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VERIFICATION OF CURRENT TRANSFORMERS FOR TRANSFORMER DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION APPLICATIONS

TRANSFORMER GENERAL DATA:

KVA:
Z%:
Vp (V):
Vs (V):
Tap min (%):
Tap max (%):

30000
10
34500
6300
-5
5

Rated Power
Impedance in %
Primary Voltage in Volts
Secondary Voltage in Volts
Minimum Tap in %
Maximum Tap in %

TRANSFORMER PRIMARY SIDE:
CT Primary Amps / CT Secondary Amps
CTp Ratio:
600 5
VAprim:
50
CT Rated Power
Class:
5P20
Accuracy %, Type (P,C), Limit Factor (Maximum CT times to satisfy accuracy). Eg. 10P20
RCTp (Ω):
0.648
CT Resistance in ohms
LCTp (m):
Cross Section
(mm2):

800

Cable Length from CT to Protective relay (in meters)

16

Cable cross section (in mm2)

TRANSFORMER SECONDARY SIDE:
CT Primary Amps / CT Secondary Amps
CTs Ratio:
3000 5
VAsec:
15
CT Rated Power
Class:
5P20
Accuracy %, Type (P,C), Limit Factor (Maximum CT times to satisfy accuracy). Eg. 10P20
RCTs (Ω):
1.13
CT Resistance in ohms
LCTs (m):
Cross Section
(mm2):

20

Cable Length from CT to Protective relay (in meters)

6

Cable cross section (in mm2)

PROTECTION RELAY DATA:
RELAY:
ABB REF-542 Relay model (For information only)
RELAY
0.1
Relay Burden in VA
BURDEN (VA):
MAXIMUM EXTERNAL FAULT. CURRENT THROUGH:
Current seen by:
Shortcircuit at:
HV Side
LV Side
PRIMARY SIDE (A):
3000
8000
SECONDARY SIDE (A):
800
15000

1) UNIT VALUES
Primary Current Full Load
Ip = KVA/(√3*Vp/1000)
Ip =
502.04
A

Ip_pu =
Ip_pu =

Ip/CTp
4.1837

Secondary Current Full Load
Is = KVA/(√3*Vs/1000)
Is =
2749.29
A

Is_pu =
Is_pu =

Is/CTs
4.5821

Primary Current Maximum Fault Current through
Ifp = Max [Ifault prim, Ifault sec]
Ifp_pu =
Ifp =
3000
A
Ifp_pu =

Ifp/CTp
25.0000

Secondary Current Maximum Fault Current through
Ifs = Max [Ifault prim, Ifault sec]
Ifs_pu =
Ifs =
15000
A
Ifs_pu =

Ifs/CTp
25.0000

2) BURDEN CALCULATIONS
Primary Lead Resistance
RPkm
1.15
(ohms/Km):
Rp (Ω) =

2 * LCTp * RPkm/1000

Secondary Lead Resistance
RSkm
3.08
(ohms/Km):
Rs (Ω) =

[Obtained from cooper cable data table]
Rp (Ω) =

1.84

2 * LCTs * RSkm/1000

Rs (Ω) =

0.1232

Rrelay (Ω) =

0.004

Bprimary (Ω) =

1.844

(ICT_sec2): 1A or 5 A

Total External Resistance Burden
Rp + Rrelay

Ip_pu2 * Rp
(VA) =

32.206

Rs_VA @
FLC =

Is_pu2 * Rs
(VA) =

2.587

[Obtained from cooper cable data table]

Relay Resistance
Rrelay (Ω) =
VArelay/(ICT_sec2)

Bprimary (Ω) =

Rp_VA @
FLC =

Bsecondary (Ω) = Rs + Rrelay Bsecondary (Ω) = 0.1272 .

0 RESULTS: BURDEN AND VOLTAGE COMPARISON Primary side CT Limit Zb (Ω) 2 Vacr_prim Limit(V) 200 Bprimary (Ω) 1. Secondary side Vsfs (V) = (Bsecondary + RCTs) * Ifs_pu Vsfs (V) = 31.426 Voltage accross CT terminals during Full Load operation on primary and secondary sides 3b) EXTERNAL FAULT OPERATION 3c) CT VOLTAGE AND BURDEN LIMITS Primary side Accuracy: Type: Limit Factor: 5 P 20 P: Protection. Driving voltage is lower than Vacr limit Secondary side 0.3 OK. C: Metering 2 Zbsec Max (Ω) = VAsec/ICT_sec Vacr_sec (V) = Limit Factor * Zbsec * ICT_sec Maximum CT voltage accros terminals to guarantee rated accuracy (error) Zbsec (Ω) = 0.3) CALCULATION OF CT BURDEN AND DRIVING VOLTAGES 3a) FULL LOAD OPERATION Driving Voltage.0 P: Protection. Driving voltage is lower than Vacr limit CALCULATED BY: DATE: LUIS FERNANDEZ FERNANDEZ MAR. 00 . Primary side Vsp (V) = (Bprimary + RCTp) * Ip_pu Vsp (V) = Driving Voltage. Primary side Vsfp (V) = (Bprimary + RCTp) * Ifp_pu Vsfp (V) = 62.1272 Vacr_sec Limit (V) Vsfp (V) 60 31. Secondary side Vss (V) = (Bsecondary + RCTs) * Is_pu Vss (V) = 5.600 Vacr_sec (V) = 60.844 Vsfp (V) 62.430 Voltage accross CT terminals for maximum through current on secondary side 10.43 CT Limit Zb (Ω) OK. 2007 REV.761 Driving Voltage.6 Bsecondary (Ω) 0.000 Vacr_prim (V) = 200. 22. Primary Burden is lower than CT limit OK. C: Metering 2 Zbprim Max (Ω) =VAprim/ICT_sec Vacr_prim (V) = Limit Factor * Zbprim * ICT_sec Secondary side Accuracy: Type: Limit Factor: 5 P 20 Maximum CT voltage accros terminals to guarantee rated accuracy (error) Zbprim (Ω) = 2. secondary Burden is lower than CT limit OK.300 Voltage accross CT terminals for maximum through current on primary side Driving Voltage.

