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PRECIPITATION
INTRODUCTION
The term precipitation as used in hydrology is meant for all forms of moisture emanating
from the clouds and all forms of water like rain, snow, hail and sleet derived from
atmospheric vapors, falling to the ground.
Precipitation is one of the most important events of hydrology. Floods and droughts are
directly related to the occurrence of precipitation. Water resources management, water
supply schemes, irrigation, hydrologic data for design of hydraulic structures and
environmental effects of water resources development projects are related to precipitation
in one way or the other. So it is important to study various aspects of precipitation.
FORMS OF PRECIPITATION
In the middle latitudes precipitation occurs in many forms, depending on the eisting
meteorological conditions. These are following.
i. Drizzle
These are the minute particles of water at start of rain. These consist of water drops under
!." mm diameter and its intensity is usually less than #.! mm$hr. Their speed is very slow
and we cannot even feel them. Therefore they cannot flow over the surface %ut usually
evaporate.
Ii. Rain
It is form of precipitation in which the si&e of drops in this case is more than !." mm and
less than '.(" mm in diameter. It can produce flow over the ground and can infiltrate and
percolate. )oth the duration as well as rate of rainfall are important. If the rainfall per unit
time is greater than the rate of infiltration, the rain water can flow over the surface of
earth.
iii. Glaze
It is the ice coating formed on dri&&le or rain drops as it comes in contact with the cold
surfaces on the ground.
*!
iv. Sleet
Sleet is fro&en rain drops cooled to the ice stage while falling through air at su%free&ing
temperatures.
v. Snow
Snow is precipitation in the form of ice crystals resulting from su%limation i.e. change of
water vapor directly to ice.
vi. Snowflake
+ snowflake is made up of a num%er of ice crystals fused together.,
vii. Hail
-ail is the type of precipitation in the form of %alls or lumps of ice over " mm diameter
formed %y alternate free&ing and melting as they are carried up and down %y highly
tur%ulent air currents. The impact of these is also more. + single hailstone weighing over a
pound has %een o%served.
FACTORS INFLUENCING PRECIPITATION FORMATION
Following four conditions are necessary for the production of precipitation.
a. + lifting mechanism to produce cooling of the air.
%. + mechanism to produce condensation of water vapors and formation of cloud
droplets.
c. + mechanism to produce growth of cloud droplets to si&e capa%le of falling to the
ground against the lifting force of air.
d. + mechanism to produce sufficient accumulation of moisture to account for
o%served heavy rainfall rates.
a. Mechanism of Cooling
The pressure reduction when air ascends from near the surface to upper levels in the
atmosphere is the only mechanism capa%le of producing the degree and rate of cooling
needed to account for heavy rainfall. .ooling lowers the capacity of a given volume of air
to hold a certain amount of water vapor. +s large degrees of su/per saturation are not
known to occur in the atmosphere, ecess moisture over saturation condenses through the
cooling process.
*!
*#
b. Condensation of Water Vapor
.ondensation of water into cloud droplets takes place on hygroscopic nuclei which are
small particles having an affinity for water. The source of these condensation nuclei is the
particles of sea salt or such products of com%ustion of certain sulfurous and nitrous acids.
There appears to %e always sufficient nuclei present in the atmosphere. .ondensation will
always occur in air, the lower atmosphere is cooled to saturation, often %efore the
saturation point is reached.
c. Growth of Clod Droplets
0rowth of droplets is re1uired if the li1uid water present in the cloud is to reach the
ground. The two processes regarded as most effective for droplet growth are2
i. .oalescence of droplets through collision due to difference in speed of motion %etween
larger and smaller droplets.
ii. .o/eistence of ice crystals and water droplets.
.o/eistence effect generally happens in the temperature range from #!
!
to (!
o
F. If in a
layer of clouds there is a miture of water droplets and ice crystals, the saturation vapor
pressure over ice is lower than that over water. This leads to the evaporation of water
drops and condensation of much of this water on ice crystals causing their growth and
ultimate fall through the clouds. This effect is known as )ergeron3s effect. The ice crystals
will further grow as they fall and collide with water droplets.
d. !ccmlation of Moistre
-eavy rainfall amount over a river %asin eceeds %y far the amount of water vapor at the
atmospheric volume vertically a%ove the %asin at the %eginning of the rainfall. .learly
there must %e a large net hori&ontal inflow of water vapor into the atmosphere a%ove the
%asin area. This process is called convergence, which is defined as the net hori&ontal
influ of air per unit area. The moisture added to the atmosphere over a %asin may %e
transported very large distance in the lowest layer of the atmosphere. When this moist
current reaches a region of active vertical motion it rises thousands of feets and looses
much of its contained water vapor in just a few hours.
*#
*(
CLASSIFICATION OF PRECIPITATION BASED ON THE
LIFTING MECHANISM
The precipitation is often classified according to the factor responsi%le for lifting of air to
higher altitudes. Following are the various types of precipitation %ased on this
classification.
i. Con"ectional #recipitation
In the case of convectional precipitation the main causative element is thermal convection
of the moisture laden air. For this to occur, solar radiation is the only source of heat. +
major portion of the solar radiation is utili&ed in heating the earth. +s the earth conducts
heat slowly, the heat accumulates at the surface of the earth and air which comes in its
contact is heated up and the lapse rate near the surface of the earth increases rapidly. With
the passage of time as the sun gets higher and higher the lapse rate increases a%ove that of
dry adia%atic and air %ecomes unsta%le. 4ertical currents are then set up which carry heat
and the moisture laden air is picked up from the surface to higher levels. 5ue to
convection, the moist air in the lower levels of the atmosphere rises up to the
condensation level where clouds develop and with further convection these clouds finally
grow into cumunim%us resulting in a thunderstorm. 6ightning and thunder, gusty surface
winds, showers and sometimes hails accompany a thunderstorm. 7ach thunderstorm is
formed of a cell which updraft or down draft 8downward current9 tur%ulence etc. These
cells are called under/storm cells. + cell hardly covers an area more than #/( s1uare
miles.
+s the warm moist air from the ground is lifted up, more and more water will condense
and the water drops and ice crystals will increase in si&e till such time that these drops are
no longer supported %y the eisting updrafts. The drops will then %egin to fall. Such
thunderstorms are called :air mass thunderstorms;. They usually develop %y mid/day and
reach maimum intensity %y afternoon. )y late evening such storms start dissipating.
Thunderstorms may etend to a height of (!,!!! to (",!!! feet in temperate latitude and
*!,!!! to <!,!!! feet in tropics.
ii. $rographic #recipitation
In the orographic precipitation, epansion and condensation occurs %ecause moisture
laden air masses are lifted %y contact with orographic %arriers. This type of precipitation
is most pronounced on the windward side of mountain range, generally heaviest
precipitation occurs where favora%le orographic effects are present. For instance, heaviest
precipitation due to south/easterlies in the su%continent occurs along the Southern slopes
of -imalayas and its other ranges. It has %een found that the monsoon rainfall 8=une to
>cto%er9 decreases gradually as the distance from the line of heaviest rainfall increases.
*(
**
>rographic precipitation also occurs in the inland areas where mountain ranges rise a%ove
the surrounding areas in the path of the moisture laden air masses. >n these areas,
however, orographic precipitation is intermingled with the other types prevalent in the
area and, therefore, it %ecomes difficult to identify 1uantitatively the amount of
precipitation that has occurred due to orographic effects only. >n inland areas the
orographic precipitation is irregular in occurrence and 1uantity due to interference %y the
atmospheric distur%ance resulting from cyclonic storm.
0enerally, it has %een o%served that heavy orographic precipitation occurs on the
windward side of the orographic %arrier, leaving a relatively dry area leeward side. This
occurs %ecause the moist air has %een forced up the windward side and precipitated its
moisture, and upon passing the peak of the %arrier, no further orographic lifting occurs so
that the rain fall is the residual of previous condensation. If the orographic %arrier is
sufficiently massive and the low regions on the leeward side are very etensive, the wind
may descend on the leeward side, there%y undergoing compression and heating and
%ecoming still more unfavora%le for precipitation.
iii C%clonic #recipitation
Precipitation in plain regions is generally cyclonic in character. .yclones are of two
general classes, tropical and etra/tropical, so called depending upon whether they occur
within or %eyond the tropics. In as much as all cyclones occurring in the Indo/Pak
Su%continent are of tropical variety. This kind alone will %e discussed here. ?oreover,
cause of these storms is not of primary concern ecept if it affects the precipitation.
Tropical cyclones are violent storms which are generally formed in the ward maritime air/
mass of low latitude where the temperature is high. These are known as typhoons or
cyclones when formed in the Indian >cean.
In the center of the cyclonic storm there is small low pressure air. The iso%ars around such
a low pressure are very nearly circular in shape. Their intensity is generally greater than
