You are on page 1of 80

TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM

M U S T E K
ANL-CT-8O-3
DOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE
VIBRATION DATA BANK
by
H. Halle, J. M. Chenoweth, and M . W. Waabsganss
Components Technology Division
February 1980
C'STiSlBUTifsrJ Or T H I S SSG'SMEBT ! 3 U N L i M t T E 3
TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM
ANL-CT-80-3
Engineering and
Equipment (UC-38)
DOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE
VIBRATION DATA BANK
by
H. Halle, J. M. Chenoweth, and M. W. Wambsganss
Components Technology Division
U o f C - A U A - U S D O E
February 1980
<- ot ths United Slates Government of d"v agencv
Assistant Technical Director, Heat Transfer Research, Inc., Alhambra, CA
.... • • " - J V ^ T I ; : [i-nniTEB
TABLE OF. CONTENTS
Page
ABSTRACT 1
I. INTRODUCTION 1
I I . BACKGROUND 3
III. OBJECTIVES 5
IV. ASSESSMENT OF DIFFICULTIES 5
V. DATA FORM 6
VI . SOLICITATION 7
VII. INITIAL CASE HISTORIES 8
VIII. DISCUSSION 8
APPENDIX 1: HTRI Solicitation Letter for Tube Vibration Case Histories 1-1
and DOE/ANL/HTRI Heat Exchanger Tube Vibration Data Form
APPENDIX 2: Case Histories 101-115 of the DOE/ANL/HTRI Heat 2-1
Exchanger Tube Vibration Data Bank
DOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA BANK
by
H. Halle, J. M. Chenoweth, and M. W. Wambsganss
ABSTRACT
Development of a new heat exchanger tube vibration data bank at
Argonne National Laboratory is described. The objective is to accumulate
comprehensive case histories on heat exchangers that have experienced
tube-vibration problems and units that have been trouble-free, and render
this information available for evaluation, improvement, and development
of vibration-prediction methods and design guidelines. Discussions
include difficulties in generating a data bank, data form development,
and solicitation efforts. Also included are 15 case histories upon
which the data bank will be built. As new case histories are received,
they will be asseabled and published as addenda to this report.
I. INTRODUCTION
Flow-induced vibration has become a vital factor in the design of heat
exchangers along with the more traditional thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical
considerations. There have been many cases of shell-and-tube heat exchangers
experiencing vibration problems, often leading to tube failures, and, in some
cases, costly plant shutdowns. These vibration problems have motivated theore-
tical and experimental studies which have resulted in the development of pre-
diction methods and design guidelines to avoid detrimental cube vibration.
However, most of these studies involved single tubes or tube banks
subjected to idealized uniform crossflow or parallel flow conditions.
Although these conditions can occur locally, they are not
typical of the changing flow patterns throughout an actual shell-and-tube
exchanger: Flow passages, and thus flow conditions, are much more complex
than simulated by either mathematical models or experimental equivalents.
Consequently, extrapolation of these methods for predicting flow-induced
vibration problems to heat exchanger tube bundles has been seriously c h a l -
lenged. Available prediction methods provide useful guidance but are considered
unreliable to the extent that their application to heat exchanger design
evaluation is uncertain thus requiring the use of large factors of safety.
To examine the ability of these methods to correctly predict the absence
or presence of flow-induced tube vibrations, field data must be collected
from case histories of individual heat exchangers and stored in a manner that
can be input into these methods.
Efforts in support of such a data bank are being carried out at Argonne
National Laboratory (ANL), and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office
of Fossil Energy, Division of Fossil Fuel Utilization. The activity is also
a part of a U.S. contribution to an International Energy Agency (IEA) program
of Research and Development on Heat Transfer and Heat Exchangers.
Solicitation and collection of case histories for the data bank has been
assigned by ANL to Heat Transfer Research, Inc. (HTRI), a nonprofit cooperative
of heat transfer equipment manufacturers, engineering contractors, and
processing companies to promote application-oriented research in heat transfer.
ANL is working with HTRI to take advantage of their experience with data
banks, their established contacts with manufacturers and users throughout the
world, and to ensure anonymity of contributors to the bank.
This report describes the DOE/ANL/HTRI Heat Exchanger Tube Vibration Data
Bank, including background information, objectives, assessment of difficulties in-
volved, data form development, solicitation efforts, and, as an appendix, fifteen
case histories of heat exchanger tube vibration. These histories were purchased
I
from HTRI with program funds and represent cases in which acoustic vibration,
damaging tube vibration, and no vibration were present. They constitute the
initial entries and the base upon which the new data bank will b e built. A s
additional case histories are received, the data will be collated and published
annually as addenda to this report.
I I . BACKGROUND
The need for a bank of field data for shell-and-tube heat exchangers that
have experienced flow-induced tube vibration problems was recognized by the
Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association (TEMA) in 1969. Data collected
from its members represented observations of gross effects that were considered
significant parameters concerning tube vibrations. These proprietary data were
made available to HTRI in 1971. Since thet time, a new understanding of vibration
phenomena has shown that the data are inadequate to evaluate critically current
prediction methods.
In 1972, HTRI started collecting case histories for a heat exchanger tube
vibration data bank. A form was designed that requested more data than found
in the TEMA Data Bank. More specifically, case histories also were requested
for heat exchangers which had not experienced vibration problems.
The data obtained ranged from very complete to sparse. In some instances,
data gaps could be filled either by contacting the organization submitting the
case, by making back-calculations, or by using "good engineering judgment."
Although the HTRI data bank is proprietary to HTRI members, gross comparisons
of predictions by known methods with field observations have been published.
Of the more than 60 cases submitted, only 25 were sufficiently documented to
J. M. Chenoweth, "Flow-Induced Tube Vibrations in Shell and Tube Heat
Exchangers," ERDA Report SAN/1273-1 (February 1 9 77).
be included in the data bank. However, only six of these cases deal with liquid
shell side flow. Additionally, the data are heavily biased toward cases for
which vibration problems have been experienced; there is a lack of cases for
which no vibration problems occurred.
In England, Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow Service (HTFS) also has collected,
analyzed, and prepared a report on tube-vibration data. However, the report
is proprietary to HTFS members.
In 1976, HTRI conducted a study on flow-induced tube vibration in shell-
and-tube heat exchangers for the Division of Conservation Research and Technology
of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). This study included
a Heat Exchanger Tube Vibration Workshop to identify the most promising areas of
needed research in flow-induced vibration in industrial shell-and-tube heat
exchangers. A n international panel of 14 vibration experts, representing o n -
going research, was invited to present their evaluation of the current state-
of-the-art, and to participate with other attendees in discussions and formu-
lation of research recommendations. The results of the presentations and
discussions were published by Chenoweth.
During the workshop, the panelists stressed the importance of obtaining
and using field data to establish the validity of any prediction method.
The difficulty of obtaining reliable field data was recognized, and the devel-
opment of improved methods (i.e., data banks) to acquire such data was
recommended.
Based, in part, on the results and recommendations from this workshop,
development of a bank of field data was selected as one of two program activi-
ties to be assigned to ANL. The second activity involves obtaining tube-
vibration data under controlled conditions from testing of a specially built,
industrial, size, segmentally baffled shell-and-tube heat exchanger.
III. OBJECTIVES
The DOE/ANL/HTRI Heat Exchanger Tube Vibration Data Bank has as its
immediate objective the collection of sufficient, reliable, well-documented
field data to (1) demonstrate confidence in the application of available
prediction methods to the design of equipment; (2) provide a basis for
improving these methods; or (3) provide the researcher with information for
developing new methods. The ultimate g o a l , in addition to reducing the
number of heat exchangers that experience detrimental vibrations, is to
minimize the number of heat exchangers that are unnecessarily overdesigned
to avoid flow-induced vibration problems.
IV. ASSESSMENT OF DIFFICULTIES
Following are some of the reasons why it may b e difficult to obtain
comprehensive field data on flow-induced vibration in shell-and-tube heat
exchangers.
(1) Plant managers and field service engineers a r e , understandably, more
interested in getting a plant back into production than investigating the
source of vibration-induced failure of a heat exchanger.
(2) Before a vibration problem develops, there is no incentive to make
observations that could identify the source of the problem. T h u s , although a
long-term phenomenon may have caused the failure, recent operational changes
are usually suspected.
(3) Actual operating conditions often do not agree with conditions
assumed in the design of a heat exchanger, particularly during startup,
shutdown, and plant upsets. It is reasonable to suspect many vibration
problems are initiated during these phases of operation.
(4) Flow velocity profiles within a tube bundle and tube damping, both
important parameters in any prediction method, are difficult to measure and
to calculate.
(5) Records are seldom kept of "as built" heat exchangers. Deviations
during initial construction and subsequent field changes are not always noted
on drawings.
(6) Before organizations will release the desired amount of' data, they
must be assured that its source will be protected and that its use will b e
restricted to evaluation of prediction methods.
The last item was a contributing factor in the decision to assign an
independent, non-government organization (i.e., HTRI) the task of collecting,
storing, and coding the data forwarded to ANL.
V. DATA FORM
It is important that the data be collected in a systematic way, b e as
complete as possible, and as accurate as practical. Toward this end, a
standard questionnaire is required which lists the desired information that
may be available but may not be considered significant by each contributor.
The questionnaire should provide entries for sufficient primary data
to enable an investigator (1) to calculate important derived data such as
flow velocity fractions and natural frequencies (if not measured); (2) to input
the data in various predition methods; (3) to compare the calculated results
with actual performance; and (4) to request additional information that may
be made available by the source.
The DOE/ANL/HTRI Heat Exchanger Tube Vibration Data Form and Instruction
Sheet developed to satisfy these requirements are reproduced in Appendix 1.
The 4-page data form is based on a Heat Exchanger Vibration Data Sheet
developed and used by HTRI to accumulate their data bank. In consultation
with HTRI, the format of their data sheet has been rearranged and enlarged
to motivate and accommodate more input, particularly with respect to
vibration damage description, analysis of two-phase flow, and evaluation of
the influence of axial forces on tubes.
A s the case histories are received by HTRI, they will be coded. Page 1
of the Data Form will be retained in a confidential file. Pages 2, 3, and 4,
which contain the pertinent technical information will be sent to ANL for
inclusion in the DOE/ANL/HTRI Heat Exchanger Tube Vibration Bank.
VI . SOLICITATION
A s discussed above, the task of soliciting case histories has been
assigned to HTRI. The letter of solicitation that accompanies the data
form is included in Appendix 1.
A direct solicitation for case histories has been made to HXRI member
organizations (> 150) located through the world. Additionally, non-HTRI
member organizations will be solicited.
The vibration problem is sufficiently complex, that a follow-up procedure
will b e implemented to ensure complete documentation of each case history. In
addition, the quality of the information will b e evaluated; poor data with
inadequate documentation will only be misleading. It is better to have fewer
reliable data in a data bank than a larger amount of questionable data.
VI I . INITIAL CASE HISTORIES
Fifteen of the most representative of well-documented case histories have
been purchased from the HTRI Data Bank, and the information transferred to the
new data forms. These forms are reproduced as Appendix 2, and represent the
initial case histories of the DOE/ANL/HTRI Heat Exchanger Tube Vibration Data
Bank. Owing to the enlarged format and increased number of entries, there are
areas where the data are incomplete.
Also included in Appendix 2 is a summary tabulation of the geometries and
various process fluids of the heat exchangers.
VIII. DISCUSSION
Successful development of a data bank of heat exchanger tube vibration case
histories cannot be guaranteed a priori because of the many difficulties in
obtaining data that are sufficiently detailed and reliable. For the most part,
these difficulties are beyond the control of the data bank developer. In fact,
some investigators who have attempted to assemble a similar bank for evaluation
of prediction methods have concluded that such an effort, while initially
appealing, is difficult to accomplish in practice because of inherent un-
certainties in the data.
Nevertheless, development of the DOE/ANL/HTRI Heat Exchanger Tube Vibration
Data Bank is deemed a significant effort toward a better understanding of the
phenomena involved, and marked improvement in formulation and application of
prediction methods.
More specifically: Although information in the data bank will be pre-
dominantly of a qualitative nature, it will aid researchers and design
engineers in (1) identifying regions within a tube bundle (such as the first
row after the baffle cut) that are most susceptible to vibration and whether
the mode of failure is tube wear at the baffle or intertube impacting; and
(2) determining the relative effectiveness of various design features (e.g.,
impingement plates) in reducing the potential for tube vibration.
As a source of practical information, the data bank will be particularly
beneficial to researchers who have no direct experience in design or operation
of heat exchangers, but are involved in development of design guidelines and
corresponding performance-prediction methods.
For the effort to be successful will require the cooperation of the con-
tributors to the bank to ensure that complete and accurate data are provided.
Also, it will be necessary to collect case histories from heat exchangers that
have as well as those that have not experienced vibration problems, and from
units with liquids, gases, and two-phase mixtures as the shellside fluid. A s
the number of respective case histories increases, trends in the dynamic
behavior will become apparent, as will any anomalies that should be disregarded
because of inaccurate or uncertain data. A s necessary, selected case histories
will be followed up with personal contacts and/or on-site visits for purposes
of obtaining clarification or additional information.
It is not unreasonable to expect that it will take several years to
collect a sufficient number of well-documented cases for the data bank to
become a useful tool in the evaluation of prediction methods. However, during
this time period the available data will provide useful guidance of research
efforts. For example, new methods to calculate flow velocities may be derived
which will increase the potential usefulness of the data over what it would
be today.
APPENDIX 1
HTRI Solicitation Letter for Tube Vibration Case Histories
and
DOE/ANL/HTRI Heat Exchanger Tube Vibration Data Form
HE A T T RA N S FE R RE S E A RC H, I N C . Research Faci li t i es
1000 S o uth Fremo nt A venue A lhambra. C ali f o rni a 91802 T elepho ne <213) 570- 3 950
T elex 67- 4888 (C FO RA U N ) TWX 910- 589- 3 3 77
Subject: Tube Vibration Data Bank on Shell-and-Tube Heat
Exchangers
The importance of correctly predicting, and thus eliminating, the danger of possible tube vibration in shell-and-tube heat
exchangers hardly needs to be emphasized. There are many known cases where tube vibration resulted in destruction of
tubes with very dangerous and costly consequences. HTRI has been active in tube vibration research for the past eight years.
In October 1976 HTRI organized under contract to ERDA (presently US Department of Energy, DOE) a Tube Vibration
Workshop with a pane! discussion on the state of the art by selected international experts. (Reference ERDA Report No.
SAN/1273-1.) One of the principal conclusions was the urgent need for a tube vibration data bank. To test the various
predictive methods developed from theory or laboratory studies, field data on large-scale industrial shell-and-tube heat ex-
changers are necessary. Our subsequent contract with DOE resulted in
• HTRI consulting on a research program involving a large-scale test exchanger for vibration study at the Argonne Nation-
al Laboratory. This test is currently under way and is producing most important data. The results will eventually be
published as a report from Argonne National Laboratory and will also be made available to the International Energy
Agency.
• HTRI, acting on behalf of DOE/Argonne. soliciting and collecting data for a new DOE/ANL/HTRI Heat Exchanger
Tube Vibration Data Bank.
The reason Argonne National Laboratory has given the task of establishing the Tube Vibration Data Bank to HTRI is (a) our
previous experience in the proper assembly of tube vibration data, and (b) to assure anonymity of the data sources.
By this letter 1 am requesting support from your company to supply field data on shell-and-tube heat exchangers that experi-
enced vibration problems as well as data on similar exchangers that did not experience vibration problems. Such cases to be
useful need to be reasonably well documented. A new Data Form (attached) was developed to assist in collecting the data. It
reflects our experience and anticipates items that are significant but might be overlooked. The identity of the data source
will be confident..! to HTRI Staff as only pages 2, 3, and 4 of the Data Form will be included in the Data Bank. Your
cooperation will assure that badly needed data will be available for a well-organized international cooperative project on
flow-induced vibration and ultimately the formulation of improved methods for tube vibration prediction.
Sincerely your s ,
JT:pth Jerry Taborek
Attachment Technical Director
A dmi ni st rat i ve O f f i ce
1 - 2 ' * " Hunt i ngt o n D ri ve. S ui t e 3 09 S o ut h Pasadena. C ali f o rni a 9103 0
T elepho ne (213 ) 670- 3 980 Telex 67- 53 55 (HT RI)
DOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM Pagel
Name of Person
Submitting Case
Photic Number
Address
(Confidential)
Item No.
Reference No.
(Coiilidtnlial)
(Confidential)
Assigned
Case No.
Date Submitted
INSTRUCTIONS
HTRI is collecting data on vibration and vibiation damage in shel!-and-tubc heat exchangers which will be incorporated
into a Vibration Data Bank sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). Some years ago, TEMA and HTRI
collected case studies of vibration which have become the initial entries in the data bank. Recognizing that more
comprehensive data are needed, this data collection form has been prepared. The case studies will be used to test and to
aid in the improvement of proposed correlations for predicting the occurrence of vibration and possible damage which
might result. Until a sufficiently broad data bank can be assembled and used to test possible prediction methods, it will
be impossible to make predictions w :iy degree of confidence.
