels may result in water table levels rising
above ground level during and after rainfall;
• The permeability of the shallow ground is
variable according to the incidence of
fissuring;
• The variation in permeability and the
elevation of the groundwater are critical
factors in the ability of soakaways to function
effectively;
• Groundwater generally has a high
conductivity but recently recharged waters
are under-saturated with respect to sulphate
and carbonate minerals;
• The groundwater conditions described
herein are only a general guide to the
hydrogeological conditions that may
characterise individual areas and site-
specific investigations are always required
as the basis for appropriate drainage design.
4.3 Construction Materials
As pipeline material on foul sewerage, surface
water, groundwater control and treated sewage
effluent (irrigation water) contracts can constitutes
around 15% of the capital costs of a projects in
Qatar, it is essential that suitable materials are
selected for the long term benefit of the Client. The
design principles adopted for a particular system
may reduce the number of options on material
selection either from cost or geological /
geographical standpoint.
Established international standards and guides such
as BS, ISO, ASTM, WIS, and WRC should be
followed in the selection of and specification for
Construction Materials. Ideally, the material product
should be covered by an established ISO 9000
Quality control system and wherever possible a third
party quality assurance scheme e.g. BSI (see
QA/QC Section 4.3.3).
4.3.1 Materials Selection
General
In order to determine if a material is suitable for
inclusion in foul, SW or TSE projects, several factors
have to be considered. These include:
• Suitability for intended purpose;
• Availability of material locally and cost;
• Capital cost of selected material offset
against reduction or elimination of
maintenance costs;
• Capital cost of installation by trenchless
methods offset by reduction in disruption to
traffic etc.;

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• Quality of the medium being transported;
• Ground conditions (strata and groundwater);
• Difficulties in handling, transporting and
installing the material;
• Environmental conditions within the network,
such as high temperature, poor ventilation
high levels of corrosive products and
significant sand accumulation;
• Future use of land.
The selection of materials should strive to maximise
all options available to provide the lowest total
installed cost of the system without compromising
the long-term performance.
The conveyance of sewage, combined with poor
ventilation and high temperatures creates anaerobic
conditions resulting in the creation of hydrogen
sulphide (H2S). This in turn will convert to sulphuric
acid, which is highly corrosive to cementitious and
ferrous materials (see also Volume 2 section 1.6).
Caution should be exercised in Industrial areas
where dumping of neat waste into sewerage or
drainage networks, in the absence of local
legislation, may result in abnormally high
concentrations of corrosive products in specific
locations of the network.
Pipes
The DA preferences for materials used in SW,
sewerage and irrigation networks are included in the
following sections of this manual:
• Foul Sewerage – Volume 2, Sections 1.7.1
and 2.5;
• Surface Water and Groundwater Control –
Volume 3, Section 1.1.3 and 2.5;
• Treated Sewage Effluent – Volume 4
Section 4.2.7.
WRC Pipe Materials Selection Manual
iv
and EN
1295-1:1997
v
should be used as guidelines where
appropriate.
The material for a pipeline must be selected to suit
the liquid being conveyed and the installation
conditions. Table 4.3.1 highlights the suitability of
each type of material for various systems together
with Client’s preference, manufacturing base, and a
guide to the relative cost of each material. The table
is not exhaustive on labour and jointing costs. This
table is presented only a guide, as prices for
materials and labour vary with prevailing economic
conditions. Table 4.3.1 also provides a brief
summary of the materials acceptable for foul, SW
and TSE applications in Qatar.
Structural Behaviour & Classification of Pipes
A buried pipe and the soil surrounding it are
interactive structures. Pipes are generally classed
into “rigid”, “semi-rigid”, or “flexible”, depending on
the degree of this interaction.
Rigid pipes are those where, due to the nature of the
pipe material, only very small diametrical (ring)
deflections are possible before fracture occurs at a
well defined limiting load. These deflections are too
small to develop significant lateral passive pressure
in the pipe zone fill material (i.e. the soil surrounding
the pipe) due to external vertical loading. Thus all
the external load is taken by the pipe itself and
bending moments are induced in the pipe wall. The
design of rigid pipes is based upon the concept of a
maximum loading at which failure occurs.
Some examples of rigid pipe are RC, VC and AC
(Note that AC pipes are no longer acceptable in
Qatar).
Semi-rigid pipes are capable of being distorted
sufficiently without failure to transmit a part of the
vertical load to the pipe zone fill material. This
mobilises a measure of lateral passive support from
the surrounding soil, with the pipe wall continuing to
take the remainder of the load in bending.
Resistance to vertical loading is thus shared
between the pipe wall itself, and the lateral support
from the pipe zone fill material. The proportions of
this distribution depends upon the relative stiffness
of the pipe and the soil surround.
Some examples of semi-rigid pipe are ductile iron
(DI), and cylinder type pre-stressed concrete.
Flexible pipes are capable of being distorted
sufficiently without failure to transmit virtually all
vertical load to the surrounding pipe zone fill
material for lateral support; the proportion of the load
resisted by the pipe wall itself is very small. Flexible
pipes are designed on the basis of maximum
acceptable deflection (or strain induced in the pipe
wall), and resistance to buckling under load.

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Some common flexible types of pipe are
unplasticised polyvinyl chloride pipe (PVC-u Note
that PVC is not acceptable on DA projects),
polyethylene pipe (PE), glass reinforced plastic pipe
(GRP) and glass reinforced epoxy pipe (GRE).
Pipe Bedding
The selection of the proper type of bedding and
surround material is important in the long-term
integrity and performance of both rigid and flexible
pipes.
Although rigid pipes support vertical loads mostly
through their inherent strength, and little support is
generated by the horizontal soil reactions, the
bedding can significantly increase its load bearing
capacity by ensuring a more even distribution of
vertical loads onto the pipe itself. It also allows
transmission of the load by the pipe to the trench
formation beneath.
There is a much greater interaction between flexible
pipes and the pipe zone material. The integrity of a
flexible pipe is therefore critically dependent on the
width and degree of compaction of the pipe bedding
material, and the stiffness of the native soil. A
flexible pipe should be totally surrounded with
granular bedding material. Sufficient trench width
each side of the pipe is essential to allow correct
placement and compaction of the granular bed and
surround. Incorrect placement will lead to distortion
of the pipe walls. A geotextile membrane is often
employed to avoid loss of fines from the native soil
and/or to stiffen up the pipe zone material. This is
particularly important in Qatar, where settlement
around manholes continues to be a problem.
Joints
Joints are an essential component of any pipeline
system, providing continuity between individual
pipes. The number and type of joints can
considerably affect cost and timescales for a
particular pipeline.
For buried pipelines it is important to allow for some
movement of the pipeline which occasionally occurs
through differential settlement of the soil. There are
three principal types of flexible joint:
1) Spigot and socket.
2) Sleeve coupling.
3) Bolted coupling.
Push fit spigot and socket joints comprise a belled
end (socket) integrally formed at one end of the
pipe. This has a slightly enlarged internal diameter
sized to receive the spigot end of the next pipe.
Sealing of the joint is achieved with flexible
elastomeric gaskets (sealing rings) which allow a
limited degree of angular rotation and longitudinal
movement without risk of leakage or fracture.
A sleeved coupling comprises a short cylinder into
which the machined ends of the two pipes are
inserted. Sealing is affected by two elastomeric
gaskets, one for each end of each pipe, which also
allow movement of the joint. The sleeve can have a
raised ring, or central locating register on the inside,
to ensure that the pipes are correctly inserted.
Bolted couplings comprise a cast iron or steel
sleeve, which is located over the ends of the two
pipes to be joined. Detachable flanges, located
outside the sleeve are bolted together, compressing
rubber gaskets on the outside edges of the sleeve to
effect sealing of the joint.
Joints can also be formed by solvent welding (PVC-
U pipes) and in-situ lamination (GRP pipes). The
pipes themselves are flexible and can accommodate
limited differential settlement through longitudinal
bending.
For HDPE pipes and fittings, two types of fusion
welding of joints are available – butt-fusion welding
and electrofusion welding. The latter method is
expensive and should be avoided where possible.
Universal mechanical couplers are also available,
particularly for jointing HDPE to pipes/fittings
composed of different material. Flanged joints can
also be formed, generally comprising a slip-on
galvanised mild steel flange restrained by an integral
stub return on the pipe end.
Pipe Handling, Storage and Laying
It is imperative that Manufacturers’
recommendations for handling, storage and laying
are strictly followed. Each material has its frailties
and rejection and repair strategies should be
assessed at tender stage.
The Manufacturer should be encouraged to attend
site to evaluate the performance of the contractors’

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personnel to handle, store and more importantly to
correctly install and backfill the pipes to provide
optimum performance throughout the lifetime of the
pipes.
Lining
Ductile iron pipes for sewage use require lining with
epoxy or polyurethane.
Ductile iron pipe for TSE or storm water require
lining as above or with cement mortar.


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Table 4.3.1 - Summary of Properties of Pipe Materials

HDPE GRP Ductile Iron Concrete VC
Specification
PrEN 12201
WIS 4-37-17
ISO 4427
DIN 8074
ASTM D1447
ASTM D 3035
ASTM C128
AWWAC 400
BS 486
ISO R160
BSS 5480
ASTM D3262
ISO – 2531
ISO – 8179
Coating
BSEN 545
BSEN 548
BSEN 639
BSEN 642
BSEN 1916
BSEN 5911
BSEN 295
BS 65
ASTM C700
DIN 1230

Maximum
Operating
Pressure
2.5 Bar to 30 bar Maximum 24 Bar
Maximum 25
Bar
Prestressed to
20 Bar
10 Bar
Structural Type Flexible Flexible Semi Rigid Rigid Rigid
Standard Length
coil up to 180mm
dia
> 12m length
above 180 mm
6m 5/6m to 2.5m to 3.0m
Jointing
Butt Fusion
welding, Electro
Fusion, Flange
Push fit rubber
Gasket collar joint
Spigot – socket
with gasket slip-on
collar, flange
Push fit spigot
and socket /
flanged joints
Spigot and
socket
or welded steel
for pressure
pipe
Push fit with
rubber gasket
Anchor Blocks
Not required on
welded lines
Required Required Required Required
Fittings
HDPE Fabricated
fittings, standard
mechanical joints
GRP D.I. Fittings
Concrete
(Limited)
VC
(Limited)
Deflection Allowed
More than 5
0

35 D radius
Max. 5
0
Up to 5
0
up to 2
0

Up to DN 200
2.9
0

For 1000mm 0.6
0

Trench Required Narrow Trench Wide Trench Wide trench Either Wide Trench
Installation
Can be laid over
ground / under
ground on slopes
Underground
Over Ground
Under ground
Underground Underground
Corrosion
Resistant to soil
corrosion. Not
suitable for
contaminated
land
Resistant to soil
corrosion. May be
susceptible to
degradation by
organic
contaminants
Affected by
certain soil
chemicals
Affected by
certain soil
chemicals
Resistant to soil
corrosion
Chemically inert
Weight Light weight Light weight Heavy Heavy Heavy

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HDPE GRP Ductile Iron Concrete VC
Handling
Easy handling, not
easily damaged
Very Careful
handling, cracks if
badly handled
Can be
damaged by
heavy handling
Robust
Careful handling,
brittle
Hydraulic
Properties
Low frictional
losses, low
pumping costs
Low frictional
losses, low
pumping costs
Low frictional
loss when lined
Moderate friction
Low frictional
losses
Abrasion
resistance
Good Good
Lining subject
to abrasion
High Good
Breakage
Impact resistant
unbreakable
Impact load cause
cracks
Damaged due
to heavy
impact loads
Robust
Damage by
impact
Installation
Easy installation,
Less time required
Only very large
sizes need
craneage
Very careful
installation required.
Easy
installation,
larger sizes
need craneage
Easy installation
Easy installation,
many joints due
to small length
Bedding
Requirements
Selected as dug
material, target
90% standard
Proctor.
Granular surround
important to
support along entire
length must be self-
compacting
As dug
material
Granular
Selected as dug
material or
processed
granular
materials, target
90% Proctor
Leakages No Leakage Normal Normal Normal Normal
Surge Head
Low wave
velocity
Less surge pressure
Medium surge
pressure. Poor at
cyclic loading
High surge
pressure
n/a in Qatar n/a in Qatar
Deterioration with
time
Nil
Joints deteriorate,
encrustation etc.
Corrosion
encrustation etc.
Good durability
when correctly
selected
Joint deterioration
Availability
Local up to 1200
UAE
UAE
Imported from
Europe, USA
or Japan
UAE Saudi Arabia
UV Light
Deteriorates in
UV
Deteriorates in UV Not affected Not affected Not affected
Cost Moderate Moderate High Low Low


HDPE GRP Ductile Iron Concrete VC RC

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U
s
e

i
n

Q
a
t
a
r

F
o
u
l

X
(Not preferred , but
sometimes used as
liner for pipejacks)
GRP + Conc
surround >1200
dia
Common in
pump mains
X
To 1200
dia

SW X a a a
To 1000
mm
> 1000
mm
TSE a a a X X X

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4.3.2 Structures
Concrete
Concrete is produced locally using locally sourced
materials (cement, aggregates, clean water,
admixtures etc). Approved readymix companies and
pre-cast yards should be selected to provide
concrete. Auditing of the facilities is essential to
verify that a quality product is supplied.
A good guide for properties of concrete constituents
and properties is provided in the CIRIA Guide to
concrete construction in the Gulf region
vi
. Also useful
is ACI 305R Hot weather concreting
vii
.
Generally, two classes of concrete are required to
be designed for use on networks. A structural grade
will reflect the compressive, tensile strength and
durability requirements. This will have a water-
cement ratio less than 0.4, minimum 28-day
compressive strength of 40N/mm2, with durability
properties e.g. RCP value less than 4000 Coulombs.
A non-structural grade is required for blinding etc.,
where strength and durability are not a major
requirement.
Concrete mix designs should be designed to BS
5328
viii
or equivalent. Trial mixes should be
conducted on each mix to confirm the suitability and
the properties of fresh concrete and hardened
concrete. The approved mix designs should be
continually assessed by frequent site sampling and
testing. Limits should be derived from the trial mix,
which will govern the quality of the concrete supplied
throughout the remainder of the project using that
particular mix design.