the etra/tropical cyclones. >n an average the tropical cyclones have a diameter of over
*!! to <!! miles. The wind speed around tropical cyclones may %e as high as '! to @!
miles per hour.
The winds around a tropical cyclone are practically parallel to the iso%ars. +s the center or
eye of the storm approaches, the high winds suddenly die down as practically dead calm
prevails at the center. The diameter of the eye of the storm is a%out "! miles. The winds
around the center of the storm %low almost in a circular path 8especially over the sea or
ocean where the frictional force is minimum9 and at the same time air is rising. The
vertical motion compels the air to %e cooled adia%atically. This air %eing humid,
condensation takes place rapidly, resulting copious rainfall and widespread thunderstorm.
>ver the center of the storm the weather is usually fair.
In the Indo/Pak Su%continent, the cyclonic storms form in the )ay of )engal in different
months. 5uring +pril, ?ay and =une most of these storms do not reach Pakistan. )ut
**
*<
some of them affect )angladesh and give very heavy rainfall there. 5uring the summer
monsoon season, the cyclonic storms reach Pakistan and are fed with moisture from the
+ra%ian sea resulting in heavy rainfall over the Aorthern areas of Pakistan. In Septem%er,
>cto%er and Aovem%er these storms are very destructive in )angladesh. Such storms
cause considera%le loss of life and property over the coastal districts. .yclonic storms also
form in +ra%ian sea %ut their num%er is far less.
MEASUREMENT OF PRECIPITATION
!mont of #recipitation
The amount of precipitation means the vertical depth of water that would accumulate on a
level surface, if the precipitation remains where it falls. The amount of precipitation is
measured in length units 8inches, ft., cm, etc.9.
&ntensit% or Rate of #recipitation
+mount of precipitation per unit time is called the intensity of precipitation or rate of
precipitation.
)oth the amount and rate of precipitation are important in hydrologic studies.
The precipitation is measured %y rain gauges. There are two types of rain gauges2
a. Aon/recording rain gauge. 8Standard rain gauge9
%. Becording rain gauge
The main difference %etween these rain gauges is that with the help of recording rain
gauges we get the rain recorded automatically with respect to time, so intensity of rain fall
is also known whereas an o%server has to take readings from non recording rain gauge for
rain and he has to record the time also, for calculation of intensity of rain fall.
a. 'on(Recording Rain Gages
The standard gauge of C.S. Weather )ureau has a collector of (!! mm diameter and '!!
mm height. Bain passes from a collector into a cylindrical measuring tu%e inside the
overflow can. The measuring tu%e has a cross sectional area #$#!
th
of the collector, so that
(." mm rain fall will fill the tu%e to (" mm depth. + measuring stick is marked in such a
way that #$#!
th
of a cm depth can %e measured. In this way net rainfall can %e measured to
the nearest # mm. The collector and tu%e are removed when snow is epected. The snow
collected in the outer container or overflow can is melted, poured into the measuring tu%e
and then measured. This type of rain gauge is one of the most commonly used rain gauge.
*<
*"
Fig. *.# Aon/Becording Bain 0auge
Sorces of )rror
Bainfall measured %y the rain gauge might have some errors. For eample some water is
used to wet the surface of instrumentD the rain recorded may %e less than the actual rainfall
due to the direction of the rainfall as affected %y wind. 5ents in the collector and tu%e may
also cause error. Some water is a%sor%ed %y the measuring stick. 6osses due to
evaporation can also take place. The volume of stick replaces some water which causes
some error.
b. Recording Rain Gages
Becording rain gauges can %e divided into the following types2
i. Float type
ii. Weighing type
iii. Tipping %ucket type
i. *loat +%pe Rain Gage
This type of rain gauge also has a receiver and a float cham%er along with some recording
mechanism or arrangement. In this type the rain is led into a float cham%er containing a
light, hollow float. The vertical movement of the float as the level of water rises is
recorded on a chart with the help of a pen connected to float. The chart is wrapped
around a rotating clock driven drum. To provide a continuous record for (< hours the
float cham%er has either to %e very large, or some automatic means are provided for
emptying the float cham%er 1uickly when it %ecomes full, the pen then returning to the
*"
*'
%ottom of the chart. This is usually done with some sort of siphoning arrangement. This
arrangement activates when the gauge records a certain fied amount of rain 8mostly #!
mm of rainfall.9. Snow can not %e measured %y this type of rain gauge.
Fig. *.(
ii. Weighing +%pe Rain Gage
The weighing type rain gauge consists of a receiver, a %ucket, a spring %alance and some
recording arrangement. The weighing type gauge weighs the rain or snow which falls into
a %ucket which is set on a lever %alance. The weight of the %ucket and content is recorded
on a chart %y a clock driven drum. The record is in the form of a graph, one ais of which
is in depth units and the other has time. The records show the accumulation of
precipitation. Weighing type gauges operate from # to ( months without stopping. )ut
normally one chart is enough only for (< hours. This type of rain gauge has advantage of
measuring snow also. The receiver is removed when snow is epected. Figure *.* shows
schematic sketch of a weighing type rain gauge.
FIG 3.3
iii. +ipping ,cket +%pe Rain Gage
*'
*E
This type of gauge used at some Weather )ureau First >rder Stations, is e1uipped with a
remote recorder located inside the office which is away from the actual site. The gauge
has two compartments pivoted in such a way that one compartment receives rain at one
time. + certain amount of rain 8usually !.(" mm fills one compartment and over %alances
it so that it tips, emptying into a reservoir and %ringing the second compartment of the
%ucket into place %eneath the funnel of receiver. +s the %ucket is tipped %y each !.(" mm
of rain it actuates an electrical circuit, causing a pen to mark on a revolving drum. This
type of gauge is not suita%le for measuring snow without heating the collector. Plotting is
similar to that of other recording rain gauges. + Tipping )ucket Type Bain 0auge is
shown in Figure *.<.
Fig. *.< tipping %ucket type rain guage
SOURCES OF ERROR
+ll sources of error are similar to those of non/recording rain gauges ecept the error due
to stick. These are mentioned again as %elow2
a. 5ents in the collector.
%. ?oistening of inside/surface of the funnel and the tu%e.
*E
*F
c. Bain drops splashing from the collector.
d. For very intense rain some water is still pouring into the already filled %ucket.
e. Inclination of the gauge may result in catching less or more rain than the actual
amount.
f. 7rror in measurement due to wind.
Remedial measures for errors in precipitation measurement
Bemoval of error due to dents o%viously needs repair of the instrument. For rain recorded
with dents a correction should %e applied. 7rrors such as moistening of the inside surfaces
of the gauge, splashing of rainwater from the collector and pouring of water into the
already filled %ucket during an intense rain can only %e corrected %y some correction
factor. Inclined instrument needs to %e reinstalled. The correction factor however can %e
calculated from the angle of inclination. For wind protection certain wind shields are
designed and used which are called Splash 0uards. Proper setting of gauge a%ove ground
level is necessary.
Example 3.1
+ rain gauge recorded #(" mm of precipitation. It was found later that the gauge was
inclined at an angle of (! degree with the vertical. Find the actual precipitation.
Solution
P8measured9 G #(" mm
+ngle of inclination 8H9 G (!
o
with the vertical
P
8actual9
G P
8measured9
$cos8H9 G #("$cos(!
o
G #** mm
Measrement of #recipitation b% Radar
This is a modern techni1ue for measurement of rainfall rate. It can also detect local
movement of areas of precipitation. The electromagnetic energy released and received
%ack %y radar is a measure of rainfall intensity. The measurement is apprecia%ly affected
%y trees and %uildings. -owever etent of rainfall can %e estimated with reasona%le
accuracy. Cse of radar is useful where num%er of rain gauges installed in an area is not
sufficient.
Rain Gage 'etwork
The num%er of rain gauges and their distri%ution affect the nature of collected
precipitation data. The larger the num%er of rain gauges the more representative will %e
the data colleted. )ut on the other hand we have to o%serve other factors also, like
economy of the project, accessi%ility of certain areas and topography of the area. So, one
has to look for some optimum solution. In this regard the World ?eteorological
*F
*@
>rgani&ation 8W?>9 has made following recommendations for minimum num%er of rain
gauges in a catchment2
a. In comparatively flat regions of temperate, ?editerranean and Tropical Iones, the
ideal is at least one station for (*! J *<" s1. miles. -owever one station for
*<" J ##"" s1. miles is also accepta%le
%. In mountainous regions of Temperate, ?editerranean and Tropical Iones, the
ideal is at least one station for *" J @" s1. miles. -owever one station for @" J *F"
s1. miles is also accepta%le.
c. In arid and polar &ones, one station for "E" J *F'! s1. miles is accepta%le
ANALYSIS OF PRECIPITATION DATA
Point Data Analysis
Point precipitation data refers to precipitation of a station. This data could %e in form of
hourly record, daily record, monthly precipitation or annual precipitation. 5epending upon
the nature of catchment and its area, there could %e as many gauging stations as feasi%le.
)efore using records from a rain gauge we should check its continuity and consistency.
Becord may not %e continuous and consistent due to many reasons as eplained in the
following paragraphs. This section deals with estimation of any missing records at a
particular gauging station, checking consistency of data and its adjustment accordingly.