Any predictive method must not only indicate when vibration problems are probable, but must also predict accurately
when they will be absent. Consequently, we are interested in also receiving a number of cases of heat exchangers which
did not experience vibration and yet were similar to ones which had vibration problems. Much of the requested infor-
mation may be available from drawings and/or specification sheets for the exchangers. If these are supplied, only the
flow conditions and observed descriptions of damage, vibration frequencies, etc. need be filled in on the data sheets.
The company submitting the data and any Item and Reference Numbers used to identify the exchanger will be confi-
dential. HTRI will assign a case number and forward the data to Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for publication
for DOK.
Please fill in the forms as completely as possible. Supplement with photographs, sketches, drawings, and descriptions
if available. Indicate known deviation from construction drawings. Add anything you feel would assist in under-
standing flow-induced vibration, For the benefit of all. please contribute as many cases as possible. Mail the completed
forms with attachments to:
Heat Transfer Research, Inc.
1000 S. Fremont Avenue
Alhambra.CA 91802
1-3
DOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM
Page 2
Assigned
Case No. .
Type • IT MA lixchanger Designation.
D Special Exchanger (Describe) —
Shell Orientation —I Horizontal
D Vertical
SHELL GEOMETRY (Complete Sketch Below) TUBE GEOMETRY
Inside Diameter, mm (in.)_
Wall Thickness, mm ( i n. ) _ M ater i al .
Inlet Nozzle ID. i n n (i n. ) „
Outlet Nuzzle I I ). nun (i n.).
Impingement Protection D No
(Describe >
Annular Distributor O No
Open Cut Area mm
2
(in.
2
)
DYe
QYes
Nozzle-to-First Tube Row Distance, mm (in.)_
CROSS BAFFLE GEOMETRY
Type D Segmcntal: D Double-Segmental D Disc/Doughnut
• I liplc-Segmental: D No-Ttihes-in-Window
Baffle Cut, % Shell Diameter
Cut Orientation Relative to Axis oflnlet Nozzle
Inlet Baffle D Perpendicular D Parallel D4 5 "
Central Baffles O Perpendicular DParallel f_45"
Baffle Thickness, mm (in.) Material
Diametral Clearances Shell-to-baffle, mm (in.)
Tubc-to-baflle mm (in.) .
Uundle-to-shcll, mm (in.)
Number of Baffles Along Length of Shell
Baffle Spacing, mm (in.) Central
inlet Outlet
Unsupported Tube Span Lengths, mm (i n. ).
Longest Inlet Outlet —
. Material.
Outside Diameter, mm (i n. ).
Wall Thickness, mm (in.)
Tube lengths
Straight Tube. Inside Tuhcslu'ets. mm (in >
11-lube. I iibcsliivl to I ti.ii tl l.nigciil. Him (i n. )
Tube Pilch, mm (in.) _
Layout (Please Circle)
Flow 2_
No. of Tubes No. ofTubepasses.
First Tubepass Q Countercurrent D Cocurrent
Tube-to-Tubesheet Joint
O Welded • Roller Expanded • Other
If U-Tube
Maximum Bend Radius, mm (in.)
Bend Orientation Relative to Axis of Shellside Inlet Nozzle
D Perpendicular D Parallel
If Bend Supported, Describe in Comments Below
If Finned Tubes
Fins/m (Fins/in.) Fin Material
Diameter, mm (in.). Root Over Fins
II Fnlianceil Surface Tubes
(Describe).
DETUNING BAFFLE
If Detuning Baffle Used to Control Acoustic
Vibration. Indicate Position on Sketch Below
COMMENTS AND SKETCH
C o mplet e sketches by drawi ng i n t ubesi de and shellside no zzles.
Indi cat e i nlet no zzles wi t h an arro w.
.a.
Fi xed T ubesheet
......
J L
f
J . . . J
ndi cat e t o p o f exchanger as mo unt t d
*>y f i lli ng In appro pri at e arro w.
1-4
S ho w sht llsi de Inlet no zzle lo cat i o n, baf f le cut
o ri ent at i o n, and i mpi ngement devices.
DOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM
Page 3
Assigned
Case No. .
PROCESS CONDITIONS
Flow Rale. kg/s(!0
3
lb/hr)
Inlet Temperature, C (F)
Outlet Temperature, C (F)
Inlet Pressure. kPa (psia) Absolute
i^isurolMPTkPTi (psi)
Inlet Wciphl l'i:iction Vapor
Outlet Weifjlu Fraction Vapor
Vibration Observed
Reference Condition A
Tubeside Shellside
DNo DYes
Reference Condition B
Tubeside SheUside
DNo O Yes
FLUID PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Fill In All Applicable Entries
Fluid Name
Reference Temperature, C (F)
Tubeside
7 ' "~
Shellside
I
Liquid Properties at Reference
Temperatures
Density, kg/m
3
(lb/ft
3
)
Viscosity. tnPa-s (cP)
Thermal Conductivity, W/m-C (Btu/m ft F)
Heat Capacity, kJ/kg-C (Btu/m ft F)
. — „._
Vapor or Gas Properties at
Reference Temperatures
Density, kg/in
3
(lb/ft
3
)
Viscosity, mPa-s (cP)
Thermal Conductivity, W/m-C (Btu/hr ft F)
Heat Capacity, kJ/kg-C (Btu/lb F)
Fluid Molecular Weight, kg/mol fjb/mole)
If Boiling or Condensing
Latent Heat, kJ/kg (Btu/lb)
1
1-5
DOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM
Aligned
Cite No. .
VIBRATION AND DAMAGE DESCRIPTION
When Vibration Present, Shcllside Flow Rale, kg/s (10
3
Ib/hr)
If Known. Crossflow Velocity at baffle tip. in/s (ft/sec)*
Crossflow Velocity at centerline, m/s (ft/sec)*
Velocity Through Window in Baffle, m/s (ft/sec)*
Inlet Nozzle Velocity, m/s (ft/sec)*
Outlet Nozzle Velocity, m/s (ft/sec)*
Measured Natural Frequency, Hz
Measured Acoustic Frequencies, Hz
Noise Sound Level, db
' Please describe how velocities were calculated or estimated.
Vibration Caused by External Sources D No D Yes
Source Frequency. Hz.
• Machinery
D Cavitation
rpm
• Piping
D Pulsating Flow
Damage Noted
Type
D
a
a
D
No
Yes (
Tube-to-Tube
Tube-to-Sheil
Zomple
Impact
Impact
Wear
Complete sketch at bottom of page indicating location in bundle
O Cutting at Baffle D Near Tubesheet
O Tubeshect Joint Leaking D Fatigue
D One Side of Tubes Only • Parallel to Flow P Normal to Flow
D All Around Tube Circumference
• Corrosion Evident • Fouling Evident
Q General Description of Damage
Exchanger Operation History
How Long on Stream Before Damage Occurred?
Any Unusual Occurrence Observed Prior to Vibration as a Consequence of
D Start-up D Plant-Upset D Shutdown
Describe
* If Vibration Remedy Applied, Describe and Indicate Results:.
TUBE BUNDLE DAMAGE SKETCH
n
u
1-6
APPENDIX 2
Case Hi st or i es 101-115 of the DOE/ANL/HTRI Tube Vibration Data Bank
Summary of Heat Exchanger Case Histories in Appendix 2
C aw
N o .
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
101
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
S nell
T ype*
8E M
BJM
A E P
A E S
A E T
A E T
C E M
C E M
C E M
C EiN
C E N
A JS
A E U
A E L
BJS
Baf f le
T ype
S eg.
S eg.
2- S eg.
S eg.
S eg.
S eg.
2- S eg.
3- S eg.
2- S eg.
2- S eg.
2- S eg.
S eg.
S eg.
2- S eg.
S eg.
Bundle
T ype
FXT S
FXT S
O PFH
S RFH
PT FH
PT FH
FXT S
FXT S
FXT S
FXT S
FXT S
PT FH
U- lUtW
FXT S
PT FH
T ube
O O
In.
0.750
0.750
0.625
0.625
0.98*
0.98*
0.750
0.750
0.750
1.00U
1.00C
0.750
0.750
0.750
0.750
T ube
Pi lch
Rat i o
U3
1.25
1.20
1.20
1.28
1.2S
1.25
1.25
1.33
1.25
1.33
1.33
1.25
1.67
Layo ut
A neU
deg.
3 0
60
3 0
3 0
60
60
60
60
60
45
45
90
90
60
90
TubesMe
Flui d
C i t y Gas
Water
Water
Water
Water
Water
N af l Gas
N af l Gas
N af > Gas
Water
Water
Water
Water
Rich Gas
Water
S hellslde
Flui d
C i t y Gas
Ref rlf .
water
A i r
C i t y Gas
N af l Gas
N af l Gas
N af l Gas
C Hefln
O U f ln
A i r
H.C .
Lean Gas
Pro c. Gas
S M II
D iameter
i n.
47.2
44.0
19.3
10.1
57.7
57.7
3 7.0
44.0
53 .0
45.0
45.0
43 .0
na
56.0
69.0
D amage Repo rted
No ise
Baf f le
C o HM o n
Baf f le
Near Tunesneet
Baf f le
T ubejo lnt
Baf f le
T ubejo lnt
Baf f le
Near Inlet
No ise
For definitions, see Standards of Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers
Association, Sixth Edition, 1978.
2-2
DOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM
To protect the identity of the organization submitting this case, HTRI has
assigned a case number. Additionally the data on pages 2, 3, and 4 have been
reviewed to ensure that they do not include any propietary information.
This is a replacement for the original page 1 that provides space for
additions] commnnts, drawings, photographs, etc.
Assigned
Case No.
101
Summary
This 48-in. diameter by 13-ft long BEM TEMfl style heat exchanger
with segmental baffles had "city gas" in both the shell side and
the tube side! Although no direct damage to the tubes was noted,
there was a loud noise during operation. The noise was assumed
to have been the result of flow-induced acoustic vibration.
Information is limited to that presented on data form.
2-3
DOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM
A ssigned
C ase N o .
101
Type B TEMA Exchanger Designation.
D Special Exchanger (Describe)—
Shell Orientation ^Horizontal
D Vertical
SHELL GEOMETRY (Complete Sketch Below) TUBE GEOMETRY
Inside Diameter.Am (in.) W1. 2.
Wall Thickness, mm (in.) Material
Inlet Nozzle ID.wm (in) 1 0
Outlet Nozzle ID.wm (in.) lO
Impingement Protection J LNo
(Describe)
• Yes
Annular Distributor UNo
Open Cut Area mm* On.
2
)
OYes
Nozzle-to-First Tube Row Distance, mm (in.)
CROSS BAFFLE GEOMETRY
Type tfSegmental; • Double-Segmental D Disc/Doughnut
O Triple-Segmental; Q No-Tubes-in-Window
Baffle Cut, % Shell Diameter £
Cut Orientation Relative to Axis of Inlet Nozzle
Inlet Baffle ^Perpendicular D Parallel D45 °
Central Baffles pCPerpendicular D Parallel O45
O
Baffle Thickness,am (in.) Material
Diametral Clearances Shell-to-baffle,«H»I (in.)
Tube-to-baffle«m (in.) 0>Q\
Bundle-to-shell,«w (in.) II
Number of Baffles Along Length of Shell.
Baffle Spacing,-mm (in.) Centra! _
Inlet ^1.~> Outlet
Unsupported Tube Span Lengths,-mm (in.)
Longest _ ^ H _ Inlet 7 1 . ^ Outlet 7 7 . S
Outside Diameter.-mm (in.) !
Wall Tliickness.tnnr(in.)^-P7 £7 _ Material 3QH3&.
Tube Lengths
Straight Tube, Inside Tubesheets.mm (in.) I ! >3
U-Tube, Tubesheet to Bend Tangent, mm Cm.)
Tube Pi t ch, * * (i n) \'<K>
Layout (Please Circle
Flow
No. of Tube s -
First Tubepass D Countercurrent DCocurrent
Tube-to-Tubesheet J oint
1» Welded D RoUer Expanded D Other
IfU-Tube
Maximum Bend Radius, mm (in.) rmZ
No. ofTubepasses.
Bend Orientation Relative to Axis of SheUside Inlet Nozzle
O Perpendicular D Parallel
If Bend Supported, Describe in Comments Below
If Finned Tubes
Fins/m (Fins/in.) , Fin Material _ZZH^
Diameter, mm (in.), Root — Over F»«w
If Enhanced Surface Ttihw
(Describe).
DETUNING BAFFLE
If Detuning Baffle Used to Control Acoustic
Vibration, Indicate Position on Sketch Below
COMMENTS AND SKETCH
C o mplet e sketches by drawi ng In t ubesi de and shei lsld* no zzles.
Indi cat e i nlet no zzles wi t h an arro w.
Fi xed T ubeshM t
u
I
Indi cat e t o p o f exchanger at mo unt ed
by i nli ne In appro pri at e arro w.
2- 4
S ho w stwllslde Inlet no zzle lo cat i o n, baf f le cut
o ri ent at i o n, and i mpi ngement devi ces.
DOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM
Assigned
Caw No. .
101
PROCESS CONDITIONS
Flow Rate, fcg/*(10
3
lb/hr)
Inlet Temperature, €-(F)
Outlet Temperature, e (F)
Inlet Pressure, fcPa (psia) Absolute
Measured AP, kP»(ps) CAccuLATeO
Inlet Weight Fraction Vapor
Outlet Weight Fraction Vapor
Vibration Observed
Reference Condition A
Tubeade
7
b < \ . %
370
1.0
1.0
ShetUde
yiM
37 0
0.«J
1. 0
1-0
D No BYes
Reference Condition B
Tubeade SfcdbMe
O No Q Yes
FLUID PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Fill In All Applicable Entries
Fluid Name
Reference Temperature ~&(F)
Tubeside
" c ur G/»s"
Shdlside
"ciTr CrA<?
Liquid Properties at Reference
Temperatures
Density, kg/ni
3
(lb/ft
3
)
Viscosity, mPa-s (cP)
Thermal Conductivity, W/m-C (Btu/m ft F)
Heat Capacity, kJ/kg-C (Btu/m ft F)
Vapor or Gas Properties at
Reference Temperatures
Density, fcg/w
3
(lb/ft
3
)
Viscosity, roftfo (cP)
Thermal Conductivity, W/m-G- (Btu/hr ft F)
Heat Capacity,-kJ/kg-G- (Btu/lb F)
Fluid Molecular Weight, Jsg/»M>KIb/mole)
O.Sl
If Boiling or Condensing
Latent Heat, tel/fcg (Btu/lb) | j
o. 2zs
0. 0 (fh
2- 5
DOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM
A nf caed
C afe N o ..
101
VIBRATION AND DAMAGE DESCRIPTION
When Vibration Present, Shellside Row Rate, kg& (10
3
Ib/hr)
\%H
If Known, Crossflow Velocity at baffle tip,-«A (ft/sec)*
Crossflow Velocity at centerline, «/*<ft/sec)*
Velocity Through Window in Baffle, •»/* (ft/sec)*
Inlet Nozzle Velocity, tn/s (ft/sec)*
Outlet Noulc Velocity.
Measured Natural Frequency, Hz
Measured Acoustic Frequencies, Hz
Noise Sound Level, db
« Please describe how velocities were calculated or estimated. C O Mpt/tf cf c
Vibration Caused by External Sources B. No OYes
Source Frequency, Hz.
D Machinery
D Cavitation
. rpm.
D Piping
D Pulsating Flow
Damage Noted
Type
Wear
t ? No
D Yes
Complete sketch at bottom of page indicating location in bundle
D Tube-to-Tubc Impact
Q Tube-to-Shell Impact
O Cutting at Baffle
D Tubesheet Joint Leaking
D One Side of Tubes Only D Parallel to Flow
D All Around Tube Circumference
D Corrosion Evident D Fouling Evident
Q Genera! Description of Damage .
O Near Tubesheet
Q Fatigue
D Normal to Flow
Exchanger Operation History
How Long on Stream Before Damage Occurred?
Any Unusual Occurrence Observed Prior to Vibration as a Consequence of
D Start-up D Plant-Upset D Shutdown
Describe
If Vibration Remedy Applied, Describe and Indicate Results:
TUBE BUNDLE DAMAGE SKETCH
)
2-6
DOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM h g e l
To protect the identity of the organization submitting this case, HTRI has
assigned a case number. Additionally the data on pages 2, 3, and 4 have been
reviewed to ensure that they do not include any propietary information.
This is a replacement for the original page 1 that provides space for
additional comments, drawings, photographs, etc.
Assigned
Case No.
102
Summary
This 44-in. diameter by 12-ft long BEJ TEMA style heat exchanger
with segmental baffles had propylene vapor on the shell side and
cooling water on the tube side. The vapor entered the shell
through the double nozzles. The vapor was cooled but not con-
densed. Tube damage was noted as cutting at the baffles; however,
the specific location in the bundle was not noted. Information
is limited to that presented on data form.