Concrete-General
All concrete used in construction work must have a
certain strength, regardless of its application.
However, a high strength alone does not guarantee
long-term performance of a concrete structure. The
durability of concrete is probably the single most
important property.
The durability of concrete can be defined as its
ability to resist weathering action, chemical attack,
abrasion, or any other form of deterioration. A
durable concrete should maintain its original form,
quality and serviceability when exposed to the
surrounding environment for a long service life.
Water is responsible for many types of physical
processes of degradation. It also serves as the
carrying agent of soluble aggressive ions that can
be the source of chemical processes of degradation.
Tests and field experience have demonstrated that
compressive strength is the most important single
factor controlling the physical degradation of
concrete.
Generally, two factors leading to the chemical
degradation of reinforced concrete are sulphate and
chloride attack. Sulphates and chlorides are found
in abundance in the soil and groundwater in Middle
East. The sulphates attack the concrete, while the
chlorides cause corrosion of reinforcing steel. The
chemical processes involved in both cases are
complex and these are described briefly in the
following section.
• Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) Versus
Sulphate Resisting Cement (SRC)
The British and American Standards
governing Portland Cement classify several
different types of cement based on their
chemical compositions. The differences in
chemical composition impart different
properties to the cements.
• Classification and Applicable Standard
There are five general types of cement
classified by ASTM C 150
ix
. The five types
are designated as Type I through Type V
with each classified for a particular type of
application based on its properties. OPC is
designated as Type I and SRC is designated
as Type V.
• Additives
Relatively small quantities of other materials,
called additives or admixtures, can be added
to concrete to modify its properties in either
fresh or hardened state.
The additives used to modify the properties
of fresh and hardened concrete are of the
following general categories:
1) Water-Reducing admixtures and
workability aids.

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2) Superplasticizers and high-range
water-reducing admixtures.
3) Air-entraining agents.
4) Accelerators and “antifreezes”.
5) Retarders.
6) Waterproofers.
7) Viscosity modifiers.
8) Resin bonding agents.
In general a well-produced Portland cement
concrete, with appropriate protection when
necessary, will perform adequately for the
duration of its design life without the need for
any expensive property-modifying additives.
The following simple measures if
implemented and strictly enforced will
significantly improve the durability of
concrete.
1) Use of high quality aggregates.
2) Use of minimum water-cement ratio.
3) Avoidance of segregation and
elimination of bleeding.
4) Use of properly-timed finishing and
curing procedures.
5) Use of surface barrier sealants and
coatings, waterproofing membranes,
etc.
The use of concrete additives should be
evaluated on a case-by-case basis for
particular applications. If required to be
used, ASTM C 494
x
and BS 5075
xi
should
be referred to for specification requirements.
• Protective Coatings and Linings
The service environment of network
structures in the Middle East is considered
very severe. High concentrations of sulphate
and chloride ions in the surrounding soil,
groundwater and effluent present an
environment which makes all concrete
structures susceptible to significant
deterioration. New structures should be
properly protected by means of surface
barrier sealants, coatings and membranes in
order to preclude chemical attack and
significantly improve their service life. The
protection of concrete will be necessary for
buried structures and exposed structures.
For buried structures, an external
waterproofing membrane should be applied
to all surfaces. The membrane can be either
a self-adhesive or a torch-applied type,
consisting of a rubberised bituminous
compound coated to one side of a
polyethylene sheet. Alternatively, the
waterproofing membrane may be a liquid-
applied elastomeric type.
It is worth noting that in hot climates,
problems can be experienced with the self-
adhesive type membrane. The bituminous
compound softens in the heat when exposed
to direct sunlight for a long period of time
and the membrane will sag or slide off
vertical surfaces if not protected or backfilled
soon after application. The torch-applied
protective membrane is much more robust in
this regard.
Designers should note that the membrane,
whatever the type, should be protected by a
suitable protection board so that no damage
occurs to it during backfilling operations.
For structures in splash zones (such as
headwalls, outfalls, etc.), where exposure to
wetting and drying cycles are expected, the
exposed concrete surfaces can be coated
with an epoxy coating to DA approval.
All concrete that is subject to exposure to
sewer , gasses should be lined with GRP or
painted with an epoxy paint system to
prevent acid and bacterial attack on the
concrete.
• Reinforcement Bars
1) Plain (Uncoated) Reinforcing Steel
Reinforcement used in DA projects
should be mild or high yield steel,
bending dimensions and scheduling
in accordance with BS 8666
xii
.
2) Epoxy Coated Reinforcing Steel.

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Epoxy coated steel is widely used in ME
countries but may only be used on DA
projects in exceptional circumstances.
The advantages are that it significantly
improves the long-term durability of
concrete, due to corrosion resistance
against chloride attack.
The main disadvantages are the increased
construction cost for reinforced concrete and
the possibility of damaged epoxy coating
being undetected and used; damaged
coating can make the steel prone to severe
chloride attack.
Manholes
• Manhole construction
Manholes are generally designed in both
cast in-situ and precast concrete with
protective coatings on internal and external
faces.
For sewage applications the internal liner
must be corrosion resistant and generally,
GRP with a vinylester resin-rich outer layer
is used. For ease of construction it has been
found that use of double-skin GRP units as
shuttering has proved successful. The units
can be manufactured in one piece for small
depths but generally come as separate units
that have to be joined in-situ. Designers
should note that the joints must be made
watertight by application of an external
epoxy bandage to the outer faces, and
finished with epoxy putty on the internal
faces.
For stormwater and irrigation the manholes
are constructed by conventional shuttering
methods with external bituminous tanking
and an internal coating of solvent free epoxy
resin.
• Manhole Covers
In addition to being capable of withstanding
applied loads, covers must be durable.
Manhole covers are classified according to
load classes in relation to the areas in which
they will be installed. BS EN 124
xiii
provides
detailed requirements regarding manhole
covers.
• Step-irons and Ladders
The top of the rungs should have a non-slip
surface for safety reasons. Three types of
material may be used for step irons and
ladders on DA projects as follows.
1) Stainless Steel can be used for step
irons and ladders.
Although covered more fully in
QNBS, it is worth noting that the
designer should ensure that the
grade is type 316 S31 to BS 790 Pt.
1, or better. Lower quality ladders
may still be subject to corrosion in
harsher environments.
2) Encapsulated Step-irons.
These are galvanised mild steel with
an epoxy coating.
3) GRP Ladders.
4.3.3 Quality Control and Quality
Assurance
Quality of a material can be defined as the ability to
satisfy defined, and implied, needs. This will often
include compliance with national or international
standards.
Quality is rarely achieved without a formal system of
controls being established, and implemented. There
are three main requirements to ensure that quality
standards can be achieved in a reliable and
predictable manner:
• Quality Control (QC): A system of
documented procedures for manufacturing
and inspection;
• Quality Assurance (QA): The
implementation of the quality control system
by routinely providing evidence that all
reasonable actions have been taken to
achieve the required quality;
• Auditing: Routinely providing evidence that
the quality control system is being
implemented and that all reasonable actions

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have been taken to achieve the required
quality.
Quality management systems (not product
standards) are now governed by ISO 9001:2000
Quality Management Systems – Requirements
xiv
. It
is becoming increasingly recognised world-wide that
mandatory implementation of these standards does
significantly help achieve desired quality standards
and it is recommended that the DA insist that
suppliers have quality systems in place which are
regularly verified by certified external auditors before
their materials are approved for use.
The choice of material and a high standard of
specification alone cannot guarantee the satisfactory
performance of a drainage system. Improper
handling or installation of a high quality product will
render it inferior. For example, GRP pipes are
susceptible to impact damage during installation,
which can easily occur without proper training of
operatives and with poor supervision. Such damage
is not easily detected by visual examination and can
cause cracking of the fibre-resin matrix leading
possibly to the eventual failure of the pipe.
In concrete construction, the durability of an
otherwise superior mix is significantly reduced if
poor placement practices result in inadequate
compaction, honeycomb formation, and insufficient
hydration due to improper curing.
4.4 Design Standards,
Procedures and
Calculations
Design standards are detailed in the following
Sections:
• Volume 1 - Foreword i)
• Volume 1 - Section 1.5
• Volume 2 - Section 1.1
• Volume 3 - Section 1.2
• Volume 4 - Section 2.2
Calculations are to be produced when necessary as
detailed in the technical sections of this Manual.
4.5 Standard Drawings
Volume 8 contains a complete list of all Standard
Drawings. Sections of the same drawings are
reproduced in Volumes 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 as A3
appendices for ease of handling.
Standard Drawings were obtained from the DA for
incorporation into this Manual. In addition, a large
number of typical drawings is also presented. The
Standard Drawings must be used in their original
format without alterations. Where used in contract
documents their numbers shall remain unaltered,
and may be referred to without the need to
incorporate as hard copies into all documents.
Typical drawings have been developed from a
number of past DA projects, and are presented as
an indication of standard format and quality. These
may be used as the basis of individual contract
drawings but must be renumbered and edited
accordingly for specific projects.
It should be noted that the typical drawings include
only drawings developed from previous projects. It
is the DA’s intention that the list be supplemented by
new drawings from other projects as they become
available. The list includes:
• Sewerage Standard Detail;
• Sewerage Standard Details for manholes,
miscellaneous chambers and septic tanks;
• Surface Water Details for manholes and
miscellaneous chambers;
• TSE and Irrigation Drawings containing
general layout plans, chamber and
protection bollard details;
• General Details Drawings containing thrust
blocks, pipe bedding details, boundary wall
and gates details, and sign and notice board
details;
• Sewage Treatment Works Typical details
covering typical general arrangements, plant
layouts, landscaping, process and hydraulic
profiles;
• Non-Disruptive Pipeline Construction
Drawings containing details of pipelines,
thrust and reception pits;

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• Service Reservation Detail Drawings
containing details of service reservations
corridors;
• Pumping Station Standard Detail Drawings
containing site layout plans, general
arrangements, elevations, details of
chambers, boundary walls and
miscellaneous works.
All other drawings should be produced in
accordance with the CAD Manual, Volume 6. It
should also be noted that, where projects infringe
upon highways, traffic management measures will
be required, and the consultants will be expected to
produce traffic management drawings to suit the
requirements of the project, to satisfaction of the RA
and DA.
4.6 Building Permits
Building permits will be required for any new building
or structure which requires utility connections. The
stages required to obtain a building permit are:
• Open a building permit file at the Planning
Department;
• Obtain Initial Design Control (DC) 1
approval;
• Obtain utility approvals;
• Obtain Final DC1 approval;
• Obtain DC 2 approval;
• Collect building permit.
These are described in more detail below.
4.6.1 Opening a Building Permit
File
Depending on the location of the project the building
permit file need to be opened at either Doha,
Rayyan, Al Khor or Wakrah Municipality. To open
the file drawings showing the location and general
arrangement of the building/structure and the land
ownership, details from the Lands Information
Department will be required.
4.6.2 Initial DC 1 Approval
To obtain this the consultant must present drawings
showing:
• Site location;
• General Arrangement of Site;
• Plot details including plot number, total plot
area, area of proposed works, proportion of
works to plot area, and overall dimensions of
plot. These are to be consistent with the
Ministry of Lands Information plot details.
At this stage the municipality will advise on the
service authorities from whom approval will be
required. These will be selected from the following
list depending on the scope of work:
• Roads Affairs;
• Electricity Networks;
• Civil Defence Department;
• Water Networks;
• Q-Tel;
• Drainage Affairs;
• Police.
4.6.3 Utility Approvals
Roads Affairs
Drawings submitted to the RA are to show the
surrounding road corridors and design details as
available. Points of vehicular ingress and egress
with access roads, gate details etc. must also be
indicated.
Electricity Networks
Electricity networks will require details of buildings
which will contain electrical equipment and site
layout showing cable routes, duct provisions,
electrical items, including small power and lighting,
to be installed and meter cabinet. A single line
diagram showing details of all distribution boards
and total demands is to be supplied. It is important
that the QGEWC Building Permit Application Form is
completed consistently with the single line diagram.
Thermal insulation calculations for the building will
also be required. Digital and A3 size hard copies of

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all the drawings are to be submitted prior to final
approval.
Civil Defence Department
Details of all fire alarms and fighting equipment are
to be included on the drawing submitted for
approval.
Water Networks
The provision of a water meter cabinet has to be
made whether a supply is currently available or not.
This is to be shown on the drawings together with
any existing or proposed water network pipes.
Copies of all drawings are to be submitted in digital
format.
Q-Tel
The drawing submitted for approval is to show the
point of supply, the duct from the plot boundary to
the internal sockets and any additional internal
sockets. Drawings showing site location and site
layout will also be required. Copies of all drawings
are to be submitted in digital format.
Drainage Affairs
The DA will require a site layout showing the
sewerage outlet and connection to the sewage
network or location of septic tank with provision for
connection to the future network for approval.
Police
Police approval is infrequently required and would
relate to matters such as vehicular access to
developments which are open to general public,
such as sports stadiums and shopping malls.
4.6.4 Final DC1 Approval
Once all the requisite service authority approvals
have been obtained they should be returned to
municipality with the original file so that final DC 1
approval can be given.
4.6.5 DC 2 Approval
DC 2 approval relates to the structural elements of
the building or structure and architectural and
structural details will must be submitted as follows:
• Structural drawings, three copies;
• Architectural drawings, three copies;
• All approved utility drawings;
• Digital copy of the site layout drawings in the
municipality’s format;
• Drawing list of all submitted drawings.
4.6.6 Building Permit
Once the DC2 approval has been given the Building
Permit will be prepared and can be collected from
the municipality following the payment of fees which
are dependant on the nature of the project.
4.7 Environmental Design
This section provides guidance on sewerage and
drainage project design and the potential for impact
on the environment. As with all environmental
management activities in the sewerage and
drainage sector, the need for an integrated
approach, including extensive consultation with
planning authorities, SCENR, and DA staff is re-
iterated.
The pollutants in municipal wastewater are
suspended and dissolved solids consisting of
inorganic and organic matter, nutrients, oil and
grease, toxic substances and pathogenic micro-
organisms. Urban storm water can contain similar
pollutants, sometimes in surprisingly high
concentrations. Human wastes that are not properly
treated, and disposed of at source, or collected and
carried away, pose high risks of parasitic infections,
hepatitis, and various gastro-intestinal diseases
including cholera and typhoid (through
contamination of water supplies and food).
When wastewater is collected but not properly
treated before disposal or reuse, health hazards
exist at the point of discharge. If the discharge is to
a confined lake (see Volume 3, Section 1.1.2) then
its nutrient content can cause eutrophication, with
nuisance algae and plant growth that can cause
odour, and disrupt fisheries, recreation and/or
conservation. Solid waste generated as part of the
wastewater treatment process (grit, screenings,
sludge) can pollute soil and groundwater if not
properly managed.