-. )S+&M!+&$' $* M&SS&'G #R)C&#&+!+&$' R)C$RD
Some precipitation stations may have short %reaks in the records %ecause of a%sence of
the o%server or %ecause of instrumental failures. It is often necessary to estimate this
missing record. In the procedure used %y the C.S. Weather )ureau, the missing
precipitation of a station is estimated from the o%servations of precipitation at some other
stations as close to and as evenly spaced around the station with the missing record as
possi%le. There are two methods for estimation of missing data / +rithmetic mean method
and Aormal ratio method.
The station whose data is missing is called interpolation station and gauging stations
whose data are used to calculate the missing station data are called inde stations.
If the normal annual precipitation of the inde stations lies within ±#!K of normal annual
precipitation of interpolation station then we apply arithmetic mean method to determine
the missing precipitation record otherwise the normal ratio method is used for this
purpose.
.onsider that record is missing from a station LM3.
*@
<!
Aow let,
AG Aormal annual precipitation.

8?ean of *! years of annual precipitation

data9
P G Storm Precipitation.
6et P

%e the missing precipitation for station LM3 and A

, the normal annual precipitation
of this station, A
a
, A
%
and A
c
are normal annual precipitations of near%y three stations, +,
) and . respectively while P
a
, P
%
and P
c
are the storm precipitation

of that period for these
stations.
Aow we have to compare A

with A
a ,
A
%
and A
c
separately. If difference of A

/ A
a
, A

/
A
%
, A

/ A
c
is within #$#!K of A

then we use simple arithmetic mean method otherwise
the normal ratio method is used.
Simple !rithmetic Mean Method
+ccording to the arithmetic mean method the missing precipitation is given as2
P

G P
n
i
n i
i

=
=#
#
where n is num%er of near%y stations.
In case of three stations #, ( and *,
P

G 8P
#
, P
(
, P
*
9$*
and naming stations as +, ) and . instead of #, ( and *
P

G 8P
a
, P
%
, P
c
9$*
Where P
a
, P
%
and P
c
are defined a%ove.
'ormal Ratio Method
+ccording to the normal ratio method the missing precipitation is given as2
P

G
P
N
N
n
i
n i
i i
x

=
=#
#

where P

is the missing precipitation for any storm at the interpolation station LM3. P
i
is the
precipitation. for the same period for the same storm at the :ith; station of a group of
inde stations and A

and A
i
are the normal annual precipitation values for the LM3 and
Lith3 stations for eample for the sym%ols defined a%ove for three inde stations in a
catchment area.
<!
<#
P

G N O
*
#
*
*
(
(
#
#
P
N
N
P
N
N
P
N
N
x x x
+ +
Example 3.2
Find out the missing storm precipitation of station L.3 given in the following ta%le2
Station
+ ) . 5 7
Storm precipitation 8cm9
@.E F.* //// ##.E F.!
Aormal +nnual precipitation 8cm9
#!!.* #!@." @*." #(".E ##E."
Solution
In this eample the storm precipitation and normal annual precipitations at stations +, ),
5 and 7 are given and missing precipitation at station L.3 is to %e calculated whose
normal annual precipitation is known. We will determine first that whether arithmetic
mean or normal ratio method is to %e applied.

#!K of A
c
G @*."#!$#!! G @.*"

+fter the addition of #!K of Ac in Ac, we get @*." , @.*"G#!(.F"
+nd %y su%tracting #!K we get a value of F<.#"
So A
a
, A
%
, A
d
or A
e
values are to %e checked for the range #!(.F" to F<.#".
If any value of A
a
, A
%
, A
d
or A
e
lies %eyond this range, then normal ratio method would %e
used. It is clear from data in ta%le a%ove that A
%
, A
d
and A
e
values are out of this range so
the normal ratio method is applica%le here, according to which
P

G
P
N
N
n
i
n i
i i
x

=
=#
#
P
c
G 8#$< 98@*." @.E$#!!.*, @*." F.*$#!@.", @*." ##.E$#(".E, @*."
F.!$##E."9 G E.F cm
<#
<(
Example 3.3
Precipitation station :M; was inoperative for part of a month during which a storm
occured. The storm totals at three surrounding stations +, ) and . were respectively
#!.E, F.@ and #(.( cm. The normal annual precipitation amounts at stations M, +, ) and .
are respectively @E.F, ##(, @*." and ##@.@ cm. 7stimate the storm precipitation for
station LM3.
Solution
Pa G #!.E cm Aa G ##( cm
P% G F.@! cm A% G @*." cm
Pc G #(.( cm Ac G ##@.@ cm
P G P A G @E.F cm
#!K of A G @E.F #!$#!! G @.EF cm.
∴ A / Aa G @E.F / ##( G /#<.( cm ⇒ ?ore than , #!K of A 8no need of
calculating A J A% and A / Ac
So we will use Aormal Batio ?ethod.
∴ P G 8#$*98 @E.F #!.E$##(, @E.F F.@! $@*." , @E.F #(.( $##@.@9
P G @." cm
.. Consistenc% of #recipitation Data or Doble Mass !nal%sis
In using precipitation in the solution of hydrologic pro%lems, it is necessary to ascertain
that time trends in the data are due to meteorological changes. Quite fre1uently these
trends are the result of the changes in the gauge location, changes in the intermediate
surroundings such as construction of %uildings or growth of trees, etc. and changes in the
o%servation techni1ues. Fre1uently changes in gauge location are not disclosed in the
pu%lished record. 5ue to such changes the data might not %e consistent. The consistency
of the record then is re1uired to %e determined and the necessary adjustments %e made.
This can %e achieved %y the method called the dou%le mass curve techni1ue.
The dou%le mass curve is o%tained %y plotting the accumulated precipitation at the station
in 1uestion along M/ais and the average accumulated precipitation of a num%er of other
near%y stations which are situated under the same meteorological conditions along R/ais.
If the curve has a constant slope, the record of station :M; is consistent. -owever, if
there is any %reak in the slope of the curve, the record of the station is inconsistent and
has to %e adjusted %y the formula.
<(
<*
P
a
G 8S
a
$ S
o
9 P
o
Where P
a
G +djusted precipitation.
P
o
G >%served precipitation.
S
a
G Slope prior to the %reak in the curve
S
o
G Slope after the %reak in the curve.
+ll values after %reak are to %e adjusted.
Example 3.4
.heck consistency of the data given in ta%le *.# %elow and adjust it if it is found to %e
inconsistent
Ta%le *.# Precipitation 5ata
Rear +nnual
precipitation at
8mm9
?ean of annual
precipitation of (!
surrounding stations
8mm9
Rear +nnual
precipitation at
8mm9
?ean of annual
precipitation of
(! surrounding
stations 8mm9
1972
#FF ('<
195
((* *'!
1971
#F" ((F
195!
#E* (*<
197"
*#! *F'
1952
(F( ***
19#9
(@" (@E
1951
(#F (*'
19#$
(!F (F<
195"
(<' ("#
19#7
(FE *"!
199
(F< (F<
19##
#F* (*'
19$
<@* *'#
19#5
*!< *E#
197
*(! (F(
19#
((F (*<
19#
(E< ("(
19#!
(#' (@!
195
*(( (E<
19#2
((< (F(
19
<*E *!(
19#1
(!* (<'
19!
*F@ *"!
19#"
(F< ('<
192
*!" ((F
1959
(@" **(
191
*(! *#(
195$
(!' (*#
19"
*(F (F<
1957
('@ (*<
19!9
*!F *#"
195#
(<# (*#
19!$
*!( (F!
1955
(F< *#(
19!7
<#< *<*
<*
<<
Solution
+ dou%le mass curve is plotted %y taking cumulative of average precipitation of
surrounding stations along /ais and accumulative precipitation of station LM3 along
y/ais for which consistency of data is %eing investigated.
The dou%le mass curve is shown in Figure *.#
"
2"""
"""
#"""
$"""
1""""
12"""
" 2""" """ #""" $""" 1"""" 12"""
Sa%".$5
S"%1.17#
Sa&S"%".7
Figure *." 5ou%le ?ass .urve
The correction for slope is applied to readings %eyond %reak in slope. The calculations are
shown in ta%le *.(, %elow.
Slope of Ist line G S
a
G !.F"<
Slope of deviating line G S
o
G #.#E'
.orrection to values 8multiplying factor9 G !.F"<$#.#E' G !.E!
Aow regime changes %efore #@"!. So up to #@"! no correction is re1uired. )efore #@"!
all readings are multiplied %y slopes ratio of !.E to get corrected precipitation. Aote that
data in latter interval 8#@E*/#@"!9 is considered more authentic so kept in initial reach of
the graph.
<<
<"
Ta%le *.( +djusted Precipitation
Rear .umulative +nnual
precipitation at 8mm9
.umulative precipitation of (!
surrounding stations 8mm9
.orrected
Precipitation
R'(a)*s
1972 1$$ 2# 1$$
N
o

+
o
)
)
'
+
t
i
o
n
1971 !7! 92 1$5
197" #$! $7$ !1"
19#9 97$ 1175 295
19#$ 11$# 159 2"$
19#7 17! 1$"9 2$7
19## 1#5# 2"5 1$!
19#5 19#" 21# !"
19# 21$$ 2#5" 22$
19#! 2" 29" 21#
19#2 2#2$ !222 22
19#1 2$!1 !#$ 2"!
19#" !115 !7!2 2$
1959 !1" "# 295
195$ !#1# 295 2"#
1957 !$$5 529 2#9
195# 12# 7#" 21
1955 1" 5"72 2$
195 #!! 5!2 22!
195! $"# 5### 17!
1952 5"$$ 5999 2$2
1951 5!"# #2!5 21$
195" 5552 #$# 2#
199 5$!# #77" 19".$
P
)
'
+
i
,
i
t
a
t
i
o
n

o
-

S
t
a
t
i
o
n

.
/
.