2-7
DOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM
F>te2
Assigned
Caw No. .
102
Type S TEMA Exchanger
D Special Exchanger
Designation.
(Describe)—
BJ M Shell Orientation IJ Horizontal
O Vertical
SHELL GEOMETRY (Complete Sketch Below) TUBE GEOMETRY
Inside Diameter,tnm (in.)
Wall Thickness,-mm (in.)
Inlet Nozzle ID, mm (in.)
Material
JLf2_
2H
Outlet Nozzle ID, » m (in.)
Impingement Protection B No
(Describe) =T
D Yes
Annular Distributor SfNo OYes
Open Cut Area mm
2
(in.
2
)
Nozzle-to-First Tube Row Distance, mm (in.)_
CROSS BAFFLE GEOMETRY
Type HSegmental; O Double-Segmental O Disc/Doughnut
D Triple-Segmental; D No-Tubes-in-Window
Baffle Cut, % Shell Diameter '4b
Cut Orientation Relative to Axis of Inlet Nozzle
Inlet Baffle • Perpendicular B Parallel D45 °
Central Baffles • Perpendicular HTarallel D45 °
Baffle Thickness, mm (in .)Al£i2S. Material
Diametral Clearances ShelS-to-baffle, mm ( i n) O.Vlh
Tube-to-baffle mm ( i n) O.O\St>lS
Bundle-to-shell, Rwn-(in.) QJS&
Number of Baffles Along Length of Shell H
Baffle Spacing, nm (in.) Central ?f e- ?
Inlet 1Q>~fh Outlet 1±
Unsupported Tube Span Lengths, mm (in.).
Longest_£iii2i- Inlet b^Hb Outl et_
Outside Diameter, n»m(in.) d.'t'i/i
Wall Thickness,-m» ( i n) O.OfeC Material AQMlgAlTV
Tube Lengths
Straight Tube, Inside Tubesheets.ami (in.).
U-Tube, Tubesheet to Bend Tangent,«H» (in.).
Tube Pitch, mm (in.) !
Layout (Please Circle)
now 2< £ .£
No. of Tubes No. of Tubepasses.
First Tubepass B Countercunent JB Cocurrent
Tube-to-Tubesheet J oint
D Welded B Roller Expanded D Other
IfU-Tube
Maximum Bend Radius, mm ("» ) ' —
Bend Orientation Relative to Axis of Shellside Inlet Nozzle
D Perpendicular • Parallel
If Bend Supported, Describe in Comments Below
If Finned Tubes
Fins/m (Fins/in.) ~ Fin Material
Diameter, mm (in.), Root ~ Over Fins
If Enhanced Surface Tubes ZZ^
(Describe).
DETUNING BAFFLE
If Detuning Baffle Used to Control Acoustic
Vibration, Indicate Position on Sketch Below
COMMENTS AND SKETCH
C o mpt et e sketches by drawi ng In t ubeslde and shellside no zzles.
Indi cat e Inlet no zzles wi t h an arro w.
m
Fi xed T ubeshM t
FT
J LX
c-
t Indi cat e t o p o f exchanger as mo unt ed
by f i lli ng In appro pri at e arro w.
2- 8
S li o w shellsldc Inlet no zzle lo cat i o n, baf f le cut
o ri ent at i o n, and Impi ngement devi ces.
DOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM
Assigned
G- eNo
PROCESS CONDITIONS
Flow Rate, kgM10
3
lb/hr)
Inlet Temperature, e ( F)
Outlet Temperature, € (F)
Inlet Pressure, Wt (psia) Absolute
Measured AP,-J #»(p$i)
Inlet Weight Fraction Vapor
Outlet Weight Fraction Vapor
Vibration Observed
Reference Condition A
Tubeade
i
7 b
\in
• Z..V
o
0
SheUade
CM,
192
\00
136,
H.O
1. 0
1.0
O No « Yes
Refetcmce Coaditioa B
Tubeade ShdUde
O No Q Yes
FLUID PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Fill In All Applicable Entries
Fluid Name
Reference Temperature ,€-(F)
Tubeside
Coot-lfJC WATtK
Shdlsde
(00
Liquid Properties at Reference
Temperatures
Density.-kg/m
3
(Ib/ft
3
)
Viscosity, mP«*«- (cP)
Thermal Conductivity, W/m-€ (Btu/m ft F)
Heat Capacity ,W/kg«€ (Btu/m ft F)
Vapor or Gas Properties at
Reference Temperatures
Density,*fif"
3
(lb/ft
3
)
Viscosity,-mP«*s (cP)
Thermal Conductivity^W/m-C (Btu/hr ft F)
Heat Capacity, ktflt%-€ (Btu/lb F)
Fluid Molecular Weight, kg/mt* Ob/rr ale)
>
o.ooS?
0.0CRS
If Boiling or Condensing
Latent Heat, ktykg (Btu/Ib) | j
2- 9
DOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM
C aw N o ..
102
VIBRATION AND DAMAGE DESCRIPTION
When Vibration Present, Shellside Flow Rat e, kgHl ° lb/hr)
f el f e
If Known. Crossflow Velocity at baffle tip, m/fr(ft/sec)*
Crossflow Velocity at centerline, mft (ft/sec)*
Velocity Through Window in Baffle, m/* (ft/sec)*
Inlet Nozzle Velocity, «/s-(ft/sec)*
Outlet Nozzle Velocity ,-mh (ft/sec)*
Measured Natural Frequency, Hz
Measured Acoustic Frequencies, Hz
Noise Sound Level, db
' Please describe how velocities were calculated or estimated.
Vibration Caused by External Sources DNo D Yes
Source Frequency, Hz.
• Machinery
• Captation
D Piping
D Pulsating Flow
Damage Noted
Type
Wear
D No
XYes Complete sketch at bottom of page indicating location in bundle
• Tube-to-Tube Impact
O Tube-to-Shell Impact
^Cut t i ng at Baffle
D Tubesheet Joint Leaking
D One Side of Tubes Only • Parallel to Flow
D All Around Tube Circumference
D Corrosion Evident • Fouling Evident
D General Description of Damage
D Near Tubesheet
a Fatigue
D Normal to Flow
Exchanger Operation History
• How Long on Stream Before Damage Occurred? .
• Any Unusual Occurrence Observed Prior to Vibration as a Consequence of
D Start-up P Plant-Upset D Shutdown
Describe
» If Vibration Remedy Applied, Describe and Indicate Results:
TUBE BUNDLE DAMAGE SKETCH
2-10
DOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM
To protect the identity of the organization submitting this case. HTRI has
assigned a case number. Additionally the data on pages 2, 3, and 4 have been
reviewed to ensure that they do not include any propietary information.
This is a replacement for the original page 1 that provides space for
additional comments, drawings, photographs, etc.
Assigned
Case No.
103
Summary
This 20-in. diameter by 7-ft long AEP TEMA style heat exchanger
with segmental baffles had water on both the shell side and the
tube side. The inlet nozzle orientation was such that its
centerline intersected the baffle cut at 45°. The baffle cut
was 45 percent of the shell inside diameter which results in
little crossflow. The tube damage reported tube-to-tube inrpact
resulting in splitting of the tube material until leaks de-
veloped. Information is limited to that presented on data form.
2-11
DOE/ANL/HTRf HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM
Type 4 TEMA Exchanger
O Special Exchanger
Designation
(Describe)
ACP
Assigned
Case No.
Shell Orientation
103
H Horizontal
D Vertical
SHELL GEOMETRY (Complete Sketch Below) TUBE GEOMETRY
Inside Diameter,-mm (in)
Wall Thickness, «wt (in.)
Material
L2
\1
Inlet Nozzle ID, tarn (in.)_
Outlet Nozzle i n - — ( i n )
Impingement Protection MTNo
(Describe)
O Yes
Annular Distributor fit No Q Yes
Open Cut Area mm* (in.
8
)
Nozzle-to-First Tube Row Dist»nce,-mm (in.) t «
CROSS BAFFLE GEOMETRY
Type ASegmental; O Double-Segmental Q Disc/Doughnut
a Triple-Segmental; O No-Tubes-in-Window
Baffle Cut, % Shell Diameter )iS.
Cut Orientation Relative to Axis of Inlet Nozzle
Inlet Baffle D Perpendicular • Parallel B4S°
Central Baffles D Perpendicular Q Parallel R45 °
Baffle Thickness,-mm (in.) JUiEz. Material
Diametral Clearances Shell-to-baffle, «w* (i n. )_£xAi L
Tube-to-bafflemw (in.)
Bundle-to-shell, mm (in) LM\L
Number of Baffles Along Length of Shell.
Baffle Spacing,#WJ (in.) Central
Inlet U Outlet
1L
Unsupported Tube Span Lengths, mm (in.).
Longest _ ! i ! L _ Inlet Outlet _
0.MS Outside Diameter, mm (in.)
Wall Thickness, « MI (in )O' 0
t
fl
Tube Lengths
Straight Tube, Inside Tubesheets, —- ( i n) *&*<*
U-Tube, Tubesheet to Bend Tangent,*m (in.)
Tube Pi t rh, « f ( i n. ) O.1SQ
Layout (Please Circle
Flow
No. of Tubes_H01 . No. of Tubepasses.
First Tubepass D Countercunrent D Cocurrent
Tube-to-Tubesheet J oint
O Welded XRoller Expanded O Other
IfU-Tube
Maximum Bend Radius, mm (•")
Bend Orientation Relative to Axis of Shelhide Inlet Nozzle
D Perpendicular O Parallel
If Bend Supported, Describe in Comments Below
If Finned Tubes
Fins/m (Fins/in.) ~ Fin Material
Diameter, mm (in.), Root Over Fins
If Enhanced Surface Tubes *~~
(Describe).
DETUNING BAFFLE
If Detuning Baffle Used to Control Acoustic
Vibration, Indicate Position on Sketch Below
COMMENTS AND SKETCH
C o mplet e sketches by drawing In tubesla* and stieJJslde no zzles.
Indi cat e Inlet no zzles wi t h an arro w.
Fi xed T ubesheet
11 ^ Indi cat e t o p o * exchanger a* mo unt ed
by f i lli ng In appro pri at e arro w.
2-12
S ho w st ullslde Inlet no zzle lo cat i o n, baf t t * cut
o ri ent at i o n, and Impi ngement devi ces.
OF • DG
OOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM
Assigned
Cue No. _ J ° L
PROCESS CONDITIONS
Flow Rate, kg/t-(10
3
lb/hr)
Inlet Temperature,C(F)
Outlet Temperature, C(F)
Inlet Pressure, kPa-(psia) Absolute
Measured AP.hfti(psi)
Inlet Weight Fraction Vapor
Outlet Weight Fraction Vapor
Vibration Observed
Reference Condition A
Tubeade Sheuale
2oo
0
o
DNo flYes
Reference Condition B
Tubeade Shdade
D No D Yes
FLUID PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Fill In All Applicable Entries
Fluid Name
Reference Temperature, C (F)
Tubeside Shellside
Liquid Properties at Reference
Temperatures
Density, kg/m
3
(lb/ft
3
)
Viscosity, mPa-s (cP)
Thermal Conductivity, W/m-C (Btu/m ft F)
Heat Capacity, kJ/kg-C (Btu/m ft F)
Vapor or Gas Properties at
Reference Temperatures
Density, kg/m
3
(lb/ft
3
)
Viscosity, mPa-s (cP)
Thermal Conductivity, W/m-C (Btu/hrftF)
Heat Capacity, kJ/kg-C (Btu/lb F)
Fluid Molecular Weight, kg/mol Ob/mole)
y
\
\
s
If Boiling or Condensing / V ^ ^y^ '
s
\
v
Latent Heat, kJ/kg (Btu/lb) \yS ^"S^L"""^ ^
2-13
DOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM
Att«Md
CaseNo..
103
VIBRATION AND DAMAGE DESCRIPTION
When Vibration Present, Shelkide Row Rate, kgfc (10
3
lb/hr)
QOO
If Known, Crossflow Velocity at baffle tip, m/s (ft/sec)*
Crossflow Velocity at centerline, m/s (ft/sec)*
Velocity Through Window in Baffle, m/s (ft/sec)*
Inlet Nozzle Velocity, m/s (ft/sec)*
Outlet Nozzle Velocity, m/s (ft/sec)*
Measured Natural Frequency, Hz
Measured Acoustic Frequencies, Hz
Noise Sound Level, db
1
Please describe how velocities were calculated or estimated.
Vibration Caused by External Sources D N o O Yes
Source Frequency, Hz.
D Machinery
O Cavitation
. rpm.
D Piping
D Pulsating Flow
Damage Noted
Type
Wear
O No
/STYes Complete sketch at bottom of page indicating location in bundle
XTube-to-Tube Impact
D Tube-to-Shell Impact
O Cutting at Baffle
D Tubeshcet Joint Leaking
D One Side of Tubes Only D Parallel to Flow
D All Around Tube Circumference
D Corrosion Evident O Fouling Evident
D General Description of Damage
• Near Tubesheet
• Fatigue
D Normal to Flow
Exchanger Operation History
• How Long on Stream Before Damage Occurred? .
• Any Unusual Occurrence Observed Prior to Vibration as a Consequence of
D Start-up O Plant-Upset D Shutdown
Describe
* If Vibration Remedy Applied, Describe and Indicate Results:.
TUBE BUNDLE DAMAGE SKETCH
2- 14
DOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM Pagel
To protect the identity of the organization submitting this case. HTRI has
assigned a case number. Additionally the data on pages 2, 3, and 4 have been
reviewed to ensure that they do not include any propietary information.
This is a replacement for the original page 1 that provides space for
additional comments, drawings, photographs, etc.
Assigned
Case No.
104
Summary
This 10-in. diameter by 6-ft long AES TEMA style heat exchanger
with segmental baffles had air on the shell side and water on
the tube side. The inlet nozzle orientation was such that its
centerline intersected the baffle cut at 45°. The baffle cut
was 45 percent of the shell inside diameter which results in
little crossflow. All tubes showed evidence of cutting at each
baffle. It was noted that there was a possibility that the
vibration might have been induced by outside sources. Inform-
ation is limited to that presented on data form.
2-15
DOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM
P* e 2
Assigned
Case No. .
104
Type 0 TEMA Exchanger
D Special Exchanger
Designation
(Describe)
Shell Orientation • Horizontal
WOT GIVEM OVertical
SHELL GEOMETRY (Complete Sketch Below) TUBE GEOMETRY
Material.
Inside Diameter, nm-(in.)
Wall Thickness.-mm (in.)
Inlet Nozzle ID, mm (i n) S_
Outlet Nozzle ID, mm (i n) b
Impingement Protection BNo DYes
(Describe) ___.~ir
Annular Distributor J QNo OYes
Open Cut Area mm* (in.
2
)
Nozzle-to-First Tube Row Distance, nwr(in.)_
CROSS BAFFLE GEOMETRY
Type J ^Segmental; D Double-Segmental D Disc/Doughnut
O Triple-Segmental; Q No-Tubes-in-Window
Baffle Cut, % Shell Diameter ^
Cut Orientation Relative to Axis of Inlet Nozzle
Inlet Baffle O Perpendicular • Parallel )sf45
0
Central Baffles D Perpendicular • Parallel ^ 4 5 °
Baffle Thickness,•urn (in.) J L23?Material
Diametral Clearances Shril-tn-hafflp m».(in ) O.O^O
Tube-to-baffle mm (i n) O.Q\°i
Bundle-to-shell, mm (in.) '
Number of Baffles Along Length of Shell 6.
Baffle Spacing, aw*(in.) Central <Q
Inlet IP Outlet I P
Unsupported Tube Span Lengths, mm- (in.).
Longest 10 Inlet T~O Outl et_
Outside Diameter, mm (in.) !
Wall Thickness, mm (i n) 0. 0t >£ Material "lO/fQ CO Mi
Tube Lengths
Straight Tube, Inside Tubesheets.-mm (in.) 10
U-Tube, Tubesheet to Bend Tangent, *nm-(in.) —
Tube Pitch, mm ( i n. ) _ -0.1_S>P
Layout (Please Circle
now ( ^ g ^
No. of Tubes 1% No. of Tubep
First Tubepass D Countercurrent a Cocunent
Tube-to-Tubesheet J oint
a Welded a Roller Expanded • Other.
IfU-Tube
Maximum Bend Radius, mm (in.)
UOT
Bend Orientation Relative to Axis of Shellside Inlet Nozzle
O Perpendicular D Parallel
If Bend Supported, Describe in Comments Below
If Finned Tubes
Fins/m (Fins/in.) Fin Material *~
Diameter, mm (in.). Root ~ Over Fint
If Enhanced Surface Tubes
(Describe) .
DETUNING BAFFLE
If Detuning Baffle Used to Control Acoustic
Vibration, Indicate Position on Sketch Below
COMMENTS AND SKETCH
C o mplet e sketches by drawi ng In tubesf de and shellslde no zzles.