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Wastewater projects are implemented in order to
prevent or alleviate the potentially significant
negative effects of the pollutants described above
on the human and natural environments. When
properly carried out as part of an EIA and
sustainability procedure, their overall impact is
positive. Direct beneficial impacts include
abatement of nuisances and public health hazards
in the serviced area. In addition, an opportunity for
more effective control of industrial wastewater
through pre-treatment and connection to public
sewers offers the increased potential for beneficial
reuse of treated effluent and sludge. Indirect
impacts include the improved provision of serviced
sites for development, increased tourist,
conservation and recreational activity and revenues,
increased agricultural and silvicultural productivity
and/or reduced chemical fertiliser requirements,
alongside reduced demands for other water sources
as a result of effluent reuse. Public health
improvements, together with the above
improvements, result in strong positive social,
economic and environmental benefits that contribute
to the sustainable development of Qatar.
From the preceding discussion, it will be clear that
the environmental design procedure will follow on
from the drivers presented by Qatari environmental
law, the environmental scoping study (Section 2.7.4)
and the EIA (Section 2.7.5).
The environmental design process must follow on
from the mitigating measures identified in the EIA.
Where a design changes significantly during the
course of the project, the EIA must be reviewed and
amended accordingly. This is an iteration process,
and amendments will require approval by SCENR
via Q&SD. It is essential that monthly project
meetings are held between consultants PM, DA PC
and a designated Q&SD representative on all
environmentally sensitive projects.
4.8 Tendering and Contract
Procedures
The types of contracts awarded by the Government
for DA works are:
• Professional Service Agreements;
• Conventional Construction Contracts;
• Design and Construct Contracts;
• Material Supply Contracts;
• Hybrid Contracts;
• Work Order Agreements.
Fig 1 in Appendix 4 illlustrates the procedure by
which contracts are tendered and awarded, in flow
chart format. In addition to this procedure,
consultants must be aware of the following:
• Once a tender document has received
approval it cannot be amended.
• Tender circulars may either be prepared by
the DA, for items such revisions to the
tender return date or the consultant for item
such as revisions to specification or
drawings. Numbering of circulars is to be
sequential;
• When tender enquiries are received from
tenderers the consultant is to review them,
advise the DA on any action required, and
prepare any necessary tender circulars;
• On return of the tenders, the consultant will
undertake the technical and final review of
the tenders as per the PSA requirements;
• During the design period the estimated value
of the works to be constructed, construction
period and likely start date will be
determined and finalised. During this period
the DA will keep DOFA advised of cash flow
requirements for approval and re-approval
as found necessary. The consultant is to
provide in a suitable format all the necessary
information required by the DA to fulfil this
obligation.
The use of the above noted contracts will be
dependent on the DA’s requirements as described
below.
4.8.1 Professional Service
Agreement
These are utilised where services are to be provided
by consultants for activities such as:
• Master Planning;
• Feasibility Studies;

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• Outline Designs;
• Detailed Designs;
• Record Surveys;
• Specialist Investigations;
• Specialist Services.
• Site Management and Supervision
These are based on the Professional Service
Agreement General Conditions of Engagement
1984
xv
, as expanded and modified by the particular
Fee Tender Professional Consultancy document. It
will comprise:
• Form of Tender;
• Instruction to Tenderers;
• Conditions of Engagement;
• Specimen of the Consultancy Services
Contract;
• Project Brief;
• Tender Submission Schedules;
• Reference Documentation and Schedules.
Generally the Fee Proposal will comprise a single
combined technical and financial proposal.
However, for projects that require a high level of
technical expertise, outside the normal scope of
projects, a separate technical submission can be
specified. This will enable a full technical appraisal
and evaluation to be undertaken prior to the opening
of the financial offers.
4.8.2 Conventional Construction
Contracts
These are utilised where a contractor is required to
undertake major construction works such as:
• Area drainage/sewerage schemes;
• Pumping Stations;
• Sewage Treatment Works;
• Refurbishment Works.
These are based on the General Conditions of
Contract prepared by the Ministry of Public Works
as expanded and modified by the particular Tender
Document, which will comprise:
• Form of Tender;
• Instruction to Tenderers;
• Conditions of Contact;
• Project Specification;
• Bill of Quantities.
4.8.3
4.8.4 Design and Construct
Construction Contracts
Design and build contracts can be advantageous:
• where an early start to construction is
desirable;
• when there is a substantial element of
electromechanical works which will dictate
the civil requirements;
• where it is desirable to use the special skills
of the contractors to design the works e.g.
treatment processes.
These are based on the General Conditions of
Contract prepared by the Ministry of Public Works
as expanded and modified by the particular Tender
Document, which will comprise:
• Form of Tender;
• Instruction to Tenderers;
• Conditions of Contact;
• General Specification;
• Output Specification;
• Payment Schedule.
Design and Construct Contracts will generally be
valued at more than QR 3M and will be tendered by
the CTC.
4.8.5 Material Supply Contracts
Where materials only are required, the Standard
Supply Conditions of Contract are utilised. These
will comprise the following:
• Bill of Quantities;
• Specification;

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• Tender and Contract Forms.
4.8.6 Hybrid Contracts
These are used when the other forms of contract are
not applicable. They have to be prepared on a one–
off basis for the specific requirements, and all of the
necessary approval procedures followed must be
based on internationally recognised Conditions of
Contract (eg flow survey contracts.
4.8.7 Work Carried Out Under
Work Order Agreements
The DA is currently reviewing the procedure of the
issue of Work Orders and this section will be added
following the completion of the review.
4.9 Health and Safety and
Security
The Health and Safety section incorporates many
features of international practice which are not yet
incorporated into Qatar legislation. This section will
be revised as necessary in the final document to
accord with Qatar procedures. The department is
currently drafting a revised policy statement, which
will be included, when Ministerial approval is
granted. Until this time, the policy stated below shall
be observed.
4.9.1 Policy Statement
It is the Department’s policy to conduct its activities
in a manner designed to minimise H&S risks, protect
the health and safety of its employees, consultants,
contractors, the community at large and the
environment in which the Department’s activities are
conducted.
The Department, through the active participation of
all employees, contractors and consultants will strive
to manage H&S risks with the goal of preventing
accidents, injuries and occupational illnesses, using
energy efficiently and producing safe, quality
products.
The Department considers that good H&S
performance is equally if not more important than all
other primary business objectives.
The Department expects all of its staff, contractors
and consultants alike to:
• comply with all applicable laws and
regulations, and apply internationally
recognised standards where local laws and
regulations do not exist;
• manage all risks to a level which is as low as
is reasonably practicable;
• design facilities, establish procedures,
provide training and conduct operations in a
manner that minimises risks and hazards to
workers, property, and the community at
large, applying best available technology,
consistent with good industry practice.
The Department will:
• hold all levels of line management
accountable for H&S issues and for the
development of positive attitudes in
themselves and those they supervise;
• provide H&S training to appropriate staff,
and will assist both the consultants and
contractors by providing with the relevant
advice and encouragement in the provision
of H&S training;
• ensure all operations are conducted with the
safety of the employee and community as a
primary objective;
• appoint a safety manager for all projects,
whose main role will be to provide the
required safety expertise to the department
and liase with Consultants via the Project
Co-ordinator’s safety related duties.
The Consultant shall:
• prepare and submit copies to the head of the
department, with copies to the department’s
safety manager, along with their company
health & safety policy and procedural
manual which outlines their company’s
proposal for effectively managing the H&S
aspects of their business and on all the DAs
building and construction contracts;
• during the design phase of each contract,
prepare a pre-tender H&S plan, which will
enable prospective contractors to be made
aware of the project’s main health and safety

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issues. The pre-tender H&S plan should
contain enough information to allow
prospective tenderers to plan and price for
H&S on that particular contract. A copy of
the pre-tender H&S plan shall accompany
each tender;
• appoint a full/part time safety officer;
• report all accidents/injuries, dangerous;
• submit to the Head of the DA, with a copy to
the DA Safety Manager (safety unit), at the
beginning of each month using their own
company format, a brief summary of the
contractor’s safety performance on each of
their contracts during the previous month.
Where applicable, this should include copies
of any H&S site instructions issued to the
contractor during that period;
• arrange both the pre-construction and site
safety meetings;
• ensure, as far as is reasonably practicable,
that the contractor fully complies with the
appropriate H&S procedures and minimum
H&S standards laid down in the DA safety
manuals, and any other additional standards
either included in the contract specification
or agreed on-site;
• set a high example of health and safety on
all the department’s building construction
contracts.
The Contractor shall:
• at the tender stage, submit with the tender
documents, a copy of their company health
and safety policy and procedural
arrangements for effectively managing H&S
issues on all the DA’s building construction
contracts;
• include with the tender documents, a brief
summary and breakdown of moneys
allocated to effectively manage the main
hazards/risks identified in the pre-tender
H&S plan;
• on being officially informed of being awarded
the contract, to prepare and submit to the
Department Head, with copies to the
Department’s Safety Manager and
consultant’s site engineer, prior to, or at the
pre-construction meeting, a copy of their
proposed Health and Safety Plan specific for
that contract. This will be based on the
information received in the pre tender health
and safety plan they received with the
tender, and any other main risks or hazards
they themselves may have identified;
• are responsible for ensuring that their sub-
contractor(s) comply with the minimum H&S
standards laid down by the DA, and any
other additional standards either included in
the contract specification, or agreed on site;
• appoint a full/part time safety officer;
• submit risk assessments/method statements
for specific operations as directed by the
consultant’s site engineer and/or the
department’s safety manager;
• provide information on all
accidents/dangerous occurrences;
• attend safety meetings as directed by either
the consultant’s site engineer or the
departments safety manager;
• appoint a trained first-aider;
• submit monthly H&S reports to the
consultant’s site engineer;
• ensure that they fully comply with the
minimum H&S procedures and standards
laid down by the DA.
The Contractor’s policy document should
include, as a minimum:
• a written statement of their general policy with
respect to the H&S of their employees signed
by the managing director of the company;
• details of their safety organisation and its
function;
• safety responsibilities of all concerned;
• procedural arrangements for effectively
implementing the policy including:
1) provision of safe systems of work;
2) safety training;
3) safety committees;
4) accident reporting;

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5) emergency procedures.
4.9.2 Accident Reporting
An accident is defined as an unplanned and
unexpected occurrence, which upsets a planned
sequence of work resulting in loss of production,
injury to personnel and/or damage to plant and
equipment.
Ideally, the causes of all accidents should be
established regardless of whether injury or damage
results. Where necessary, a full investigation should
be carried out and a record of accident classification
should be maintained. This will enable appropriate
preventative action to be taken should a pattern of
causation emerge.
The main purpose of this procedure is to firstly
ensure that all accidents, injuries and incidents are
properly reported and investigated in order that the
main cause(s) can be determined with a view to
preventing a recurrence. Secondly, this will enable
the gathering of statistical information so that any
particular trend can be identified and corrective
action taken.
Consultants, contractors and sub-contractors are
responsible for ensuring that all accidents occurring
to their employees are reported as follows:
• In the case of Death of any Person,
immediately Inform Police (999);
• In the case a Major Injury to, within 24 hrs
inform (either by fax or phone) DA Safety
Unit;
• In the case of both major and lost time
accidents to within 7 days, forward full report
of the accident to DA Safety unit;
• All minor accidents to be included in the
consultant’s monthly record of accidents
reports to the Department Safety Unit.
Note: where applicable, include any witness
statements, photographs, drawings etc.
4.9.3 Training
Introduction
The construction industry is labour intensive and, as
such, should regard its labour and trades staff as
one of its major resources. It is therefore important
that, in improving the quality of the industry, the
skills and knowledge of its personnel are also
improved.
As part of that improvement programme, the DA
firmly believe that providing the skills and knowledge
to facilitate the avoidance of accidents and
occupational ill health through properly organised
and structured safety courses, is of paramount
importance. As such, the DA requires consultants,
contractors and sub contractors to carry out, and
record, the following minimum safety training
requirements.
Training Required
Senior Management
• Includes directors, principals and others who
may be responsible for defining and
influencing the management of health and
safety at a senior level. In broad terms,
those who have overall responsibility for
matters of H&S and will be required to
establish and support the H&S policy and
allocate resources for the policy objectives
to be met;
• training syllabus should include, but not be
limited to the following:
1) management of health and safety;
2) legal obligations;
3) DA’s site safety procedures and
standards;
4) health and safety resources;
5) accidents and accident prevention;
6) hazards of toxic gases and COSHH.
Site Management
• Includes senior consultant site engineers,
consultant site engineers, contract
managers, project managers, contractors
site engineers, safety officers and general
foremen;
• training syllabus should include, but not
limited to the following:

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1) company health and safety policy
and procedural arrangements;
2) individual health and safety
responsibilities;
3) legal obligations;
4) DA’s safety procedures and
standards;
5) site safety management;
6) health and safety planning;
7) accidents and accident prevention;
8) common health and safety issues
e.g. manual handling, welfare
facilities, personal protective
equipment (PPE) etc.;
9) specific training requirements e.g.
scaffolding, excavations, cranes,
confined space etc.;
10) hazards of toxic gases e.g. chlorine,
hydrogen sulphide and methane,
and procedure sin their safe handling
for all employees;
11) radiation safety for those involved in
industrial radiography on site.
First Line Supervision
• Includes supervisors, trades foremen,
chargehands and gangers;
• training syllabus should include, but not be
limited to the following:
1) company health and safety policy
and procedural arrangements;
2) individual safety responsibilities;
3) DA’s safety procedures and
standards;
4) health and safety management;
5) accidents and accident prevention;
6) standards of health and safety
provisions.
Site Operatives
Induction Training
• On recruitment, all site operatives should
receive a H&S induction course which will
alert them to:
1) their company health and safety
policy and procedural arrangements;
2) their individual health and safety
responsibilities;
3) procedures for the reporting of
accidents and dangerous
occurrences;
4) outline the management systems
which are in place to identify and
eliminate or minimise identified risks;
5) advise them of the role they have to
play to ensure that standards of
health and safety provisions are
maintained;
6) name and responsibilities of the
company’s safety officer;
7) availability, use and care of personal
protective equipment;
8) risks that are related to the tasks
they perform;
9) location of welfare facilities;
10) first aid, trained first aider and
location of first aid boxes;
11) fire arrangements, evacuation
procedure etc. in the labour camp.
On Site Training: (Tool Box Talks)
• The techniques for training operatives will
often be quite different from those used to
train first line managers. Operatives training
is normally site based, but that should not
give rise to any compromise in the careful
setting of training objectives and delivery of
the training by competent instructors working
in a suitable training environment. An
additional means of providing instruction and
training to operatives is in the form of “tool
box talks”.
These are brief instruction/training sessions
lasting approximately 20 to 30 minutes
duration dealing with specific subjects, and

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ideally delivered by the safety officer with a
member of site management in attendance.
Specialist Training
• These will be courses designed to meet the
needs of specific operatives involved in
specialised trades and will include, but not
limited to the following:
1) safe entry into confined spaces;
2) crane operation;
3) slingers/banksmen;
4) scaffolding;
5) abrasive wheels;
6) woodworking machinery;
7) excavation support equipment;
8) first aid.
4.9.4 Site Safety Meetings
Pre-Construction Site Meetings
To be organised by:
The consultant senior site engineer and/or
contractors project manager for the contract,
in conjunction with the DAs safety unit and
appropriate engineers and technical
inspectors.
To attend:
In addition to those normally invited to these
meetings, the following are also required to
attend for the safety agenda only:
• DA’s safety manager and/or
nominated member from the safety
unit;
• consultants full/part time safety
officer for the contract;
• contractors full/part time safety
officers.

