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CIVIL & STRUCTURE DEPARTMENT

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING & BUILT ENVIRONMENT
THE NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MALAYSIA
REPORT OF SUSTAINABLE URBAN PLANNING
SEMESTER II, SESSION 2013/2014

KKKH4284 SUSTAINABLE URBAN PLANNING

Assignment :
Task 9
Proposed Kajang Local Plan for Sustainable Development

Lecturer :
Prof. Ir. Dr. Riza Atiq Abdullah Bin O.K. Rahmat
Pn. Norliza Bt Mohd Akhir
Dr. Muhammad Nazri Bin Borhan

Name of Student :
Roshafizah bt Roslan A133549
Derma Nur Ashikin bt Nong Radzif A133212
Nurul Afina bt Abd Mutalib A134187

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Sustainable Development

Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It contains within it two
key concepts which are the concept of needs, in particular the essential needs of the world's poor,
to which overriding priority should be given and the idea of limitations imposed by the state of
technology and social organization on the environment's ability to meet present and future needs.
There are different domains identified for sustainable development, which are broadly
defined in three or four domains, ecology, economics, politics and culture.

1.1.1 Ecology

The ecological sustainability of human settlements is part of the relationship between humans
and their natural, social and built environments. Also termed human ecology, this broadens the
focus of sustainable development to include the domain of human health. Fundamental human
needs such as the availability and quality of air, water, food and shelter are also the ecological
foundations for sustainable development such as addressing public health risk through
investments in ecosystem services can be a powerful and transformative force for sustainable
development which, in this sense, extends to all species.
Sustainable agriculture may be defined as consisting of environmentally friendly methods
of farming that allow the production of crops or livestock without damage to human or natural
systems. More specifically, it might be said to include preventing adverse effects to soil, water,
biodiversity, surrounding or downstream resources as well as to those working or living on the
farm or in neighboring areas. Furthermore, the concept of sustainable agriculture extends
intergenerational, relating to passing on a conserved or improved natural resource, biotic, and
economic base instead of one which has been depleted or polluted. Some important elements of
sustainable agriculture are permaculture, agroforestry, mixed farming, multiple cropping, and
crop rotation.
Sustainable energy is the sustainable provision of energy that is clean and lasts for a long
period of time. Unlike the fossil fuel that most of the countries are using, renewable energy only
produces little or even no pollution. The most common types of renewable energy in this world
are solar and wind energy, solar energy are commonly used on public parking meter, street lights
and the roof of buildings. Household energy consumption can also be improved in a sustainable
way, like using electronic energy that conserving water and energy.
Beyond ecology as the intersection of humans in the environment, environmental
sustainability concerns the natural environment and how it endures and remains diverse and
productive. Since natural resources are derived from the environment, the state of air, water, and
the climate are of particular concern. Environmental sustainability requires society to design
activities to meet human needs while preserving the life support systems of the planet. This, for
example, entails using water sustainably, utilizing renewable energy, and sustainable material
supplies.
Some western countries are making transportation more sustainable in both long-term
and short-term implementations. Since these countries are mostly highly automobile-orientated
area, the main transit that people use is personal vehicles. The federal government has to come
up with some plans to reduce the total number of vehicle trips in order to lower greenhouse gases
emission. Such as improve the public transit, encourage the residents to walk and bike and also
increase the cost of car ownership and gas taxes.

1.1.2 Economics

It has been suggested that because of rural poverty and overexploitation, environmental
resources should be treated as important economic assets, called natural capital. Economic
development has traditionally required a growth in the gross domestic product. Sustainable
development may involve improvements in the quality of life for many but may necessitate a
decrease in resource consumption. Issues of intergenerational equity, irreversibility of
environmental change, uncertainty of long-term outcomes, and sustainable development guide
ecological economic analysis and valuation.


1.1.3 Politics

A study concluded that social indicators and therefore sustainable development indicators are
scientific constructs whose principal objective is to inform public policy-making. The
International Institute for Sustainable Development has similarly developed a political policy
framework, linked to a sustainability index for establishing measurable entities and metrics. The
framework consists of six core areas, international trade and investment, economic policy,
climate change and energy, measurement and assessment, natural resource management, and the
role of communication technologies in sustainable development.
The political is defined as the domain of practices and meanings associated with basic issues of
social power as they pertain to the organisation, authorisation, legitimation and regulation of a
social life held in common. This definition is in accord with the view that political change is
important for responding to economic, ecological and cultural challenges. It also means that the
politics of economic change can be addressed. Seven subdomains of the domain of politics are
organization and governance, law and justice, communication and critique, representation and
negotiation, security and accord, dialogue and reconciliation and also ethics and accountability.

1.1.4 Culture

Working with a different emphasis, some researchers and institutions have pointed out that a
fourth dimension should be added to the dimensions of sustainable development, since the triple-
bottom-line dimensions of economic, environmental and social do not seem to be enough to
reflect the complexity of contemporary society. From a document that inaugurates a new
perspective and points to the relation between culture and sustainable development through a
dual approach which are developing a solid cultural policy and advocating a cultural dimension
in all public policies. The circles of sustainability approach distinguish the four domains of
economic, ecological, political and cultural sustainability.





1.2 Site Selection

As we have been assigned, we have to propose Kajang Local Plan for sustainable development.
The plan shall address four broad sustainable development objectives which are maintenance of
high and stable levels of economic growth and employment, social progress which recognises the
needs of everyone, effective protection of the environment and also prudent use of natural
resources.
Not to forget, the plan also shall include the sustainable development principles such as
quality of development, integrating transport and development, minimum environmental impact
due to surge in travel demands, the development access which are the pedestrians, disabled
people, cyclists, public transport and also private transport, parking, urban design principles, the
context which are compatible with existing landforms and natural features, retain, and where
possible enhance important existing urban spaces, townscape, parkland, natural or historical
features, safety and security, landscape and biodiversity, renewable energy, air quality and water
quality and drainage.
Kajang and its surrounding areas is a sub-district located within the Hulu Langat District
in the state of Selangor. It is situated approximately 14 miles southeast of Kuala Lumpur. From
Kuala Lumpur, Kajang can be reached by roads and rails. Kajang is also linked with Putrajaya,
the National Administrative Centre and Cyberjaya, the National Multimedia City. On its west is
situated Puchong town, Batu 3 and Klang. Basically Kajang consists of a number of Malay,
Chinese and Indian settlements.
The village areas largely are populated by Malays. The Chinese settlement pattern is
scattered around Kajang town. While rubber plantation areas are inhabited by settlers of Indian
descents. If viewed from its topographical perspective, Kajang sub-district is located on a
highland area which is approximately 76,250 cm from the sea level. Most of its landscape is hilly
filled with mountains. Its flatlands can be found at river-basins such as Sungai Langat, Sungai
Bangi, Sungai Semenyih and Sungai Chua. These areas are the early settlements explored in the
Sub-district of Kajang.
Kajang Municipal Council has 787.61 km square of administration area. It consists of all
the districts of Hulu Langat which are Mukim Kajang, Cheras, Semenyih, Beranang, Hulu,
Langat and Hulu Semenyih except for Mukim Ampang. Figure 1 shows the map of the area of
administration of Kajang while Table 1 shows the area of Kajang. Figure 2 shows the total
population at Kajang.