Indi cat e i nlet no zzles wi t h an arro w.
f t
Fi xed T ubcsht at
U ^ Indi cat e t o p o f exchanger as mo unt ed
by f i lli ng In appro pri at e arro w.
2-16
S ho w shellsld* Inlet no zzle lo cat i o n, ban la cut
o ri ent at i o n, and i mpi ngement devi ces.
Two
DOE/ANL/HTRl HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM
Assigned
104
PROCESS CONDITIONS
Flow Rate, kgfa (W
3
]b ftu)
Inlet Temperature,-€-(F)
Outlet Temperature.-e(F)
Inlet Pressure, W>( (psia) Absolute
Measured AP.-kPa (psi)
Inlet Weight Fraction Vapor
Outlet Weight Fraction Vapor
Vibration Observed
Reference Condition A
Tubeade
'<?3.7
l 7 0. C
Shellade
It*
\.o
\.o
D No RYes
Reference Condition B
Tubewle
— •
SfcdWde
DNo O Yes
FLUID PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Fill In All Applicable Entries
Fluid Name
Reference Temperature C (F)
Tubeside
M/ATEfc
Shdlside
A\({
1
Liquid Properties at Reference
Temperatures
Density, kg/m
3
(lb/ft
3
)
Viscosity, mPa-s (cP)
Thermal Conductivity, W/m-C (Btu/m ft F)
Heat Capacity, kJ/kg-C (Btu/m ft F)
Vapor or Gas Properties at
Reference Temperatures
Density, kg/m
3
Ob/ft
3
)
Viscosity, mPa-s (cP)
Thermal Conductivity, W/m-C (Btu/hr ft F)
Heat Capacity, kJ/kg-C (Btu/lb F)
Fluid Molecular Weight, kg/mol (Ib/mole)
f Boiling or Condensing yS \
Latent Heat, kJ/kg (Btu/lb) \ / N^ J
2-17
DOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM
A li gned
C at eN o ..
104
VIBRATION AND DAMAGE DESCRIPTION
When Vibration Present, Shellside Flow Rate,l«/c (10
3
lb/hr)
If Known, Crossflow Velocity at baffle tip,-m/t(ft/sec)»
Crossflow Velocity at centerline, mf» (ft/sec)*
Velocity Through Window in Baffle,-mA (ft/sec)*
Inlet Nozzle Velocity, in/* (ft/sec)*
Outlet Nozzle Velocity,*»f»(ft/sec)*
Measured Natural Frequency, Hz
Measured Acoustic Frequencies, Hz
Noise Sound Level, 1
* Please describe how velocities were calculated or estimated.
Vibration Caused by External Sources DNo DYes H R0S6i*«-£
Source Frequency, Hz
. rpm-
D Machinery
D Cavitation
O Piping
• Pulsating Flow
Damage Noted
Type
Wear
DNo
BCYes Complete sketch at bottom of page indicating location in bundle
• Tube-to-Tube Impact
D Tube-to-Shell Impact
^Cutting at Baffle
D Tubesheet Joint Leaking
DNearTubesheet
O Fatigue
• Normal to Flow D One Side of Tubes Only • Parallel to Flow
D All Around Tube Circumference
D Corrosion Evident D Fouling Evident
• r.pin-ralrVwriptinnnfnamay ftLl T(Jf,£ "4 f ) HO( J gP £\ IWPk)C£ OP
~JTTiA l£- A T EACH
Exchanger Operation History
• How Long on Stream Before Damage Occurred?.
• Any Unusual Occurrence Observed Prior to Vibration as a Consequence of
O Start-up D Plant-Upset D Shutdown
Describe .
•* If Vibration Remedy Applied, Describe and Indicate Results:
TUBE BUNDLE DAMAGE SKETCH
2- 18
DOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM f age!
To protect the identity of the organization submitting this case, HTRI has
assigned a case number. Additionally the data on pages 2, 3, and 4 have been
reviewed to ensure that they do not include any propietary information.
This is a replacement for the original page 1 that provides space for
additional comments, drawings, photographs, etc.
Assigned
Case No.
105
Summary
This 57-in. diameter by 12-ft long AET TEMA style heat exchanger
with segmental baffles had acetylene on the shellside and water
on the tubeside. The tube span for baffle .window tubes a t the
inlet and the outlet greatly exceeded the TEMA Standards for
maximum spans for 1-in. carbon steel tubes. However, for this
case no vibration was noted for the given flow rates. Information
is limited to that presented on data form.
2-19
DOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM
AMfKd
C ase N o . .
105
Type e^TEMA Exchanger Designation AET
D Special Exchanger (Describe)
Shell Orientation J ( Horizontal
D Vertical
SHELL GEOMETRY (Complete Sketch Below) TUBE GEOMETRY
Inside Diameter, wf i n . )
Wall Thickness,mm-(in.) Material.
Inlet Nozzle ID,*»m-(in.)__2l
!
2_
Outlet Nozzle ID, mm (in.)
Impingement Protection JSfUo
(Describe) Z ^
O Yes
Annular Distributor ft No
Open Cut Area mm
2
(in.
2
).
Q Yes
Nozzle-to-Fiist Tube Row Distance,mm(in/> V. f t
CROSS BAFFLE GEOMETRY
Type ^Segmental; • Double-Segmental D Disc/Doughnut
• Triple-Segmental; • No-Tubes-in-Window
Baffle Cut, % Shell Diameter 'iH
Cut Orientation Relative to Axis of Inlet Nozzle
Inlet Baffle D Perpendicular B Parallel D45°
Central Baffles D Perpendicular ^Parallel D45°
Baffle Thickness, Mm»(in ) Oifc'Lb Material
Diametral Clearances Shell-to-baffle,««i (i n) Q. Z7
Tubc-to-baffle mm-(in ) 0' 01
Bundle-to-shell, «»m-(in ) a<
Number of Baffles Along Length of Shell i2_
Baffle Spacing, wi «. (i n. )___ Central.
inlet Outlet
HQ.5fe>
Unsupported Tube Span Lengths, mm-(in.).
Longest ^O. \ b I nl et ^6AS Outlet_
Material.
Outside Diameter, iwa (in.)
WaUThickness.-mm-On.;
Tube Lengths
Straight Tube, Inside Tubesheets, mm (in.) 1 iH. G\
U-Tube, Tubesheet to Bend Tangent, mm-(in.) —
Tube Ktch.-mm (in.) l'^< »
Layout (Please Circle)
Flow
No. of Tubes
No. of Tube;
First Tubepass JHCountercunent •Cocurrent
Tube-to-Tubesheet Joint
KWelded D Roller Expanded O Other
IfU-Tube
Maximum Bend Radius, mm-(in.) "**~
Bend Orientation Relative to Axis of Shdlside Inlet Nozzk
O Perpendicular D Parallel —
If Bend Supported, Describe in Comments Below
If Finned Tubes
Finf/m (Fins/in.) Fin Material
Diameter,-mnr(in.), Root —_ Over Fins ~
If Enhanced Surface Tubes ^
(Describe).
DETUNING BAFFLE
If Detuning Baffle Used to Control Acoustic
Vibration, Indicate Position on Sketch Below
COMMENTS AND SKETCH
C o mpKM sk*t cn« by drawi ng i n t ut wslde and shdlsld* no zzli s.
Indi cat e Inlet no zzles wi t h an arro w.
Fi xed T ubesheet
Indi cat e t o p o f exchanger as mo unt ed
by f i lli ng In appro pri at e arro w.
2-20
S ho w snellside Inlet no zzle lo cat i o n, baf f le cut
o ri ent at i o n, and Impi ngement devi ces.
DOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM
Assigned
Case No. .
105
PROCESS CONDITIONS
Flow Rate, kg/t(10
3
Ib/hr)
Inlet Temperature,-G-(F)
Outlet Temperature,-G<F)
Inlet Pressure, W» (psia) Absolute
Measured AP,-ki»*<psi)
Inlet Weight Fraction Vapor
Outlet Weight Fraction Vapor
Vibration Observed
Reference Condition A
Tubesde
0
0
SbelUde
3Sl
1t>\
111
1.0
l.O
XNo OVes
Reference Condition B
Tubeadc SMbUe
DNo O Yes
FLUID PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Fill In All Applicable Entries
Fluid Name
Reference Temperature -6-(F)
Tubeside
UiATfe^.
1
Shdlside
C
2
H
2
Liquid Properties at Reference
Temperatures
Density, kg/m
3
(lb/ft
3
)
Viscosity,mPa*» (cP)
Thermal Conductivity ,-W/m-€-(Btu/m ft F)
Heat Capacity, IcJ /ltg-C (Btu/m ft F)
Vapor or Gas Properties at
Reference Temperatures
Density, kg/m
3
(lb/ft
3
)
Viscosity, mPa-s (cP)
Thermal Conductivity, Wfm^ (Btu/hrftF)
Heat Capacity, kJ /kg«e- (Btu/lb F)
Fluid Molecular Weight, kg/nel Qb/mole)
l . l b
0.17-7
l.b-2
'.i Boiling or Condensing / " "^s^
Latent Heat, W/kg-(Btu/lb) \yS \ J
2-21
DOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM
Anfened
CUe No. .
105
VIBRATION AND DAMAGE DESCRIPTION
MO VI8M T10W NOT tD
When Vibration Present, Shellside Flow Rate, kg/s (10
3
Ib/hr)
If Known, Crossflow Velocity at baffle tip, m/s (ft/sec)*
Crossflow Velocity at centerline, m/s (ft/sec)*
Velocity Through Window in Baffle, m/s (ft/sec)*
Inlet No zzle Velo city, m/s (f t /sec)*
O utlet No zzle Velo city, m/s (f t /sec)*
Measured Natural Frequency, Hz
Measured Acoustic Frequencies, Hz
Noise Sound Level, db
' Please describe how velocities were calculated or estimated.
Vibration Caused by External Sources DNo DYes
Source Frequency, Hz.
• Machinery
D Cavitation
. rpm.
D Piping
D Pulsating Flow
Damage Noted
Type
Wear
• No
D Yes
Complete sketch at bottom of page indicating location in bundle
D Tube-to-Tube Impact
D Tube-to-Shell Impact
O Cutting at Baffle
O Tubesheet Joint Leaking
D One Side of Tubes Only • Parallel to Flow
O All Around Tube Circumference
• Corrosion Evident O Fouling Evident
• General Description of Damage
Q Near Tubesheet
D Fatigue
D Normal to Flow
Exchanger Operation History
How Long on Stream Before Damage Occurred?
Any Unusual Occurrence Observed Prior to Vibration as a Consequence of
O Start-up D Plant-Upset D Shutdown
Describe
If Vibration Remedy Applied, Describe and Indicate Results:.
TUBE BUNDLE DAMAGE SKETCH
ft
LJ
2-22
DOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VfBRATION DATA FORM Pagel
To protect the identity of the organization submitting this case, HTRI has
assigned • case number. Additionally the data on pages 2, 3, and 4 have been
reviewed to ensure that they do not include any propietary information.
This is a replacement for the original page 1 that provides space for
additional comments, drawings, photographs, etc.
Assigned
Case No.
106
Summary
This 57-in. diameter by 12-ft long AET TEMA style heat exchanger
with segmental baffles had acetylene on the shellside and water
on the tubeside. The tubespan for the baffle window tubes at the
inlet and outlet were nearly the limit specified in the TEMA
Standards for 1-in. carbon steel tubes. Flow-induced tube vibra-
tion is indicated as the cause for tube damage near the tubesheet.
Information is limited to that presented on the data form.
2-23
Type R TEMA Exchanger
D Special Exchanger
DOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM
rv«gn,?tinn f\ E."J"
(TVc/rihr)
Assigned
Cue No.
rai e2
106
Shell Orientation ^Horizontal
D Vertical
SHELL GEOMETRY (Complete Sketch Below) TUBE GEOMETRY
Sl.Ts Inside Diameter,-BMS (in.)_
Wall Thickness.-nm ( i n. ) _
Inlet Nozzle ID, mm-(in.)_
Outlet Nozzle ID, mm (in.)
Impingement Protection B^No
(Describe) '
M at eri al.
11."
D Yes
Annular Distributor HNo
Open Cut Area mm
2
(in.
2
)_
D Yes
Nozzle-to-Fiist Tube Row Distance, mm-(in.) 1 - 3 7
CROSS BAFFLE GEOMETRY
RSegmental; D Double-Segmental O Disc/Doughnut
• Triple-Segmental; D No-Tubes-in-Window
Baffle Cut, % Shell Diameter * U
Cut Orientation Relative to Axis of Inlet Nozzle
Inlet Baffle ^Perpendicular O Parallel D45 °
Central Baffles j ? Perpendicular D Parallel D45 °
Baffle Thickness, mm (in ) O.Wb Material
Diametral Clearances Shp11-to-hafflp
|
.n»m.(ifi.) 0 . Z7
Tube-to-baffle aim ( i n. ) _
Bundle-to-shell, mm (in.)_
Number of Baffles Along Length of Shell \
Baffle Spacing, mm (in.) Central "5H.
Inlet H M Outlet 3 ^
0,01
Unsupported Tube Span Lengths,*** (in.).
Longest J^Liia. Inlet T/ . f e Outlet _J , % ! •
Outside Diameter,jnm (in.)
Wai! Thickness, mm-(
Tube Lengths
Straight Tube, Inside Tubesheets,-mm(in.)_
U-Tube, Tubesheet to Bend Tangent, mw(in.) —
Tube Pitch, «wr(in.)_J Llta
Layout (Please Circle)
Flow
No. of Tubes
First Tubepas D Countercurrent D Cocunent
Tube-to-Tubesheet J oint
J ? Welded D Roller Expanded D Other
IfU-Tube
Maximum Bend Radius, irmr(ui.)
Bend Orientation Relative to Axis of Shellstde Inlet Nozzle
D Perpendicular D Parallel
If Bend Supported, Describe in Comments Below
If Finned Tubes
Eim/m (Fins/in.) Fin Material
Diameter, 4«m-(in.), Root Over Pint "~*
If Enhanced Surface Tubes.
(Describe)
DETUNING BAFFLE
If Detuning Baffle Used to Control Acoustic
Vibration, Indicate Position on Sketch Below
COMMENTS AND SKETCH
Complete sketches by drawing i n tubeslde and shellside nozzles.
Indicate i nl et nozzles wi th an arrow.
TT
t
Indicate top of exchanger as mounted
by f i l l i ng i n appro priate arro w.
2- 24
Snow sneltsld* Inlet no zzle lo catio n, baf f le cut
or i entati on, and impingement devices.
DOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM
Assigned
Case No. .
106
PROCESS CONDITIONS
Flow Rate, kg!
1
* (10
3
lb/hr)
Inlet Temperature,-© (F)
Outlet Temperalure,€ (F)
Inlet Pressure,-tePa (psia) Absolute
Measured AP, fcPa-(psi)
Inlet Weight Fraction Vapor
Outlet Weight Fraction Vapor
Vibration Observed
Reference Condition A
Tubemfe
1\ . U
O
0
SheUskte
lot
111
l.o
v.O
a No BTYes
Reference Condition B
Tubeade ShdUde
• No Q Yes
FLUID PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Fill In All Applicable Entries
Fluid Name
Reference Temperature -e-(F)
Tubeside Shdlside
C
t
H
v
Liquid Properties at Reference
Temperatures
Density, kg/m
3
(Ib/ft
3
)
Viscosity ri nfe*- (cP)
Thermal Conductivity, 3K/mi€-(Btu/m ft F)
Heat Capacity,-kJ /kg-G (Btu/m ft F)
Vapor or Gas Properties at
Reference Temperatures
Density, kg/m
3
(lb/ft
3
)
ViscosityrHiPir-s- (cP)
Thermal Conductivity, WfnvG (Btu/hr ft F)
Heat Capacity, W/kg-€- (Btu/lb F)
Fluid Molecular Weight, ks/mol (Ib/mole)
\
>
y
O,O\ ll
I boiling or Condensing y^ "S^
Latent Heat, kWcg (Btu/lb) \ y
/
' ^ s j
2-25
DOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM
Anfcaed
Case No. .
106
VIBRATION AND DAMAGE DESCRIPTION
When Vibration Present, Shellside Flow Rate, Jcg&(10
3
lb/hr)
If Known, Crbssflow Velocity at baffle tip,-m/s (ft/sec)*
Crossflow Velocity at centerline, m/» (ft/sec)*
Velocity Through Window in Baffle,-m/» (ft/sec)*
Inlet Nozzle Velocity ,-mMft/se.c)*
Outlet Nozzle Velocity, m/fr(ft/sec)*
Measured Natural Frequency, Hz
Measured Acoustic Frequencies, Hz
Noise Sound Level, db
* Please describe how velocities were calculated or estimated.
Vibration Caused by External Sources O No G Yes
Source Frequency, Hz.
D Machinery
D Cavitation
. rpm.