H&S Agenda Items:
Health and Safety will be the first item on the
meeting agenda and will include, but not be limited
to the following:
• contractors health and safety policy, with
details of their safety organisation and
arrangements/procedures;
• arrangements/procedures for dealing with
sub-contractors;
• copy of their H&S plan indicating their
methods/proposals for either eliminating or
controlling the main hazards/risks identified
in the pre-tender H&S plan;
• their procedure for the reporting of
accidents/injuries and dangerous
occurrences;
• details of their appointed full time/part time
safety officer’s qualifications, experience etc.
together with his prime duties and
responsibilities;
• their arrangements and procedures for the
provision of trained first aiders, first aid
boxes and portable fire fighting equipment;
• ensure that the contractor has received a
copy of DA H&S policy;
• bring to the notice of the contractor DA
enforcement policy and financial penalties
for non-compliance.
Site Progress Meetings
To be organised by:
consultant’s senior site engineer and
contractors project manager for the contract,
in conjunction with the DAs appropriate
engineers and technical inspectors.
To attend:
In addition to those normally invited to these
meetings, the following are also required to
attend, for the safety agenda only:
• representative from the DA’s safety
unit;
• consultant’s full/part time safety
officer;

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• contractor’s full/part time safety
officer for the contract.
H&S Agenda Items
Health and safety will again be the first item on the
meeting agenda and will include, but not be limited
to the following:
• matters arising and actions outstanding from
the previous meeting;
• on the agreed format, to receive from the
contractor details of any accidents/injuries or
dangerous occurrences reported;
• review any health & safety site instructions
issued since the last meeting;
• details, together with records of any safety
training carried out since the last meeting;
• any other matters relating to health and
safety.
4.9.5 Enforcement Policy
The DA, in its commitment to continuously improve
H&S standards may introduce an enforcement
policy, which will financially penalise contractors
who consistently violate the DA H&S procedures.
The enforcement policy will consist of two notices, a
Prohibition and an Improvement notice, and both
consultants and contractors should note that, failure
to comply with the requirements and time scale
indicated in any of these notices, will result in the
matter being referred to the Head of the DA.
On being informed of the violations, and after
confirming that these have still not been attended to,
the Dead of the Department will approve the fine
issued by the DA Safety Manager to the contractor
concerned, in line with the schedule of rates
published from time to time by DA.
In the case that fines which have already been
implemented, but still no action has been taken by
the contractor, the Head of the Department will refer
the matter to the QMMAA legal section.

Prohibition Notice
This will be issued by either DA’s Head of Safety
Unit and/or by the engineer/inspector responsible for
the contract. It will instruct the contractor to
immediately cease work when, in their opinion, the
violation noted could result in a serious or fatal injury
to the worker(s) involved in that particular operation.
Types of violation for which a prohibition notice
could be issued:
• scaffold platforms over two metres high
which are not properly boarded out, no
proper and safe access provided, and no
guard rails fitted;
• men working in areas without safety helmets
where overhead work is in operation;
• deep excavations where sides are not
supported or battered back to a safe angle,
and there is imminent danger of collapse;
• using cranes and/or lifting gear which,
because of their condition, or the manner in
which they are being used, could cause
serious or fatal injury during lifting
operations;
• cranes being used not being certified and
tested within the last twelve months.
Improvement Notice
This will be issued by either the DA’s Head of Safety
Unit and/or by the engineer/inspector responsible for
the contract, when he is of the opinion that, although
there is no immediate danger to life, items noted in
the notice are in contravention of procedures and/or
standards laid down by the DA H&S Section.
The contractor will be given 28 days to rectify the
violations indicated in the notice, following which, if
no action has been taken, he will be given a further
seven days. If no action has been taken after these
two warnings, penalties as indicated in the
introduction to this section will be imposed.
Types of violations for which an improvement notice
could be issued:
• non-appointment of full or part time safety
officer;
• not providing appropriate PPE e.g. head,
foot, ear, face protection etc.;

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• untidy site;
• non-provision and/or maintenance of existing
welfare facilities;
• non-provision of fire fighting equipment;
• lack of proper security fencing;
• non-provision of appropriate safety signs;
• deficiencies in safety training requirements.
4.10 CDM Best Practice
4.10.1 Introduction
The Construction (Design and Management)
Regulations 1994, commonly known as the CDM
Regulations, came into force in the UK in 1995. The
Regulations, supported by an Approved Code of
Practice, brought about a major change in the
management of construction health and safety and,
in particular, imposed explicit statutory duties on
Clients, Designers and Contractors. Other EC
countries produced similar legislation. This section
of the Manual recommends how the main
requirements on Designers can be implemented in
situations where the Regulations do not apply in law,
such as in the State of Qatar, but may be used as a
means of ensuring Best Practice during design with
a view to increased health and safety during the
construction and indeed the maintenance of assets.
4.10.2 Earliest Involvement
Designers are in a unique position to reduce the
risks that arise during construction work. Designs
develop from initial concepts through to a detailed
specification, often involving different teams at
various stages. At each stage, designers from all
disciplines can make a significant contribution by
identifying and eliminating hazards and by reducing
the remaining risks. Designers’ earliest decisions
are crucial in that they influence later choices.
Considerable work may be required to unravel
earlier inappropriate decisions, so it is vital to
address health and safety at the very start. It is also
important to realise that designers’ responsibilities
extend beyond the construction phase of a project.
They also need to consider the health and safety of
those who will maintain, repair, clean and eventually
demolish a structure. Failure to address these
issues adequately at the design stage may make it
difficult to devise safe systems of work. It could
also cause additional costs later because, for
example, expensive scaffolding or other access
equipment is needed.
4.10.3 Co-ordination
It is essential that the input of all designers involved
on a project is properly co-ordinated. The lead
designer should take on the role of co-ordinator and
ensure full co-operation between all parties in order
to implement a ‘brainstorming’ approach to
‘designing out’ hazards and risks. In order for this to
be effective, there must be a broad definition given
to the term ‘designer’ to ensure that no-one is
missed out of this process. Therefore, the input of
the following should be included:
• architects;
• quantity surveyors;
• building service designers;
• those purchasing materials;
• contractors carrying out design work;
• temporary works designers;
• interior designers;
• heritage organisations.
4.10.4 Preparing the Design
Designers must critically assess the risk to those
people involved during construction. When the
design is being prepared, these risks don’t yet exist,
but there is already a potential for harm when the
work starts on site. The first stage in reducing risk is
to identify the hazards in the proposed design. The
next stage is to eliminate each hazard, if feasible.
Where it is not feasible to ‘design out’ a hazard, the
next stage is to consider what can be done to
reduce the risk and give priority to control measures
which will protect all those involved.
The designer should, where possible, select the
position and design of structures to minimise risks
from the following hazards:
• buried services, such as electricity and gas;
• overhead cables;

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• traffic movements;
• contaminated ground;
Health hazards should be ‘designed out’ by:
• specifying less hazardous materials, e.g.
solvent-free or low solvent adhesives and
water-based paints;
• avoiding processes that create fumes,
vapours, dust, noise or vibration, e.g. by:
disturbing asbestos, cutting chases in
brickwork and concrete, breaking down cast
in-situ piles to level, scabbling concrete,
using hand-held tunnelling machines, flame
cutting or sanding areas coated with lead
paint or cadmium;
• specifying materials that are easier to
handle, e.g. lighter weight building blocks.
Safety hazards should be ‘designed out’ by
avoiding:
• the need for work at height;
• fragile roofing materials;
• deep or long excavations in public areas or
in highways;
• materials that could create a significant fire
risk during construction.
Designers should consider prefabrication to
minimise hazardous work or to allow it to be carried
out in more controlled conditions, e.g. by:
• designing elements such as structural
steelwork whereby it can be erected at
ground level and then safely lifted into place;
• arranging for ‘cutting to size’ to be done ‘off-
site’ under controlled conditions to reduce
the amount of dust released.
The designer should include features that reduce
the risk of injury, e.g. by:
• the early installation of permanent access,
such as stairs to reduce the use of ladders;
• designing permanent edge protection at
height;
• providing lifting points at marked centres of
gravity of awkward items requiring ‘slinging’
on drawings and on the items themselves;
• making allowance for temporary works;
• considering the stability of partially erected
structures and, where necessary, providing
information to show how temporary stability
could be achieved during construction;
• identifying hazards that may arise during the
eventual demolition of the structure being
designed (refer to section 4.10.6 ).
4.10.5 Health and Safety Plan
Designers (together with clients, if appropriate) must
include adequate health and safety information with
the design. This includes information about hazards
that the designer has not been able to eliminate,
reduce or control, and will consequently remain a
design hazard during construction. Such information
should be included in a document referred to as the
pre-construction Health & Safety Plan. It should
contain details of all the significant residual risks
facing contractors and should include any
assumptions about working methods or precautions
to be taken into account by contractors.
A section of the Health and Safety Plan should
contain the Hazard and Risk Assessments
(HARAS), which will have been produced by the
designers. The HARAS will contain all of the risks
identified during the assessment, together with all of
the mitigating measures as appropriate. An example
of a HARA is included in Appendix 1.
Designers do not need to mention every hazard or
assumption, as this can obscure the significant
issues. Significant hazards are those that are:
• not likely to be obvious to a competent
contractor;
• unusual; or
• likely to be difficult to manage effectively.
To identify significant hazards, designers must
understand how the design can be built.
Examples of significant hazards to be included in the
pre-construction Health & Safety Plan are:
• hazards that could cause multiple fatalities to
the public, such as tunnelling or the use of a
crane close to a busy public place;

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• temporary works required to ensure stability
during construction;
• hazardous or flammable substances
specified in the design, e.g. epoxy grouts,
fungicidal paints or those containing
isocyanates;
• heavy or awkward prefabricated elements
likely to create risks in handling;
• areas needing access where normal
methods of tying scaffolds may not be
feasible.
Information should be clear, precise and in a form
suitable for the users. This can be achieved by
using:
• notes on drawings;
• a register of hazards with suggested control
measures;
• suggested construction sequences showing
how the design can be erected safely.
4.10.6 Health and Safety File
Designers (together with clients and contractors)
should also provide health and safety information
needed by people carrying out cleaning work,
maintenance, alterations, refurbishment and
eventual demolition of the structure being designed.
This information is included in a document referred
to as the Health & Safety File, which is handed to
the client or operator of the asset at the end of the
construction phase. Such information could include:
• ‘as built’ drawings of the structure, its plant
and equipment;
• information on remaining hazards (e.g.
asbestos or contaminated land) and how
they should be managed;
• HARAs (see 4.10.5);
• key structural principles incorporated in the
design of the structure (e.g. bracing, sources
of substantial stored energy including pre or
post tensioned members) and safe working
loads for floors and roofs;
• information on hazards associated with
materials used, e.g. lead paint;
• information regarding the removal or
dismantling of installed plant, e.g. lifting
equipment;
• information about equipment provided for
cleaning or maintaining the structure;
• the location and markings of significant
services such as fire-fighting services.

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5 Reporting Systems
5.1 General
Each project has its own specific technical brief and
design process. During this design process a
standard reporting system is to be followed for each
of the main design stages:
• Sketch Stage;
• Preliminary Stage;
• Investigation Stage;
• Detail Design and Tendering Stage;
• Documentation;
• Engineering Report;
• Supplementary Reports.
Basic requirements for each report stage are given
in the ‘Professional Service Agreement General
Conditions of Engagement’, 1984
xv
, which will be
amended and amplified by the particular terms of
reference for the project. The investigation stage
noted above will often overlap between sketch and
preliminary stages. It may be carried out by the
consultant or another contractor. However, the
consultant will need to review any reports produced
by such contractors for completeness in relation to
the PSA.
The objective of each report is to describe the
design activities up to that stage and to clearly state
the specific requirements required by the project
brief for that stage, as outlined below. Prior to
submission of any report the following quality
assurance procedures are to be carried out.
5.1.1 Quality Control
Each report is to be given a specific sequential
number prefixed by the letter R i.e. R01, R02, R03,
etc.
Where a report consists of more than one volume
each volume is to be numbered as follows R01/A,
R01/B, R01/C, etc.
Revisions to reports: the initial issue of a report is to
be denoted as (Rev A) with subsequent revisions
progressing in alphabetical order. If a volume of the
report remains unchanged through a revision
change it should be reissued with the new revision
number.
Drawings and figures included in reports need not
have the report revision number, but where
drawings have been revised from previous issues
they must be given the next revision letter. Each
report is to include a drawing/figure list showing the
revision letter of the drawings/figures included in the
report.
Each volume of a report is to include a quality
control sheet containing the following:
Prepared By ……………Date ……………
Checked By ……………Date ……………
Approved By ……………Date…………….
Report No. ...................Rev..............…..
Note: Authors, Checkers and Approvers are to be
defined in the Project Quality Plan, see Section 6.1.
In the case of tender documentation, which for
quality control purposed is to be considered a report,
the report number and revision are to be included on
the quality control sheet, which is to be inserted in
the copies for DA only. Copies for re-issue to other
parties such as SAB, DLO and tenderers are not to
contain the quality control sheet.
Specifics of the technical aspects for the design
works undertaken by the DA are covered in other
volumes of the QSDDM, the purpose of this section
is to define the level of detail required of the various
report stages and the general requirements for all
projects.
5.1.2 Format of Documents
The consultant is required to submit all reports,
drawings and documents in an approved format
recorded on computer media (compact disc) using
software compatible with the Client’s computer
systems.
Drawings shall be produced on AutoCAD Windows
Version 14 and submitted as .DRG files and shall
comply with Volume 6 CAD manual. All documents

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should be in digital format compatible with Word 97
for Windows and the font to be used is Arial text size
11.
Reports are to be submitted in a standard format as
per the example included in Appendix 1. Tables,
graphs and charts included in reports can use colour
but this should be complemented with the use of
shading types such that when copied in black and
white the meaning remains clear. Each chart, table
etc. should be given unique reference.
Hard copy reports and documentation shall be either
comb bound with hard covers or in four-ring binder
format and accompanying drawings either up to A3
size bound or in A1 size folded and inserted in
plastic holders.
Tender drawings shall not bear the names of the
consultant or checkers/approvers. These are to be
reinstated on Contract Issue documents and
drawings as agreed with the DA.
All reports, documents and drawings to be submitted
in hard copy shall also be submitted in an
appropriate electronic format (2 copies each)
including the PDS submission.
Examples of DA submission formats are included in
the following tables:
Table 5.1.1 - Format & Numbering of Documents;
Table 5.1.2 – Design Enquiry Status;
Table 5.1.3 – Status of Available Information;
Table 5.1.4 – Investigations Status.