Figure 1.1 The map of the area of administration of Kajang

Table 1.1 The area of administration of Kajang

Table 1.2 Total Populations at Kajang


2.0 QUALITY OF DEVELOPMENT


The term sustainable development goes beyond the boundaries of science and business
development and trade to include human development, values, and differences in cultures. In
fact, many organizations are referring to sustainable human development as opposed to
sustainable development in order to emphasize issues such as the importance of gender equality,
participation in decision-making processes, and access to education and health.
Quality of life is an emerging issue, as it has been observed that people‟s perception,
aspirations and behavior influence to a great extent many socio-economic dynamics and even
certain developments in the urban context.
In planning a sustainable city or town, there are some elements that must be a priority
which are health and quality of life, social equity and solidarity, environmental protection and
also access to knowledge.

2.1 Health and Quality of Life

Citizens‟ well-being is the focus of quality of life, and health is a primary component of the well-
being. People and the social and cultural factors are the final receivers of decisions taken at
macro-economic level and people‟s way of life are mainly influenced by political decisions and
global forces, as well as social factors and social networks.
Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the
absence of disease or infirmity. This definition encloses the fundamental elements intended to be
addressed by a focus on health and well-being in the urban environment. Achieving a healthy
and sustainable way of living by ensuring a good quality of life is the main tendency that is being
observed in many countries, replacing the previous concept on just decreasing mortality indices.
Quality of life is a term broadly used both by the general public and amongst policy
makers. Everyone agrees on its importance, but a definitive meaning cannot be assigned to it
because of the term can mean many things to many people. The term quality of life is used to
evaluate the general well-being of individuals and societies, focused on separate dimensions of
collective well-being, such as income, wealth and employment, the built environment, physical
and mental health, education, social disorganization, social belonging, and recreation and leisure.
Therefore, quality of life measures are based more on social indicators than just material living
standards that are related mainly to individual or national aggregate levels of income.
Other concepts, such as freedom and happiness are frequently related to measures of the
quality of life that individuals and societies experience, although much work on happiness shows
that does not increase above a certain income threshold such as people may be more content and
live more comfortable lives with higher incomes, but they do not feel any happier.
The quality of life is mainly defined by people as the availability of having public
services, employment, shopping, transport, green open space, culture and sport facilities as well
as space to live, apart from income. If the question asks which aspects could be improved in the
city to achieve a better quality of life, the majority of people would mention problems such as
traffic, noise and air pollution, all of them problems that people are facing daily. So, apart from
promoting clean air and public health, local and regional authorities have to pursue many other
objectives that contribute to the well-being of their citizens, such as economic prosperity,
mobility, jobs and the preservation of the economic, social and cultural functions of inner cities.
Cities cannot simply shut down all transport activities and industries in order to realise clean air
and a better acoustic environment.

2.2 Social Equity and Solidarity

Inequality has become a universal concern. Differentials in accesses to opportunities, income,
consumption, location, information and technology are now the norm, not the exception. For the
majority of people on a city, income disparities are today bigger than what they were a
generation ago. It is estimated that more than two thirds of the world„s population lives in cities
where income inequality increased since 30 years ago.
Gender inequalities persist in many countries and contexts. Youth inequalities manifest in
discrimination in access to education, differentiated levels of employment and livelihood
opportunities, lack of participation in decision making and prejudice against sexual preferences.
Slums, the face of poverty and urban inequality, continue to increase in most countries of the
developing world, reinforcing other forms of inequality that access to basic services, education
and health, among others. The gap between rich and poor widened not only in developing
countries and emerging economies, but also in developed countries, and even in traditionally
egalitarian nations In other words, the reason for inequality has regional and national as well as
historical, policy and institutional origins. Inequality has grown for decades, but this trend has
intensified in the beginning of this century. Today inequalities are present in almost every area of
development.
Relatively highly unequal cities have difficulties to optimize the urban advantage with
huge intra-city disparities. In these unequal cities, the urban poor have less chances of finding a
job and their life expectancy at birth is lower and children are less likely to enroll in school and
their occurrence of ill health is noticeably more frequent; public facilities predominantly used by
the poor are more often than not overcrowded and badly managed and the poor in general are
also excluded in a cultural, social and political sense.
In order to implement the sustainable city in Kajang, the inequality among the people in
the city must be reduced. The government must be responsible in order to achieve the equality
and solidarity among the people or among the races as we know Malaysia or Kajang especially is
populated by different races which are the majority is Malay, Chinese and Indian and also the
minority from the migration or other races. Table 2.1 shows the population at Kajang by races in
2010.







Table 2.1 The population at Kajang by Races

2.3 Environmental Protection

Cities will need to become more aware of the impact that their consumption patterns have on
other regions and ecosystems. A sustainable city also will need to acquire accountability and
responsibility for increasing consumption patterns. Cities may work towards responsibility by
adapting a policy to reduce, recycle and re-use consumed goods.
Some cities may go as far as implementing user fees in order to control unsustainable
consumption patterns. By examining the characteristics of a sustainable community, a better
understanding can be reached about defining a sustainable community. Being very complex
entities, cities can be characterised by a number of different properties.
The principle of environmental efficiency means the achievement of the maximum
benefit for each unit of resources used and wastes produced. Environmental efficiency can be
increased in several ways such as increasing durability, so that environmental costs are spread
over a longer useful life, increasing the technical efficiency of resource conversion, for example
through greater energy efficiency or recovery of waste heat, avoiding the consumption of
renewable natural resources, water and energy, faster than the natural system can replenish them,
closing resource loops, for example by increasing reuse, recycling and salvage, simplifying and
avoiding the need for resource use There is a cultural tendency to. In environmental terms it is
often better to simplify productive processes and avoid the use of resources. We know that in
Kajang, the environmental protection is very low. And there are many things need to be changed
to achieve and to made Kajang as a sustainable city.