0
"
.
7
19$ #!29 71!1 !5
197 ##9 71! 22
19# #92! 7##5 192
195 725 79!9 225.
19 7#$2 $21 !"#
19! $"71 $591 272.!
192 $!7# $$19 21!.5
191 $#9# 91!1 22
19" 9"2 915 229.#
19!9 9!!2 97!" 215.#
19!$ 9#! 1""1" 211.
19!7 1""$ 1"!5! 29"
<"
<'
!real #recipitation Data !nal%sis
To find out runoff from a catchment and most of other hydrologic analyses, it is important
to know the average precipitation of a certain part of catchment or for the whole of the
catchment area. To find out average precipitation of watershed records of precipitation
from different rain gauge stations is used. There are many factors which affect the
relia%ility of average precipitation of watershed determined %y using the data from
individual stations in the watershed. For eample 2 the total num%er of rain gauges and
their distri%ution in the catchment 8larger the num%er of rain gauges, the relia%le will %e
the calculated average precipitation9, the si&e and shape of area of catchment, distri%ution
of rainfall over the area and topography of the area. 6astly the method used for
determining the average precipitation is also one of these factors. So %efore using average
precipitation in hydrologic analyses, the user should %e aware of these factors.
Estimation of Average Precipitation over A Basin
.onversion of point precipitation of various gauging stations into average precipitation of
that area a great eperience and skill is re1uired. There are three methods to find average
precipitation over a %asin. +ccuracy of estimated average precipitation will depend upon
the choice of an appropriate method. These methods are descri%ed %elow2
i. !rithmetic Mean Method
In this method the average precipitation over an area is the arithmetic average of the
gauge precipitation values. We take data for only those stations which are within the
%oundary. This is the simplest method %ut can %e applica%le only for flat areas and not for
the hilly areas i.e. this method is used when2
a. )asin area is flat and
%. +ll stations with in practical limits are uniformly distri%uted over the area.
c. The rainfall is also nearly uniformly distri%uted over the area.
+ccording to this method
P 8average9 G ∑ 





=
n
i
i
P
n
#
#
or
P
av
G OP
#
,P
(
,P
*
,SSSS,P
n
N$n
Where P
i
is precipitation at station Li3 and there are Ln3 num%er of gauges installed in the
catchment area from where the data has %een collected.
<'
<E
Example 3.5
Si rain gauges were installed in a relatively flat area and storm precipitation from these
gauges was recorded as *.E, <.@, '.F, ##.<, E.' and #(.E cm respectively from gauges #, (,
*, <, ", and '. Find average precipitation over the catchment.
Solution
+s the area is relatively flat so we apply the arithmetic mean method. +ccording to
arithmetic mean method
P8average9 G 8*.E , <.@ , '.F , ##.< , E.' , #(.E9$' G E.F" cm.
ii. +hiessen #ol%gon Method/(
The fundamental principle followed in this method consists of weighing the values at each
station %y a suita%le proportion of the %asin area. In this method, a special weighing
factor is considered.
The following steps are used to determine average precipitation %y Thiessen Polygon
?ethod.
#. 5raw the given area according to a certain scale and locate the stations where
measuring devices are installed.
(. =oin all the stations to get a network of non/intersecting system of triangles.
*. 5raw perpendicular %isectors of all the lines joining the stations and get a suita%le
network of polygons, each enclosing one station. It is assumed that precipitation
over the area enclosed %y the polygon is uniform.
<. ?easure area of the each polygon.
". .alculate the average precipitation. For the whole %asin %y the formula
P
8average9
G 8P
#
+
#
, P
(
+
(
, ..........., P
n
+
n
9$+
Where,
P
#
G Precipitation. at station enclosed %y polygon of area +
#
P
(
G Precipitation. at station enclosed %y polygon of area +
(
and so on
P
n
G

Precipitation. at station enclosed %y polygon of area +
n
+nd L+3 represents the total area of the catchment.
<E
<F
Example 3.6:
Following is shown map of a catchment having ' rainfall recording stations Fig. *.'.
Fig. *.' +verage Precipitation %y Theissen Polygon ?ethod
Find the +verage Precipitation over the whole catchment.
The recorded precipitations are shown on the topographic map of the catchment. The
Thiessen3s Polygons are constructed %y the method eplained a%ove. The precipitation
and polygon area are given %elow.
Station Precipitation 8mm9 Polygon +rea 8kmT9
Da11a)
$
52"#$.7#
3's4a(
!!
2!9.17
S4in*ia)i
25
12!99.25
P45l)a
!2
12#9!.$"
Ta)b'la
5#
2219#.!!
O14i
!"
222!.29
Soltion
The calculations are %est done in ta%ular form as shown in Ta%le *.*.
<F
<@
Ta%le *.* +verage Precipitation %y Thiessen Polygon ?ethod
Station Precipitation P
(mm)
Polygon Area A
(km²)
PxA
(x10
6
m³)
Da11a) $ 52"#$.7# 2!.!"
3's4a( !! 2!9.17 1!.52
S4in*ia)i 25 12!99.25 !.9$
P45l)a !2 12#9!.$" 5.2"
Ta)b'la 5# 2219#.!! 122.99
O14i !" 222!.29 #7."!
Total 1#291.#" ###."2
?ean Precipitation G


=
=
=
=
n i
i
i
Ai
#
n i
#
Pi+i

G '''.!(#!
'
#!U$#'@<#.'!#!
'

G *@.* mm
Example 3.7
From the data given in Ta%le *.< %elow, which was o%tained from Thiessen Polygon map
of a catchment, find out the average precipitation of the catchment.
Ta%le *.< Precipitation 5ata
Sr
Ao
0auge
precipitation
8cm9
+rea of Thiessen
Polygon enclosing the
station
8s1. km9
Sr Ao 0auge
precipitation
8cm9
+rea of Thiessen
Polygon enclosing
the station
8s1. km9
# #!.( <#' < @.< "(!
( F.# ('! " #".( *@!
* #(.E '"! ' E.' *("
Solution
+ccording to Thiessen Polygon ?ethod
P
8average9
G 8P
#
+
#
, P
(
+
(
, ..........., P
n
+
n
9$+
The calculations are shown in ta%ular form in Ta%le *."
Ta%le *." +verage Precipitation %y Thiessen ?ethod
0auge precipitation
8cm9
+rea of Thiessen Polygon enclosing the station
8s1. km9
4olume G Pi+i
8#!
<
mU9
8#9 G P
i
8(9 G +
i
8*9 G 8#98(9
<@
"!
#!.( <#' <(<*.(!
F.# ('! (#!'.!!
#(.E '"! F("".!!
@.< "(! <FFF.!!
#".( *@! "@(F.!!
E.' *(" (<E!.!!
Total 2561 27890.20
So P
8average9
G (EF@!.(! V ("'#G#!.@ cm
Example 3.8:
There are #! o%servation stations, E %eing inside and * in neigh%orhood of a catchment.
Thiessen Polygons were drawn for a storm data from these o%servation stations and the
data given in Ta%le *.' %elow was o%tained. Find out the average precipitation of the
catchment.
Ta%le *.' +verage Precipitation %y Thiessen ?ethod
Sr Ao 0auge precipitation 8cm9 +rea of Thiessen Polygon enclosing
the station 8s1. km9
# " #!!
( * #'!
* < (!!
< *." (#"
" <.E ("!
' ' #E"
E < #!!
"!
"#
Solution
+ccording to Thiessen Polygon ?ethod
P
8average9
G 8P
#
+
#
, P
(
+
(
, ..........., P
n
+
n
9$+
0auge precipitation
8cm9
+rea of Thiessen Polygon enclosing the
station 8s1. km9
4olume G Pi+i 8#!
<
mU9
8#9 G P
i
8(9 G +
i
8*9 G 8#98(9
" #!! "!!
* #'! <F!
< (!! F!!
*." (#" E"(."!
<.E ("! ##E"
' #E" #!"!
< #!! <!!
Total 1200 5157.50
So P
8average9
G "#"E." V #(!! G <.* cm
iii. &soh%etal Method
The most accurate method of averaging precipitation over an area is the isohyetal method.
For estimation of average precipitation of the catchment %y isohyetal method the
following steps are used
#. 5raw the map of the area according to a certain scale.
(. 6ocate the points on map where precipitation measuring gauges are installed.
*. Write the amount of precipitation for stations.
<. 5raw isohyets 86ines joining points of e1ual precipitation9.
". ?easure area enclosed %etween every two isohyets or the area enclosed %y an
isohyet and %oundary of the catchment.
'. Find average precipitation %y the formula.
P
8average9
G 8P
#
+
#
, P
(
+
(
, ..........., P
n
+
n
9$+
Where,
P
#
G ?ean precipitation of two isohyets # and (
+
#
G +rea %etween these two isohyets.
P
(
G ?ean precipitation of two isohyets ( and *
+
(
G the area %$w these two isohyets.
"#
"(
and, so on
P
n
G ?ean precipitation of isohyets n/# and n
+
n
G the area %etween these two isohyets.
It may %e noted that the last and first areas mentioned a%ove may %e %etween an isohyet
and %oundary of the catchment. In this case the precipitation at the %oundary line is
re1uired which may %e etrapolated or interpolated.
Example 3.9
From the data given in ta%le *.E %elow, which was o%tained from isohyetal map of a
catchment, find out the average precipitation of the catchment.
Ta%le 7*.E 5ata from Isohyetal ?ap.
Isohyet No Isohyetal precipitation (cm) rea enclose! "et#een t#o isohyets.
(s$ %m)
# (." *@!
( ".! "(!
* E." '"!
< #!.! *@!
" #!.! *@!
' E." <<(
E ".! "<'
F (."
Aote that the isohyet Ao. # and F were out of the %oundary of the catchment. The area
%etween isohyet Ao. ( and the %oundary was estimated to %e *#( s1. km and that of
%etween isohyet Ao. F and %oundary was <@< s1. km. Precipitation on these %oundaries
was interpolated as *.! and *.# cm, respectively.
Solution
In isohyetal method we have to calculate the average precipitation of every two
consecutive isohyets. This is given in Ta%le 7*.F %elow2
Ta%le 7*.F +verage Precipitation %y Isohyetal ?ethod
Isohyet
No
Isohyetal
precipitation
(cm)
verage o&
precipitation o&
t#o consec'tive
rea enclose!
"et#een t#o
isohyets
(ol'me
()10
*
m+)
"(
"*
isohyets (cm) (s$ %m)
8#9 8(9 8*9 8<9 8"9 G 8*9 8<9
# (." * 8for isohyet
and %oundary9
*#( 8for isohyet
and %oundary9
@*'.!!
( ".! '.(" "(! *("!.!!
* E." F.E" '"! "'FE."!
< #!.! #!.! *@! *@!!.!!
" #!.! F.E" *@! *<#(."!
' E." '.(" <<( (E'(."!
E ".! *.# 8for isohyet
and %oundary9
"<' 8for isohyet
and %oundary9
#'@(.'!
F (."
, -250 216*1.1
P
8average9
G 8P
#
+
#
, P
(
+
(
, ..........., P
n
+
n
9$+
G (#'<#.#$*("!G'.'' cm
Example 3.10
In a catchment of area #,!!! s1 km, there are F rain gauges, " inside the area and *
outside, in its surroundings. Isohyets were drawn from the data of these rain gauges for a
storm. From the isohyetal map the following information was o%tained2 areas %etween #
and ( cm isohyets, ( and * cm, * and < cm and < and " cm isohyets was #!", (*!, #"!
and ((! s1. km, respectively. The area %etween one end %oundary which has !.E" cm
rainfall and # cm isohyet was #(! s1. km and the other end %oundary which has
precipitation of "." cm and isohyet of " cm was #E" s1. km. Find average precipitation.
"*
"<
Solution
In the isohyetal method we have to calculate the average precipitation of every two
consecutive isohyets. This is given in Ta%le *.@ %elow.
Ta%le 7*.@ +verage Precipitation %y Isohyetal ?ethod
Isohyet
No
Isohyetal
precipitation
(cm)
verage o&
precipitation o&
t#o consec'tive
isohyets (cm)
rea enclose!
"et#een t#o
isohyets
(s$ %m)
(ol'me
()10
*
m+)
)oundary !.E"
!.FE" 8for isohyet
and %oundary9
#(! 8for isohyet
and %oundary9
#!".!!
# # #." #!" #"E."!
( ( (." (*! "E".!!
* * *." #"! "(".!!
< < <." ((! @@!.!!
" "
".("8for isohyet and
%oundary9
#E" @#F.E"
)oundary "."
, 1000.00 -271.25
P
8average9
G 8P
#
+
#
, P
(
+
(
, ..........., P
n
+
n
9$+
G *(E#.("$#!!!
G*.(E cm
"<
""
Example 3.11:
From the isohyetal map shown in Fig. *.* %elow find out average precipitation.