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Table 5.1.1 – Format & Numbering of Documents
Report Format Max, Drg Size Number of Copies
Project Quality Plan A4 - 4
Sketch A4 A3 4
Preliminary A4 A1 4
Tender Documents
DA Review A4 A3 4
Roads Dept Approval A4 A3 2
Planning and Land Department Approvals A4 A3 2
Final Tender A4 A1
Documents 40
Drawings A1s 24
Drawings A3 3
Cost Estimate A4 - 4
Tender Circulars A4 A1 17
Supplementary Reports A4 A1 4
Contract Documents
Unsigned A4 - 13
Signed A4 - 5
Engineering Report A4 A1 4
PDS
Signed PSA A4 - 1
Tender Document A4 - 1
Tender Drawings - A1 1 Negative
Engineering Report A4 A1 1
Table 5.1.2 – Design Enquiry Status
Service Authority Date Submitted Date of Reply Information Received Action Required





Table 5.1.3 – Status of Available Information
Required Information Source Date of Receipt Information Abstracted Action Required







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Table 5.1.4 – Investigations Status
Investigation
Ministry/ Consultant
Appointment
Name of Sub-
Consultant/
Contractor
Programmed Start Duration Status




Further examples are included in Appendix 1. These are:
• Example of report summary page, together with header and footer;
• Example of calculation cover sheet;
• Typical calculation sheet for foul sewer sizing;
An example of a project programme is included in Appendix 2.
Typical drawings are shown in Appendix 3.


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5.2 Sketch Stage
The requirements for the sketch stage report are
given in section 10.1 of the Professional Service
Agreement General Conditions of Engagement
1984
xv
as amended and amplified by the particular
terms of reference in the project PSA. The main
objective of the report is to define the design
parameters, prepare various design options and
recommend the preferred option. The main part of
this design stage is the collection and assimilation of
the information required for the design, the control
and use of which of forms an important part of the
sketch stage report.
The DA requires the following basic structure, which
is to be amplified, if required by the project PSA.

5.2.1 Structure/Content of Report
Objective of the Project
A clear statement of the objective of the project is to
be given with specific reference to the main design
criteria.
Methodology and Work Plan
The purpose of the methodology and work plan is to
define how the objectives of the PSA will be
achieved and cover the following subjects:
• staff – approval of appropriate staff will be
covered by the Project Quality Plan, see
Section 6.1, the purpose of this section is to
define the specific input from the various
members of the design team. It should be
clearly stated whether design works are to
be carried out in the consultant’s offices,
outside Qatar or by a sub-consultant;
• investigations – each project will require
specific investigations to be carried out, the
details pertaining to which are covered by
Section 3 of this Volume. The methodology
and work plan should state the investigation
to be undertaken, the company who will
undertake the work, description of the
investigation and the information that is to be
obtained. Whether a specialist investigation
company is to be employed directly by the
Government, or the consultant, should be
noted;
• data required – data will be obtained from
numerous sources depending on the project
requirements which should be defined at this
stage and is presented in tabular form as
shown in Table 5.2.1 below.
Table 5.2.1 – Data Requirements
Data
Required
Source
Date
Requested
Date
Received
Remarks




• studies – each specific project will require
certain studies to be carried out. These will
be defined in the PSA but should be listed
and briefly described in the methodology
and work plan. These should be tabulated to
enable progress tracking to be carried out,
see Table 5.2.2 below.
Table 5.2.2 – Study Progress
Study

Date
Required
Date
Submitted
Date
Approved
Remarks




Note that these studies may be submitted
separately or be included in a design stage
report. Studies submitted separately should
follow the same quality control procedures
for reports.
• design calculations – at the methodology
and work plan stage the design calculations
required for the project should be identified
and itemised. With the studies, a reporting
table should be included. Note, these
calculations may be submitted separately or
be included in a design stage report. All
calculations, whether included in a report or

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submitted separately are to have a cover
sheet in the format shown in Appendix 1.
• deliverables schedule – in addition to the
design calculation and studies a full table of
all deliverables is to be included.
5.2.2 Programme
The project programme submitted within the Project
Quality Plan is to be up-dated to show current
progress, as per the example shown in Appendix 1.
5.2.3 Design Enquiry Status
Design enquires will have been submitted to all
authorities as detailed in Section 4.1, the sketch
stage report is to contain a table, showing the status
of information received and any action required to
facilitate the receipt of outstanding information.
5.2.4 Available Information
Most design projects will have a relationship to other
design works that could vary from master planning
to detailed design or construction. The consultant
will be required to research all available design data
and existing assets that DA may have. This
research should extend to other departments, and
authorities and should not be limited to the
information received in response to design enquires.
It is the consultant’s responsibility to ensure that all
the required information is obtained and assess the
accuracy of information received. The sketch stage
report should identify the required information
available and report the status of this information
and any further action required, clearly tabulated,
and including a synopsis of all relevant data.
5.2.5 Investigations
The investigations required will have been identified
in the methodology and work plan. Programming of
the investigation may require them to have
commenced prior to the submission of the sketch
stage report. The status along with other basic
information should be reported clearly in tabular
format.
5.2.6 Land Use
Land use is of the utmost importance and is
fundamental information for any scheme as it
governs the end use of the scheme and indicates
area where new facilities can be constructed. The
land use can be obtained from the Lands/Planning
Department and should be reproduced in the report
as per sample drawing, C415/ER002, shown in
Appendix 3.
5.2.7 Design Criteria
The technical aspects of the design criteria to be
adopted on different types of schemes are detailed
in the appropriate sections of this manual. However,
the sketch report should clearly state the design
criteria that are to be used on the project.
5.2.8 Options
At sketch stage design, the requisite design options
need to prepared and presented in sufficient detail
so that the merit and demerits of each option can be
quantified and assessed and estimates for the total
cost of each option prepared.
5.2.9 Recommendation
Based on the merits, demerits and cost estimates
for the individual options, the consultant shall make
a recommendation as to which option is to be
adopted clearly stating how this conclusion is
reached.
5.2.10 Appendices
Appendices can be used as necessary to included
information, such as design calculations, that are too
bulky for in incorporation in the main text, but as a
minimum the following two appendices should be
included:
• Project Brief;
• Relevant Correspondence and Minutes of
Meetings.

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5.2.11 Typical Drawings
As noted above, one of the main objectives of this
manual is to set the level of information required at
each design report stage. In this respect, the
following example drawings have been included in
Appendix 3:
Sewage EIC0543/D3/FS/100
Surface Water EIC0543/D1/PR/SW/100
Sewage Treatment Works C627 004
Process Flow Diagram C627 011
Land Use C415/ ER002
5.3 Preliminary Stage
Report
The requirements for the preliminary stage report
are given in Section 10.3 of the Professional Service
Agreement General Conditions of Engagement
1984
xv
as amended and amplified by the particular
terms of reference for the project. The main
objective of the report is to fix the design. The
finalised scope, depending on the project specifics,
will comprise drawings showing:
• Layout plans;
• Long sections of pipelines;
• Structural drawings;
• Compound layouts;
• Mechanical and electrical installations.
The DA require the following basic structure, which
is to be amplified if required by the project PSA.
5.3.1 Structure/Content of Report
Programme
The programme submitted with sketch stage and
intervening progress reports should be updated and
any revisions to the deliverable schedule included.
Design Enquiry Status
A table should now be complete with all information
received. If it has been the case that some
information has not been forthcoming then the report
should clearly state any assumption made in the
absence of this information.
Available in formation
As with the Design Enquiries, this should be
complete and in the absence of information
assumptions made clearly stated. The preliminary
report is to identify which sources of information
have been used and specific information abstracted.
Investigations
Investigations should have been completed and the
details recorded in tabular format.
Design Criteria
The final design criteria used to determine the
design should be stated and any revisions from
sketch stage highlighted.
Cost Estimates
The cost estimate should be updated to match the
level of design completed.
Appendices
Appendices can be used as necessary to include
information, such as design calculations, that are too
bulky for in incorporation in the main text, but as
minimum, the following four appendices should be
included:
• Project Brief;
• Relevant Correspondence and Minutes of
Meetings;
• Drawings;
• Details of Cost Estimate.
Typical drawings
Sewerage, SW, STW, and TSE drawings as
necessary, in sufficient detail to clearly illustrate the
design options discussed.

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5.4 Detail Design and
Tendering Stage
Detailed design is to be prepared and presented in
the form of tender documentation. This may be for a
single, or for several contracts depending on the
requirements of the PSA. The tender documentation
will be divided in to the following sections:
• Drawings;
• Specification;
• Bill of Quantities.
The tender documents will be prepared in
accordance with section 5.5. On completion, they
will be submitted to the DA for review and
comment/approval. Following approval by the DA,
final approval will be required from the Roads Affairs
and the Lands and Planning Department prior to
submitting for SAB and DLO approval.
A cost estimate, in the form of a priced bill of
quantities is to be submitted with the tender
documentation.
Prior to progressing to tender stage any building
permit required should be completed.
5.5 Documentation
As noted above, the tender documentation will
comprise the following.
5.5.1 Drawings
All drawings are to be prepared in accordance with
Volume 6- CAD Manual, and should fully describe
the works to be constructed.
5.5.2 Specification
The specification will be combined with the
necessary other sections to form the main tender
document, this will, for civil works, comprise a single
volume but where electromechanical works are
required a separate volume containing the
Mechanical and Electrical specification will be
included.
The main tender document will comprise the
following sections:
• Form of Tender;
• Instruction to Tenderers;
• Conditions of Contract;
• Project Specification;
• List of Drawings;
• Bill of Quantities.
Instructions to Tenderers
Instruction to tenderers are to a standard format,
however, the consultant will be required to
incorporate the:
• Project Title, Number and Code;
• Budget Reference and Code.
Conditions of Contract
The Conditions of Contract are to be the General
Conditions of Contract prepared by the Ministry of
Public Works. This will be amended by the Part II
Conditions of Particular Application, which are
standard on all contracts and only require the
incorporation of the:
• Project Title, Number and Code;
• Budget Reference and Code.
The Specimen Form of Contract Agreement is to
included in both English and Arabic and as such be
updated to represent the correct Government
signatories at the time of preparation.
Project Specification
The project specification will comprise the general
specification and project specification, which may
also include a Mechanical and Electrical
Specification depending on the project
requirements.
The general specification is to be the Qatar National
Building Specification or Qatar Construction
Specification as specified by the DA for each
project. Drainage Affairs issue specification
amendments and those issued at the time of
preparation are to be included. Other amendments
to the general specification for items such as the
Engineer’s site accommodation will be incorporated
to suit the project requirements.

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The project specification will contain all the
necessary specification required for the specific
project and are written for each project.
Where a mechanical and electrical specification is
required this should follow the same format as
above. In the case where QNBS is adopted this will
be a full specification as QNBS does not contain a
mechanical and electrical specification.
List of Drawings
The project specification is to contain a complete list
of all the drawings that comprise the contract. This
list shall contain the following information:
• Drawing Number;
• Drawing Title;
• Drawing Revision.
5.5.3 Bill of Quantities
The Bill of Quantities is to be prepared in
accordance with the Civil Engineering Method of
Measurement, 3rd Edition (1991) with additions and
amendments as detailed in the DAs standard
preamble, if applicable.
5.6 Engineering Report
The Engineering Report shall be prepared for the
Works included in the detailed design, details of
options not adopted need not be included. The
report is to contain a summary of the main elements,
which will depend on the particular project, typically:
• design criteria;
• design parameters;
• hydraulic calculations;
• effluent standards;
• average and peak design flows (STW’s);
• general layout plans;
• process flow schematic;
• hydraulic profiles;
• calculations for rising mains with pump
system curves.
A summary of all the reports prepared for the
scheme shall be given.
A separate section of the Engineering Report, if
required, shall deal with the design of
electromechanical equipment. It shall include a
summary of design criteria for all principal
equipment such as pumps, process units, aerators,
compressors, air conditioning, ventilation and odour
control systems, specifying respective electrical
loads and estimated power consumption. The
calculations shall be accompanied by a single line
diagram and complete electrical load chart showing
principal parameters for confirming the capacity of
transformers, power supply, capacity of standby
generators detailing kVA and kW loads.
The Engineering Report is to include the following
aspects, to particular project requirements, and be
prepared in accordance with the format and quality
control procedures detailed in this section.
Plans: Layout of the Works including existing
Works and those which are under construction at a
suitable scale showing general arrangement of
pumping stations, chambers, manholes, structures,
other facilitates, buildings, roads, pipelines and
works inter-faces etc.
Catchment and sub-catchment plans showing the
main drainage routes and major facilities are to be
included at an appropriate scale.
Plan drawings showing general arrangements with
dimensions of pipelines, buildings, structures,
chambers and manholes. The drawings are to
illustrate all M&E equipment with centre lines and
leading dimensions; machinery pipelines, cable
ducts, control panel, valves, penstocks etc.
Sections: Sections of all pipelines and other
hydraulic structures, at appropriate scales. These
are to include chainages, connecting pipelines and
structures, manholes/chambers, invert cover and
ground levels, bedding type, pipeline diameters and
materials, gradient, terrain crossed, major service
crossings and any specialist construction
requirements.
Detailed Drawings: Outline drawings, to
approved scales, of: building, structures pumping
stations, chambers, manholes, roads, pipelines and
including M&E equipment showing the principal

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components, pipework, fuel tanks etc. The limit and
extent of the Works undertaken under the Project
shall be clearly identified together with existing and
other proposed works.
Hydraulic Model Studies: Description and
illustration of the hydraulic model study for relevant
catchment and sub-catchment areas. The study is to
cover current and fully developed catchment
conditions. The report is to show hydraulic profiles
for peak flow along all pipelines, hydraulic
structures, chambers, pumping stations, together
with clear illustrations and listings of all input data.
M&E Equipment: Schedule of all items of M&E
equipment and instrumentation control and
automation (ICA). Where the new equipment is
incorporated with existing equipment, details shall
also show existing machinery and apparatus. A
basic P&I diagram indicating the method of control
and layout of the proposed instrumentation. The
diagram shall incorporate existing equipment where
necessary to illustrate the complete system.
Hydraulic Calculations: Complete manual
hydraulic calculations shall be provided where not
provided by computer model or spreadsheet.
Structural Design: Structural calculations shall
be prepared for the structural elements of the
scheme.
Geotechnical Information: A summary of
geotechnical information and key parameters used
in the design of the Works together with a drawing
showing the location of relevant boreholes and test
pits.
Health and Safety: The Report shall contain a
summary of health and safety measures adopted to
meet fundamental safety requirements with respect
to construction, refurbishment, operation and
maintenance of those sections of the Works which
are covered under this PSA.
Environmental Impact Statement: The report
shall contain an EIS if requested by in the PSA
(refer to Section 3.7).
5.7 Supplementary Reports
Supplementary Reports will be required by the
specific project brief and will cover such items as
specialist investigations. These are to be prepared
and submitted in accordance the quality control and
format requirement details in this section.