2.4 Access to Knowledge

In order to preserve the natural world, economic, social and environmental factors must be
jointly considered and harmonized. Formal and informal learning, through raising awareness and
influencing behaviour, has a pivotal function if sustainable development is to be achieved. This
role is especially pronounced in the realm of higher education because at this level students are
being prepared to enter the labour market and emerge with skills to support green
economies and as messengers of ideas.
Progressively, universities and other higher education institutions have been
incorporating sustainable development values and practices into their core activities of
teaching and research, institutional management and operational systems.
In Kajang, we can see that the access of knowledge is very high since the number of
people got the education is large. There are about 86 primary schools at Kajang including
Sekolah Kebangsaan, Sekolah Jenis Kebangsaan Cina (SJKC) and also Sekolah Jenis
Kebangsaan Tamil (SJKT). While, there are almost 40 secondary schools at Kajang. Not to
forget, Kajang also has completed the access of knowledge as Kajang is a town that full with
higher educations of learning such as Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR), Universiti
Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Kolej Komuniti Hulu Langat, Universiti Kuala Lumpur Malaysia,
Kolej Profesional Mara, Kolej Kejururawatan Dan Kesihatan Masterskill, Universiti Nottingham
Kampus, Kolej Universiti Islam Selangor (KUIS), Institut Kemahiran Belia Negara and also
Kolej New Era.


3.0 INTEGRATING TRANSPORT AND DEVELOPMENT

The transport sector consists of a totality of physical facilities, terminals, fleets and ancillary
equipment of all the various modes of transport operating in Kajang. Included in the sector are
the transport services, transport agencies providing the services, the organisations and people
who plan, build, maintain, and operate the system, and the policies that mould its development.

3.1 Roads
In order to achieve the sustainability in Kajang, we have proposed to replace the usual
pavement in the Kajang town with the new technology from USA that called solar
roadways. Solar roadways are the terms for a number of different proposals to
incorporate technologies into roads for generating solar energy, for improving the
operation of autonomous cars, for lighting, and for monitoring the condition of the road.


Figure 3.1 Example of Using Solar Roadways

From figure 3.1, we can see the an example simulation in using the solar
roadways. A photovoltaic solar road is a road surface that generates electricity by
collecting solar power with photovoltaics. This technology is developing a prototype
system to replace current roads, parking lots, and driveways with photovoltaic solar road
panels that generate electricity. Parking lots, driveways, streets and eventually highways
are all targets for these systems.
Solar roadways have been proposed that LEDs be incorporated in the photovoltaic
roads to use as road markings which can be changed dynamically. These could also be
used for sports fields which can change the markings to suit different sports. This
technology incorporates photo-luminising paint for road markings. These absorb light
during the day then glow for up to 10 hours. A stretch of highway in Brabant,
Netherlands was due to have this installed on a trial basis in 2013.
The concept of this solar roadways is very sustainable because its emphasizes the
consumption of the recyclable items such as trash bags, water bottles and other plastics,
and rubber tires that can be mixed with organic materials and create parts of the solar
road panels.
Because of Kajang always had to face the flash flood in the city itself, we have to
emphasizes the water management for this solar roadways. This technology works easy
as the water management can be managed easily. When the flood occurs, the water wills
flows and particulates are filtered out by something similar to a drain, the storm water is
stored below ground in storage tanks. When it reaches a certain level, it is pumped along
the solar roadway though a series of check valves to the water treatment facility. Once
treated, the clean water is then pumped through a similar system along the solar roadway
to the desired locations such as agricultural centers and aquifers. Pollutants are removed,
our waterways are safe, farmers are happy, and aquifers are resupplied.

3.2 Transport
Sustainable transport refers to the broad subject of transport that is or approaches being
sustainable. It includes vehicles, energy, infrastructure, roads, railways, airways,
waterways, canals, pipelines, and terminals. Transport operations and logistics as well as
transit-oriented development are involved. Transportation sustainability is largely being
measured by transportation system effectiveness and efficiency as well as the
environmental impacts of the system.
The term sustainable transport came into use as a logical follow-on from
sustainable development, and is used to describe modes of transport, and systems of
transport planning, which are consistent with wider concerns of sustainability. There are
many definitions of the sustainable transport, and of the related terms sustainable
transportation and sustainable mobility. One such definition, states that a sustainability
transport system is allows the basic access and development needs of individuals,
companies and society to be met safely and in a manner consistent with human and
ecosystem health, and promotes equity within and between successive generations.
Besides, there is also definition that state that the sustainability transport system is
affordable, operates fairly and efficiently, offers a choice of transport mode, and supports
a competitive economy, as well as balanced regional development. There is also a
definition state that the sustainability transport system is the limits emissions and waste
within the planet‟s ability to absorb them, uses renewable resources at or below their
rates of generation, and uses non-renewable resources at or below the rates of
development of renewable substitutes, while minimizing the impact on the use of land
and the generation of noise.
The traffic congestion in Kajang become a serious matter because most of the
people in Kajang using their private vehicles rather than the public transport. This is
because the lack of the public transport in the city and also because of the difficulties to
get the public transport in the centre of the city. In order to reduce the traffic congestion
and encourage people using the public transport rather than the private car, a new idea or
new technology must be implemented in Kajang.

4.0 MINIMUM ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT DUE TO SURGE IN TRAVEL
DEMANDS

Environmental issues are harmful aspects of human activity on the biophysical
environment. Environmentalism, a social and environmental movement that started in the
1960s, addresses environmental issues through advocacy, education and activism.
Major current environmental issues may include climate change, pollution,
environmental degradation, and resource depletion etc. The conservation movement
lobbies for protection of endangered species and protection of any ecologically valuable
natural areas. As we can see in Kajang, the biggest challenges in environmental issues are
air pollution and also poor drainage system that led to flash flood in the centre of Kajang.