D Piping
D Pulsating Flow
Damage Noted
Type
Wear
O No
Complete sketch at bottom of page indicating location in bundle
D Tube-to-Tube Impact
D Tube-to-Shell Impact
O Cutting at Baffle
• Tubesheet Joint Leaking
D One Side of Tubes Only D Parall. to Flow
D All Around Tube Circumference
Q Corrosion Evident D Fouling Evident
D General Description of Damage
WNear Tubesheet
D Fatigue
Q Normal to Flow
Exchanger Operation History
How Long on Stream Before Damage Occurred?
Any Unusual Occurrence Observed Prior to Vibration as a Consequence of
Q Start-up Q Plant-Upset D Shutdown
Describe _ _
If Vibration Remedy Applied, Describe and Indicate Results:
TUBE BUNDLE DAMAGE SKETCH
2- 26
DOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM h g e l
f
To protect the identity of the organization submitting this case, HTRI has
assigned a case number. Additionally the data on pages 2, 3, and 4 have been
reviewed to ensure that they do not include any propietary information.
This is a replacement for the original page 1 that provides space for
additional comments, drawings, photographs, etc.
Assigned
Case No.
107
Summary
This 37-in. diameter by 40-ft long CEM TEMA style heat exchanger
is one of two in series joined by welding their shells together.
The tubeside fluid, natural gas with ethylene glycol to prevent
hydration, passes from the one exchanger to the next without
external piping. The shellside fluid, natural g a s , flows
counter current and between shells through external piping.
Both exchangers were identical on the shell side and both
experienced similar tube damage in the sane locations of the
exchanger. Host of the damage was noted after operating the
plant at more than 40 percent higher than the designed shellside
flow. Leaking tubes were plugged. During a subsequent overhaul
of the bundles, the leaking tubes were found to be "broken on
side near the nozzles." It is interesting to note that the
damaged tubes were not those with the longest span at the inlet
end zone.
For this case, there are construction drawings and a field report
describing the operation history and the repairs made to the
exchanger.
2-27
DOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM
Assigned
Case No.
107
Type KTEMA Exchanger Designation.
• Special Exchanger
C E M Shell Orientation ^Horizontal
OVertical
SHELL GEOMETRY (Complete Sketch Below) TUBE GEOMETRY
Inside Diameter.-tiMi (in.)
Wall Thickness, mm (in.)
Inlet Nozzle ID.
Outlet Nozzle ID, mm (in.)_
Impingement Protection Q No JK Yes
Cfi.
Annular Distributor UNo DYes
Open Cut Areaum
2
(in.*)
Nozzle-to-First Tube Row Distance, « HB (in.)
CROSS BAFFLE GEOMETRY
Type D Segmental; J ^Double-Segmental D Disc/Doughnut
O Triple-Segmental; O No-Tubes-in-Window
Baffle Cut. % Shell Diameter 3 &3 0 ToftC O\teg.L/»0
Cut Orientation Relative to Axis of Inlet Nozzle
Inlet Baffle D Perpendicular HParallel D45 °
Central Baffles Q Perpendicular fiCParallel D45 °
Baffle Thickness, « w» . ( i n. ) ^ i t l ^ Material
\.S0O
Diametral Clearances Shell-to-baffle,-«»» (i n) 0. 1% l £
Tube-to-baffle <wm-(in.).. 0 ' 0 V ?fc
Bundle-to-shcll, JJWH (in.).
Number of Baffles Along Length of Shell IL
Baffle Spacing, ami (in.) Central »> i«
Inlet *bOt<o. Outlet _
Unsupported Tube Span Lengths, mm (in.)
Longest 5™ Inlet ^ ^ Outlet
Outside Diameter,-mm (in.) 0.15O
Wall Thickness, M (in ) CObS Material _
Tube Lengths
Straight Tube, Inside Tubesheets.imw (in.)
U-Tube, Tubesheet to Bend Tangent,«m-(in.)
Tube Pitch, mm ( i n . ) _ Q e S l 2 i
Layout (Please Circle)
Flow
30°
No. ofTubes_l £LQ_ . No.ofTubepasses
First Tubepass KCountercurrent DCocurrent
Tube-to-Tubesheet J oint NOT Gl ^ CN
D Welded D Roller Expanded D Other
IfU-Tube
Maximum Bend Radius, mm (•")
Bend Orientation Relative to Axis of Sbellside Inlet Nozzle
D Perpendicular D Parallel
If Bend Supported, Describe in Comments Below
If Finned Tubes
EaHfm (Fins/in.) Fin Material —
Diameter,-«WB-(in.), Root * Over Fins —
If Enhanced Surface Tubes —
(Describe).
DETUNING BAFFLE
If Detuning Baffle Used to Control Acoustic
Vibration, Indicate Position on Sketch Below
COMMENTS AND SKETCH
C o mplet e sketches by drawi ng In t ubeslde and shellslde no zzles.
Indi cat e i nlet no zzles wi t h an arro w.
-r
Fi xed T ubeshM t
J.
Indi cat e t o p o f exchsngt r as mo unt ed
by f i lli ng In appro pri at e arro w.
2- 28
S ho w shcllside Inlet no zzle lo cat i o n, baf t I * cut
o ri ent at i o n, and Impi ngement devices.
OOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM
fage 3
Assigned
Case No. .
107
PROCESS CONDITIONS
Flow Rate, fcg/s (10
3
lb/hr)
Inlet Temperature,^ (F)
Outlet Temperaturc,-€-(F)
Inlet Pressure, Jc£a (psia) Absolute
Measured AP,*Eg (psi)
Inlet Weight Fraction Vapor
Outlet Weight Fraction Vapor
Vibration Observed
Reference Condition A
Tubeade
<><?
I t
\ OS£
\O
1. 6
t.o
ShdUde
bl
love
1o
1.0
1.0
D No H Yes
Reference Condition B
TubesMe
SG
10 SO
\.O
ShdfaUe
210
?
i.n
fSNo QYes
FLUID PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Fill In All Applicable Entries
Fluid Name
Reference Temperature C (F)
Tubeside SheUside
NATORAL GAS
Liquid Properties at Reference
Temperatures
Density, kg/m
3
(lb/ft
3
)
Viscosity, mPa-s (cP)
Thermal Conductivity, W/m-C (Btu/m ft F)
Heat Capacity, kJ/kg-C (Btu/m ft F)
^—^
Vapor or Gas Properties at
Reference Temperatures
Density, kg/m
3
Ob/ft
3
)
Viscosity, mPa-s (cP)
Thermal Conductivity, W/m-C (Btu/hr ft F)
Heat Capacity, kJ/kg-C (Btu/lb F)
Fluid Molecular Weight, kg/mol Ob/mole)
'. ! foiling or Condensing
Latent Heat, kl/kg (Btu/lb)
(
2-29
DOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM
Attuned
Cue No. .
107
VIBRATION AND DAMAGE DESCRIPTION
When Vibration Present, Shellside Flow Rate, kal t(10
3
lb/hr)
If Known, Crossflow Velocity at baffle tip,«/#-(ft/sec)»
Crossflow Velocity at centerline, m/s (ft/sec)*
Velocity Through Window in Baffle,-m/s-(ft/sec)*
Inlet Nozzle Velocity,-mfc (ft/sec)*
Outlet Nozzle Velocity, m/c (ft/sec)*
Measured Natural Frequency, Hz
Measured Acoustic Frequencies, Hz
Noise Sound Level, db
1
Please describe how velocities were calculated or estimated.
Vibration Caused by External Sources O Yes
Source Frequency, HE .
D Machinery
D Cavitation
. rpm.
a Piping
D Pulsating Flow
Damage Noted
Type
Wear
D No
JiYes
Complete sketch at bottom of page indicating location in bundle
D Tube-to-Tube Impact
D Tube-to-Shell Impact
O Cutting at Baffle
O Tubesheet Joint Leaking
D One Side of Tubes Only D Parallel to Flow
D All Around Tube Circumference
D Corrosion Evident D Fouling Evident
JSL General Description of Damage
• Near Tubesheet
D Fatigue
D Normal to Flow
O f
Exchanger Operation History
How Long on Stream Before Damage Occurred?
Any Unusual Occurrence Observed Prior to Vibration as a Consequence of
D Start-up D Plant-Upset D Shutdown
Describe
If Vibration Remedy Applied, Describe and Indicate Results:.
TUBE BUNDLE DAMAGE SKETCH
2- 30
DOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM Pagel
To protect the identity of the organization submitting this case, HTRI has
assigned a case number. Additionally the data on pages 2, 3, and 4 have been
reviewed to ensure that they do not include any propietary information.
This is a replacement for the original page 1 that provides space for
additional comments, drawings, photographs, etc.
Assigned
Case No.
108
f
Summary
This 44-in. diameter by 40-ft long CEM TEMA style heat exchanger
is one of three that are joined tubesheet to tubesheet so that
in effect the tubes are 120 ft long. The tubeside flow is natural
gas with glycol to prevent hydration while the shellside flow is
counter current and passes between shells through external piping.
The bundle uses triple-segmental baffles so the shellside flow is
primarily axial. The tube spans are longer than TEMA Standards
maximum spans for 3/4-in. carbon steel. The heat exchanger operated
successfully for one and a half years at the design conditions.
However, tubes beg?n leaking where they were joined to the tubesheet
in all three exchangers when the shellside flow rate was sub-
stantially increased beyond that used for design- The sketch
below indicates the location of these failures. The failed tubes
were characterized by particularly long spans in the outlet end
zones. Minor cutting of the tubes at the baffles was also re-
ported.
For this case, there are construction drawings and a field report
describing the operating history, the damage noted, and the
repairs made to the exchanger.
3 /3 2"
1/8" - .
1/4"
— 3/32 V PO INT O F FA ILURES
- T U BE SHEET
/ •
HAND REAMED ONLY
TO REMOVE SHARP
CORNER.
4'
2-31
DOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM
Type H TEMA Exchanger
D Special Exchanger
Designation
(Describe)
CEM (FlVEp TORgSHteT)
Assigned
Case No.
Shell Orientation
108
•Horizontal
OVertical
\
SHELL GEOMETRY (Complete Sketch Below) TUBE GEOMETRY
Inside Diameter, mm (in.)_
Wall Thickness, « m (in.)
Inlet Nozzle ID, mm-(in.)
Outlet Nozzle ID, i m (in.).
Impingement Protection
(Describe)
Material__C £_
a Yes
Annular Distributor J9.No
Open Cut Area mm* (in.
2
)
D Yes
NozzIe-to-First Tube Row Distance, mm (in.)
CROSS BAFFLE GEOMETRY
Type DSegmental; D Double-Segmental D Disc/Doughnut
K Triple-Segmental; D No-Tubes-in-Window
Baffle Cut, % Shell Diameter 2£
Cut Orientation Relative to Axis of Inlet Nozzle
Inlet Baffle • Perpendicular ^Parallel D45°
Central Baffles D Perpendicular BIParallel D45°
Baffle Thickness,•swa-(in.).J2i<2?S Material C^>
Diametral Clearances Shell-to-baffle,«w» (in.)_
Tube-to-baffle m (i n. )_
Bundle-to-shell, mm- (in.)_
Number of Baffles Along Length of Shell
Baffle Spacing,-mm (in.) Central i 2
Inlet m>,G"L Outlet Wfl.i
O.
Unsupported Tube Span Lengths, MM-(in.)
Longest 11AA Inlet 7 7 . 6 1 Outlet
Outside Diameter, mm (in.).
Wall Thickness, m (in ) 0 . 0 6 0 Material.
Tube Lengths
Straight Tube, Inside Tubesheets.-mm (in.)
U-Tube, Tubesheet to Bend Tangent, mm (in.)
Tube Pitch, JWH (in.) _
Layout (Please Circle)
Flow
No. of Tubes.
First Tubepass J^Countercurrent DCocurrent
Tube-to-Tubesheet Joint
D Welded KRoUer Expanded D Other
IfU-Tube
Maximum Bend Radius, wnrr (in.) ^_ZHI
. No.ofTubepas
Bend Orientation Relative to Axis of Shellside Inlet Nozzle
O Perpendicular D Parallel
If Bend Supported, Describe in Comments Below
If Finned Tubes
Fint/m (Fins/in.) Fin Material
Diameter, B»m-{in.), Root.
If Enhanced Surface Tubes
. Over Fint
(Describe).
DETUNING BAFFLE
If Detuning Baffle Used to Control Acoustic
Vibration, Indicate Position on Sketch Below
COMMENTS AND SKETCH
Complete sketches By drawing i n tubeslde and shellslde nozzles.
Indicate i nl et nozzles wi th an ar r ow.
lout*
Fixed T uboti M t
Indicate top of exchanger » mounted
by f i l l i ng In appropriate ar r ow.
in
Show shellside I nl et nozzle l ocati on, baf f le cut
or i entati on, and impingement devices.
I
DOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM
Assigned
PROCESS CONDITIONS
Flow Rate, fcg/s(10
3
lb/hr)
InletTemperature.€-(F) / TQAlS) OP \
Outlet Temperature, €-(F) [jt,
( W
<SeR| £* >
Inlet Pressure, -kPft (psia) Absolute
Measured AP, kPa (psi)
Inlet Weight Fraction Vapor
Outlet Weight Fraction Vapor
Vibration Observed
Reference Condition A
Tubeade
l.O
1. 0
SheOade
1,10
-ISAH/HS-
l.O
l.O
DNo 8 Yes
Reference Condition B
TuboJ de SkeUde
D No O Yes
FLUID PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Fill In All Applicable Entries
Fluid Name
Reference Temperaturr •€"(¥)
Tubeside
WAT'L &te> + GLVCOL
Shdlside
N4"'c S45
Liquid Properties at Reference
Temperatures
Density, kg/m
3
(lb/ft
3
)
Viscosity, mPa-s (cP)
Thermal Conductivity, W/m-C (Btu/m ft F)
Heat Capacity, kJ/kg-C (Btu/m ft F) ^ —
^ ^
Vapor or Gas Properties at
Reference Temperatures
Densi t y, I t ^a
3
(lb/ft
3
)
Viscosity,-mPfr-s (cP)
Thermal Conductivity, W/m-O (Btu/hr ft F)
Heat Capacity, fcJ/kg-6- (Btu/lb F)
Ruid Molecular Weight, kg/mol- Ob/mole)
•2.7^ -2.62
' . 3oiling or Condensing
Utent Heat.-W/fc^Btu/lb)
— —
2-33
DOE/ANL/HTIU HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM
Au%ned
Case No. .
Par 4
108
^,
VIBRATION AND DAMAGE DESCRIPTION
When Vibration Present, Shellside Flow Rate,fcg/s (10
3
lb/hr)
If Known, Crossflow Velocity at baffle tip,«/« (ft/sec)*
CrossfJow Velocity at centerline,«i/s (ft/sec)*
Velocity Through Window in Baffle, m/s (ft/sec)*
Inlet Nozzle Velocity, »/•• (ft/sec)*
Outlet Nozzle Velocity r »A (ft/sec)'
Measured Natural Frequency, Hz
Measured Acoustic Frequencies, Hz
Noise Sound Level, db
• Please describe how velocities were calculated or estimated.
Vibration Caused by External Sources JKNo DYes
Source Frequency, Hz.
O Machinery
D Cavitation
. rpm.
D Piping
D Pulsating Flow
Damage Noted
Type
Wear
DNo
fSYes
Complete sketch at bottom of page indicating location in bundle
D Tube-to-Tube Impact
O Tube-to-Shell Impact
ETCutting at Baffle
lif Tubeshee! Joint Leaking
D One Side of Tubes Only D Parallel to Flow
• All Around Tube Circumference
J f Corrosion Evident • Fouling Evident
D General Description of Damage 1 U&P. &
D Near Tubesheet
D Fatigue
• Normal to Flow
LPAKt/JC
Exchanger Operation History
How Long on Stream Before Damage Occurred?
Any Unusual Occurrence Observed Prior to Vibration as a Consequence of
O Start-up O Plant-Upset D Shutdown
Describe 1UCt. £feF0
If Vibration Remedy Applied, Describe and Indicate Results:
TUBE BUNDLE DAMAGE SKETCH
A OF
DOE/ANL/HTRl HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM Page I
To protect the identity of the organization submitting this case, HTRI has
assigned a case number. Additionally the data on pages 2, 3, and 4 have been
reviewed to ensure that they do not include any propietary information.
This is a replacement for the original page 1 that provides space for
additional comments, drawings, photographs, etc.
Assigned
Case No.
109
Summary
This 53-in. diameter by 40-ft long CEM TEMA style heat exchanger
is one of two in series that share a common shell. There is
natural gas with glycol to prevent hydration on the tube side.
Between exchangers the tubeside flow passes through an open
shell section about 4 ft long before entering the tubes of the
downstream exchanger. The shellside fluid is natural gas
flowing counter current and piped externally between shells.
The bundle has double-segmented baffles and is flat on top to
a depth of 8-1/2 in. A round impingement plate the same diameter
as the inlet nozzle ID is 8-1/2 in. below the nozzle. A unique
feature is a flat plate seal welded to the shell to block shell-
side flow bypassing at the top of the bundle. The maximum span
lengths are less than the TEMA Standards maximum lengths for
3/4-in. carbon steel tubes.