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6 Checking Systems
6.1 Project Quality Plan
The objective of the Project Quality Plan is to
demonstrate that the consultant has a full
understanding of the project and Drainage Affairs‘s
requirements and should as a minimum comprise
the following sections:
• Project Description;
• Work Plan;
• Schedule of Deliverables;
• Investigations and Sub-Contracts;
• Quality Requirements;
• Meetings;
• References and Sources of Information;
• Team Structure;
• Programme.
The Quality Plan is to be submitted within two weeks
of the commencement of the project unless
otherwise specified in the project brief.
Project Description: The Project Description is to
define the scope of the works as defined in the PSA.
It is to expand on the brief to fully define the
project’s requirements and DA’s aspirations.
Work Plan: In this section the consultant is to
describe how the project will be carried out. The
design approach, i.e. the individual design elements,
are to be stated and the method by which these will
be undertaken. The design philosophy, i.e. how the
consultant will utilise his resources to complete the
work, is to be described with particular reference to
internal and external communications.
A methodology is to be included stating the
requirements at different design stages, the
information required form external sources, and the
process by which the major design parameters will
be derived.
Schedule of Deliverables: A schedule listing all the
project deliverables and delivery dates is to be
included.
Investigations and Sub-Contracts: Where
specialist investigation and sub-contract works are
to be carried out, these shall be listed with the name
and full details of the proposed specialists included
for DA approval.
Quality Requirements: The minimum requirements
are stated in Section 5. The purpose of this part is
for the consultant to demonstrate how he will
meaningfully fulfil these requirements, with
reference to his own company quality control
procedures. The names of authors, approvers and
checkers must be clearly stated.
Meetings: Progress meetings are to be held and
should be held to coincide with the monthly progress
reports. Other meetings will be required on subjects
such as:
• Project start-up (Kick off);
• Co-ordination with DA Divisions;
• Co-ordination with other consultants;
• Co-ordination with other Departments;
• Design stage reviews.
This will vary depending on the project
requirements, but all meetings should be identified
and listed in the Project Quality Plan along with
provision dates to suit the design programme.
References and Sources of Information: Section
5 describes the sources of information and
references. The sources of required information
should be identified and listed in the Project Quality
Plan.
Team Structure: Organograms showing the team
structure of the DA and consultant’s staff are to be
included, along with contact details as appropriate.
The consultant is to include a curriculum vitae, and
any other relevant documentation, for all his
proposed staff for DA approval.
Programme: A programme, in an approved format,
using appropriate software such MS Project or
Primavera is to be included. This should show all the
main design stages and activities in sufficient
details. to allow approval by DA. The programme
should be in a format that will allow progress to be
monitored and up-dates to be issued as required.

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6.2 Stage Approvals
Approval of the DA will be required for the main
design stages namely:
• Sketch Stage;
• Preliminary;
• Detailed/Tender;
• Engineering Report.
Although the project PSA may vary or be expanded
on, the above the implications of approval of the
report will be as follows.
Sketch Stage: The recommended option has been
accepted and can be progressed to preliminary
design.
Preliminary: The design and scope of work is fixed
and detailed design and tender documents can be
produced.
Detailed/Tender: Tender documentation is finalised
and necessary copies of documents can be
produced for tendering purposes.
Engineering Report: The engineering and design
elements are finished and the project is effectively
complete. The only remaining obligations will relate
to the tendering process and may included items
such production of tender documents, tender review
and production of contract documentation.
6.3 References and
Information updating
During the course of the project the consultant will,
from various sources, obtain much information. The
sources of this, details of information received, and
details utilised will be included in the various design
stage reports as described in Section 5. It is not
generally desirable or practicable to include copies
of the actual information in the reports. However, the
consultant is to maintain a register of all information
received and store this information in such a way
that in can be easily retrieved for the duration of the
project. The DA may request an inspection of the
register and storage arrangements at any time
during the course of the project and this is to be
accommodated by the consultant.
6.4 Progress Reporting
The consultant is to submit a Monthly Report to an
approved format and this should contain the
following:
Project Details
• Project Title;
• Project Code;
• Consultant Name and Contact Details;
• Report Title;
• Month Reported on;
• Report Issue Number;
• Prepared By;
• Approved By;
• Project Co-ordinator;
• Consultant Key Staff;
• Start Date;
• Completion Date;
• Addends issued.
Introduction
• Brief statement of the scope of the project.
Progress Summary
• List of report issued;
• Main objectives received;
• Status of on-going works.
Detailed Progress
• Details of work undertaken in the month;
• Details of information received.
Outstanding Information
• Details of information that is still required.
Key Issues
• Main item of progress;
• Any items of importance.

Programme and Planned Process

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• Status report of actual progress compared
with original programme;
• The project programme is to be updated and
submitted in tracking format.
Schedule of Meetings Held and Site Visits
Undertaken
Schedule of Submission
• Programmed dates;
• Actual dates;
• Data Collection;
• Status report of data collection;
• Staffing;
• Details of consultant’s staff who worked on
the project.
Variations
• List of finalised variations;
• List of variations being processed;
• List of variations notified by consultant.
Delays
• List of accepted delays;
• List of delays notified by the consultant.
Addenda
• List of finalised addenda;
• List of addenda being processed.
Finance
• List of invoices submitted and payment
status.
Health and Safety
• Description of any health and safety issues
applicable to the project.

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7 Operation and
Maintenance
7.1 Normal Operations
7.1.1 Operational Objectives and
Priorities
The overall objective of the Department shall be the
provision, within budget, of timely, efficient and
effective operational and maintenance services,
including scheduled preventative maintenance and
unscheduled corrective activities. This overall
objective seeks to:
• Maximise the overall performance of all
infrastructure;
• Increase performance levels by the use of
improved technologies and methods;
• Perform services to the best industrial
practices in terms of delivery, efficiency,
workmanship, housekeeping, planning and
control;
• Cater for expansion of the wastewater
collection, treatment and disposal systems
to meet future demands and deliver its
required levels and quality of service;
• Monitor and control operations and
maintenance expenditure within agreed
financial targets;
• Provide the continuity of the services with
minimal disruption to the flows and pumping
requirements;
• Guidelines for Setting up the Operating
Procedures.
The operating procedures shall address the
following particular requirements:
• Operations shall be structured using a split
system, i.e. 24 hrs;
• Ensure that no activity causes hindrance to
the execution of any works and fully
cooperate with the concerned parties;
• Operate/adjust pumping station reservoirs,
networks and or treatment works to
accommodate varying demand requirements
depending on the weather, maintenance
programme, upstream/downstream flow
conditions, etc.;
• Confine all operations, maintenance and site
establishment facilities to within the site
boundaries;
• Safeguard all structures in the vicinity of the
site;
• Ascertain from the public utility authorities,
positions of all existing underground
services and maintain, protect or divert them
as required;
• Establish procedures for procurement and
installation of all spare parts, consumables
etc.;
• Establish and maintain a central
computerised stores management system;
establish minimum stock holding; replenish
stock in a timely manner; and as and when
necessary, man stores to suit operational
requirements;
• Ensure all personnel are fully familiarised
with the requirements of the services to be
provided and the various site layouts, plant
assets, site safety regulations, statutory
requirements and Department procedures;
• Implement a community relations
programme to prevent abnormal and
improper use of assets;
• Emergency response service;
• Develop ongoing planned
repair/refurbishment work;
• Establish proactive planned inspection,
operations and maintenance, and cleaning
routines;
• Undertake reactive and non-routine
maintenance;
• Provide appropriate qualified personnel to
plan, direct and supervise all activities.

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7.1.2 Management and Control of
Operations
A co-ordinated and planned operations policy shall
be adopted with the aim of providing a cost effective
service whilst providing ongoing security of service
and assurance as to the operation of the asset.
Base operation management on sound planning,
good communications and good working
relationships between all parties concerned.
Optimise the operation of the system with the help of
accurate operational records and management
science.
Consider personnel safety in all operations.
Organise the different levels of operation procedures
into the following:
• Routine operation procedures which are
normally carried out without shutting down of
plant. These include operational data
gathering, plant condition monitoring,
pump/equipment status, cleaning etc.;
• Routine operational procedures requiring
shutting down of plant for not more than
two hours continuously and where a standby
facility is available;
• Major maintenance/inspection and overhaul
procedures which require shutdown of the
plant for more than two hours irrespective of
availability of standby plant;
• Routine maintenance procedures requiring
shutting down of plant for not more than two
hours continuously and where a standby
facility is available;
• Emergency procedures which require
immediate action.
Apply all Health and Safety requirements and in
particular for confined spaces, traffic management,
use and storage of chemicals and such substances,
workshop and offices.
Optimisation of Pumping Station Operation to
maximise the life of ‘whole system’ assets and
minimise station and network maintenance. The key
to optimising operational activities of assets is an
effective schedule and dispatch system backed up
by good logistics management. Ongoing analysis of
the database generated through Computerised
Maintenance Management System (CMMS) linked
to the assets will enable improvements and fine
tuning of the operational activities, maximising asset
life, minimising costs of delivery and ensuring
activities are effective.
Regulation of flows using Pumping Stations,
Valves, Penstocks, Temporary Stoppers, etc. to
Accommodate Work on the System: Operation
and maintenance of assets, e.g. networks, pumping
stations and treatment works, are closely interlinked
and have a close working relationship. Interface and
co-ordination with other authorities, contractors, etc.
is essential if the total service delivery of the system
is to be maintained.
Adjust normal method of working/operational
practices/maintenance programme to accommodate
changes in up/downstream flow conditions resulting
from work by others.
Surveillance of Networks to Ensure Appropriate
Use and/or Stop Misuse: Any environment in
which explosive or poisonous gases are present,
presents a potential safety hazard. Therefore,
permission from the Department and other
authorities shall be sought for works falling under
the following categories:
• Dewatering discharge;
• Entering into confined space, e.g. manholes,
chambers, pump station wet-wells, etc.;
• Discharge of waste, e.g. hazardous or toxic
material, oil, collected sediments, fat/grease,
rags, etc.;
• Monitoring salinity;
• Illicit and/or cross-connections.
The Department shall monitor the assets through
various sources in order to ensure their proper use.
Co-ordination of Work on the System by Others
(Connections, Rehabilitation, Diversion, etc.):
Co-ordination of work with others is essential to
effectively manage the ongoing operations of the
network.
Ensure that no activity causes hindrance to the
execution of any work on the system. Adjust normal

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method of working/operational practice/maintenance
programmes to accommodate changes in
up/downstream flow conditions resulting from work
by others or as required.
7.1.3 Operating Procedures,
Schedules and Organisation
Operating procedures shall be in accordance with
the following:
• Equipment manufacturer’s
recommendations;
• Operating requirements;
• Industry standards.
Operating procedures shall be written in accordance
with relevant ‘best practice standards’ to achieve
best possible quality. These will concern facilities,
quality of service, staff and their organisation.
Operating procedures shall be followed by all staff.
Operating procedures shall be reviewed and audited
systematically and regularly to ensure that they are
practical, safe and meet the intent for which they are
designed.
Operating schedules shall:
• Generate work order schedules based on
resource levelling techniques;
• Graphically analyse and manipulate
availability of resources;
• Set down-time requirements for machinery
required to be off-line prior to work being
performed;
• Optimise asset life through what-if analysis;
• Store new schedule dates for comparison
with the original target dates;
• Forecast future preventive maintenance
dates for resource planning.
The operation of the Department’s assets will be
organised into manageable; efficient areas of
responsibility and service centres for call-outs,
inspections, cleaning and repairs.
7.1.4 Cost Control and
Operational Efficiency
Achieve the following:
• Optimum control of resources;
• Best cost management and auditability;
• Ability to schedule complex, fast-moving
work loads;
• Optimum performance of the assets;
• Planned maintenance on programme;
• Response to emergencies and complaints
within agreed response time.
The key to optimising operational activities is an
effective schedule and dispatch system backed up
with good logistics management in delivering
essential services to the people.
Ongoing analysis of the database generated through
CMMS linked to the assets will enable
improvements and fine tuning of the
operational activities, minimising costs of delivery
and ensuring activities are effective. Analysis of
trends in salinity, odour issues, collapses, and
blockages against asset class, operating context,
location and history will allow problems to be
identified and addressed effectively. Analysing the
performance of assets will enable understanding of
assets performance and determine the most
appropriate operational and maintenance strategies.
7.2 Routine (Scheduled)
Maintenance
A routine (scheduled) programme shall be
implemented over a period of time to improve the
utilisation of the assets, reduce down-time due to
failure and therefore corrective maintenance costs.
The approach to maintenance of assets should be
based on the following philosophy:
• Retain the functionality of the assets in
accordance with the performance
requirements of the Department;
• Minimise the impact on public health;

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• Customer and environmental consequences
of asset failure are avoided or minimised;
• Maintenance programmes take account of
all aspects of business effectiveness, risk,
safety, environmental integrity, energy
efficiency, product quality asset life
expectancy and customer service;
• Maintenance strategies are based on a
proper understanding of the life performance
of the assets in their operating context, and
maintenance tasks reflect both technical
feasibility and cost effectiveness;
• Condition-based maintenance tasks will be
preferred and will be based on the ‘lead time
to failure’, not availability or reliability;
• Ensure that protective devices are effectively
maintained, thus limiting the probability of
multiple failures at acceptable levels;
• Ensure an appropriate balance between
maintenance and capital solutions, i.e. cost
effectiveness, asset capability vs. current
and future required demand.
Maintenance programmes based on the above
principles will ensure that lowest ‘whole of life’ costs
will be achieved in delivering the required asset
performance. Maintenance programmes may be
controlled through CMMS that generate work orders
on a regular basis (i.e. daily, weekly, etc). This
system allows the control of corrective maintenance
and stock management, and produces reports.
7.2.1 Definition of Scheduled
Maintenance
Scheduled maintenance shall include: periodic
lubrication, inspection and testing, based on the
recommendations of the equipment manufacturer. It
shall also take account of any specific legal
requirements relating to particular work equipment,
e.g. inspection and testing of lifting gear.
A Scheduled Maintenance programme shall consist
of the following aspects:
• Routine Maintenance;
• Routine Inspections;
• Monthly Inspections;
• Annual Inspections.
7.2.2 Classification of Routine
Maintenance Tasks
Routine maintenance tasks will be divided up on the
basis of frequency and will bear the effective
operational date during the year. There will be for
example routine daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly,
six-monthly, annual and two-year operations etc.
Particular attention will be paid in planning
procedures to avoid an excessive concentration of
programmed works on the same day. The following
are some typical examples of routine maintenance:
• Extensive manual rodding programmes;
• Routine maintenance using mechanical
rodding equipment e.g. combi-jet rodding,
mechanically driven cutters, screen
cleaning, bucket machines;
• Manhole/chamber inspection and renovation
programmes;
• Manhole/chamber location, raising and
lowering;
• Construction of manholes, discharge
manholes and overflow structures;
• Treatment of odour with absorbent chemical
products;
• Blockage removal;
• Pressure main inspection and repair;
• Sewer excavation and repair;
• Joint sealing programmes (patches, sleeves,
etc.);
• Chemical grouting programmes;
• Inspections with CCTV, probes and flexible
probes;
• Man-entry inspection programmes;
• Routine maintenance for valves, probes and
flowmeters (lubrication, painting, electric
wiring inspection, etc.);
• Ordinary maintenance of control, indicators
and measurement instrumentation;
• Electrical and Mechanical test procedures;