Fig. 3.7 Isohyetal Map
Solution:
The isohyets are drawn on the topographic map %y interpolating rainfall depths at given
stations. >nce isohyets are drawn, the area enclosed %etween consecutive isohyets is
determined either %y planimeter or other suita%le more precise method.
The calculations for average precipitation are given in ta%le *.#! %elow.
""
"'
Ta%le *.#! +verage Precipitation %y Isohyetal ?ethod
Isohyte value
(mm)
Av Isohyte
!alue
(mm)
Area "et#een
$onsecutive
Isohytes
(km²)
!olume
(x10
6
m³)
3o5n6a)y an6 25 25." !1".5! 7.7#
25 an6 !" 27.5 222".71 #1."7
!" an6 !5 !2.5 29#$.!$ 9#.7
!5 an6 " !7.5 22!1.$# $!.#9
" an6 5 2.5 2!"!.52 97.9"
5 an6 5" 7.5 27!1.9" 129.77
5" an6 55 52.5 2#$9.7" 11.21
55 an6 3o5n6a)y 55 1$.99 $1.#7
Total 1#291.#" #99.5
?ean Precipitation 5epth G 4olume$+rea
G '@@."<#!
'
#!U$#'@<#.'!#!
'

G <#.(@ mm
INENSI! OF "RECI"I#ION
The rate of occurrence of precipitation is called intensity of precipitation or precipitation
occurring in unit time is known as intensity of precipitation.
To find out intensity of a certain interval the points on graph of accumulative
precipitation vs time are chosen in such a way that we get the maimum difference for the
given interval. It is eplained in the following eample.
Example 3.1$
Find out intensity of precipitation of ", #! W #" minutes for rainfall data given in
Ta%le *.##.
Table 3.11 Rainfall Data
Time 8?inutes9
∑P 8cm9
! !!
!" #(."
#! (!
#" <(."
(! '(."
Solution
For "/minutes interval the maimum difference is ((."
"'
"E
so, intensity for "/minutes interval G ((." $ " G <." cm$min.
For #!/minutes intensity G <(." $ #! G <.(" cm$min.
For #"/minutes intensity G "! $ #" G *.** cm$min.
Depth ( !rea Relationships
The distri%ution of rainfall is usually not uniform over the area. The precipitation is
maimum at the centre of storm and decreases as we move away from the centre of storm.
For rainfall of a given duration, the average depth decreases with the area in an
eponential manner.
Mass Cr"e
Precipitation recorded %y a weighing type and float type recording rain gauge is in form of
a graph. It is a plot of cumulative precipitation against time in chronological order. This is
called mass curve of rainfall data. Intensity of rainfall for a certain duration is determined
from this graph. This graph gives a complete history of a storm regarding the duration and
magnitude of precipitation. In the case of non/recording rain gauges the mass curve is to
%e plotted from the data in which %oth duration and magnitude of precipitation have %een
o%served for different time intervals during storm.
%ept&'#rea'%uration Cur(es
+nalysis of %oth the time and areal distri%ution of a storm is re1uired in many hydrologic
studies. 5epth area duration curves provide re1uisite information for such studies. It is
necessary to have information on the maimum amount of precipitation of various
durations occurring over various si&es of areas. The development of a relationship
%etween maimum depth/area/duration for a region is called depth area duration analysis
85+5 analysis9. In this analysis first the isohyetal maps and mass curves of worst storms
which have occurred in past in the region are prepared. For a storm with a single major
centre the isohyets are taken as the %oundaries of individual area. The average storm
precipitation within each isohyet is computed. The storm total is distri%uted through
successive increments of time 8say * hours9 in accordance with the distri%ution record at
near%y stations. This gives data showing the time distri%ution of average rainfall over
areas of various si&es. From this data the maimum rainfall for various durations 8*, ', @,
#( hours9 can %e selected for each si&e of area. The maimum values for every duration
plotted versus area gives what are called depth area duration curves.
Typical depth/area/duration curves are shown in figure *.F.
"E
"F
%ept& #rea %uration Cur(es
"
5"
1""
15"
2""
" 5""" 1"""" 15""" 2""""
#rea )*m+,
E
U
%

)
m
m
,
# 4o5) )ain 12 4o5) )ain 2 4o5) )ain
Fig. *.F Typical 5epth +rea .urves
E-#."/E 3.13:
The isohyetal map shown in Fig *.@ is for #! hour storm over a catchment area. +rea
enclosed %etween two consecutive isohyets is shown on the map and isohyetal interval is "
cm with storm center having precipitation of *! cm. Find2
a. The average precipitation of the catchment %y isohyetal method
%. The 71uivalent Cniform 5epth of rain for depth area duration curve.
!" +(
5 +(
1" +(
15 +(
2" +(
25 +(
A)'a
En+los'6
7s8.*(9
!"
25 an6 !"
2" an6 25
15 an6 2"
1" an6 15
5 an6 1"
#"
1""
9"
1!"
2""
""
Iso4yt' 7+(9
Fig. *.@ Isohyet ?ap
"F
"@
Solution
The calculations are performed in Ta%le *.#*. The average precipitation is found %y
summing up area enclosed %y consecutive isohyets multiplied %y average isohyte value and
whole sum divided %y total area.
The 7C5 is found %y dividing cumulative volume %y cumulative area. The Fig. *.#!
shows variation of 7C5 with area.
Table 3.13 Finding !D
Iso&0te )cm, #rea
enclosed
)*m+,
Cumm.
#rea
enclosed
)*m+,
.ean
Iso&0te
)cm,
1olume
)x12
6
,
Cumm.
1olume
)x12
6
,
EU%
)cm,
1 $ 3 3 4 6 56673
!" #" #"
!".""

