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The ultimate in portable
typesetting: LTEX runs on
any computer and produces
timely, accurate output in
publication quality on your
desktop printer or business
LTEX is completely free, and has
been the tried and tested
solution for over 25 years.
LTEX is in use by leading
publishers, documentation
specialists, and technical and
academic users worldwide.
What they say about LTEX

I was getting increasingly exasperated with the limitaA
tions presented by wordprocessing programs when LTEX
came into my life and allowed me to do all those things
I previously could only dream of, from unusual symbols to complicated layout. I strongly recommend it to
anybody interested in producing a professional-looking
Petra Hellmuth, Language Specialist

Sophisticated professional typesetting
for business and academic publishing
The ideal solution for your document formatting
and database or XML publishing requirements


F you need to produce a document for publication you want

robust, professional software which won’t let you down —
whether it’s an annual report, a manual for your customers,
a business plan or white paper for your investors, an article for
a journal, a book for a publisher, a newsletter for your club or
society, or a leaflet or brochure for a product, event, or venue.



LTEX is a document preparation system for producing highquality output, based on Don Knuth’s revolutionary TEX
typesetting program. It’s been used by millions since its
launch in 1985, and has been continuously updated to bring
you the state of the art in accuracy and flexibility.
More powerful than a wordprocessor or desktop publishA
ing system, LTEX has a host of unique features which can
dramatically cut time and cost for any publishing project,
especially for long or complex documents.
Its secret is programmability: hundreds of prewritten templates (packages) to handle almost any formatting task — or
you can define your own with the underlying style language.
You only have to define a pattern once, and all further occurrences then follow that style, giving it unrivalled consistency:
the key to professional-looking output.

I use pdfLTEX and METAFONT not only because I need
them to create my presentations, lecture notes and papers but also because it’s fun! Entering a math equaA
tion in Powerpoint is a pain in the neck: with pdfLTEX
and METAPOST it is a lot easier because you can
change the style of what is to be displayed. I have a
lecture class from which I generate a lecture presentation and lecture notes all from the same source: I can
add text which appears in one or both of the documents.
Marc van Dongen, Computer Scientist

LTEX is available in Ireland from

Silmaril Consultants
Bishopstown, Cork

UCC Computer Centre
Electronic Publishing Unit
3.19 Kane Building

The Irish TEX And LTEX Interest Community (ITALIC)
has a mailing list which you can join at

If you’re convinced, or if you are not, get in touch with your
nearest supplier, or contact your local User Group (see addresses
in panel). They will be happy to discuss your requirements. You’re
also very welcome to come to any of the User Group events and
meet other users.