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• Mandatory/statutory testing of equipment;
• Maintenance of traffic management
equipment;
• Maintenance of safety equipment; gas
monitors, man-lifts, harnesses, etc.
Safe working methods, e.g. working in confined
spaces; isolation, tests and restoration on high
voltage equipment; isolation, working and re-starting
of rotating & electrical equipment; winching;
jetting/de-silting of sewers; major/minor pipe repairs,
and working in public highways.
Cleaning of pipes, tanks, sumps: Cleaning
services are defined as the removal from the
networks, tanks, sumps, etc. of: obstructions,
deposits and debris. Cleaning services can be low
or high velocity jetting, flushing, winching, cutting
and rodding.
Preventive/Reactive maintenance of assets;
pumps, motors, starters, manholes, valves, air-
conditioning units, buildings, civil structures
and etc: A well planned and executed
preventive/reactive maintenance programme is
absolutely necessary in order for pumps,
motors, starters, valves, air conditioning and civil
structures to operate efficiently. Attention to
maintenance is particularly important in preventing
the accelerated corrosion and wear resulting from
the severe conditions imposed by acidity, gases and
dampness.
Establishment of and a firm commitment to a strong
scheduled maintenance programme are critical to
reduce equipment downtime and extended
equipment life.
Maintenance of pump sets, MCCs, ACs, etc.: A
continuing preventive maintenance programme can
maximise the performance, minimise life cycle
operating costs, and extend the life of assets such
as pumps, MCCs, ACs, etc. by several years.
Keeping an accurate record of the performed
maintenance will also help in the diagnosis of
failures when they do occur.
7.2.3 Method Statements on Each
Activity and Sub-Activity
All major activities carried out on-site shall be
preceded by the creation of a method statement.
Typical examples of method statements are detailed
below:
• Safety/risk assessments;
• Isolations required;
• Work procedure;
• Permits required;
• Emergency procedure;
• Personnel required;
• Tools required.
The Department shall require that any organisation
undertaking to perform work on assets under its
jurisdiction shall submit appropriate method
statements for implementing the proposed work.
7.2.4 Organisation and Control of
Scheduled Maintenance
Efficient maintenance schedules for any asset
require that inspection precede maintenance
activities. There are many drivers of asset
performance, and predicting asset condition and
therefore maintenance requirements are very
unreliable.
By identifying key points that can provide
representative statements on the asset condition,
planned maintenance activities can either proceed
or be deferred. The programme cycles are
correspondingly adjusted to reflect the new
information. If maintenance activities show the rate
of deterioration of the assets to be greater than
predicted, the inspection cycle is shortened to suit.
In some instances, inspections are required to
simply provide ongoing monitoring of the rate of
deterioration of assets, to enable planning of capital
expenditure in major renovation programmes. It is
essential to schedule asset inspections to identify
problems or issues, assess rates of deterioration
and to calibrate planned maintenance activities.
These inspections will be scheduled through
Computerised Maintenance Management System

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(CMMS) and dispatched to the inspection team to
action.
7.2.5 Inspection, Quality Control
and Follow-Up
The inspection programme will be based on the best
asset data available:
• Existing documents and drawings;
• Asset details;
• Existing asset condition data;
• Asset historical data;
• Local knowledge of existing employees;
• Most appropriate asset evaluation
methodology;
• Evaluation rate for the specific asset.
During routine maintenance and inspection,
maintenance personnel will note the condition of
various assets and identify areas that need repair.
Potential problems documented and repair work
prioritised, depending on the nature and severity of
the problem:
• Immediate repair, e.g. pump station failure,
sewer line rupture, sewer line blockage.
These repairs may be temporary until
scheduled or capital improvements can be
completed;
• Scheduled repair, e.g. lubricating pump
motors, sealing cracks, flushing sewer lines,
repairing manholes, etc.;
• Capital improvements, e.g. rehabilitating
sewer lines, constructing or replacing new
pump stations, installing new sewer lines,
etc.
Quality controls will be done by maintenance
personnel through inspecting installations to check
for any breakdowns, defects, or other elements
interfering with asset operations. In any case these
controls make it possible to notify any critical
situation to the management for further action.
The work of the operators assigned to the asset
maintenance/installations will be checked by these
inspections as well as service quality in general,
particularly related to the following:
• Reliability of collected data;
• Condition of works and equipment;
• Compliance to instructions and manual
procedures;
• Accuracy of measures taken;
• Service management efficiency;
• Presence of abnormal conditions.
The department shall ensure that all work complies
with the requirements of the relevant QC/QA
standards, as a minimum. Internal audits shall be
performed to verify that QC/QA procedures are
adhered to.
A review and follow-up system will also address the
problems and failures with assets, e.g. why a failure
occurred, and to ensure that there is no repeat. Any
failure discovered through the exercises shall be
managed through the QA corrective action system.
Implementation of actions shall be followed up by
means of continuous monitoring, planned reporting
back on actions or direct follow-up. The result of the
follow-up shall be documented.
7.2.6 Maintenance and Inspection
of Safety/Rescue Equipment
The condition of the safety and rescue equipment
shall be monitored during routine site visits by
operations staff. When a safety/rescue item is
issued from the stores it will be accompanied by
instructions for its use, storage and maintenance.
Inspection and operational checks must be carried
out before and after each use:
• Seek advice from the manufacturer if in
doubt or if any faults or defects are found
with a unit;
• Inspect for: loose bolts, bent or damaged
parts, signs of corrosion and ensure fully
legible labels and instructions are present;
• Examine the housing for wear, cuts,
damage, distortion, fractures or other
damage;

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• Gas detectors to be calibrated by qualified
personnel, as required;
• Operate the mechanism and confirm the
device activates correctly;
• Remove from service and return to
authorised dealer for service;
• Document the inspection in the inspection
log.
7.3 Non-Scheduled (Non-
Routine) Maintenance
Non-scheduled maintenance is a result of a defect
developing and/or being identified between
scheduled maintenance. Non-scheduled
maintenance will:
• Provide immediate attention to the problem;
• Stabilise the situation and either provide
temporary repair or provide full correction of
the defect.
7.3.1 Definition of Non-Scheduled
Maintenance
Non-scheduled maintenance activities are defined
as any activity, which is required to sustain the
proper and continued operation of any system, but
are not at the time included in the Computerised
Maintenance Management System (CMMS).
7.3.2 Classification of Non-
Scheduled Maintenance
Tasks
The Department shall identify and classify all non-
scheduled maintenance activities and where
applicable include them in the Computerised
Maintenance Management System (CMMS). Non-
scheduled maintenance tasks can be divided up on
the basis of priority.

7.3.3 Identifying the Need for Non-
Scheduled Maintenance
During routine maintenance and inspection, crews
may identify potential problems. These should be
documented and reported to the management for
prioritisation and co-ordination of repair work. There
are three general priorities that may be used:
• Immediate repair – urgent problem that may
cause an immediate overflow, e.g. pump
station failures, sewer line collapse,
blockages, etc.;
• Scheduled repair – problems that do not
require immediate action, e.g. sealing
cracks, repairing manholes, lubricating
pump motors and flushing sewer lines;
• Capital improvement - for large projects or
replacement project, e.g. rehabilitating
sewer lines, constructing or replacing a new
pump station.
7.3.4 Management of Non-
Scheduled Maintenance
Non-scheduled (reactive) maintenance is geared to
assessing and resolving system component
breakdowns as quickly and as efficiently as
possible. Examples of such problems are as follows:
• Blockages in sewers due to encrustations;
• Blockages in sewers due to root in-growths;
• Blocked storm drains;
• Wastewater overflows;
• Bursts on sewage pumping mains;
• Leaks and bursts on irrigation mains.
Procedures should be put in place so that staff can
react to the failure of major items, or have clear
ideas on contingency actions. Priorities can be
made as follows:
• Quick assessment of problem – can it be
resolved?
• Safeguard process – deduce any impact on
environment and community;
• Detailed inspection – formulate plan of
action;
• Mobilise resources – personnel and
materials;
• Fix problem;

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• Report on problem and ways to prevent
recurrence in future.
7.3.5 Control of Costs and Quality
The Department shall have in place management
and accounting systems that would allow it to set
budgets for the works, manage the costs and
measure actual performance against budget for cost
categories such as labour, spares, consumables,
fuel, recruitment costs, capital items, chlorine, and
repairs.
7.3.6 Inspection and Follow-Up
Maintenance personnel shall inspect installations to
check for any breakdowns, defects or other
elements interfering with asset operations. In any
case, these controls make it possible to notify any
critical situation to the management for further
action.
The follow-up system shall address the problems
and failures with assets, e.g. why a failure occurred,
and to ensure that there is no repeat. Any failure
discovered through the exercises shall be managed
through the QA corrective action system.
Implementation of actions shall be followed up by
means of continuous monitoring, planned reporting
back on actions, or direct follow-up. The result of the
follow-up shall be documented.
7.4 Emergency Procedures
This guidance document provides advice on
emergency response planning. It aims to help
operators consider the appropriate level of detail for
a specific site, taking into account the risks and the
site layout.
Emergency procedures will define the scope of
activities covered, staff responsibilities, and
procedures for dealing with a variety of events. The
level of response will depend on health and safety
issues, staff training, the level of Personal Protective
Equipment (PPE) available, the nature of the
problem, and types of control equipment available
on the site. The appropriate level of response will,
therefore be site specific. It is important to consider
what could happen in the worst case and to take this
into account in developing the procedure. A check
list of actions may be a useful addition.
A well prepared plan should give competent
operatives adequate information to initiate
appropriate remedial action. This will eliminate
having to wait for decisions to be made by others
and reduce the overall response times required to
contain the incident.
A well-prepared plan will also include availability of
resources, internally and externally.
7.4.1 Definition and Classification
of Emergencies
An incident can be defined according to the alarm
levels that trigger an emergency response:
Level 1 – incidents arising on a daily basis, e.g. a
blockage or surcharge imminent or occurring. After
intervention and action by the operator, the situation
returns to normal with no resultant effect on the
system. This type of emergency does not require
other organisations to be notified immediately.
However, a procedure will exist to record the
incident in order to allow recognition that these
problems can exist.
Level 2 – incidents limited to a well defined area
that completely halt the operation of that area, e.g. a
pipeline collapse. Level 2 incidents concern well
defined zones of the system and during these
incidents the affected zone is non-operational.
Irrespective of the severity of the situation, the
operator in charge of the problem will provide an
account as soon as possible to the management.
Following internal communications, the
management will implement the necessary
safeguards. These may involve:
• co-ordinating the actions with the operator;
• contacting emergency works services;
• informing the relevant authorities.
For incidents of this level, the management takes
complete control of the problem.
Level 3 – incidents (or associated incidents) that
completely stop the works, and require some co-
ordination with external organisations, e.g. industrial

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pollution in a network, or a fire. Level 3 incidents
adopt the same concept as emergency level 2. As a
priority, the management will consider actions to
solve the problem and will identify as quickly as
possible the most probable delay in the restitution of
works. During this type of crises, the role of the
management is essential, in that, all resources,
personnel, emergency works services and relevant
authorities must be assigned to control the crisis in
the best possible way.
Each of these three levels is defined using three
criteria:
• zone of influence;
• seriousness;
• management of the emergency.
7.4.2 Establishment of Emergency
Response Plans/Procedures
An effective Emergency Response Plan (ERP) shall
be an essential element of the Department’s
strategy for dealing with operational emergencies.
Included in this should be a system for
avoiding, or at worst, minimising pollution during
emergencies.
An ERP should enable operators to respond to
incidents in a timely and cost effective manner. In
this respect procedures should:
• Be comprehensive, yet short and easy to
read;
• Be simple, with a minimum of bureaucracy.
ERPs need to take account of the department’s
operational arrangements and will vary from one
organisation to another. However, an ERP should in
general address the following issues:
• Communication strategy that identifies, for
each level of failure, the communication that
is to occur. These could include
communication with the emergency
services, local authorities, other
organisations concerned, customers,
internal department communications, and
the media;
• Management systems, including systems
that give an early warning of problems,
pollution management, alerting staff on site
and clean-up procedures and follow-up
reviews;
• Information, including contingency plans and
access to reliable and appropriate
information/databases and resources, etc.;
• The above elements are all worthless unless
the people concerned know how to use
them. Any site ERP will depend for its
effectiveness on staff training. All staff and
contractors working on site should be made
aware of the plan and should know their role
if an incident occurs. Exercises should be
carried out periodically to familiarise staff
with the operation of the plan and to test its
effectiveness. Records of staff training
should be maintained;
• Review and follow-up systems of ERP, e.g.
to determine why a failure occurred, and
how to ensure that there is no repeat
incident. Any failure discovered through the
exercises should be managed through the
QA corrective action system. In order for the
plan to remain effective, it is vital that it is
regularly reviewed and that any significant
changes are reflected in a revised plan.
Ensure that revised copies are sent to all
plan holders and that old versions are
destroyed.
Finally, the document must be retained by all
personnel, in a simplified version that defines their
personal responsibility. All personnel must be
retained in the system, and the communication
strategy must be part of exercising the ERP.
‘Client’ Procedures: It is important in any
emergency to respond quickly to correct the
situation, learn from the experience and restore
confidence. An ERP will ensure positive action is
taken and the duration of the problem is minimised.
Important factors are co-ordination and teamwork,
and all Department staff must familiarise themselves
with the Plan so that they fully recognise their own
roles within a team when dealing with any incident.
Management of Specific Types of Incidents on
the Whole System: An incident is defined as an
unexpected, unplanned and undesired event that
results in physical harm (injury or disease): i) to
individual; ii) damage to property; iii) near miss; and

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iv) any combination of these effects. The
management of the incident must follow a procedure
that is agreed between all parties, taking into
consideration the local law.
An effective incident management procedure should
be an essential element of the Department’s
strategy for dealing with operational emergencies.
Included in this should be systems for avoiding, or at
worst, minimising pollution during emergencies.
The type of emergency reported will vary from
incidents such as a blockage and flooding, to less
defined problems such as a depression in the road.
Such reports may be from customers, contractors,
from highway authorities, or others.
In case of a fatal or major accident, notification shall
be forwarded to the Department Representative.
Site/Location Specific Procedures: Irrespective of
the site and/or location of an incident, all emergency
enquiries and demands should be reacted to
promptly and appropriately. Notice of the incident
will come from one of the following sources:
• Customer/public complaint;
• Operations notification;
• Department notice (pumping station or
treatment works breakdown).
A well-prepared ERP will define the organisation,
the methods of intervention and the courses of
action in the case of incident or accident, with least
possible delay, following any unforeseen damage or
safety problem. Actions taken within the framework
of the ERP would intend to:
• Make the installations safe and limit the
consequences of an accident;
• Guarantee that the emergency services and
responsible authorities are alerted.
Interaction With Other Authorities: The ERP shall
include details of the organisations capable of
assisting in the various areas and their ability to be
brought together outside normal working hours.
Interaction and co-ordination with other authorities,
consultants and contractors is essential to effectively
manage an emergency, also with:
• Emergency Services;
• Emergency Response Teams;
• Other Service Providers;
• Armed Services, where necessary;
• The Media.
7.4.3 Emergency Plant and
Equipment
Provision of specialist plant and equipment in an
emergency situation in a public utilities environment.
These shall include, but not limited to, the following:
• Lifting and salvage equipment ;
• Surface supplied air equipment;
• Rescue and diving equipment;
• Swiftwater rescue equipment;
• Flotation gear;
• Full face masks;
• Rope rescue equipment;
• Ventilation equipment;
• Sealed retracting lifeline with retrieval;
• Tripods / winches/ life-lines / gas detectors /
communications equipment / etc.
7.4.4 Public Health and
Environmental
Considerations
Most industrial and commercial sites have the
potential to cause significant environmental harm
and to threaten water supplies and public health.
ERP guidance notes will, if followed, reduce the risk
of an incident occurring and often minimise
expenditure. However, there will always be a
residual risk of a spillage or a fire that could cause
serious environmental problems. In addition to these
obvious threats posed by spillage of sewage,
chemicals and oils, even materials which are non-
hazardous to humans, such as foods and
beverages, can cause serious environmental harm.
The run-off generated in the event of a fire can also
be very damaging.
The health and environmental impact of such an
incident may be long term and, in the case of ground