4.1 Air Pollution
Air pollution is the introduction of particulates, biological molecules, or other harmful
materials into the Earth's atmosphere, possibly causing disease, death to humans, damage
to other living organisms such as food crops, or the natural or built environment.
An air pollutant is a substance in the air that can have adverse effects on humans
and the ecosystem. The substance can be solid particles, liquid droplets, or gases. A
pollutant can be of natural origin or man-made. Pollutants are classified as primary or
secondary. Primary pollutants are usually produced from a process, such as ash from a
volcanic eruption. Other examples include carbon monoxide gas from motor vehicle
exhaust, or the sulfur dioxide released from factories. Secondary pollutants are not
emitted directly. Rather, they form in the air when primary pollutants react or interact.
Because of there are some places in Kajang is an industrial area, the air pollution
is a matter that must be taken seriously. There are various air pollution control
technologies and land use planning strategies available to reduce air pollution. At its most
basic level land use planning is likely to involve zoning and transport infrastructure
planning. In most developed countries, land use planning is an important part of social
policy, ensuring that land is used efficiently for the benefit of the wider economy and
population as well as to protect the environment.
Efforts to reduce pollution from mobile sources includes primary regulation
expanding regulation to new sources increased fuel efficiency such as through the use of
hybrid vehicles, conversion to cleaner fuels such as bioethanol, biodiesel, or conversion
to electric vehicles.

4.2 Poor Drainage System
In Kajang, flash floods always occur. The problem is compounded by poor drainage in
the residential area and the disposal of rubbish in a retention pond on a private plot of
land opposite their homes. This problem also maybe occurs because of the constructing
the new housing settlements without improving the existing drainage system, thus
overwhelming the drainage system. It is also because of the lack of maintenance of drains
and waterways. Figure 3 shows an example of flash flood tragedy occurs at Kajang that
destroyed the properties of residents and resulted in many losses.

Figure 4.1 Flash Floods in Kajang

To prevent the flash floods occur again, the best way to do is to build proper drainage
systems. Ensure that there is proper drainage or expand on existing drainage systems
whenever there are new settlements or structures being constructed.

5.0 DEVELOPMENT ACCESS: PEDESTRIANS, DISABLED PEOPLE, CYCLISTS,
PUBLIC TRANSPORT, PRIVATE TRANSPORT

A sustainable city should consist of firstly, a reliable and highly frequent public
transportation between suburbs and inner city with a high modality, and secondly,
measures to optimize motorized individual transport, such as traffic control systems,
traffic management centers, and information systems for drivers. Transportation makes
its greatest contribution if it is integrated so that switches between different modes are
seamless for the users, enabling them to choose the optimal solution for each leg. Such
integrated and optimized transport systems reduce the requirement for roads and parking
and at the same time reduce congestion, air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions and
also support the optimization of resources used for transportation in general and increase
the quality of life. Suitable urban development, such as mixed land use, where work
opportunities and residential units are closer to each other, can reduce the need to travel.
Flexible working time models together with public transport incentives can reduce
excessive peak period travel and encourage off-peak travel, and so make public transport
more effective and affordable.
It is intuitively clear that urban development and transportation are highly
interdependent. On one hand, change or growth of existing or new commercial or private
living settlements creates needs for new transportation or increased capacity, more
frequent services, and/or shorter travel times. Alternatively, better access to public
transportation and more frequent and faster services create a new demand for settlement
space nearby, be it for commercial or private purposes, and can completely change the
character of an entire neighborhood or area. Hence, a feedback loop exists between urban
development and public transportation, but the detailed mechanisms of this loop are not
understood well enough to ensure efficient developments of space, transportation and
living environments for humans.

5.1 Pedestrians
Walking is the most basic and convenient form of transportation. Most travelers walk
during some portion of their journey. Pedestrians have the same basic needs as all other
travelers such as direct, continuous, and safe routes. Planning for pedestrian travel,
however, must account for pedestrians' unique needs for shorter travel distances and
personal security.
A complete pedestrian network of sidewalks, walkways and trails provides an
additional mobility option for residents and visitors of the unincorporated areas.
Individuals will be encouraged to walk as the convenience of walking increases.
Consequently, individuals then will lead more active and healthy lives in a more safe and
attractive environment.
To encourage people in Kajang to prefer walking than using the vehicle, the must
thing to do is make sure continuous clear space for pedestrian access. The continuous
clear width of pedestrian access routes shall be 1.2 m minimum, exclusive of the width of
the curb. Figure 4 shows the continuous clear width of pedestrian access.

Figure 5.1 The Continuous Clear Space Width for Pedestrian

In driving, a passing zone is a section of a highway or road where a driver is allowed to overtake,
pass or drive on the right side of the road. However, if there is no passing zone sign on the road,
drivers must adhere to the rules as breaking them would lead to hazardous consequences. If
Kajang serve the right and adequate amount of the passing zones, the people will be encouraged
rather than using the private car. Besides, not to forget to provide enough bus stops as people too
lazy to walk from a place to a place. Figure 5 shows one of example the adequate passing zones
that makes people walks with the safety.

Figure 2.2 Adequate Passing Zones
5.2 Disabled People
Ten percent of the world‟s population has a disability. That‟s 650 million people, 80% of whom
live in developing countries, many subsisting below the poverty line. These are the people who
most need accessible, affordable, public transport.
Accessibility for disabled and elderly people is not only about physical access to vehicles
and systems. In order for a system to be accessible, it must provide information in forms that are
useable by everyone, and training for transport staff to understand the needs of disabled and
elderly people. Streets, parks, and other urban areas must be designed in a way that enables
people to move about safely and confidently.
For public transport it is important to have the tramp as the convenience for the disabled
people. A Low-floor bus that has ramps is suitable for disabled persons. Not to forget, the others
public transport is compulsory to have the ramps. It is important to make sure the ramps slope is
not more than 8° when resting on the pavement. The public transport also must make sure there
is at least one suitable place for the disabled in the vehicle.