and a range of decorative and specialist typefaces for technical. with the mathematics fonts of Computer Modern. Greek. The calculations of the underlying TEX formatting engine are very precise: it works internally in microunits smaller than the wavelength of visible light (≈53. Didot. article. Available in Open Source and commercial versions. indexes. bibliographic citations. regardless of complexity. and tablets. Urdu.  •  ') !!)“! h u!“• ”0a•  %¦Á  • ”) e   “ ¤  b ¤  ` DH I FH DQT ¢ QA 9H 9 aI P&TR VA VYW$#£ S#£0£zn A£@8 cÁ % ›XŽ ˆ¢ u“ u£’ ¡0Ž bšŸ ‰(žyxlg œš5› Œ™šƒ‘yx“ƒŒ™yyŽ —‹ b–S’ Œ q”ug‹ y ‰• 7” iŠ ˆx„‘y0Œ XŒ x„‰ g‡…   ” Ž Œ ’   Œ” “ Ž ‰ † Ž ‘ Š  ‘˜ ‰ Œ” ‰ Ž Œ ˆ ˆ  “ ’ Ž  ‹Š ˆ † ƒ„igVk at(VkV†En rX€†lp r `m rE~ ‚x ˆ““i¦R2iXX‚yh w‚xq ˆ(En a†lp r `m Exlp E`Vlˆi¦f k r h ‚ z t n s n } r u | h g f { k gzn x v r u q r t n s rnq on m k j h g ” ’ ` €i w s bXrS“i `—7r €S–†rbh €0q‚ € ys wxtv f …7uw “i v R5 €‰ w  bh f ˆw b†r uw „ €ƒ‚ € fys wxu0bq(bh f ge d €h ™ ˜ • h f ‘  € ‡ €h … h tv s r h p i f c bba`XX7VQ0¨UGHF SQR5IPHF 9 E4B2C B@A6 9£) 7453 120(& 94D 6 Y4WC 1 T 9 G G D @ 4 8 6 )' # $ d ” ¤)¦ • ”0¨ “ ‘ e R "  §¦ ”“F£ §“ !a“¢  ¤ ¤ ©   ¤ ¦  ¨ •  results in the equation below. ni . minicomputers. and language-based typographic rules. Automated formatting of formulae. standard LTEX works with any Type 1 outline (PostScript) or Type 3 bitmap A (METAFONT). Euler. white paper. Stochastic Models for Social Processes. or metric or imperial units.\. Using the XELTEX processor (included on the DVD). including mixed bidirectional Arabic and Hebrew. Extensive user group coverage world-wide provides native-language support for non-Latin typesetting. Chinese. with user groups in many countries. Palatino. Zapf Calligraphic.. ©¦¦"¦©¨!¦©©§¦©¦§¨¦¤       ¥ ¦% ¤¦ % © ¢ !0¦ §a £“  £ b  c !% â ©  « ”m  `aI P&R VA Y×` PíU6Ÿ7aE¥A£@8 DHT V I W DH ž ` I œ 9 E(n_{g+1}’|n_i’. Spacing and sizing is done to mathematicians’ standards. or essay benefit A from using LTEX? Do you need to be able to exchange documents with colleagues using other types of computer. hyphenation. Huge range of fonts and languages supported. Cyrillic. paper. Century Schoolbook.A Publishing with