1$.""
1$."" !".""
!" : 25 1"" 1#"
27.5"

27.5"
5.5" 2$.
25 : 2" 9" 25"
22.5"

2".25
#5.75 2#.!"
2" : 15 1!" !$"
17.5"

22.75
$$.5" 2!.29
15 : 1" 2"" 5$"
12.5"

25.""
11!.5" 19.57
1" : 5 "" 9$"
7.5"

!".""
1!.5" 1.#

.ean "recipitation 6 13.63 cm
"@
'!
;
5
1"
15
2"
25
!"
!5
" 2"" "" #"" $"" 1""" 12""
Cumm. #rea )*m+,
E
U
%

)
c
m
,
Fig. *.#! 5epth/+rea .urve
E-#."/E 3.13:
Plot depth area duration curves from the rainfall data for si stations given in Ta%le *.#<
%A&'
&I('
()*+,S
)
S&A&I*- . P,'$IPI&A&I*-
"'S)A( P)+/,A %A00A, *0)I S)I-1IA,I &A,"'/A
1#;"2;2""! " ; ; ; ; ; ;
1 ; ; ; ; ; ;
2 ; ; ; ; ; ;
! ; ; ; ; ; ;
; ; ; ; ; ;
5 ; ; ; ; ; ;
# ; ; ; ; 1 ;
7 1 ; ; ; ; ;
$ ; ; ; ; ; ;
9 1 ; ; ; ; ;
1" 2 1 2 ! ; ;
11 2 2 2 2 1 ;
12 ! ! 1 2 !
1! ! ! 1 1 2 #
1 2 2 1 2 2
15 2 1 2 ! ! 2
1# 1 2 1 2 1 ;
17 2 1 1 ! 1 ;
1$ 1 1 1 ! ; ;
19 1 ; 1 ! ; ;
2" 1 ; 2 2 ; ;
21 2 ; 2 ! ; ;
22 ! 2 2 ; !
2! 5 ! 1 ! !
'!
'#
2 ; ! 1 ! 2
17;"2;2""! 1 ! ! ! 5 ;
2 5 ! 2 ! 1
! 5 ! 1 2 ;
$ ! 5 1 ;
5 ! 1 # ; ;
# 1 1 ! ! ; 1
7 ! 1 2 ! ; 1
$ ! # 2 2 ! $
9 2 ; 9 2 5
1" 2 ; 9 ! 5
11 7 5 # # 1
12 ! 11 5 ; $
1! # # 7 !
1 9 $ ! #
15 5 5 ! # $
1# 5 # # # ! 9
17 5 ! $ 5 $
1$ 5 5 9 5 1 9
19 ! 1" 5 ! 1"
2" 5 9 15
21 5 9 5 9
%A&'
&I('
()*+,S
)
S&A&I*- . P,'$IPI&A&I*-
"'S)A( P)+/,A %A00A, *0)I S)I-1IA,I &A,"'/A
22 # 5 $ 7 # 11
2! # $ 7 5 #
2 7 9 # 5
1$;"2;2""! 1 5 # ! 5
2 5 $ ! # 1
! ! 5 2 # $ ;
2 2 5 9 1
5 2 5 1 7 1 ;
# 1 ; 1 1" 5 ;
7 ! ; 1 # # ;
$ 5 5 1 9 ! ;
9 ! 7 ; 1" # 1
1" 1 2 ; 9 7 #
11 1 5 1 5 5
12 ! ! 1 # #
1! ! 1 ! 9
1 5 2 5 1 1 #
15 5 2 2 5 2 1
1# 1" 5 1 ! !
17 2 5
1$ 1 2 ; 2 1 2
19 1 ; 1 5 !
2" 2 # ; ! 5
21 ! 5 ; 2 !
22 2 ! 1 ;
2! 1 1 2 5 ;
2 ; 1 ! 2 ! ;
19;"2;2""! 1 ! 1 ! 2 1 !
2 2 2 2 5 ; ;
'#
'(
! 1 1 2 1 ! ;
2 2 1 1 ; 1
5 1 1 1 2 ; ;
# 1 1 1 1 1 ;
7 1 1 1 1 1 1
$ 2 2 ; 1 1
9 1 2 1 ! !
1" 2 2 2 1 5
11 ! 1 2 2 ; !
12 1 ; 2 1 ; 1
1! 2 ; 1 1 ; 1
1 ; ; 1 ; ; 2
15 ; ; ; ; ; ;
1# ; ; ; ; ; ;
17 ; ; ; ; ; ;
1$ ; ; ; ; ; ;
19 ; ; ; ; ; ;
2" ; ; ; ; ; ;
21 ; ; ; ; ; 1
22 ; ; ; 1 ; 1
2! ; ; ; 1 ; 1
2 ! ; ; 1 ; ;
%A&'
&I('
()*+,S
)
S&A&I*- . P,'$IPI&A&I*-
"'S)A( P)+/,A %A00A, *0)I S)I-1IA,I &A,"'/A
2";"2;2""! 1 ; ; ; 1 ; ;
2 ; ; ; 2 ; ;
! 1 1 " ; ; 2
2 1 " ; 5 ;
5 1 1 1 1 ; ;
# 1 1 " 1 ; ;
7 ; 1 " 1 ; ;
$ ! ; 2 1 1 ;
9 1 ; ; 1 ; ;
1" 1 ; ; ; ; ;
11 ; ; 1 ; ; ;
12 ; ; ; ; ; ;
1! ; ; ; 2 ; ;
1 ; 1 ; 1 ; ;
15 ; ; ; ; ; ;
1# ; ; ; ; ; ;
17 ; ; ; ; ; ;
1$ ; ; ; ; ; ;
19 ; ; 1 ; ; ;
2" ; ; ; ; ; ;
21 ; ; ; ; ; ;
22 ; ; ; ; ; ;
2! ; ; ; ; ; ;
2 ; ; ; ; ; ;
'(
'*
Solution
.tep 1/
First we plot average un/weighted mass curve for total rainfall over the whole catchment.
The calculations are shown in ta%le *.#" and figure *.##. Total precipitation is found %y
summing up precipitation recorded at individual stations for each hour of record. Similarly
average for precipitation is found %y averaging precipitation recorded at si stations. Aow
the average un/weighted mass curve is plotted %y taking time along /ais and cumulative
average precipitation along y/ais. The purpose of this plot is to find maimum
precipitation for ' hours, #( hours and (< hours rain over the whole catchment.
The maimum precipitation during selected intervals of ', #( and (< hours can also %e
found %y calculations. For eample for '/hour maimum rain total precipitation is added
for every ' consecutive hours. >nce it has %een done for all data maimum value is noted
along with the period in which it occurred. In this case, this value comes out to %e ((<
mm. Similarly total precipitation is summed for consecutive #( and (< hours. These values
come out to %e <#F mm and '@E mm. Aote that these are rains for all si given sections
for selected time interval.
Table 3.1" Depth A#ea D$#ation Analysis
%#E
I.E
)8OURS,
I.E
INER1#/
CU... I.E
6 S#ION "RECI". )mm, 6'8R 1$'8R $3'8R
O#/ #1. CU... #1. "RECI". "RECI". "RECI".
1#;"2;2""! " " " ; ; ;
1 1 1 ; ; ;
2 1 2 ; ; ;
! 1 ! ; ; ;
1 ; ; ;
5 1 5 ; ; ;
# 1 # 1 ".1# ".1#
7 1 7 1 ".1# ".!2
$ 1 $ ; ; "
9 1 9 1 ".1# ".#
1" 1 1" # 1.!! 1.$1
11 1 11 9 1.5 !.!1 2"
12 1 12 1# 2.#7 5.9$ !5
1! 1 1! 1# 2.#7 $.#5 5"
1 1 1 11 1.5 1".15 59
15 1 15 12 2.1# 12.!1 71
1# 1 1# # 1.1# 1!.7 7"
17 1 17 $ 1.!! 1.$ #9 $9
1$ 1 1$ # 1 15.$ 59 9
19 1 19 5 ".$! 1#.#! $ 9$
2" 1 2" ".$! 17.9# 1"!
21 1 21 # 1.1# 1$.#2 !$ 1"9
22 1 22 1 1.$! 2".5 2 112
2! 1 2! 1$ !.1# 2!.#1 5! 122
2 1 2 1! 2.1# 25.77 #" 119
'*
'<
17;"2;2""! 1 1 25 17 ! 2$.77 7! 121
2 1 2# 1$ ! !1.77 $# 1!"
! 1 27 1 2.5 !.27 9 1!2
1 2$ 2" !.5 !7.77 1" 1#
5 1 29 1 2.!! ".1 99 152 21
# 1 !" 9 1.5 1.# 95 155 29
7 1 !1 1" 1.#7 !.27 $7 1#" 25$
$ 1 !2 2 7.27 9! 179 2#2
9 1 !! 22 !.#7 5".9 1"" 19 !"!
1" 1 ! 2! !.$! 5.77 1"2 2"# !1$
11 1 !5 29 .$! 59.# 117 21# !!$
12 1 !# !1 5.1# #.7# 1!9 2! !5$
1! 1 !7 !" 5 #9.7# 159 2# !#7
1 1 !$ ! 5.#7 75.! 1#9 2#2 !92
15 1 !9 !1 5.1# $".59 17$ 27$ 1"
1# 1 " !5 5.$! $#.2 19" 292 !$
%#E
I.E
)8OURS,
I.E
INER1#/
CU...
I.E
6 S#ION "RECI". )mm, 6'8R 1$'8R $3'8R
O#/ #1. CU... #1. "RECI". "RECI". "RECI".
17 1 1 !! 5.5 91.92 19 !11 #!
1$ 1 2 ! 5.#7 97.59 197 !!# 91
19 1 ! !5 5.$! 1"!.2 2"2 !#1 521
2" 1 1 #.$! 11".25 2"9 !7$ 557
21 1 5 !# # 11#.25 21 !92 5$#
22 1 # ! 7.1# 12!.1 222 12 #1$
2! 1 7 !# # 129.1 225 19 #!5
2 1 $ !5 5.$! 1!5.2 $$6 3$3 #57
1$;"2;2""! 1 1 9 27 .5 1!9.7 21$ 2" ###
2 1 5" 27 .5 1.2 2" 1! #75
! 1 51 2 1$.2 192 "# #$
1 52 2! !.$ 152."7 172 !9 #$#
5 1 5! 1# 2.# 15.7 152 !77 #$$
# 1 5 17 2.$ 157.57 1! !#" #9#
7 1 55 1# 2.7 1#".2 12! !1 7"2
$ 1 5# 2! !.$ 1#."7 119 !2! 7"1
9 1 57 27 .5 1#$.57 122 !1 7"#
1" 1 5$ 25 .2 172.7 12 29# 529
11 1 59 21 !.5 17#.2 129 2$1 7""
12 1 #" 2! !.$ 1$"."7 1!5 2#9 #92
1! 1 #1 2 # 1$#."7 1! 2## #$#
1 1 #2 2" !.! 1$9. 1" 259 #7
15 1 #! 1# 2.$ 192.2! 1!" 252 #5$
1# 1 # 2# .! 19#.5# 1!1 255 #9
17 1 #5 2! !.$! 2"". 1!! 2#2 #!9
1$ 1 ## $ 1.!! 2"1.7! 11$ 25! #1!
19 1 #7 1 2.!! 2"."# 1"$ 251 592
2" 1 #$ 2" !.!! 2"7. 1"$ 2$ 571
21 1 #9 17 2.$! 21".2! 1"$ 2!$ 552
22 1 7" 1 2.!! 212.5# 9# 227 52!
2! 1 71 1! 2.1# 21.72 $7 219 5""
2 1 72 9 1.5 21#.22 $# 2"5 7
19;"2;2""! 1 1 7! 1! 2.1# 21$.!$ $# 19 #"
2 1 7 11 1.$! 22".21 77 1$5
'<
'"
! 1 75 $ 1.!! 221.5 #$ 17# 2$
1 7# 7 1.1# 222.7 #1 157 12
5 1 77 5 ".$! 22!.5! 5! 1!9 "1
# 1 7$ 5 ".$! 22.!# 9 1!# !$9
7 1 79 # 1 225.!# 2 12$ !79
$ 1 $" 1" 1.#7 227."! 1 11$ !##
9 1 $1 1 2.!! 229.!# 7 115 !5!
1" 1 $2 1# 2.#7 2!2."! 5# 117 !
11 1 $! 11 1.$! 2!!.$# #2 115 !!
12 1 $ 5 ".$! 2!.7 #! 111 !1#
1! 1 $5 5 ".$! 2!5.52 #1 1"! 297
1 1 $# ! ".5 2!#."2 5 95 2$"
15 1 $7 ; ; 2!#."2 " $7 2#!
1# 1 $$ ; ; 2!#."2 2 $" 2!7
%#E
I.E
)8OURS,
I.E
INER1#/
CU...
I.E
6 S#ION "RECI". )mm, 6'8R 1$'8R $3'8R
O#/ #1. CU... #1. "RECI". "RECI". "RECI".
17 1 $9 ; ; 2!#."2 1! 75 21
1$ 1 9" ; ; 2!#."2 $ 7" 2"#
19 1 91 ; ; 2!#."2 ! # 192
2" 1 92 ; ; 2!#."2 ; 5 172
21 1 9! 1 ".1# 2!#.1$ 1 1 15#
22 1 9 2 ".!! 2!#.51 ! 27 1
2! 1 95 2 ".!! 2!#.$ 5 1$ 1!!
2 1 9# ".#7 2!7.51 9 17 12$
2";"2;2""! 1 1 97 1 ".1# 2!7.#7 1" 1! 11#
2 1 9$ 2 ".!! 2!$ 12 12 1"7
! 1 99 ".#7 2!$.#7 15 1# 1"!
1 1"" $ 1.!! 2" 21 2 1"
5 1 1"1 ".#7 2".#7 2! 2$ 1"!
# 1 1"2 ! ".5 21.17 22 !1 1"1
7 1 1"! 2 ".!! 21.15 2! !! 97
$ 1 1" 7 1.1# 22.## 2$ " 9
9 1 1"5 2 ".!! 2! 2# 1 $2
1" 1 1"# 1 ".1# 2!.1# 19 " #7
11 1 1"7 1 ".1# 2!.!2 1# !9 57
12 1 1"$ ; ; 2!.!2 1! !5 52
1! 1 1"9 2 ".!! 2!.#5 1! !# 9
1 1 11" 2 ".!! 2!.9$ $ !# $
15 1 111 ; ; 2!.9$ # !2 $
1# 1 112 ; ; 2!.9$ 5 2 $
17 1 11! ; ; 2!.9$ 2" $
1$ 1 11 ; ; 2!.9$ 17 $
19 1 115 ; ; 2!.9$ 2 15 $
2" 1 11# ; ; 2!.9$ ; $ $
21 1 117 ; ; 2!.9$ ; # 7
22 1 11$ ; ; 2!.9$ ; 5 5
2! 1 119 ; ; 2!.9$ ; !
2 1 12" ; ; 2!.9$ ; !9
'"
''
#1ER#:E UN;EI:8E% .#SS CUR1E
;
5"
1""
15"
2""
25"
" 2" " #" $" 1"" 12" 1"
I.E )8OURS,
#
1
.