Figure 5.3 Facilities for Disabled People

5.3 Cyclists
A steadily growing number of cities around the world are eager to become cities of bicycles, as
part of an overall strategy on sustainable development and the desire to become green cities. The
development of cycle path networks that can supplement the public transport system also makes
a significant contribution to reducing CO2 emissions, cyclists are saving the city 90,000 tons of
CO2 emissions annually. But there are many more benefits to be gained from focusing on
bicycles than a green profile.
Cities of bicycles are very much people-friendly cities, and city planning that considers
pedestrians and cyclists will form a significant contribution to the humanistic city of the future.
Cycling does not exist in isolation. It is one choice in a range of modes of transport that
compete for road space, funding and priority. Achieving any significant change in the
attractiveness of cycling relative to other modes requires the transport network to be considered
as a whole.
For individuals, cycling could form part of a healthier lifestyle. Active travel combines
the choice of sustainable modes such as cycling or walking to the bus stop for example, with the
recommended regular exercise that in some respects the best of both worlds and adding an
important concept of choice to the aspirations, values and constraints which shape people‟s
lifestyles.
In order to encourage people to use bicycle than the private car, some ways has to
implement. It is important to build the separated bicycle lane in order to reduce the accidents that
will be occurs. Separated bike lanes increase cyclist comfort and safety levels on all types of
streets, but they are most effective and appropriate on roads with high traffic volumes and
speeds. Put simply, a protected bike lane makes cycling on busy streets easier. They can increase
the safety of cyclists, but just as important, they reduce the perception of danger. The perception
of danger is one of the greatest barriers to more widespread ridership. Figure 7 shows the
separated cycle lane in a city.

Figure 5.4 Separated Cycle Lane
In encourage people to use the bicycle as the main transport in the city it is also important
to provide the bicycle rack or bicycle parking at the whole city. Bicycle racks are provided at
convenient locations throughout the centre of the city. To reduce the risk of theft and vandalism,
the bicycle racks also must equipped with secured facilities. Figure 8 shows the facility of
bicycle racks in a town.

Figure 5.5 Bicycle Rack

5.4 Public Transport
Public transport is a shared passenger transport service which is available for use by the general
public, as distinct from modes such as taxicab, carpooling or hired buses which are not shared by
strangers without private arrangement. Public transport modes include buses, trolleybuses, trams
and trains, rapid transit and ferries. Public transport between cities is dominated by airlines,
coaches, and intercity rail. High-speed rail networks are being developed in many parts of the
world. Most public transport runs to a scheduled timetable with the most frequent services
running to headway. In Kajang, we have been proposed to provide straddle bus and tram in the
city of Kajang.

5.4.1 Straddle Bus
The straddle bus is a proposed new bus and a technology from China. The bus will run along a
fixed route, and its passenger compartment spans the width of two traffic lanes. Its undercarriage
rides along the edges of the two lanes it straddles and the overall height is 4 to 4.5 m. Vehicles
lower than 2 m high will be able to pass underneath the bus, reducing the number of traffic jams
caused by ordinary buses loading and unloading at bus stops.
Passengers on board the bus are expected to experience a ride comparable to riding in the
upper level of a double decker bus. They will board and alight at stations at the side of the road
with platforms at the bus floor height similar to stations of an elevated railway, or via stairs
descending through the roof of the bus from a station similar to a pedestrian overpass. The bus
will be electrically powered using overhead lines or other roof electrical contact systems
designed for it, supplemented with photovoltaic panels, batteries or super capacitors on board. It
will travel at up to 60 km/h. Different versions will carry up to 1,200 passengers, with the larger
versions being articulated to facilitate going around curves.
The bus will have alarms to warn cars traveling too close to it, and signals to warn other
vehicles when it is about to turn. It would have inflatable evacuation slides similar to those of an
aircraft. Optional features could include sensors to keep it from colliding with a person or object,
warning lights and safety curtains at the rear to keep drivers of over height vehicles from going
underneath, repeater traffic signals underneath to relay the indications of traffic signals up ahead,
and animated light displays to simulate stationary objects to prevent disorientation of drivers
underneath. Figure 9 shows the illustration how this straddling bus works. We have been decided
to proposed this new technology the centre of the city.


Figure 5.6 Straddling Bus


5.4.2 Tram
As we has been proposed the straddling bus in the centre of the city, we have been decided to
proposed the tram in the others area of the Kajang. A tram that is known as streetcar, trolley or
trolley car is a rail vehicle which runs on tracks along public urban streets, and also sometimes
on separate rights of way. The lines or networks operated by tramcars are called tramways.
Tramways powered by electricity, which were the most common type historically, were once
called electric street railways. Trams also include horsecars, which were widely used in urban
areas before electrification reached the world.
Tram vehicles are usually lighter and shorter than conventional trains and rapid transit
trains. However, the differences between these modes of public transportation are often
indistinct. Some trams may also run on ordinary railway tracks, a tramway may be upgraded to a
light rail or a rapid transit line, two urban tramways may be connected to an interurban. Figure
10 shows the tram.

Figure 5.7 Tram

5.5 Private Transport
Private transport, as opposed to public transport, is transportation service which is not available
for use by the general public. Private transport is the dominant form of transportation in most of
the world.
As we can stop people to use their own private transport, we can encourage to use the
sustainable private transport such as the electric car. An electric car is an automobile that is
propelled by one electric motor or more, using electrical energy stored in batteries or another
energy storage device. Electric motors give electric cars instant torque, creating strong and
smooth acceleration.
Benefits of electric cars over conventional internal combustion engine automobiles
include a significant reduction of local air pollution, as they do not emit tailpipe pollutants, in
many cases, a large reduction in total greenhouse gas and other emissions and less dependence
on foreign oil, which in several countries is cause for concern about vulnerability to oil price
volatility and supply disruption. Figure 5.8 shows the part of the electric car.


Figure 5.8 Electric Car






6.0 PARKING

6.1 Introduction

Parking is the act of stopping and disengaging a and leaving it unoccupied. Parking on one or
both sides of a road is often permitted, though sometimes with restrictions. Parking facilities are
constructed in combination with some buildings, to facilitate the coming and going of the
buildings' users. The existing modes parking in Kajang cities are parallel and parking. But the
parking space still not enough. Hence, we proposed Robot Parking Lots at the centre of town
which is near to Metro Kajang. This parking lots seems like tower of parking and have hundreds
of floor.