LTEX Typefaces Could your next report. and supercomputers. This gives you access to tens of thousands of typefaces. Devanagari. and glossaries with ease. reA sulting in great accuracy in positioning.) ng d (10.1\le i\le g)=(N’N_g’)\left[1-\left\{\left(1-\frac{c} {cN’+N’’}\right)^{n_g’d}\left(1-\frac{c} {cN’’+N’}\right)^{n_g’’d}\right\}\right] ì êë é å ê ï ãî Sü ñ (õ ä ê þ Wêý ë ì ã è ó‡êñðò ï ãî ã ñ Hûºçã æã ä ùê ï ãî öôºçã æã ä ó‡êñðò ï ãî í5$èºçã æã ä õ ¡÷ ÿ   ü ú è å ø õ÷ ì è è å ᦪHÞ(Å®ªÙ ¨×¸Öªº¥7±ÒÐ ¸Î¨i̺˨ttHÇÅ7H¥£¨¾ª½D¼»º¸¶ª¨£²H±°¯ ®£iª¨¦7£¡ àß ÝÜ ÛÚ Ø ÕÔ Ó ÑÏ Í ÊÉÈÆ ÄÃÂÁ À¿ ¹· µ´ ³ ­ ¬« ©§¥¤¢ Automated mathematical formatting uses a symbolic notation. laptops and desktops. Thai. designed by one of the world’s leading computer scientists. Journal and book style files available from leading publishers. linguistic. 1 ≤ i ≤ g) = (N − Ng ) 1 − 1− c cN + N ng d 1− c cN + N After Rapoport (in Bartholomew. and literary typesetting. mainframes. GraphiA cal LTEX-based systems such as LYX and Scientific Word have built-in equation editors for constructing expressions with the mouse and menus. Non-Latin types include Japanese. Helvetica. with floating and fixed accents. 1973. Vietnamese. review. tables of contents. you can also use all your TrueType and OpenType fonts. smartphones. vw k The standard Adobe ‘35’ core PostScript fonts (Times. p. E(ng+1 |ni . D.6Å).n_i’’. Coptic. ed. and Times. etc) are provided by default. without loss of formatting? Whether you’re using Windows or Unix (including Apple Mac OS X and GNU/Linux A systems). LTEX can use any mixture of Anglo-American. Available on almost all platforms: PDAs. both free and commercial. The fontmaking programs METAFONT and METAPOST come with all TEX systems for designing and implementing your own typefaces or special symbols. John Wiley & Sons. so this: © š ˜ — – • ›™3fff” c “ ¨ “! “ ‰Š ’   Ž  Œ ‹ Š ‰ ‡ † … „ ƒ  € } z 5‘ƒ1l1l~‚lˆy{y~y{‚ly~|y{xyw " £¨ h ” c ¦ ¤• “ !1  " ¨ ttttr ”ia• Y’ vuss "¡¨  qp o m k i g f d ™ ˜ – • ’ ‰ „ ‚ € y w v t q h ¤R ’ ‡ˆ b¡…n…lj……hƒ1e…1—…Fu”¡“‘…ˆ‡†‡…ƒ9x1ursp #"“¦ i“ © $ ¢’ g e a Y V T R I G E CA @ 8 6 4 2 0 ' % # !   © ¦ ¤ ¢   ÿ þ ¡fd c(b`X(WUSQ£PHFDB397531)¥(&$" §¨¥¥£¡Òhý c ) e   “ &¦ b ¸û%%øùðö«ó%ðî‘Aäëäèhhäää£áß a• ¤ޔ¨¥©¨ ¨ §&¦u  ü ú ÷ õ ô ò ñï í ìê é çæåãâà " À²¾²¼²º …† Ý ÚÕÜ Ú×Û ÚÕÙ ×ØÖ ÕGÔ ”  ³ A¿³  ³ )» I³ I ° ¶·µ )­ ·µ Eªµ E¨· ¯¶¬¶©¶ GGGÈÍÄxGÏÃÍGÇGÐÌÓÉ Æ Ä ÓGËÊÅÅÐÈ ¨GÉÎÄGGÒÑÍ ÃÈÌÐ ¥©¨ •” “ &Á!•Y’ ˜‰˜½(´®´¹ ² ± 8¸®˜«˜‰µ § &""!) b ¦ ¢ &¥|¤£ ƒ„ • ’ ™ “ —˜˜ ˜› rfq) ˜˜› nfm™šl ˜k ˜j –˜• ˜g ‘e ˜’ d ‘™ Œ ˜ ˜)‘˜’I Ÿ¡Eœ ˜žEœ)˜˜˜f“E¤”)˜f‚˜˜‹ – •”r” “ u t s •Ÿ p o • ’ — ’ i h Ž“ Ž— “ a’ ‚ ˆ $ 0 v e W QP$I!44FGED@C5&A9a85&‡…a‚)&ƒ1xcy)(h"u &ct%hq#s$ rpi"Qd!cb¨a4Y` 9U TR  2 " H 0  B 6 $ @ 6 ‘ 7 h6‰† 423„ '‚€  wx'T  ghf XV S ¡ ¡¢   € © §¨ ¥¦ ¤ £ Mathematics }~ k |{z k k `aI DP&TR VA YXI6 H VI W V A£@8 9  ¤© !¨  !!£% b • §¦  ¤ ¤ )    !”%  ¤•©  ¢ ¡ Y’  • §&!@½ ¤¦"% • ”£@½ ¤©% © ¤ ¤©¨) ” • ”¥@« ” ’‘    ¤ ¢“E“!© 1 ©•"  ”a§!%z§¦ 5 )•©© ’ “!£”“ 6‘ 5 ¦ ¤ ec ¨  db VI W VU D IH D B 9 YXR§GTSQRPGFECA£@8 k ùõ@ýôd Y X i ö õ û ò ÿ þù ôS w ÿ ÿôSýdwúüdwú SfX÷X@ôXYiï þù õ û õ öù ø ñ ö õ ó ò ñ ð m(ÓíìÕë$S”ƒÔnèáâm¦æYäâàRuÜ×CÜÛGÕCa×ÖÔ6aÐ(SÎ îÙ Þ ê Ó é Ý å Ñ ç ßÙ å á ã á ßÙ Þ Ó Ú Ý Ó Ú Ù Ø Ð Õ Ó Ò Ñ Ï Í d¥u¥u¥¥u…uÉ duÊu¶ÊuÉ d¥uć¥ÃuÇÄ ƒuu¥uÂuuu¥¾ Æ Ã¾ Äà ÌÈË Á Ê Æ Ë Á Æ ¾Ã È Ä Æ Å À Äà Á À ¿ ³ ° ± ¼ » µ ® dX·uu¥°uuuºwŒ¸ ³ƒw¸wŽ¸ ¢¥u¶¥u…± ƒ¥u¥uw¥X¬ º ¹ ³ ·° ´ µ° ´ ³ ²­ ±° ¯ ®­ ª  š ¡ © š ¨  ¥ ˜ uuuu›uuuu”uu§…£uu”¦”¤Ÿu¢uuušhxuhžŸu””uušRC”fu• ¢ ¥ £ £  ¡ ž   š › œ— › ™ ˜— –  ‚duu¥u¥†uw}ŽŠu‰ ƒww‹Œu‰ ƒ¥u‡¥u…€ ƒ¥u¥u~w¥|u{  ˆ €   ‚  Š Š ‚ ˆ „ † „ ‚ | € } hl x h o j hl g t e p mi— o yh— e dnmdvwurshrqhh— e dnmdkighfd˜– o j hl j h e d —™ rvhsar(‰hrˆhyarr…r‚ra†(r…ƒrrvah(€yh(xrv(arhsrra(hf   t s † p ‡ ƒ v ƒ „ ‚  s w s w t ui t q pi g ` DH aI P&TR VA k k k xy k 7 1 ) ¤ " %   "¦ ©      © ¤ ¤ ¡ 0564 3 20¦ ('&!$!¨ $#!¥¨ £¥¨ §¦ ¥¡£¢  k Default styles give you immediate. Powerful automation features handle cross-references. and by business-level consultants and vendors.57) . Concrete. Industry-standard Acrobat (PDF) and PostScript (PS) output. or Adobe points. book. Strongly supported via the Internet. and many other languages and alphabets. automatic draft formatting for common types of document. Completely portable between systems — document files are all plain Unicode and can be edited and processed on any supported platform. 368.J. 2nd.