No tube vibration has been noted in this unit even when operated
at greater than 20 percent over the designed shellside flow rate.
For this case, there are construction drawings and a short field
report of the operating history of the exchanger train.
2-35
DOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM
Type Bf TEMA Exchanger
O Special Exchanger
Designation
(TVcrrih*)
CEM
Assigned
Cane No.
Shell Orientation
109
jBLHorizontal
O Vertical
SHELL GEOMETRY (Complete Sketch Below) TUBE GEOMETRY
£ 3
Inside Diameter, mm ( i n . ) _ _
Wall Thickness,«sk(in.)_'«Z£
Inlet Nozzle I D, « n n . ( i n . ) _ 2 0
Material
7 O Outlet Nozzle ID, mm (in.)
Impingement Protection D No
10 m. GO %Y
Annular Distributor 0 No QYes
Open Cut Aremmt* (in.
2
)
Nozzle-to-First Tube Row Distance,«i»(in.)_
CROSS BAFFLE GEOMETRY
Type D Segmental; XDouble-Segmental D Disc/Doughnut
D Triple-Segmental; D No-Tubes-in-Window
Baffle Cut, % Shell Diameter 3 0 - 1
Cut Orientation Relative to Axis of Inlet Nozzle
Inlet Baffle D Perpendicular J8 Parallel D45°
Central Baffles D Perpendicular JtfParallel D45°
Baffle Thickness, BMH-(in) J2i i ?> Material CS
Diametral Clearances Shell-to-baffle ,-m« (in) O. 'T. ?!?
Tube-to-baffle mw (in.) Q. Pl Sf c
Bundle-to-shell, •n«H-(in.)
Number of Baffles Along Length of Shell ': L5
Baffle Spacing, mm(in.)__Central IG. S
Inlet _ 3 2 - Zi _ Outlet H-7b
Unsupported Tube Span Lengths, owa (in.)
Longest JaUS. Inlet JjZiZSOutlet (x
Outside Diameter,<mm (in.) __fi i .
Wall Thickness, «»m-(in) 0. 06? Material C.S
Tube Lengths
Straight Tube, Inside Tubesheets,
U-Tube, Tubesheet to Bend Tangent,'
Tube Pitch, mm (in) <-0Q
Layout (Please Circle)
(in.)
Flow
30?
No. of Tubes _HlQ__ No. of Tube;
First Tubepass ^Countercunent O Cocurrent
Tube-to-Tubesheet Joint
• Welded a Roller Expanded • Other
IfU-Tube
Maximum Bend Radius, mm-(in.) ^
Bend Orientation Relative to Axis of Shellside Inlet Nozzle
D Perpendicular D Parallel
If Bend Supported, Describe in Comments Below
If Finned Tubes
Finc/m (Fins/in.) Fin Material —
Diameter,-w«f (in.), Root — Over Fin<
If Enhanced Surface Tubes r =
(Describe).
DETUNING BAFFLE
If Detuning Baffle Used to Control Acoustic
Vibration, Indicate Position on Sketch Below
COMMENTS AND SKETCH
C o mplet e sketches by drawi ng i n t ubesi de and she) I side no zzles.
Indi cat e i nlet no zzles wi t h an arro w.
t
OF
Tu)O . .. . .
Indi cat e t o p o f exchanger as mo unt ed
by f i lli ng In appro pri at e arro w. 2-36
S ho w shellside i nlet no zzl* lo cat i o n, t uf f r* cut
o ri ent at i o n, and Impi ngement devi ces.
DOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM
PROCESS CONDITIONS
Pate 3
Assigned
CaseNo._J 09_
Flow Rate, kg/s (10
3
lb/hr)
Inlet Temperature, e ^ F)
Outlet Temperature, e-(F)
Inlet Pressure,fcife-(psia) Absolute
Measured AP.Jsfa(psi)
Inlet Weight Fraction Vapor
Outlet Weight Fraction Vapor
Vibration Observed
Reference Condition A
Tubeside
-5
3
\.o
\ . o
Shellside
SSH
- 3 O
11
1,0
1,0
J j'No DYes
Reference Condition B
Tubeade ShdUde
a No DYes
FLUID PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Fill In All Applicable Entries
Fluid Name
Reference Temperature -fi(F)
Tubeside
NATURAL £ ,qs+ GL^COL.
GS
Shellside
MATURAC GAS
He
Liquid Properties at Reference
Temperatures
Density, kg/m
3
(lb/ft
3
)
Viscosity, mPa-s (cP)
Thermal Conductivity, W/m-C (Btu/m ft F)
Heat Capacity, kJ/kg-C (Btu/m ft F)
^^
Vapor or Gas Properties at
Reference Temperatures
Density, kg/m
3
(lb/ft
3
)
Viscosity,-mPa«9. (cP)
Thermal Conductivity, W/ wC (Btu/hr ft F)
Heat Capacity, kJ/kg-O (Btu/lb F)
Fluid Molecular Weight, Vg/rnol Ob/mole)
7>AO
7f Boiling or Condensing
Latent Heat, W/kg (Btu/lb) j |
2-37
DOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM
NO
VIBRATION AND DAMAGE DESCRIPTION
AsagMd
Cafe No. .
109
When Vibration Present, Shellside Flow Rate, kg/s (10
3
lb/hr)
If Known, Crossflow Velocity at baffle tip, m/s (ft/sec)*
Crossflow Velocity at centerline, m/s (ft/sec)*
Velocity Through Window in Baffle, m/s (ft/sec)*
Inlet Nozzle Velocity, m/s (ft/sec)*
Outlet Nozzle Velocity, m/s (ft/sec)*
Measured Natural Frequency, Hz
Measured Acoustic Frequencies, Hz
Noise Sound Level, db
* Please describe how v«
Vibration Caused by Ex
Damage Noted •
a
Type •
a
Wear D
D

a
Exchanger Operat
i
«

TUBE BUNDLE DAMA
lo
te
Nc
Ye
Ti
Tii
Or
Al
Co
Ge
io

>
Gl
-
cities were calculated or estimated.
rnal Sources DNo DYes
Source Frequency, Hz
D Machinery
D Cavitation
:s Complete sketch at bottom of page indicatii
be-to-Tube Impact D Cutting at Baffle
be-to-Shell Impact O Tubesheet Joint Leaking
le Side of Tubes Only D Parallel to Flow
Around Tube Circumference
rrosion Evident D Fouling Evident
ppr^l J V":rppt'"n nf Dnmagp
D Piping
D Pulsating Flow
ig location in bundle
D Near Tubesheet
D Fatigue
D Normal to Flow
n History
How Long on Stream Before Dama
Any Unusual Occurrence Observed
D Start-up DPlant-l
Tk>«rihr
M> ncrwrri-At
Prior to Vibration as a Consequence of
Jpset D Shutdown
If Vibration Remedy Applied, Describe and Indicate Results:
ESKETCH
n
1 i$V
LJ
2-38
• o
DOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM Page I
i
To protect the identity of the organization submitting this case, HTRI has
assigned a case number. Additionally the data on pages 2, 3, and 4 have been
reviewed to ensure that they do not include any propietary information.
This is a replacement for the original page 1 that provides space for
additional comments, drawings, photographs, etc.
Assigned
Case No.
110
Summary
This 45-in. diameter by 40-ft long CEM TEMA style heat exchanger
is in refinery service. The tubeside fluid is cooling tower
water while the shellside fluid is an olefin-isooctane mixture
with hydrofluoric acid. Indications are that there was a loud
noise coming from the exchanger at start-up before the tubeside
fluid was brought on stream. Tubes that failed were those within
a few rows of the baffle tips of the double-segmental baffles.
The breaks were at baffles near the center of the tube length.
Metallurgical analysis indicates corrosion fatigue that was
probably initiated by flow-induced vibration. The exchanger
bundle was replaced with a new one with 18 instead of 12 baffles
and no further vibration was noted (See Case 1 1 1 ).
For this case, there are partial construction drawings, an
indication of the specific tubes that failed, and a metallurgical
report on the failed tubes.
2-39
DOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM
Assigned
Caie No.
JJ°
Type J? TEMA Exchanger
D Special Exchanger
Designation.
(Describe)—
C.FN
Shell Orientation ^Horizontal
O Vertical
SHELL GEOMETRY (Complete Sketch Below) TUBE GEOMETRY
Inside Diameter, mm (i n. )_
Wall Thickness, sum (in.)
Inlet Nozzle ID, *u»(i n. )_
Outlet Nozzle ID,«m»(in.).
Impingement Protection
(Describe)
Material.
No O Yes
Annular Distributor ITNo
Open Cut Area mm* (in.
z
)
Q Yes
Nozzle-to-First Tube Row Distance, mm (in.) \ .
CROSS BAFFLE GEOMETRY
Type D Segmental; ^Double-Segmental D Disc/Doughnut
D Triple-Segmental; Q No-Tubes-in-Window
Baffle Cut, % Shell Diameter ihJt.
Cut Orientation Relative to Axis of Inlet Nozzle
Inlet Baffle D Perpendicular 55 Parallel D45°
Central Baffles D Perpendicular jfParallel O45°
Baffle Thickness, BHn-(in.)-&ife£?Material C6
Diametral Clearances Shell-to-baffle, +-•* ( i n. ) _QA2i
Tube-to-baffle «w«-(in.)_
Bundle-to-shell, « m (in ) 1. 111>
Number of Baffles Along Length of Shell 1"?
Baffle Spacing, mm-(in.) Central _
Inlet VSfj Outlet _
Unsupported Tube Span Lengths,-m«-(in.)
longest lOM Inlet "?0.Y Outlet 7( ?V
,mm(in.) LH. Outside Diameter,mm (in.).
Wall Thickness, *m*i (in) O. ^V Material
Tube Lengths
Straight Tube, Inside Tubesheets.Jtmi (i n)
U-Tube, Tubesheet to Bend Tangent, mm (in.) ~~
Tube Pitch, «mr(ui.)
l m
^
Layout (Please Circle)
Flow
No. of Tubes. No. of Tube;
First Tubepass B Countercurrent D Cocunent
Tube-to-Tubesheet Joint
^Welded JSRolIer Expanded D O t h e r —
IfU-Tube
Maximum Bend Radius, mm (i n)
Bend Orientation Relative to Axis of Shellside Inlet Nozzle
D Perpendicular • Parallel
If Bend Supported, Describe in Comments Below
If Finned Tubes
Km/m (Fins/in.) — Fin Material —
Diameter, mm (wr), Root Over Fin* **~
If Enhanced Surface Tubes ZZ
(Describe).
DETUNING BAFFLE
If Detuning Baffle Used to Control Acoustic
Vibration, Indicate Position on Sketch Below
COMMENTS AND SKETCH
C o mplet e sketches by drawi ng In t ubvslde and shell side no zzles-
Indi cat e i nlet no zzles wi t h an arro w.
t Indi cat e t o p o f exchanger at mo unt ed
by f i lli ng In appro pri at e arro w.
2-40
S ho w shellsKK Inlet no zzle lo cat i o n, baf f le cut
o ri ent at i o n, and Implnf emwi t devi ces.
DOE/ANL/HTRl HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM
A ssigned
" 0
PROCESS CONDITIONS
Flow Rate, kg/s(10
3
lb/hr)
Inlet Temperature,-e-(F)
Outlet Temperature,* (F)
Inlet Pressure,-W>a (psia) Absolute
Measured AP, kP» (psi)
Inlet Weight Fraction Vapor
Outlet Weight Fraction Vapor
Vibration Observed
FLUID PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Fill In All Applicable Entries
Fluid Name
Reference Temperature "©'(F)
Reference Condition A
Tubeade
O
0
Shellade
1,1,00
°iO
loo

O
0
• No HYes
Tubeside
WATGE_
1
Reference Condition B
Tubeade SkeDade
• No DYes
I50&UTAWF
SheUside
HVO<?OP< UoCic AciO
0(3
Liquid Properties at Reference
Temperatures
Density, kg/m
3
(lb/ft
3
)
Viscosity ,-mP*«*-(cP)
Thennal Conductivity, Wjm*G (Btu/m ft F)
Heat Capacity, KJ/leg-G (Btu/m ft F)
O.feS*
Vapor or Gas Properties i t
Reference Temperatures
Density, kg/m
3
Ob/ft
3
)
Viscosity, mPa-s (cP)
Thermal Conductivity, W/m-C (Btu/hr ft F)
Heat Capacity, kJ/kg-C (Btu/lb F)
Fluid Molecular Weight, kg/mol Qb/mole)
\
\
\
If Boiling or Condensing ^y \ y^ \ _
Latent Heat, kJ/kg (Btu/lb)
2- 41
DOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM
C ase N o . .
110
VIBRATION AND DAMAGE DESCRIPTION
When Vibration Present, Shellside How Rate.-kftl* (10
3
lb/hr)
1100
If Known, Crossflow Velocity at baffle t\ p,mfs(ft/sec)*
Crossflow Velocity at centerline, m/s (ft/sec)*
Velocity Through Window in Baffle, mfr (ft/sec)*
Inlet Nozzle Velocity, m/f (ft/sec)*
Outlet Nozzle Velocity, m/s (ft/sec)*
Measured Natural Frequency, Hz
Measured Acoustic Frequencies, Hz
Noise Sound Level, db
1
Please describe how velocities were calculated or estimated.
Vibration Caused by External Sources DYes
Source Frequency, Hz.
D Machinery
• Cavitation
. rpm.
O Piping
D Pulsating Flow
Damage Noted
Type
Wear
DNo
Complete sketch at bottom of page indicating location in bundle
D Tube-to-Tube Impact
D Tube-to-Shell Impact
S hutti ng at Baffle
O Tubesheet Joint Leaking
D One Side of Tubes Only D Parallel to Flow
D All Around Tube Circumference
^ Corrosion Evident D Fouling Evident
D General Description of Damage 1H
O Near Tubesheet
O Fatigue
D Normal to Flow
t PS
AtJO HO
Exchanger Operation History
How Long on Stream Before Damage Occurred?
Any Unusual Occurrence Observed Prior to Vibration as a Consequence of
O Start-up • Plant-Upset • Shutdown
Describe
If Vibration Remedy Applied, Describe and Indicate Results:
U (T H IB E >A PC t P<. A id PQgT Hf c VQOll
TUBE BUNDLE DAMAGE SKETCH
2- 42
DOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM Pagel
To protect the identity of the organization submitting this case, HTRI has
assigned a case number. Additionally the data on pages 2, 3, and 4 have been
reviewed to ensure that they do not include any propietary information.
This is a replacement for the original page 1 that provides space fox
additional comments, drawings, photographs, etc.
Assigned
Case No.
Ill
Summary
This 45-in. diameter by 40-ft long CEM TEMA style heat exchanger
is the same shell as for Case 110 with a replacement bundle. These
are 18 double-segmental baffles instead of the original 1 2. The
service and the fluids are the same. This exchanger resulted in
a higher shellside pressure drop; however, added pump capacity
was available. The exchanger has operated for several years
without any vibration problems.
The information is limited to that included on the data form.
• • i _ .
2-43
DOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM
Assigned
Cue No. .
I l l
Type fB.TEMAExchanger
D Special Exchanger
Designation.
(Describe)
Shell Orientation tf Horizontal
• Vertical
SHELL GEOMETRY (Complete Sketch Below) TUBE GEOMETRY
Inside Diameter, mm (in.) Ub
Wall Thickness,mm (in.) Material-
Inlet Nozzle ID, mm ( i n) 1H
Outlet Nozzle ID, mm (in) lH
Impingement Protection ^. No D Yes
(Describe) *
Annular Distributor J SNo
Open Cut Area aim
2
(in.
2
)
DYes
Nozzle-to-First Tube Row Distance, mm (in.).
CROSS BAFFLE GEOMETRY
Type D Segmental; ^Double-Segmenta! D Disc/Doughnut
O Triple-Segmental; D No-Tubes-in-Window
Baffle Cut, % Shell Diameter
Cut Orientation Relative to Axis of Inlet Nozzle
Inlet Baffle • Perpendicular # Parallel D45°
Central Baffles • Perpendicular ^Parallel 045°
Baffle Thickness, mm (in ) 0 '6£?Materia1
Diametral Clearances She]J-to-baffie,»wB-(in.)_
Tube-to-baffle mm (in.).
Bundle-to-shell, mm- (in) | .t
Number of Baffles Along Length of Shell
Baffle Spacing,•mm^in.) Central
Inlet IH'iy Outlet _ J
Unsupported Tube Span Lengths, mm (in.).
longest SO i
n
iet W\y Outlet J
-L©_
Outside Diameter,-inm(in.)_
Wall Thickness, m» (in) O. tW Material
Tube Lengths
Straight Tube, Inside Tubesheets, mm (in)
U-Tube, Tubesheet to Bend Tangent, mm-On.) ~
Tube Pitch, jam.(in.) (jZb
. No.ofTubep
Layout (Please Circle)
Flow
No. of Tubes.