6.2 Development Strategies
This will be our future parking tower in Kajang. It is more efficient and can solve parking
problem in Kajang. Moreover, it is perfect parking facilities in our smart city. It can store about
800 cars per entire operation and able to store 75 cars an hour. It control by computer and fully
automatic. Hence, save workmanship energy. This Robot Parking Lots is fast can deliver your
cars within 6 secs. So it can save our energy and fuel to find a parking by ourself. We can spend
Robot Parking Lots
more time in shopping. Approximately 5000 sensors in this tower equipment such as ultrasound
sensors, magnetic sensors and laser sensors. Hence, the probability of crash is low and store your
car without any worry in this tower.




Since we are promote our city to be a smart city and maintain sustainable which is
environmental friendly, so we encourage peoples to use bicycle. Hence, we provide bicycle
parking facilities around our town.




Inside the Tower of Robot Parking
Lots
Entrance of the tower
Bicycle Parking
Bicycle Parking

7.0 URBAN DESIGN PRINCIPLES

Urban design involves the design and coordination of all that makes up cities and towns. First is
the building in our city. Buildings are the most pronounced elements of urban design. The shape
and articulate space by forming the streetwalks of the city well designed buildings and groups of
buildings work together to create a sense of place. In addition, the public space should be the
great as the living room of the city which is the place where people come together to enjoy the
city and each other. Public spaces make high quality life in the city possible. Public spaces
ranges from grand central plazas and squares, to small and local neighborhood parks. Besides,
our Kajang city should provide street which is the connections between spaces and places, as
well as being spaces themselves. We defined the streets by their physical dimension and
character as well as the size, scale and character buildings that line them. The pattern of our
street network is part of what defines a city and makes city unique. Furthermore, our transport
system connects the parts of cities and help shape them and enable movement throughout the
city. It is include road, rail, bicycle and pedestrian networks and together form the total
movement system of a city. The balance of these various transport systems is what helps define
the quality and character of cities, and makes them either friendly or hostile to pedestrians. The
best cities are the ones that elevate the experience of the pedestrian while minimizing the
dominance of the private automobile. The landscape is the green part of the city that weaves
throughout - in the form of urban parks, street trees, plants, flowers, and water in many forms.
The landscape helps define the character and beauty of a city and creates soft, contrasting spaces
and elements. Green spaces in cities range from grand parks such as Central Park in New York
City and the Washington DC Mall, to small intimate pocket parks.







8.0 CONTEXT FOR OVERALL PLAN


Considers the wider context of the local setting, the characteristics of the site for development,
and strategies for the overall design character of a proposal, to be attractive and function well,
the plan should take into account the following:
1) Respecting the local site
The design should pay particular attention to the characteristics of the local setting. The context
of the site should be analyzed to ensure that the development will:
 Respect the qualities of the best of the surrounding landscapes and townscapes,
Public Spaces Buildings
Street Landscape
 Provide spatial characteristics and building forms that are sympathetic to the
surroundings,
 Respond to existing land uses and provide an appropriate mix of dwellings and uses,
 Integrate with existing patterns of movement.



2) Responding to the site

The design will need to respond sympathetically to the characteristics of the site to achieve the
quality desired. This section illustrates relevant aspects for undertaking the necessary site
evaluation, and includes guidance on assessments of the history of the site, landform, flora and
fauna, climate and noise and nuisance.

Main objectives
The characteristics of the site should be analyzed to ensure that the development will:
 Respect the history of the site, and appropriately protect and integrate features of the
archaeological and built heritage
 Respond to the form of the land, its contours and views to and from the site, make the
best use of existing vegetation, and protect or create, appropriate conditions for flora and
fauna to thrive
 Promote designs that respond to the microclimate of the site, and that might contribute to
the energy efficiency of the buildings designed.





3) Creating Attractive Surroundings And Spaces To Live

Main objectives
The Department will wish to see designs that have:
 A distinctive overall sense of place that takes into account the characteristics of the site
and its setting
 Quality and sustainability in the overall layout, in the form and detailed design of the
buildings, and the spaces around
 A visually attractive human scale in each of the places created within the development
 An appropriate use of trees and other plants
 A feeling of security and a sense of vitality in all parts of the layout

Stadium Kajang Bangunan Dato’ Nazir



9.0 SAFETY AND SECURITY

The most important in our Kajang smart city are safety and security of residents. Safe and secure
has been considered the broader and the most important part of sustainability. Hence, we have to
proposed plan that can reduce crime and increase the safety the city. If we talk about safety and
security, it not about reduces crime only but how to reduce accidental on roads. We proposed to
locate guard at every building and also CCTV at every junction of roads. CCTV can be locate at
every traffic light to detect any driver breaks the rules.
For many urban areas mobility can be the most enabling factor, addressing how the city
provides good transportation, reduces road construction, offers guidance on the best routes to
take while traveling, promotes the use of public transportation to mitigate problems of pollution,
and enables mobile communications systems among law enforcement in order protect the public
from crime. Reducing operational costs is a large driver in these efforts. Another is stimulating
the economy and making the city attractive for current residents and businesses, thereby
attracting new business as well. “It also is about protecting people and resources, maintaining the
roads and keeping traffic flowing smoothly,” says Veiga. “When you calculate the cost of
vehicles sitting in traffic, it represents around three percent of the GDP. That is a large number,
and represents money that can be put to better uses elsewhere. All of these factors combine to
increase efficiencies, save money and make the city safer on all levels.”

Office building Sport Center




10.0 LANDSCAPE AND BIODIVERSITY

10.1 Introduction
Biodiversity is the variety of life on Earth and is essential for sustaining natural ecosystems and
for providing us with food, fuel and resources. Human activities are responsible for most of the
loss in biodiversity throughout the world. With an increasing population, we are consuming more
and more natural resources. We do this by driving more, using more energy in our homes, and
buying many more products than we need. By given appropriate actions, it is possible to achieve
a reduction in the rate of biodiversity loss for certain components of biodiversity and in certain
regions within that time frame.

10.2 Issues
As we can see in figure 10.1 shows there is a lack of landscaping of the Kajang town. Even
though some place maybe have the landscape, but it is insufficient to sustain the town. Same as
the biodiversity of the town. The flora and fauna are extinguished from the place. For example,
some of plants will disappeared when the city become bigger and progressive. Besides that, the
climate change like global warming can affect the plants to grow up and the forest will be
intruded.