Hyna. (With Eitan M. p. This lets each crossreference automatically update its location so that no matter how much you edit the text. item. CLASSIFIED BY THE SIZE OF σ σ Method of quantiles Kemsley’s method 5% 0. Lexicographer Illustration from collection of Don Knuth (artist unknown) Documentation A Comprehensive TEX Archive Network. Knuth. Simple tabular matter can appear anywhere. and Greek). Rep. No. intext. The Companion is more advanced. MA: Addison-Wesley. were A available for viewing in PDF just by re-running the LTEX files. The opening page was converted into HTML for quick scanning on the Web.. The system has been carefully designed so that documents written years ago can still be typeset. D. so if there is no room on the current page.ctan.. The TEXbook. without worries about software A versions or compatibility. Pictures can be included with scaling. E 120 £ (thousands) 80 Spending Variance C Efficiency Variance D 60 B 40 20 F 0 10 20 30 A 40 50 Volume (Direct labour Hours) (thousands) After R. It is possible to separate the writing tasks (creation of text) from the design/layout issues (spacing. Portland. and bibliographic references. chapter. The (not so) short introducA tion to LTEX 2ε (Tech. M. make. Carlisle. E. Because the file format is stable. Rep.). and there are packages for typesetting music.. They are available for revision for years afterwards. CCS Publishing . Reading. a document preparation system (2nd ed. OR: TEX Users Group. Persistence and reliability A LTEX was designed to be independent of any particular manufacturer. p. P. with fixed or auto-adjusting spacing which can be very precisely aligned to provide better visual appeal. and then use that name anywhere in the document. & Rowley.. MA: Addison-Wesley.7 0.. (2005). with all typesetting and font features (including Hebrew. MA: Addison-Wesley.7). Reading. Figures and illustrations Figures can contain textual or graphical illustrations. list of tables. CUP.. Reading. your investment in intellectual property cannot be damaged by vendors’ arbitrary or planned obsolescence. M. rotation. & Mittelbach. The LTEX graphics companion. Bull. A I find LTEX a powerful instrument for generating elaborate typographic layouts quickly and reliably. Knuth’s original TEXbook is of interest mainly to computer scientists and typographic programmers who need to know the finest detail. Changes in platforms have no A effect on production as LTEX is available for all main operating systems. etc). J. citations. O. or endnotes.. and included in a List of Tables and List of Figures.J. T.ctan. (1999. The same method is used for automated indexing. Apr). (1986). F. Unlike some wordprocessor manufacturers’ proprietary file forA mats. to the professional mathematician’s The Joy of TEX and the typographer’s Digital Typography. and clipping. (1994). A Lamport.. Goossens. (1988. Séamus Ó Direáin. MA: Addison-Wesley Longman.Tables A LTEX’s tables and figures follow the standard publishers’ practice of ‘floating’. A Mittelbach. M.2–0. the references remain correct. 2nd. but useful if you want to implement your own customised document designs. A The book by Lamport is the user manual for LTEX: make sure you get the second A edition for LTEX 2ε . table of contents.). S. LTEX uses plaintext (ASCII or Unicode) files which can be created and updated with any editor anywhere. The biggest advantage in publishing production is that similar coding of files means anyone can do any journal –.). A LTEX also has its own CAD-like vector language for simple diagrams.5–0. Accounting in Business. 1972. Automated crossreferencing means that tables and figures can be moved around the document and will always renumber themselves and all their references. 191. and other graphical notations.0 All samples 10% 5% 10% 2 — — 1 — 1 1 — 2 4 4 15 2 2 4 23 Total no. Complex tabular matter can span pages and can be printed landscape while retaining the portrait orientation of the caption and pagenumber. There are powerful tabular controls for both simple and complex designs. Rahtz. ed. FormatA ting Information and The (not so) short introduction to LTEX 2ε .). they automatically float to the next. including numeric. phonetics. Braams. http://www. Sutor... MA: Addison-Wesley. Reading. S. TABLE 6.8–1. list of figures. A Goossens. Partl. A LTEX material originally produced for paper printing. footnotes. http://www.there is no need to learn new sets of commands for style variations. Oetiker. & Rahtz. (1997). page. Reading. LTEX is demanding in its requirements but it relieves me of any concern about the finished project. labelled. etc) without getting bogged down trying to remember the text shape and font selections for each element. There are dozens of other books.2: CASES FOR WHICH THE QUANTILE AND KEMSLEY’S METHODS WERE Silmaril Consultants. flowcharts. X Crossreferences 100 The crossreferencing features let you name anything you want to refer to (table. and the BIBLTEX system extracts and automatically formats them to any of the standard styles. using industry standard PDF or EPS vector formats for diagrams. or by changes in versions or formats. and can be captioned. The LTEX Web companion. fonts. Feb). figure.4 0. 1976. etc). while the complete articles. foot/endnotes. or PNG or JPG bitmaps for pictures. D. F. ranging from the online introductions. (1994). of samples available 20 22 23 65 After Aitchison. Butterworths. Brown.A. J. electronic circuits. 3. without being a formal numbered table. BIBTEXing (Tech. The Lognormal Distribution. & Schlegl. which allows the author simply to identify types of elements (heading levels. section. The BIBTEX bibliographic database lets you store references separately from docuA ments. Gurari and Ross Moore and Robert S. or model of computer or printer. The LTEX Companion (2nd ed. Patashnik. C. I.. no matter how long ago. L. Formatting information — a beginner’s guide to LTEX 2ε (3. 62. and moved between different systems without danger of information loss or corruption.6 ed. H. LTEX. (1999). glossary. can quickly and easily be made available for today’s Web access.) A Goossens. Christina Thiele.C. I have just recently had to provide a journal from 1987–1996 in a format available for the Web. and J. crossreferenced. Formal tables and Figures are automatically numbered.