C
U
.
.
.

"
R
E
C
I
"
I

#

I
O
N

)
m
m
,
Fig$#e 3.11 Mass %$#&e
.tep 2/
Find the contri%ution of each rain station toward mass of total rainfall during selected time
periods. ?ark these precipitation values on topographic map of the catchment having
point rain stations. 5raw isohyets %y interpolation %etween rain recording stations. This is
shown in figures *.#(, *.#* and *.#<.
.tep -/
Find the area %etween consecutive isohyets and determine 71uivalent Cniform 5epth
87C59 for ', #( W (< hours maimum rainfall intervals. These calculations are shown in
ta%le *.#', *.#E and *.#F. The 7C5 is found %y dividing cumulative volume %y the
cumulative area.
.tep */
Aow we can plot 5epth +rea 5uration .urves. Take cumulative area along /ais and
7C5 along y/ais. The curves are shown in figure *.#" %elow
''
'E
Fig. *.#(, '/-our ?aimum Bain Isohyet ?ap
'E
'F
Fig. *.#*, #(/-our ?aimum Bain Isohyet ?ap
'F
'@
Fig. *.#<, (</-our ?aimum Bain Isohyet ?ap
'@
E!
Tabl' !.1# < # ; =o5) Rain-all
Isohyet !alue
(mm)
Av
Isohyet
!alue
Area
"et#een
$onsecutiv
e Isohyets
$umulative
Area (km²)
!olume
$umulative
!olume
'2uivalent
+ni3orm
%epth
(mm) (km²) (x10
6
m³) (x10
6
m³) (mm)
3o5n6a)y an6 25 25 !1".5! !1".5! 7.7# 7.7# 2.99
25 an6 !" 27.5 222".71 25!1.2 #1."7 #$.$! 27.2
!" an6 !5 !2.5 29#$.!$ 599.#2 9#.7 1#5.! !"."#
!5 an6 " !7.5 22!1.$# 77!1.$ $!.#9 2$.99 !2.2
" an6 5 2.5 2!"!.52 1""!5 97.9 !#.$9 !.57
5 an6 5" 7.5 27!1.9 127##.9 129.77 7#.## !7.!
5" an6 55 52.5 2#$9.7 155#.# 11.21 #17.$7 !9.97
55 an6 3o5n6a)y 55 1$.99 1#91.# $1.#7 #99.5 1.!
&otal 16456160 65576
Av')a1' P)'+i,itation ov') t4' a)'a % #99.501""" > 1#91.#" % 1.29 ((
Tabl' !.17 < 12 ; =o5) Rain-all
Isohyet !alue
(mm)
Av
Isohyet
!alue
Area
"et#een
$onsecutive
Isohyets
$umulative
Area (km²)
!olume
$umulative
!olume
'2uivalent
+ni3orm
%epth
(mm) (km²)
(x10
6
m³)
(x10
6
m³) (mm)
3o5n6a)y an6 5 25 #75.27 #75.27 1#.$$ 1#.$$ 25.""
5 an6 5" 7.5 #9$.$$ 12!7.15 !!.2" 5"."$ !#.
5" an6 55 52.5 $"5.1! 22179.29 2.27 92.!5 2.!$
55 an6 #" 57.5 12!#".77 !25"."# 7$.2 17".59 $.19
#" an6 #5 #2.5 9#".1$ 25"".2 #"."1 2!".#" 51.2
#5 an6 7" #7.5 12!9#.9$ 52$97.21 9.!" !2.9" 55."9
7" an6 75 72.5 12777.9" 72#75.11 12$.9" 5!.$" 59.1!
75 an6 $" 77.5 12$71.5# 925#.#7 15."5 59$.$ #2.7!
$" an6 $5 $2.5 12$#!.#9 1121".!# 15!.75 752.#" #5.9#
$5an6 9" $7.5 12#77.95 1!2"$$.!" 1#.$2 $99.2 #$.72
9" an6 95 92.5 12$75.9 129#!.79 17!.$ 12"72.9" 71.7"
95 an6 3o5n6a)y 95 12977.$1 1#291.#" 1$7.$9 122#".79 7.2
&otal 16456160
148609
5
Av')a1' P)'+i,itation ov') t4' a)'a % 12#".7901""" > 1#91.#" % 7.2 ((
Tabl' !.1$ < 2 ; =o5) Rain-all
E!
E#
Isohyet !alue
(mm)
Av
Isohyet
!alue
Area
"et#een
$onsecutive
Isohyets
$umulative
Area (km²)
!olume
$umulative
!olume
'2uivalent
+ni3orm
%epth
(mm) (km²) (x10
6
m³) (x10
6
m³) (mm)
A)'a 'n+los'6
by 15
15 1!$.5" 1!$.5" 2"."$ 2"."$ 15.""
15 an6 1" 12.5 $!.1" 221.59 11.$ !1.92 1."#
1" an6 1!5 1!7.5 592.7# $1.!# $1.5" 11!.! 1!9.29
1!5 an6 1!" 1!2.5 $9!.5" 127"7.$5 11$.!9 2!1.$2 1!5.7
1!" an6 125 127.5 121#.95 22$72.$" 1$.5! !$".!5 1!2."
125 an6 12" 122.5 125$2."2 25.$2 19!.$" 57.1 12$.$$
12" an6 115 117.5 !2!"!.!2 7275$.1 !$$.1 9#2.2$ 12."
115 an6 11" 112.5 122"5.!1 $29#!.5 1!5.#" 12"97.$$ 122.$
11" an6 1"5 1"7.5 12179.19
1"212.#