First Tubepass KCountercurrent D Cocurrent
Tube-to-Tubesheet J oint
J fWelded ^RoUer Expanded D Other
IfU-Tube
Maximum Bend Radius, twin (in.) "^.
Bend Orientation Relative to Axis of Shellside Inlet Nozzle
D Perpendicular D Parallel —
If Bend Supported, Describe in Comments Below
If Finned Tubes
fttw/fn (Fins/in.) —' Fin Material " ~
Diameter, mot (in.), Root Over Fins "~
If Enhanced Surface Tubes '
(Describe).
DETUNING BAFFLE
If Detuning Baffle Used to Control Acoustic
Vibration, Indicate Position on Sketch Below
COMMENTS AND SKETCH
Complete sketches by drawing i n tubeslde and shellslde nozzles.
Indicate i nl et nozzles wi th an ar r ow.
I
FT
Fixed Tubesheet
t
C =>
indicate l op of exchanger as mounted
by f i l l i ng i n appropriate arrow.
2-44
Show shellslde Inlet no zzle lo catio n, battle cut
o rientatio n, and Impingement devices.
OOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM
Assigned
Case No..
111
PROCESS CONDITIONS
Flow Rate, leg's (10
3
lb/hr)
Inlet Temperature,-e-(F)
Outlet Temperature,*<F)
Inlet Pressure, Wfr(psia) Absolute
Measured AP, W» (psi)
Inlet Weight Fraction Vapor
Outlet Weight Fraction Vapor
Vibration Observed
Reference Condition A
TubewJ e
O
o
ShelUde
<\±
<*0
loo

O
o
XNo a Yes
Reference Condition B
Tubaide SheUade
O No DYes
FLUID PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Fill In All Applicable Entries
Fluid Name
Reference Temperature *<F)
Tubeside
WATUk
Shdlside
Liquid Properties at Reference
Temperatures
Density, fcg/m
3
(lb/ft
3
)
Viscosity,-mft»-s (cP)
Thermal Conductivity, WfnrG (Btu/m ft F)
Heat Capacity,k#fcg-€- (Btu/m ft F)
Vapor or Gas Properties at
Reference Temperatures
Density, kg/m
3
(lb/ft
3
)
Viscosity, mPa-s (cP)
Thermal Conductivity, W/m-C (Btu/hr ft F)
Heat Capacity, kJ /kg-C (Btu/lb F)
Fluid Molecular Weight, kg/mol Ob/mole)
If Boiling or Condensing
" \ ^
>
\ »
X
x~
^X
/ X
X N
x
^
yX
yX
X
/ X
/ \
Latent Heat, kJ /kg (Btu/lb) \^X \ X * X ^
2- 45
OOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM
AMgned
Cue No. .
111
VIBRATION AND DAMAGE DESCRIPTION
When Vibration Present, SheUside Flow Rate, kg/s (10
3
lb/hr)
If Known, Crossflow Velocity at baffle tip, m/s (ft/sec)*
Crossflow Velocity at centerline, m/s (ft/sec)*
Velocity Through Window in Baffle, m/s (ft/sec)*
Inlet Nozzle Velocity, m/s (ft/sec)*
Outlet Nozzle Velocity, m/s (ft/sec)*
Measured Natural Frequency, Hz
Measured Acoustic Frequencies, Hz
Noise Sound Level, db
' Please describe how velocities were calculated or estimated.
Vibration Caused by External Sources O No D Yes
Source Frequency, Hz.
O Machinery
D Cavitation
. rpm.
D Piping
D Pulsating Flow
Damage Noted
Type
Wear
DNo
DYes Complete sketch at bottom of page indicating location in bundle
D Tube-to-Tube Impact
D Tube-to-Shell Impact
• Cutting at Baffle
• Tubcsheet Joint Leaking
Q One Side of Tubes Only D Parallel to Flow
O All Around Tube Circumference
D Corrosion Evident D Fouling Evident
D General Description of Damage
D Near Tubesheet
D Fatigue
O Normal to Flow
Exchanger Operation History
• How Long on Stream Before Damage Occurred? .
Any Unusual Occurrence Observed Prior to Vibration as a Consequence of
O Start-up Q Plant-Upset D Shutdown
Describe
If Vibration Remedy Applied, Describe and Indicate Results:.
TUBE BUNDLE DAMAGE SKETCH
n
L J
2-46
DOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM
To protect the identity of the organization submitting this case, HTRI has
assigned a case number. Additionally the data on pages 2, 3, and 4 have been
reviewed to ensure that they do not include any propietary information.
This is a replacement for the original page 1 that provides space for
additional comments, drawings, photographs, etc.
Assigned
Case No.
112
Summary
This 43-in. diameter by 19-ft long AJ S TEMA style heat exchanger
has an annular distribution at the center inlet with a series of
slots to direct half of the shellside flow of air to each of the
two ends of the exchanger. Cooling tower water flowed in the
tube side. The bundle has segmental baffles with relatively
short unsupported span lengths for 3/4-in. admiralty tubes. The
tube field is arranged in an inline layout with a pitch—to-
diameter ratio of 1.33. The indication is that this exchanger
had "frequent tube leaks." Unfortunately, there is no indication
as to where the leaks occurred. Tube vibration is given as the
probable cause.
For this case, there are partial construction drawings, a field
inspection report, and the exchanger specification sheet.
2-47
DOE/ANL/HTR] HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM
Pige2
Assigned
Cue No..
112
J
Type J^TEMA Exchanger Designation _ _ A 3 I £ L .
D Special Exchanger (Describe)
Shell Orientation • Horizontal
O Vertical
SHELL GEOMETRY (Complete Sketch Below) TUBE GEOMETRY
Inside Diameter,
Wall Thickness,
Inlet Nozzle ID,
(in.)
Material.
Lfa
Outlet Nozzle I D , M » ( i n . ) _ _ L 2 _ _
lmpingement Protection J fNo • Yes
(Describe) I T!
Annular Distributor D No
Open Cut Area mm? (in.
2
)
Nozzle-to-First Tube Row Distance, aua.(in.) I < k7 S
CROSS BAFFLE GEOMETRY
Type J^Segmental; • Double-Segmental D Disc/Doughnut
D Triple-Segmental; D No-Tubes-in-Window
Baffle Cut, % Shell Diameter
Cut Orientation Relative to Axis of Inlet Nozzle
Inlet Baffle O Perpendicular BTParallel D45°
Central Baffles • Perpendicular KParallel O45°
Baffle Thickness, wm (in.)_QLiiz_Material OS
Diametral Clearances She)l-to-haffle,<w«(in.) 0. 2 S
Tube-to-baffle miw(in ) O. Ol Sf c
Bundle-to-shell, imn-(in.)
Number of Baffles Along Length of Shell _BJ
Baffle Spacing,•m«.(in.) Central _
Inlet 13> Outlet 7.1.1 ^
Unsupported Tube Span Lengths,
Longest_y^iL_ InJet
Outside Diameter, K )
Wall Thickness, «*w(in) 0. 065" Material APfilBAL.TV'
Tube Lengths
Straight Tube, Inside Tubesheets, i—^in ) "2^7* ^
U-Tube, Tubesheet to Bend Tangent, mm-(in.)
Tube Pitch, wai^n.) 1 ' ° ^
Layout (Please Circle)
Flow
No. of Tubes
First Tubepass f] Countercurrent fiTCocurrent
Tube-to-Tubesheet Joint
O Welded B( Roller Expanded D Other
IfU-Tube
Maximum Bend Radius,-mm(in)
Bend Orientation Relative to Axis of Shellside Inlet Nozzle
O Perpendicular D Parallel
If Bend Supported, Describe in Comments Below
If Finned Tubes
¥imfm (Fins/in.) Fin Material
Diameter, Bw»(in.)i Root • ^ Over Fin*
If Enhanced Surface Tubes !r^
(Describe).
DETUNING BAFFLE
If Detuning Baffle Used to Control Acoustic
Vibration, Indicate Position on Sketch Below
COMMENTS AND SKETCH
Complete sketches by drawing tn tubeside and shellside nozzles.
Indicate inlet nozzles with an arrow.
Fi xed TubeshiL
- cewfe
X_L
C = •=£>
Indicate top of exchanger as mounted
by f i lli ng in appro pri at e arro w.
2-48
Show snelliid* Inlet nozzle location, baflle cut
orientation, and impingement devices.
DOE/ANL/HTRl HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM
Assigned
C«eNo._J J 2_
PROCESS CONDITIONS
Flow Rate, fceM10
3
lb/hr)
Inlet Temperature,>e(F)
Outlet Temperature, e ( F)
Inlet Pressure, left (psia) Absolute
Measured AP, tft(psi )
Inlet Weight Fraction Vapor
Outlet Weight Fraction Vapor
Vibration Observed
Reference Condition A
Tubeade
°lo
h
o
0
ShdUde
US
i.sr
D No KYes
Reference Conditwn t
Tubaide SkdWde
DNo D Yes
FLUID PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Fill In All Applicable Entries
Fluid Name
Reference Temperature €-(F)
Tubeside
UA1GZ
Shdlside
Ate.
1
Liquid Properties at Reference
Temperatures
Density, kg/m
3
(lb/ft
3
)
Viscosity, mPa*s (cP)
Thermal Conductivity, W/m-C (Btu/m ft F)
Heat Capacity, kJ /kg'C (Btu/m ft F)
_^ "
^ — • "
^ — "
Vapor or Gas Properties at
Reference Temperatures
Density, kg/m
3
(lb/ft
3
)
Viscosity, mPa-s (cP)
Thermal Conductivity, W/m-C (Btu/hr ft F)
Heat Capacity, kJ /kg-C (Btu/lb F)
Fluid Molecular Weight, kg/mol Ob/mole)
If Boiling or Condensing
Latent Heat, kJ /kg (Btu/lb)
\
X M —
2 - 4 9
DOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM
Asafened
Case No. .
112
VIBRATION AND DAMAGE DESCRIPTION
When Vibration Present, Shellside Flow Rate, Itgfc (10
3
lb/hr)
If Knov^n, Crossflow Velocity at baffle tip, mis (ft/sec)*
Crossflow Velocity at centerline, n/ s (ft/sec)*
Velocity Through Window in Baffle, mfc (ft/sec)*
Inlet Nozzle Velocity,nt h (ft/sec)*
Outlet Nozzle Velocity, n^» (ft/sec)'
Measured Natural Frequency, Hz
Measured Acoustic Frequencies, Hz
Noise Sound Level, db
' Please describe how velocities were calculated or estimated.
Vibration Caused by External Sources DYes
Source Frequency, Hz.
O Machinery
O Captation
. rpm.
O Piping
• Pulsating Flow
Damage Noted
Type
DNo
J^Yes (
D Tube-to-Tube
D Tube-to-Shell
temple
Impact
Impact
Ccmplete sketch at bottom of page indicating location in bundle
Wear
• Cutting at Baffle
D Tubesheet Joint Leaking
O One Side of Tubes Only D Parallel to Flow
O All Around Tube Circumference
D Corrosion Evident D Fouling Evident
D General Description of Damage
D Near Tubeshset
D Fatigue
O Normal to Flow
Exchanger Operation History
How Long on Stream Before Damage Occurred?
Any Unusual Occurrence Observed Prior to Vibration as a Consequence of
• Start-up D Plant-Upset D Shutdown
Describe
If Vibration Remedy Applied, Describe and Indicate Results:.
TUBE BUNDLE D A M A GE SKETCH
2-50
DOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM hgel
To protect the identity of the organization submitting this case, HTRI has
assigned a case number. Additionally the data on pages 2, 3, and 4 have been
reviewed to ensure that they do not include any propielary information.
This is a replacement for the original page 1 that provides space for
additional comments, drawings, photographs, etc.
Assigned
Case No.
113
Summary
This 17-in. diameter by 16-ft long AEU TEMA style heat exchanger
has cooling water flowing inside the two tube passes formed by
the U-tubes. On the shell side a hydrocarbon designated
"Atmospheric Top Pumparound" flows through a bundle with seg-
mental baffles with very little overlap so the flow is mostly
parallel to the tubes. Originally admiralty tubes were used
and these suffered damage. The inspection report indicates
evidence of "fretting corrosion with numerous penetrations
under baffles." The indication is that there was a combined
effect of vibration and corrosion. The tubes--that failed were
near the longitudinal baffle passlane and at the baffle plates.
The cutting action resulted in the tubes being worn through
on one side, but the specific orientation is not noted.
For this case, there are in addition to the data form, an
inspection report, transmittal letter, and an indication of
the remedial action taken. The bundle was retubed with 430 alloy
stainless steel except for the bottom row of fin tubes which
were with titanium. No further problems have been indicated.
2-51
DOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM
Page 2
A ssf eaed
C aw N o .
113
Type KTEMA Exchanger
D Special Exchanger
Designation..
(Describe)—
Shell Orientation ^Horizontal
D Vertical
SHELL GEOMETRY (Complete Sketch Below) TUBEGEOMETRY
Inside Diameter, <a*m (i n. )_
Wall Thickness, MMt-(in.)J ?!
Inlet Nozzle ID, mm ( i n. ) _
Outlet Nozzle ID, mm (in.).
Impingement Protection
(Describe)
n.is
Material.
D Yes
Annular Distributor PtNo DYes
Open Cut Area mm
2
(in.
2
) Z^.
Nozzle-to-First Tube Row Distance, «M»-(in.) 2 « VT, 7 5
CROSS BAFFLE GEOMETRY
Type KSegmental; O Double-Segmental • Disc/Doughnut
D Triple-Segmental; • No-Tubes-in-Window
Baffle Cut, % Shell Diameter W3.S
Cut Orientation Relative to Axis of Inlet Nozzle
Inlet Baffle D Perpendicular JJTParallel D45 °
Central Baffles O Perpendicular J J Parallel D45 °
Baffle Thickness, mm ( i n . ) £ i l £ . Material
O. \ % 1 Diametral Clearances Shell-to-baffle,m»-(in.).
Tube-to-baffle•»»« (in.)_
Bundle-to-shell, mm (in.) KjQ
Number of Baffles Along Length of Shell »
Baffle Spacing,*!* (in.) Central 1~l
Inlet Jl Outlet 11
Unsupported Tube Span Lengths, mm (in.)
Longest 5"V Inlet 5H Outlet 5 V
Outside Diamgtrr mnr(in) *T.i>Q
WaU Thickness, mm (in ) 0. O6S
Tube Lengths
Straight Tube, Inside Tubesheets, mm ( i n)
U-Tube, Tubesheet to Bend Tangent,mm (in.)
Tube Pi i rh, ^ » ( i n) I '00
Layout (Please Circle)
Flow
No. of Tubes
First Tubepass O Countercunent
Tube-to-Tubesheet J oint
D Welded M Roller Expanded O Other
IfU-Tube
Maximum Bend Radius, mm (in )
O Cocunent
Bend Orientation Relative to Axis of Sbellside Inlet Nozzle
• Perpendicular ^Parallel
If Bend Supported, Describe in Comments Below
If Finned Tubes
(Fins/in.) Fin Material
Diameter, mm (in.), Root Over Fins.
If Enhanced Surface Tubes TT^T
(Describe) ZT=
DETUNING BAFFLE
If Detuning Baffle Used to Control'Acoustic
Vibration, Indicate Position on Sketch Below
COMMENTS AND SKETCH
Complete sketches by drawing In tubeside and sheUslde nozzles.
Indicate i nl et nozzles wi th an ar r ow.
Fixed Tubeiheet
D
Indicate top of exchanger as mounted
by f i l l i ng In appropriate ar r ow.
2- 52
Show shellslde Inlet nozzle l ocati on, baf f le cut
or i entati on, and impingement devices.
DOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM
Assigned
C«e No. " 3
PROCESS CONDITIONS
Flow Rate, Jfg/s (20
3
lb/hr)
Inlet Temperature, €-(F)
Outlet Temperature,€-(F)
Inlet Pressure, k£a-(psia) Absolute
Measured AP,Jt£ a-(psi)
Inlet Weight Fraction Vapor
Outlet Weight Fraction Vapor
Vibration Observed
Reference Condition A
Tubeade
"TO
ion
0
O
ShdUde
life
O
O
O No Xfres
Reference Conditioa B
Tubeade ShdUde
a No QYes
FLUID PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Fill In All Applicable Entries
Fluid Name
Reference Temperature -C\ F)
Liquid Properties at Reference
Temperatures
Density, *g/ »
3
(Ib/ft
3
)
Viscosity ,-mPa^s (cP)
Thermal Conductivity, W/m-e (Btu/m ft F)
Heat Capacity,-W/Itg^ (Btu/m ft F)
Tubeside Shdlade
1-b H I7 G
-
43.IV
0.11
W.SV
0.11
Vapor or Gas Properties at
Reference Temperatures
Density, kg/m
3
Ob/ft
3
)
Viscosity, mPa*s (cP)
Thermal Conductivity, W/m-C (Btu/hr ft F)
Heat Capacity, kJ/kg-C (Btu/lb F)
Fluid Molecular Weight, kg/mol Ob/mole)
\
y /
y S
S"
\
y /
y /
yS
/ \
If Boiling or Condensing / > ^ yS " S^
Latent Heat, kJ/kg (Btu/lb)
y \i/' \
r
2-53
DOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM
''aje No..