Adobe Acrobat Reader. packages.dante. $100 ( for details of ‘early-bird’ rates and other charges. Copyright © 2001–2013 by Silmaril Consultants and distributed under the terms of the L ATEX Project Public License (http://www. ProTEXt (MikTEX) Commercial: see vendor list Unix and GNU/Linux Free: TEX Live Apple Macintosh OS X Free: MacTEX (TEX Live) Shareware: OZTEX. A fast inkjet printer or a laser printer is recommended if you need printed output. Unix is a trademark of Bell Laboratories. Online and other support Network-based support is freely available on the comp. Czech Republic Pisa. .html .com http://www. Hoc erat Typographic reconstruction of Gutenberg’s u u 42–line bible of 1452–55. L ATEX. India San Francisco. TEX. Windows. PDF. including the TEX FAQ.Fua o p u A A Where to get LTEX k k k Technical Requirements The TEX Users Group (TUG) distributes a free copy of the TEX Collection DVD to all members annually.micropress-inc. using modern in principio apud de˜. IN Cork. Membership includes the triannual journal TUGboat and discounts on conference fees: TUG 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 EUROTEX/CONTEXT AND OTHERS Italy CTAN — the Comprehensive TEX Archive Network A CTAN is an Internet archive of all free TEX and LTEX software. listed at mailing list and the tex. and OpenType are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. There are many others. PostScript. The finer your screen and printer A LTEX will run even on old machines. Okular. Netherlands . $55 (students. Poland Brejlov. You should have at least 512Mb of memory. CMacTEX Android TEX for Android in the Google Play store TEX Live for Android at Google Code All others Contact the TEX Users Group The TEX Users Group (TUG) TUG membership is $85 a year (individual). Operating systems A LTEX runs on all current computing platforms.text . u and teaching (Beginning of St. the better quality you will be able to see and print. and METAFONT are trademarks of the American Mathematical Society.) cet· 7 tenebree˜ n˜ com˜hender˜t. You need about 500Mb of hard disk space depending on the options you choose (minimal install is about 250Mb. new Inc PCTEX. the latexusersgroup@gmail.mackichan. and citizens of countries with modest economies).trevorrow. and http://www. facta sunt: 7 sine i˜o factum eĆ niĚ http://www. including the DVD ISO image of the TEX Collection. and Acrobat are trademarks of Adobe Corporation. Ireland [tba] Breskens.tex.2Gb). The most common implementations are: System Implementation Microsoft Windows Free: TEX Live. but a 500MHz processor or above is recommended. Slovenia & or $500 (institutional. Japan Boston. There are searchable indexes and catalogues at http://www. seniors. Italy Bohinj. and a vector editor (eg InkScape) if you use diagrams. etc. MA Kerala.particularly well suited for typesettingeditions. k You need a good text editor for creating and maintaining documents: there is a selection included on the TEX Collection http://www. with complete installations for all major platforms and a copy of the entire CTAN archive. Macintosh and TrueType are trademarks of Apple Corporation. Many local and national user groups also participate: check with your nearest group (see TUG Web site for addresses). See http:// www. CA South Bend.ctan. Inc OzTEX Scientific Word Visual TEX PCTEX CMacTEX TrueTEX Mac Win Win Win Mac Win http://www. full is about http://truetex.tex Usenet newsgroup. eg libraries).org. Omia p i˜m u ˜ p Fraktur and decorative initial designed in METAFONT by Yannis Haralambous. The ability to control special characters like the p insular Quod fact˜ eĆ in i˜o vita erat: 7 vita features (Tironian) ampersand (7-) and unusual u p like hanging punctuation makes LTEX critical erat lux homin˜: et lux in tenebriŊ lu. Inc Tom Kiffe TrueTEX.kiffe. Inc. All the public-domain and open-source implementations are freely available for download from CTAN (below). and documentation. Unicode is a trademark of Unicode.pctex. eg GhostScript/GSview. Word. Belgium & Bachotek. up to eight named memberships). You may need a graphics editor (eg GIMP) if you want to create or modify images (see Figures). You also need a PDF reader to view your typeset output (included on the TEX Collection DVD). Hardware k k k k Software for editing and reading documents k k Vendors with business support Andrew Trevorrow MacKichan Software MicroPress.I N principio erat verb˜: 7 verb˜ erat u u apud de˜: et de9 erat verb˜. John’s Gospel.tug. http:// web forum. more if you aim to do very complex work or use very long documents. You can buy a copy with business support from any of the vendors listed