CCTV at every traffic light Police round the city to ensure the
safety
Furthermore, as we can see figure 10.2 the current condition of Sungai Chua, Kajang these days
are poor for aquatic life and largely under threat from runoff contaminated by surrounding area.
The aesthetic value of river also decreased.













Figure 10.1 Existing Landscape in Kajang town


Figure 10.2 The current state of Sungai Chua






10.3 Development Strategies
Some of the concept that can be applied in Kajang city center :-

 The mall at Kajang can be design as the Jurong lake district, Singapore mall. The
greenery lost due to its development, as well as its carbon footprint, was replaced with
abundant sky-rise greenery and landscape areas within the complex. These can enhance
quality of life through greenery and spaces of relief, create a distinctive image of the city
in the tropics and to help bring environmental benefits like air quality improvement and
urban island heat mitigation.

 The Sungai Chua can be improved to become like Cherry Creek river, Colorado. These
area is a very popular urban trail for biking, strolling, jogging, rollerblading for the
recreational activities. Moreover, Cherry Creek is a home to two major shopping where
the mall are located on the centre of the town. This area was developed as a self-
sustaining residential neighbourhood and consists of newer large houses and town homes.
The neighbourhood is known for having a strong residential market due to the popularity
of the area for shopping and community events. These situation can be applied to the
Kajang town. Nevertheless, activities on river such as punting tours like the University
Cambridge did can be apply on the Sungai Chua. These kind of activities can attract
foreign tourists to visit Kajang town and increase the image of the city.

 Build your own garden at home. The easiest and cheaper way to make your own garden
are by using the rain gutter. They can be excellent planters for different types of plants
and can actually be an amazing decorative piece for the exterior and interior of the house
as well. Many people prefer gardening in the rain gutters because they don‟t take much
space and either can be hanged or fixed with the walls. These ideas are highly
recommended for those people who have limited space in their house but
love gardening. While the rain gutter can be very beneficial for protection of the roof and
drainage of the water and they can be used for gardening too.

 Planted trees/forest at undeveloped land areas. Trees will help to reduce surface water
runoff from storms, thus decreasing soil erosion and the accumulation of sediments in
streams. They increase ground water recharge and reduce the number of potentially
harmful chemicals transported to our streams. Moreover, fruit harvested from community
orchards can be sold, thus providing income. Small business opportunities in green waste
management and landscaping arise when cities value mulching and its water-saving
qualities. Vocational training for youth interested in green jobs is also a great way to
develop economic opportunities from trees.


Figure 10.3 Jurong lake district, Singapore

Figure 10.4 Cherry Creek river, Denver, Colorado

Figure 10.5 Punting Tours in University Cambridge

Figure 10.6 garden at home

Figure 10.7 Shrine of Remembrance, Melbourne

The highlight of the concept will be its strong focus on the sustainable design and rebranding the
image of Kajang city centre into a high profile city as in figure 10.7. We believe that in the long
term, it will improve the development potential of its city centre.
11.0 RENEWABLE ENERGY

11.1 Introduction
Renewable energy has a host of social, environmental, and economic benefits. To be truly
sustainable, an energy source must meet these criteria:
 have minimal or no negative environmental or social impact
 not deplete natural resources
 meet the needs of people today and in the future in an accessible, equitable and efficient
manner
 protect air, land and water
 have little or no net carbon or other greenhouse gas emissions
 be safe today and not burden future generations with unnecessary risk

Renewable energy sources can meet all these criteria. Renewable energy puts energy in our
hands by offering increased local control of energy production, helping to ensure stable
prices and increase the security of our energy supply. Renewable energy also
provides environmental benefits such as helping to improve local air quality and reducing our
impact on the land, water and climate system. Increased use of renewable energy will also help
boost local economies through job creation. No other energy source can provide all these
benefits.
In comparison, continued reliance on conventional energy sources such as fossil fuels and
nuclear power will perpetuate a host of environmental, social, and political problems and hold us
dependent on limited resources controlled by a few countries and corporations.

11.2 Issues

In the Kajang town, there is no renewable energy. The resident in Kajang does not been exposed
about the renewable energy.



11.3 Development Strategies
Some of the concept that can be applied in Kajang city center :-

 The green roof and solar panels can be installed for every unit of houses. The energy-
saving logic behind green roofs complements well with the energy producing value of
rooftop solar system. Standing alone, green roofs have many benefits which include
limiting rainwater runoff, improve water quality, conserve energy, reduce urban heat-
island effect, extend the life of roofing materials underneath, and more. Electric solar
panels are clean environmentally friendly way to save money on your electric bill and
power your home. Owners and designers of these “hybrid” systems even claim that green
roofs actually improve solar system efficiency. Solar panels, also known as PV
(Photovoltaic) elements, feel as snug as a bug in the rug on extensive green roofs, so to
speak. The green roof cools ambient temperatures around the electric solar panels,
allowing the solar panels to stay cooler and function better. Furthermore, the green roof
technology has developed advanced systems that allow easy and efficient installation of
both systems without roof penetration or potential leaks of the roof. The concept is
simply a combination of two well-vetted applications which can be maximized further
with future home designs. Indeed, having a combined electric solar panel and green roof
system can be the best investment you can make for you and the environment.

 Use solar power to heat water and pools, cooking and light homes and buildings.
Transportation can also used the solar power.

 Use lawn as an air conditioner. The resident need to do landscape at the yard of their
house.

 Use a green building. The electrical panels can improve energy performance in a home
and thereby contribute to sustainable development and the green building approach. In
light of its weight in energy consumption, building energy use is a major concern.
Innovative solutions now exist to compensate reactive energy and measure building
consumption. The construction of a green building may generate only few additional
costs, even none, but that is not due to spontaneous generation. The required evolution in
processes to design and construct a building with an integrated approach requires a great
deal of effort and must be perceived as having sufficient added value to be adopted by the
industry. Rightfully so, owners and promoters wish not only to be assured that a green
building will not cost them much more, but they also wish to be sure that it will produce
substantial benefits that will justify their efforts.