113
VIBRATION AND DAMAGE DESCRIPTION
When Vibration Present, Shellside Flow Rate, lb/hr)
If Known, Crossflow Velocity at baffle tip< m/t< ft/sec)'
Crossflow Velocity at centerline,-w£ (ft/sec)*
Velocity Through Window in Baffle, « & (ft/sec)*
Inlet Nozzle Velocity,j»/t. (ft/sec)*
Outlet Nozzle Velocity,«/s (ft/sec)*
Measured Natural Frequency, Hz
Measured Acoustic Frequencies, Hz
Noise Sound Level, db
* Please describe how velocities were calculated or estimated.
Vibration Caused by External Sources OYes
Source Frequency, Hz.
n Machinery
D Cavilation
• Piping
D Pulsating Flow
Damage Noted
Type
Wear
DNo
Complete sketch at bottom of page indicating location in bundle
D Tube-to-Tube Impact
O Tube-to-Shell Impact
Baffle
D Tubesheet Joint Leaking
D Near Tubesheet
• Fatigue
Q Normal to Flow it One Side of Tubes Only Q Parallel to Flow
D All Around Tube Circumference
D Corrosion Evident • Fouling Evident
D Genera) Description of Damage TuJO Tt/fcCf; WOR A) TtiRfl(J6M Ok) OkiE
Ai
Exchanger Operation History
How Long on Stream Before Damage Occurred?
Any Unusual Occurrence Observed Prior to Vibration as a Consequence of
• Start-up Q Plant-Upset O Shutdown
Describe
If Vibration Remedy Applied, Describe and Indicate Results:.
TUBE BUNDLE DAMAGE SKETCH
2-54
DOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM
To protect the identity of the organization submitting this case, HTRI has
assigned a case number. Additionally the data on pages 2, 3, and 4 have been
reviewed to ensure that they do not include any propietaiy information.
This is a replacement for the original page 1 that provides space for
additional comments, drawings, photographs, etc.
Assigned
Case No.
114
Summary
This 56-in. diameter by 50-ft long AEL TEMA style heat exchanger
has a hydrocarbon gas stream on both the shell side and the tube
side. The "lean gas" is heated on the shell side where the bundle
has 19 "double double-segmental" baffles. See sketch below.
The "rich gas" is cooled on the tube side in a single tube pass.
There was no impingement device under the shellside inlet nozzle.
Tubes failed in "top three rows under shell inlet nozzle."
For this case, in addition to the data form is a description of
the process conditions and geometry including the sketch
reproduced below.
• - I I . I "
2-55
DOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM f i f e 2
Type S. TEMA Exchanger
• Special Exchanger
Designation
(Describe)
AEL
Case No.
Shell Orientation
NOT filt/Gd
114
• Horizontal
D Vertical
SHELL GEOMETRY (Complete Sketch Below) TUBE GEOMETRY
lO
Inside Diameter,«n*(in.)
Wai! Thickness, nmt(in.)
Inlet Nozzle ID,«k* (in)
Outlet Nozzle ID, «»(i n. )
Impingement Protection KNo
(Describe) ITZ
Material
2i i
O Yes
Annular Distributor ^ No DYes
Open Cut ATeaiwu? (in.
2
) ~
Nozzle-to-First Tube Row Distance, iwti (in.) V. I
CROSS BAFFLE GEOMETRY
Type OSeemental; BDouble-Segmental • Disc/Doughnut
D Triplc-Segmental; O No-Tubes-in-Window
Baffle Cut, % Shell Diameter *3O
Cut Orientation Relative to Axis of Inlet Nozzle
Inlet Baffle DPerpendicular B Parallel D45°
Central Baffles G Perpendicular JeTParallel D45°
Baffle Thickness, mm (in. )SLb kl- Material
Diametral Clearances Shell-to-baffle, mm (in.) 0. 2 65
Tube-to-baffle w«-(in) O. OIgfc
Bundle-to-shell, imw(in ) O.
Number of Baffles Along Length of Shell L9
Baffle Spacing, mm (in.) Central *%rO
Inlet \ 9, Outlet 17
Unsupported Tube Span Lengths,im* (in.).
Longest ^hSl— Inlet _ S 2 _ Outlet _
Outside Diameter, mm (in) Q.7.C< 9
Wall Thickness, rnn (in.) 0i Og3 Material.
Tube Lengths
SHb
Straight Tube, Inside Tubesheets.mn (in.).
U-Tube, Tubesheet to Bend Tangent, mm (in.) —
Tube Pitch, mm-(in.)
Layout (Please Circle)
Flow
No.ofTubes_2fli£L No. ofTubepasses
First Tubepass JlCountercunent a Cocurrent
Tube-to-Tubesheet Joint
D Welded a Roller Expanded n n t h w NoT
IfU-Tube
Maximum Bend BaHim, ••••.(in )
Bend Orientation Relative to Axis of Shellside Inlet Nozzle
• Perpendicular D Parallel
If Bend Supported, Describe in Comments Below
If Finned Tubes
Fim/m (Fins/in.) ~~ Fin Material "~
Diameter, H*nr(in.), Root ~" Over Fin^ - ~
If Enhanced Surface Tubes ~ "
(Describe).
DETUNING BAFFLE
If Detuning Baffle Used to Control Acoustic
Vibration, Indicate Position on Sketch Below
COMMENTS AND SKETCH
C o mplet e sketches by drawi ng i n t ubeslde and shellside no zzles.
Indi cat e i nlet no zzles wi t h an arro w.
Fixed Tubeshcet I
1 I ' ! '
JL -
i_ru:
t
by filling In i
2-56
S no w shells i d* Inlet no zzle lo cat i o n, bjt i t * cut
o ri ent at i o n, and Impi ngement devi ces.
DOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM
A ssigned
H 4
PROCESS CONDITIONS
Flow Rate, fcg£ (10
3
lb/hr)
Inlet Temperature, €-(F)
Outlet Temperature, € (F)
Inlet Pressure,W»(psia) Absolute
Measured AP, kPe-(psi)
Inlet Weight Fraction Vapor
Outlet Weight Fraction Vapor
Vibration Observed
Reference Condition A
Tubeade
b ll. l
- \ h
1. 0
1.0
Shellnde
HS9. 1
1.0
1.(9
O No fcYes
Reference Condition B
Tubeade ShdUde
D No a Yes
FLUID PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Fill In All Applicable Entries
Fluid Name
Reference Temperature •fr(F)
Tubeside
RICH GA'b
Shdlside
LE^M GAS
- \ 9. h 1 2O
Liquid Properties at Reference
Temperatures
Density, kg/m
3
(lb/ft
3
)
Viscosity, mPa-s (cP)
Thermal Conductivity, W/nvC (Btu/m ft F)
Heat Capacity, kJ/kg-C (Btu/m ft F)
^
Vapor or Gas Properties at
Reference Temperatures
Density, kgA»
3
(lb/ft
3
)
Viscosity, -mftrfl (cP)
Thermal Conductivity, W/«n-€ (Btii/hr fl F)
Heat Capacity, kJ/kg-C- (Btu/lb F)
Fluid Molecular Weight, feg/nwKIb/mole)
O.OM
0.0\%W

0.012
0.010b
16.67
o,o\ d%
o. o\ n%

O. OIZO
O.02O7
O.&Otf
n.«//
If Boiling or Condensing
Latent Heat, W#tg< Btu/lb)
- [
• —
2-57
OOE/ANL/HTR] HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM
Case No. .
114
VIBRATION AND DAMAGE DESCRIPTION
When Vibration Present, Shellside Flow Rate, fc^»(10
3
lb/hr)
If Known, Crossflow Velocity at baffle tip,«wj< *(ft/sec)*
Crossflow Velocity at centerlinc,-«»/t (ft/sec)*
Velocity Through Window in Baffle, mife(ft/sec)*
Inlet Nozzle Velocity,«^6 (ft/sec)*
Outlet Nozzle Velocity , • »£ (ft/sec)*
Measured Natural Frequency, Hz
Measured Acoustic Frequencies, Hz
Noise Sound Level, db
Please describe how velocities were calculated or estimated.
Vibration Caused by External Sources JStfMo a Yes
Source Frequency, Hz.
D Machinery
D Cavitation
. rpm.
D Piping
D Pulsating Flow
Damage Noted
Type
Wear
DNo
Complete sketch at bottom of page indicating location in bundle
O Tube-to-Tube Impact
D Tube-to-Sliell Impact
D Cutting at Baffle
• Tubcshect Joint Leaking
O One Side of Tubes Only D Parallel to Flow
D All Around Tube Circumference
D Corrosion Evident D Fouling Evident
) ? General Description of Damage
JEf Near Tubesheet
O Fatigue
O Normal to Flow
TOP 3 P0GJ5
Exchanger Operation History
How Long on Stream Before Damage Occurred?
Any Unusual Occurrence Observed Prior to Vibration as a Consequence of
D Start-up D Plant-Upset D Shutdown
Describe
If Vibration Remedy Applied, Describe and Indicate Results:.
TUBE BUNDLE DAMAGE SKETCH
2-58
DOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM Pagel
To protect the identity of the organization submitting this case, HTRI has
assigned a case number. Additionally the data on pages 2, 3, and 4 have been
reviewed to ensure that they do not include any propietary information.
This is a replacement for the original page 1 that provides space for
additional comments, drawings, photographs, etc.
Assigned
Case No.
115
Summary
This 69-in. diameter by 20-ft long BJS TEMA style heat exchanger
is used as a process gas cooler. Shellside flow entered the
single 42-in. nozzle at the center of the exchanger and was
directed to the two ends by a solid flow divider plate. A portion
of the nozzle was blanked off to prevent by passing and reduced
the flow area to the equivalent of a 40.6-in. diameter nozzle.
There were five crosspasses on each end with segmental baffles.
The outlet nozzles were 26 in. diameter and mated matching 26-in.
diameter nozzles on a vessel that acted as a collecting header to
combine the flow into a 42 in. diameter outlet line. See sketch
below. It should be noted that the tubefield layout was inline.
There has not been any tube damage reported. However, there is
an extremely loud noise. The noise was greatest at the fixed
tubesheet at the top of the shell and at the bottom of the shell
near the floating head. The shellside pressure drop was pulsing
between 2 to 4 psi. It is not clear that the noise was flow-
induced inside the shell and not being generated by an outside
source.
For this case, in addition to the data form, there are complete
construction drawings of the exchanger (not the collecting header),
a description of noise observations, and several sketches.
2-59
OOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM
Assigned
Case No. .
Paf e2
115
Type J * TEMA Exchanger Designation.
• Special Exchanger (Describe)
R.tS
Shell Orientation SOiorizontaJ
O Vertical
SHELL GEOMETRY (Complete Sketch Below) TUBE GEOMETRY
Inside Diameter, i
Wall Thickness, •
Inlet Nozzle ID, «
Material _ £ £ _ t On.).
» ( i n. ) _yi _ BtMiK£.O in HO.k
Outlet Nozzle ID, maj-(in. )__-2&
Impingement Protection jSO^o
(Describe)
D Yes
Annular Distributor
Open Cut Area mm
2
(in.
2
)
Nozzle-to-First Tube Row Distance,
OYes
CROSS BAFFLE GEOMETRY
Type HSegmental; D Double-Segmental D Disc/Doughnut
D Triple-Segmental; • No-Tubes-in-Window
Baffle Cut, % Shell nianwur H S~
Cut Orientation Relative to Axis of Inlet Nozzle
Inlet Baffle B Perpendicular • Parallel D45 °
Central Baffles EfPerpendicular O Parallel O45 °
Baffle Thickness, m» (in.) _&j_£fi Material C S
Diametral Clearances Shell-to-baffle, mm (in.)
Tube-to-baffle mm (in.)
Bundle-to-shell, mm (in.)
Number of Baffles Along Length of Shell 9
Baffle Spacing,•»«• (in.) Central )R
Inlet lO.lS Outlet i
Unsupported Tube Span Lengths, «w» (in.).
Longest _£5Lll2jnlet T& Outlet _
Outside Diameter, mm (in.) 6-
Wall Thickness, «wi (in ) 0.0S3
Tube lengths
Straight Tube, Inside Tubeslieets. (in.)
U-Tube, Tubcsheet to Bend Tangenl.-mm (in.)
Tube Pitch,« &(in.) !•?$
Layout (Please Circle)
Flow
lots
No. of Tubes No. of Tubepaises
First Tubepass J J Countercurrent (giCocurrent
Tubeto-Tubesheet J oint
Q Welded J SRoUer Expanded D Other
IfU-Tube
Maximum Bend Radius, -» nm(in. )__m
Bend Orientation Relative to Axis of Shellside Inlet Nozzle
D Perpendicular D Parallel
If Bend Supported, Describe in Comments Below
If Finned Tubes
K M M (Fins/in.) *~ Fin Material
Diameter,4w«-(in.), Root Over Fins "**
If Enhanced Surface Tubes I!Z
(Describe).
DETUNING BAFFLE
If Detuning Baffle Used to Control Acoustic
Vibration, Indicate Position on Sketch Below
COMMENTS AND SKETCH
Complete sketches by drawing In tubeside and shellside nozzles.
Indicate i nl et noz2les wi th an ar r ow.
Indicate top of exchanger as mounted
by f i l l i ng In appropriate ar r ow.
2- 60
S how shellside Inlet no zzle l ocat i on, baf f le cut
o ri ent at i o n, and Impi ngement devi ces.
DOE/ANL/HTRI HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM
Assigned
CmNo " 5
PROCESS CONDITIONS
Row Rate, kpis (10
3
lb/hr)
Inlet Temperature, e (F)
Outlet Temperature,€-(F)
Inlet Pressure, •#» (psia) Absolute
Measured AP.fcfeKpsi)
Inlet Weight Fraction Vapor
Outlet Weight Fraction Vapor
Vibration Observed
Reference Condition A
Tubeade
27
9ft
-
O
0
Sbdlade
372

1.0
1.0
DNo MYes
Reference Condition B
Tubeade Shdlade
O No OYes
* CALCULA'eO
FLUID PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Fill In All Applicable Entries
Fluid Name
Reference Temperature -e-(F)
Tubeside
WAT£ R
SheUade
Ptfoces-s &AS
Liquid Properties at Reference
Temperatures
Density, itgfm
3
(lb/ft
3
)
Viscosity, u»P»*s (cP)
Thermal Conductivity, W/nr€ (Btu/m ft F)
Heat Capacity, U/kg-€-(Btu/m ft F)
Vapor or Gas Properties at
Reference Temperatures
Density, kg/m-
3
(lb/ft
3
)
Viscosity, jnPa->&- (cP)
Thermal Conductivity, Wyn**G-(Btu/hr ft F)
Heat Capacity, lt#kg*G-(Btu/lb F)
Fluid Molecular Weight, kg/swl Ob/mole)
If Boiling or Condensing
Latent Heat, W/*e(Btu/lb) 1
. 1
y S
/
0. 00^
0. 03HC
0. 333O
2. 2. 9*1
2- 61
DOE/ANL/HTRl HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE VIBRATION DATA FORM
Asagaed
Cue No. .
115
VIBRATION AND DAMAGE DESCRIPTION
When Vibration Present, Sheilside Flow Rate,4tg/t(10
3
lb/hr)
JLLL
If Known, Crossflow Velocity at baffle tip, m^(ft/sec)*
Crossflow Velocity at centerline, mfs (ft/sec)*
Velocity Through Window in Baffle,-**/* (ft/sec)*
Inlet Nozzle Velocity, mft (ft/sec)*
Outlet Nozzle Velocity ,-w/s (ft/sec)*
Measured Natural Frequency, Hz
Measured Acoustic Frequencies, Hz
Noise Sound Level, db
• Please describe how velocities were calculated or estimated.
Vibration Caused by External Sources D N o D Yes ]H Ho&T
Source Frequency, Hz
O Machinery
D Cavitation
rpm
D Piping
D Pulsating Flow
Damage Noted
Type
JSl.No
Q Yes <
• Tube-to-Tube
D Tube-to-ShcH
Zomple
Impact
Impact
Complete sketch at bottom of page indicating location in bundle
Wear
• Cutting at Baffle
D Tubesheet loint Leaking
D One Side of Tubes Only D Parallel to Flow
• All Around Tube Circumference
D Corrosion Evident D Fouling Evident
• General Description of Damage No
A? T </uic£ i?6g.f/^*J n o
D Near Tubesheet
O Fatigue
• Normal to Flow

Exchanger Operation History
How Long on Stream Before Damage Occurred?
Any Unusual Occurrence Observed Prior to Vibration as a Consequence of
• Start-up D Plant-Upset D Shutdown
Describe
If Vibration Remedy Applied, Describe and Indicate Results:.
TUBE BUNDLE DAMAGE SKETCH
JO
HOME
2- 62