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water, may persist for decades or even longer. As a
result, the legal consequences and clean-up
operation can be costly. Sewers, culverts, drains,
water distribution systems and service ducts all
present routes for pollutants to travel off-site. As a
result, the effects of a discharge may not be evident
on site but may become apparent some distance
away.
In most cases, an incident of this kind need not
result in serious environmental damage, providing
appropriate pollution prevention measures are in
place or immediately available.
7.4.5 Safety Considerations
In order to effectively manage sites from a safety
perspective, the Department shall ensure all its
contractors shall have site specific training manuals.
Typical examples are:
• Permit to work system;
• Permit to work on HV equipment;
• Risk assessments;
• Safe confined space entry procedures;
• Sludge digestion tanks;
• Safe hand tool procedures.
Wastewater collection, treatment and disposal
systems contain numerous hazards and can be
highly dangerous environments in which to carry out
any task, from a simple inspection, to physical
maintenance works.
All personnel involved in carrying out, planning or
supervising assets/plant operations work should
receive training (general and specialised), to
increase awareness of hazards associated with their
work, so that they are able to recognise potential
dangers and their effects.
The Department will meet all its statutory safety
duties and aspire to those standards generally
recognised as being best or approved practice in
order to ensure, so far as reasonably practicable,
the health, safety and welfare of the public,
employees, contractors and others affected by its
operations.
7.4.6 Feedback and Optimising
Emergency Response
It is in the interest of the Department to provide an
efficient response to problems in order to avoid
incidents that have the potential to result in pollution
and when an incident occurs, to minimise any
resulting pollution. Serious failures can cause
disruption, health risks, a loss of service, a poor
image to customers and unnecessary expenses.
7.4.7 First Aid Arrangements and
Emergency Procedures
In an emergency situation, the experienced person
or team member renders First Aid, assesses the
situation, and then summons assistance. Clearly
state the position, problem, people involved and
emergency service required. As soon as practicable,
advise the appropriate safety office and local
depot/team of the occurrence.
In rendering 1st Aid the following points should be
remembered:
• In all emergency situations, the rescuer
must:
1) Assess the situation quickly;
2) Ensure the safety for the rescuer,
victim and bystanders;
3) Commence appropriate treatment
4) Where there is more than one victim,
the care of an unconscious victim
has priority.
• The rescuer should not be distracted by
victims who are calling out; their needs are
less urgent as they are able to breathe.
Note: If an emergency situation arises, the
safety of the workers, in a manhole or wet
well, is the highest priority regardless of the
task being performed or equipment being
used.
7.5 Spare Parts and
Equipment
Purchasing and stock control play an important part
in effective project management and co-ordination.

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All efforts are wasted if necessary supplies are
unavailable. Therefore, good logistics management
of stores spares and procurement requires a holistic
approach.
The most efficient approach requires analysis of the
supply chain to ensure ‘value added’ is maximised
at each step. It is not necessary to hold large
numbers of spares, however, it is important
to decide what spares are required. Value is through
skilled personnel applying sound maintenance
practices to ensure existing equipment function
correctly.
The following list will help to identify which spare
parts are already held and which extra items may
need to be ordered and kept available in the store:
• Routine consumables;
• Specialist items;
• Spare parts for routine equipment needing
regular and frequent maintenance.
Needs should be discussed with O&M staff
members who know exactly what is required. Clear
explanations must be given regarding what they
hope to achieve through good stock control practice.
When supply needs are decided, the information
can be collated and a stock control policy devised.
7.5.1 Targets and Objectives
Better access to communication and accurate
information leads to improvements in maintenance
planning, equipment scheduling and reduced
inventory costs. The following objectives should be
aimed for:
• Increase readiness in order that operators
may access faults more quickly;
• Improve safety and compliance; automated
forms and checklists;
• Improve asset utilisation; time, materials and
spare part usage is collected at point-of-
work and automatically updated on back-end
systems. This eliminates rework, allows for
more efficient spare parts scheduling, and
enables management to track and allocate
resources more effectively;
• Reduce inventory costs; as parts are issued
out to work sites, real-time updates to
inventory allow for accurate replenishment
and turn around, minimising costly on-hand
inventory.
7.5.2 Spare Parts Availability
The O&M teams and the related workshops and
stores will indicate the minimum stock levels
required for each item based on the quantities
required for maintaining a service. This figure is
entered on the stock card. It needs to be taken into
consideration whether an item is a local or overseas
purchase. Orders need to be placed well in advance
of the minimum stock level being reached. Forward
planning is important.
7.5.3 Storage Facilities
Storage conditions are a vitally important
consideration in hot, humid climates. As such, air-
conditioning may be necessary. Storage areas are
to be designated to prevent damage or deterioration
of spare parts and equipment, in accordance with
the manufacturers’ storage instructions.
Personnel are to make sure that spare parts and
equipment are labelled/marked in such a manner so
as to enable easy identification and location.
Frequently used parts are best kept in a central
place within the stores where staff who are familiar
with them and understand their functions can quickly
access and order them as stock levels demand.
Specialist equipment and expensive materials
should be stored in a designated area.
Displayed lists and colour-coding of shelves will
provide easier access.
Maintain the relevant documentation for
identification and location of spare parts prior to use
or delivery.
7.5.4 Inventory Control and Stock
Management Procedures
A Computerised Maintenance Management
System (CMMS)

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Spare parts received should be checked and
catalogued against the supplier/manufacturer part
number. If no number is apparent, a part number
shall be allocated and attached to the
component(s) packaging. Data against each
component shall then be recorded into a:
• Computer and linked to accounting and
Management Information System (MIS).
Data can be entered more accurately and in
a timely manner and is easily accessible;
• Show a running balance of the quantity of
the specific item;
• Should be checked each month by someone
in authority to ensure accuracy and also to
enable monitoring of the general usage in
each department.
Noting the monthly usage is useful when
considering the annual budget and requirements for
the year ahead. An end-of-year stocktaking exercise
is required for correct auditing procedures.
7.6 Records
Information shall be kept in two ways:
• Real-time data and trends stored on
telemetry system, e.g. water flows in
different networks;
• Data and trends stored on CMMS or in
technical reports such as spreadsheets.
All computerised data shall be downloaded onto disk
and archived. Typical examples of information to be
recorded are as follows:
• Flows of wastewater in various networks;
• Process alarms and event;
• Personnel movement and operation times;
• Salinity measurements;
• Electricity consumption;
• Chlorine consumption;
• Digester performance.
Permanent records will be kept as part of the
operation and maintenance plan, but not limited to:
• Asset inspections;
• Asset condition;
• Test and inspection records;
• Commissioning reports;
• O&M procedures;
• Manufacturer’s manuals;
• Networks drawings and documents;
• Spares and chlorine procurement.
7.6.1 Operational Records
The following records, documents, drawings and
inventories are essential to the operation of assets:
• Equipment and maintenance inventories;
• Operation records;
• Laboratory inventory;
• Asset engineering and specifications;
• Asset documents and drawings;
• Discharge monitoring reports;
• Industrial discharge permits;
• Financial records.
At least one complete set, hard copy and/or
computerised data, of current/working records of
assets information, and ‘as-built’ drawings, shall be
kept in a safe place. Computerised information shall
be backed-up daily. Back-up copies should be
stored at separate locations.
7.6.2 Records of Scheduled
Maintenance
Information relating to all scheduled (planned)
maintenance programmes shall be scheduled
through CMMS, and work orders dispatched to the
work teams together with the responsive
maintenance requests. Work orders shall give
details of all parameters to be monitored and items
to be inspected. Where a deviation from normal
operating parameters is observed, this is noted and
further maintenance investigation/action will be
taken. This information can be used for future
maintenance programmes.

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7.6.3 Records of Non-Scheduled
Maintenance
Provision of resources and systems to deal with
unplanned events within an agreed target time.
Priorities will be made as follows:
• Quick assessment of problem – can it be
resolved?
• Safeguard process – reduce any impact on
environment and community;
• Detailed inspection – formulate plan of
action;
• Mobilise resources – personnel, materials;
• Fix problem;
• Report on problem and ways to prevent
recurrence in future.
Information relating to all scheduled (planned)
maintenance programmes shall be scheduled
through CMMS and used for future maintenance
programmes.
7.6.4 Records of Emergencies
Reports dealing with emergencies shall be reported
within an agreed time period and shall include, as a
minimum, the following points:
• Established points of contact;
• Recorded details of the incident;
• References to previous reports;
• Determined responsibility;
• Assessed action required;
• Advice to informant of action taken;
• Update of asset records;
• Assessment and recommendations for
further work.
7.6.5 Recommendations for
Reporting of Operation &
Maintenance
Reports shall be produced on a daily, weekly,
monthly, quarterly and annual basis, as required:
• Daily reports shall concentrate on day to day
issues such as equipment out of service,
unusual occurrences, daily flows, chlorine
consumption, etc.;
• Weekly reports detail the planned
maintenance due in the following week;
• Monthly reports summarise the activities
during the month and provide details, such
as; quality of effluent, digester and drying
bed performance.
7.6.6 Records of Existing Assets,
Including GIS and Electronic
Media
This involves collection of existing records,
standardisation of formats and update of records.
Data collected from various sources will be stored in
CMMS. This has the capability of providing reports,
generating graphical trends of asset performance
and undertaking statistical analysis of data,
providing an understanding of asset behaviour.
7.6.7 Procedures for Maintenance
and Updating of Asset
Databases
Maintenance and updating of asset system maps,
documents and records is of utmost importance.
Many of these very important records may be on
paper and or in Geographical Information System
(GIS) format. Whatever the format, there will be
procedures in place for maintaining the system and
adding system improvements. GIS assists in
accessing the information and keeping the data
current.



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7.6.8 Verification, Updating and
Maintenance of ‘As-Built’
Drawings, Documents and
Manuals
Updating of ‘as-built’ records will be an activity as
important as the maintenance work itself and must
be seen as an active part of the asset maintenance.
Such records shall, as a minimum, include:
• Visual inspection of manholes/chambers,
etc.;
• Cleaned pipes in km/month, assessed
according to size or profile;
• No. of blockages occurring in each network
sewer;
• No. of manholes whose structural condition
have been recorded/month;
• No. of manholes structurally repaired/month;
• No. of storm drains cleaned/month;
• No. of storm drains whose structural
condition have been recorded/month;
• No. of storm drains structurally
repaired/month;
• CCTV inspected pipes/month subdivided
according to dimension or profile in km;
• Results of salinity measurements with the
aim of localising and quantifying infiltration;
• Construction works, number of damaged
reports completed for third parties, and for
which repairs were commissioned.
7.7 Capacity Review
The O&M responsibilities will include the
measurement of asset performance parameters that
monitor the efficiency of the assets, and their spare
capacity against actual daily demand. The data will
be recorded and used to measure operational
efficiencies against maintenance requirements, and
predict the future asset upgrade requirements. This
will result from a whole of life cycle cost analysis,
being constantly studied on a rolling basis.
7.7.1 Guidelines for Monitoring
and Reporting of Operational
Capacity
Maintaining historical records of key operational
parameters such as:
• Pumping station flows;
• Pump running hours;
• Sewer surcharging and flooding;
• Sewage works inflows/outflows.
Such records will be compiled through either of the
following:
• Continuous flow monitoring by magnetic
flowmeters on rising mains;
• SCADA records on pump running hours and
sewage treatment work flows;
• Flumes/weirs on sewage works;
• Manual recording of flowmeter readings (if
there are no automatic readings).
Temporary flow monitoring equipment will also be
deployed and maintained at predetermined strategic
points in the sewerage system, to record flows for
hydraulic modeling purposes.
Sewage biological/chemical loading entering a
works will also be monitored periodically to
determine the spare treatment capacity at each
process stage of a sewage treatment works. Trade
effluent monitoring will also form part of this activity,
either against trade effluent discharge licenses (if
applicable), or monitoring of trends.
Reporting on the operational capacity will determine
any risk to the Levels of Service, and when
investment would be required to in extend the
system assets.
7.7.2 Measurement of Pump
Performance Against Design
• Measurements to monitor the electrical
power taken from the electricity supply
against station flow for all duty pump
operating combinations;
• Monitoring of station system curves against
that measured at station commissioning, and

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the operating points of all pumpsets on that
curve for all duty pump operating
combinations;
• Measurement to monitor the pumpset
characteristic curves head/flow, absorbed
power & overall efficiency for each pumpset.
Comparison of theoretical/new pump performance
against actual performance will be made using the
following criteria:
• Manufacturers flow/energy data;
• Installation/commissioning data;
• Actual flow/energy data determined by
temporary or permanent flow/energy meters
against variety of heads;
• Pump reliability;
• Maintenance costs.
7.7.3 Comparison of System/Part
of Actual System Against
Design Capacity
The above measurements will be reported to the
project coordinator, DA design section, who will
determine through hydraulic modeling and demand
forecasting, any risk to the Levels of Service, and
when there is a need to invest in extending the
system assets.































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8 References
i
British Standards Institution, 1990, BS1377: 1990
- Methods of test for soils for civil engineering
purposes. London, BSI.

ii
The UK Water Industry Engineering and
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iii
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iv
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v
Water Research Centre (WRc). 1993. Model
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vi
Ministry of Civil Aviation and Meteorology, State of
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period (1962-2002), Qatar Ministry of Civil Aviation
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vii
Bazaraa, A.S., Ahmed, S., 1991. Rainfall
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viii
Water Research Centre, 1995, Pipelines Selection
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ix
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x
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xi
ACI 305R - Hot Weather Concreting.

xii
British Standards Institution, 2000, BS EN 206-
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xiii
ASTM C 150.

xiv
ASTM C 494.

xv
British Standards Institution, 2001, BS EN 934-
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xvi
British Standards Institution, 2000, BS 8666:2000
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xvii
British Standards Institution, 1994, BS EN
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xviii
British Standards Institution, 2000, ISO
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xix
MMAA Drainage Dept Professional Service
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1984.

















State of Qatar -Public Works Authority
Drainage Affairs



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