12#.7# 1222.#5 12".7
1"5 an6 1"" 1"2.5 12#2".$"
1127#!.

1##.1! 12!9".7$ 11$.2!
1"" an6
3o5n6a)y
1"" 5217$.1#
1#291.#
"
517.$2 129"$.59 112.##
&otal 16456160
1450:7
5
Av')a1' P)'+i,itation ov') t4' a)'a % 19"$.5901""" > 1#91.#" % 112.## ((
E#
E(
Figure *.#" 5epth/+rea/5uration .urves for ', #( W (< hours rainfall
%ept&'#rea'%uration Cur(es
"
5"
1""
15"
2""
" 5""" 1"""" 15""" 2""""
#rea )*m+,
E U % ) m m ,
# 4o5) )ain 12 4o5) )ain 2 4o5) )ain
E(
E*
?5'stions
#. What is meant %y PrecipitationP
(. 5efine the terms L+mount of Bainfall3 and LIntensity of Bainfall3P
*. What are the types of precipitation %ased on the mechanisms that produce itP
<. What are different forms of precipitation on the %asis of lifting mechanismP
". -ow precipitation is measuredP
'. 7plain how a network of rain/gauge stations is designedP
E. .ategori&e different instruments used for measurement of precipitation with
respect to their merits and limitationsP
F. 7plain various methods used for analysis of precipitation data. What is meant %y
relia%le dataP
@. 5escri%e the L5ou%le ?ass .urve Techni1ue3 for checking the consistency of
precipitation dataP
#!. -ow missing precipitation data is interpolatedP
##. -ow precipitation data is checked for consistency and homogeneityP
#(. 7plain the utility of :?ass .urve; and :5ou%le ?ass .urve;P
#*. What are 5epth/+rea/5uration .urvesP What important information is etracted
from these curvesP
#<. 7plain procedure for 5epth/+rea/5uration +nalysisP
#". 5efine Pro%a%le ?aimum Precipitation 8P?P9 of a catchmentP
E*
E<
Exercise
"ro<lem 3.1
The names and locations of the rain gauge stations with their mean annual precipitation
are as given in the ta%le %elow. .alculate average precipitation of the catchment area %y
Isohyetal method.
Aame of
Station
6atitude 6ongitude ?ean +nnual
Precipitation
8in9
5egrees ?inutes 5egrees ?inutes
+ #' !* #!* !< *@.F"
) #' *" #!< << "'."F
. #< "F #!( !E <".E*
5 #E (" #!< "! F".#(
7 #E (E #!# << <E."#
F #E #! #!< !@ E!."@
0 #< "* #!* (@ "(.'E
- #' (" #!# !F "!.F*
I #" #" #!< "* '!."E
= #E (' #!( <' "'.((
X #" <" #!( !( <#."!
6 #' (' #!( "# <'.F#
6atitude and 6ongitude of the .atchment +rea are #<
!
*!3 to #F
!
*!3 and #!#
!
!!3 to
#!<
!
!!3, respectively.
"ro<lem 3.$
+ssuming the rain falling vertically, epress the catch of a gauge inclined #"Y from the
vertical as a percentage of the catch of a gauge installed vertically.
"ro<lem 3.3
+ */hour storm occurred at a place and the precipitation in the neigh%oring rain/gage
stations P, Q and B were measured as *.F, <.# and <." cm respectively. The precipitation
in the neigh%oring station S could not %e measured since the rain gauge was damaged. The
normal annual precipitation in the four stations P, Q, B and S were <", <F, "* and "! cm,
respectively. 7stimate the storm precipitation at station LS3.
"ro<lem 3.3
In a catchment one precipitation station L+3, was inoperative for part of a month during
which storm occurred. The respective storm totals at three surrounding stations #, ( and *
are *", <! and *! mm, respectively. The normal annual precipitations at +, #, ( W * are
respectively @F", ##(", @<! and #(#! mm. 7stimate the storm precipitation for Station
L+3.
E<
E"
"ro<lem 3.4
The average annual precipitation for the four su%/%asins constituting a large river %asin is
"F, 'E, F" and F! cm. The su%/%asin areas are @!!, '@!, #!"! and #'"! kmT, respectively.
What is the average annual precipitation for the %asin as a wholeP
"ro<lem 3.6
The annual precipitation at station L+3 and the average precipitation at
#" surrounding stations are given in the Ta%le *.#@ given %elow2
a. 5etermine the consistency of the record at station L+3.
%. In which year, there is a regime change indicatedP
Table 3.1' Data Table
!ear
#nnual "recipitation
!ear
#nnual "recipitation
Station #
)cm,
14 Station
#(era=e )cm,
Station #
)cm,
14 Station
#(era=e )cm,
#@E# "!." E#." #@F# *'.! (E."
#@E( @!.! "E.! #@F( <(.! '!."
#@E* #'.! (E." #@F* #F.! "".!
#@E< (#." (".! #@F< *!.! *F."
#@E" "!." '!.! #@F" "<.! *F."
#@E' '(." ((.! #@F' <F.! <E."
#@EE '@." "".! #@FE #(.! <@."
#@EF *'.! "E.! #@FF *'.! (<.!
#@E@ <(.! *'." #@F@ <(.! <<.!
#@F! <(.! #@." #@@! *'.! '!."
"ro<lem 3.5
The Ta%le *.(! given %elow gives the annual rainfall at a station L+3 and the average
annual rainfall of #! stations in the vicinity for a period of #E years. It is suspected that
there has %een a change in the location of the rain gauge at Station L+3 during the period
of this record. 5etermine the year when this change occurred and the corrected rain gauge
readings prior to this year.
E"
E'
Table 3.() Rainfall Data
!ear
Rainfall
!ear
Rainfall
Station #
)mm,
#(era=e
#nnual
Rainfall of 12
Stations )mm,
Station #
)mm,
#(era=e
#nnual
Rainfall of 12
Stations )mm,
#@*# "!" '#" #@<# <(! '!"
#@*( @!! "E! #@<( #F! ""!
#@** '! (E" #@<* *!! *F"
#@*< (#" ("! #@<< "<! *F"
#@*" "!" '!" #@<" <F! <E"
#@*' '(" ((! #@<' #(! <@"
#@*E '@" ""! #@<E *'! (<!
#@*F *'! "E!
#@*@ <(! *'"
#@<! *'! (E"
"ro<lem 3.9
Point rainfalls due to a storm at several rain/gauge stations in a %asin are shown in Fig.
*.#'. 5etermine the mean areal depth of rainfall over the %asin.
@ 7$.59
D 79.29
A 77.$9
B 79.59
= 71".59
I 711.29
E 71!.$9
C 71".$9
F 71".9
3 77.#9
A 7$.#9
N 79.29
O 77. +(9
L 75.29
C 75.#9
Don' I
Don' II
Don' III
Don' IE
Don' E
Don' EI
Don' A)'a7*(F9
I 1"
II 9""
III 2$5"
IE 175"
E 72"
EI 55"
A)'a o- t4' 3asin % 71$" *(F
$ +(
$ +( # +(
1" +(
Fig$#e 3.1* Isohyetal Map
E'