Figure 11.1 Green roofs & Solar Panels


12.0 AIR QUALITY

12.1 Introduction
Historically, the main air pollution problem in both developed and rapidly industrializing
countries has typically been high levels of smoke and sulphur dioxide emitted following the
combustion of sulphur-containing fossil fuels such as coal, used for domestic and industrial
purposes. These days, the major threat to clean air is now posed by traffic emissions. Petrol and
diesel engine motor vehicles emit a wide variety of pollutants, principally carbon monoxide
(CO), oxides of nitrogen (NO
x
), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulate matter
(PM
10
), which have an increasing impact on urban air quality. In addition, pollutants from these
sources may not only prove a problem in the immediate vicinity of these sources, but can be
transported long distances.

12.2 Issues

The main factors causing poor air quality in the Kajang town are the burning fossil fuels and
emissions from industries and manufacturing activities. The manufacturing industries and power
plants emit high levels of carbon monoxide, organic compounds, and chemicals into the air.
Besides that, fumes from car exhaust contain dangerous gases such as carbon monoxide, oxides
of nitrogen, hydrocarbons and particulates. On their own, they cause great harm to people who
breathe them. Additionally, they react with environmental gases to create further toxic gases.

11.3 Development Strategies
Some of the concept that can be applied in Kajang city center :-

 Planting trees around the road and houses. During the photosynthesis, plants naturally
extract carbon dioxide and exchange it with fresh oxygen. Based on modest estimates of
existing and emerging data, it has been calculated that a minimum of 300g (10 oz) of
carbon dioxide can be eliminated from the enclosed environment for every square meter
of leaf surface in the area per year. Over a year time this amounts to a removal of 6 cubic
feet of CO2 gas. In areas where there exists an abundance of natural light, this process is
amplified, affording even more absorption.

 Using transportation system like tram, bicycle and hybrid car. By using the public
transportation, their carbon footprint and conserve energy will be reduced by eliminating
travel that would have otherwise been made in a private vehicle. The result is fewer
vehicle miles of travel and reduced emissions. Moreover, the increased use of public
transportation in these areas eases congestion. As a result, automobiles travelling in these
same corridors achieve greater fuel efficiency.

 Enhance a city living environment.


Figure 12.1 streets for cyclists Figure 12.2 Tram system

Figure 12.3 Eco-friendly cars


13.0 WATER QUALITY AND DRAINAGE

13.1 Introduction
Sustainable drainage system are physical structures built to receive surface water runoff from
urban developments such as ponds, wetland swamps, pervious surfaces and soak ways. These
may provide treatment for water prior to discharge using natural processes of sedimentation,
filtration, absorption and biological degradation. By reducing the quantity of runoff, slowing
down flow rates to rivers and streams and treating water in a natural way, it will:

 Reduce the risk of flooding
 Improve the quality of water in rivers, streams and ground water protect natural habitats
 Improve the appearance of urban areas as more water will be on the surface rather than
underground

13.2 Issues

As we can see, the quality of the Sungai Langat are poor in condition and during heavy rain, the
Kajang town often to face the flash flood problem. The factors that contribute to these pollution
are attitude of some people who liked to throw rubbish that caused the drain clogged up, the
drain system are not working (damaged) and the authorities did not taking any action. Moreover,
a major contribution to the pollution river is the discharge of silt from construction site.

13.3 Development Strategies
Some of the concept that can be applied in Kajang city center :-

 Install rainwater harvesting system for every houses and commercial building. The
benefit are diminishing flooding, erosion and flow to storm-water drain by reducing peak
storm water runoff. Moreover, with increase in population, the demand for water is also
continuously increasing. The end result is that many residential colonies and industries
are extracting ground water to fulfil their daily demands. This has led to depletion of
ground water which has gone to significant low level in some areas where there is huge
water scarcity. By using the rainwater, its reduce the demand of groundwater.

 Plant more trees surrounding the city, buildings, slope and river. Trees absorb a lot of
water from the soil for nourishment. Later, when the sun shines on the trees, water is
released from the leaves and absorbed back into the atmosphere – just like the water is
absorbed from our bathing suits. When the sun‟s energy removes water from the earth‟s
surface, the water collects into clouds, and when the clouds are heavy with water they
release rain back to the earth.

 Maintaining the flow capacity of the rivers and ensuring there is no clogging. The size
and the depth of existing open channel in Kajang town should be excavate deeper so that
the channel can carried out sufficient capacity of the storm water. It also can prevent
from backflows occurs.



Figure 13.1 Flash Flood in Kajang town


Figure 13.2 One of the clogged drains in Jln Sg. Chua

Figure 13.3 Boxed-in drain with sound opening Figure 13.4 Green City






14.0 CONCLUSION
Hopefully smart and very sustainable city can be applied at every cities in Malaysia. Urban
design involves many people including practitioners (architects, engineers, planners, landscape
architects and many more), local and central government agencies, property developers and
investors, community groups and the public. They have varying interests, perspectives and
criteria by which they assess the merits of urban design activity. Furthermore, many kinds of
'value' can be considered - economic, environmental, social or cultural; tangible or intangible.
The benefits (and costs) of good urban design often accrue to the wider community; therefore,
many stakeholders have an interest in what takes place at both the micro scale (street and
building design) and the macro scale (eg, patterns of land use). Urban design remains an art as
much as a science, involving concepts that are sometimes elusive, such as character. It involves
both public urban space and parts of the private domain, and concerns the urban environment at a
range of scales. Urban design is also context-specific. There is relatively little robust evidence
about New Zealand urban design initiatives. Overseas examples of successful (or poor) urban
design initiatives may reflect conditions that do not exist in New Zealand. Caution has been
exercised in drawing conclusions for New Zealand solely on the basis of overseas evidence.
Taking into account these constraints and based on the extensive evidence consulted, The Value
of Urban Design reaches the following broad conclusions about the benefits urban design might
offer in the New Zealand context:

 Good urban design can offer significant benefits to the community; conversely, poor
design can have significant adverse effects on the urban environment, society and
economy.
 While good urban design sometimes costs more upfront, this is not necessarily the case;
moreover, long-term costs can be avoided.
 Communities value the better quality of life that good urban design can deliver.
 Urban design can affect people's ability and willingness to undertake physical exercise:
good design can offer health benefits.
 Urban design can help make towns and cities safer and more secure.