10P20 RCTL (Ω): 0.9365 Ies/CTL 20.83 (ohms/Km): RN (Ω) = [Obtained from cooper cable data table] 1. Limit Factor (Maximum CT times to satisfy accuracy).8 Total External Resistance Burden BLine (Ω) = RL + Rrelay BLine (Ω) = 1.83 (ohms/Km): RL (Ω) = 2 * LCTL * RLkm/1000 Secondary Lead Resistance RNkm 1. CURRENT THROUGH: External Shortcircuit (A) 8000 Maximum Generator contribution to external shortcircuits 1) UNIT VALUES Generator Full Load Current Igen = KVA/(√3*Vp/1000) Igen = 1574.0000 2) BURDEN CALCULATIONS Line Lead Resistance RLkm 1.59 A IL_pu = IL_pu = Maximum through Fault Current for external shortcircuits Ies = Ext. Limit Factor (Maximum CT times to satisfy accuracy).C).8 CT Resistance in ohms LCTL (m): Cross Section (mm2): 400 Cable Length from CT to Protective relay (in meters) 10 Cable cross section (in mm 2) GENERATOR NEUTRAL SIDE: CTN Ratio: 2000 VANeutral: 50 Class: 5P20 RCTN (Ω): 0.686 [Obtained from cooper cable data table] 2 * LCTN * RNkm/1000 Relay Resistance Rrelay (Ω) = VArelay/(ICT_sec2) RL (Ω) = RN (Ω) = 1.VERIFICATION OF CURRENT TRANSFORMERS FOR GENERATOR DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION APPLICATION GENERATOR GENERAL DATA: KVA: 30000 VOLTAGE (V): 11000 Rated Power in KVA Rated Voltage in Volts GENERATOR LINE SIDE: CT Primary Amps / CT Secondary Amps CTL Ratio: 2000 5 VALine: 50 CT Rated Power Class: 5P20 Accuracy %.8 LCTN (m): Cross Section (mm2): CT Primary Amps / CT Secondary Amps 5 CT Rated Power Accuracy %. Eg. Shortcircuit IesL_pu = Ies = 8000 A IesL_pu = Igen/CTL 3.004 (ICT_sec2): 1A or 5 A Line CT Resistance RCTL (Ω) = 0. Type (P. Type (P.0000 IesN_pu = IesN_pu = Ies/CTN 20.468 .1 Relay Burden in VA (VA): MAXIMUM EXTERNAL FAULT.9365 IN_pu = IN_pu = Igen/CTN 3.C).464 RL_VA @ FLC = IL_pu2 * RL (VA) = 22.8 Neutral CT Resistance RCTN (Ω) = 0.468 BNeutral (Ω) = Rs + Rrelay BNeutral (Ω) = 1.464 Rrelay (Ω) = 0. 10P20 CT Resistance in ohms 400 Cable Length from CT to Protective relay (in meters) 10 Cable cross section (in mm 2) PROTECTION RELAY DATA: RELAY: ABB REF-542 Relay model (For information only) RELAY BURDEN 0.686 RN_VA @ FLC = N_pu2 * RN (VA) = 22. Eg.

000 Vacr_Neutral (V) = 200.36 OK.468 OK.36 CT Limit Zb (Ω) OK.928 Driving Voltage.928 Voltage accross CT terminals during Full Load operation on Line and Neutral sides 3b) EXTERNAL FAULT OPERATION 3c) CT VOLTAGE AND BURDEN LIMITS Line side Accuracy: Type: Limit Factor: 5 P 20 P: Protection. Driving voltage is lower than Vacr limit Neutral side 2 BNeutral (Ω) 1. Neutral Burden is lower than CT limit OK. Line Burden is lower than CT limit VsfL (V) 45.0 Maximum CT voltage accros terminals to guarantee rated accuracy (error) RESULTS: BURDEN AND VOLTAGE COMPARISON Line side CT Limit Zb (Ω) 2 Vacr_Line Limit(V) 200 BLine (Ω) 1. C: Metering ZbLine Max (Ω) = VALine/ICT_sec2 Vacr_Line (V) = Limit Factor * ZbLine * ICT_sec Neutral side Accuracy: Type: Limit Factor: 5 P 20 ZbLine (Ω) = 2. Line side VsL (V) = (BLine + RCTL) * IL_pu VsL (V) = Driving Voltage. 2007 REV. Secondary side VsfN (V) = (BNeutral + RCTN) * IfN_pu VsfN (V) = 45.000 Vacr_Line (V) = 200. C: Metering ZbNeutral Max (Ω) = VANeutral/ICT_sec2 Vacr_Neutral (V) = Limit Factor * ZbNeutral * ICT_sec ZbNeutral (Ω) = 2.360 Voltage accross CT terminals for maximum through current on neutral side 8. Primary side VsfL (V) = (BLine + RCTL) * IfL_pu VsfL (V) = 45. Neutral side VsN (V) = (BNeutral + RCTN) * IN_pu VsN (V) = 8.3) CALCULATION OF CT BURDEN AND DRIVING VOLTAGES 3a) FULL LOAD OPERATION Driving Voltage.468 Vacr_Neutral Limit (V) VsfN (V) 200 45. Driving voltage is lower than Vacr limit CALCULATED BY: DATE: LUIS FERNANDEZ FERNANDEZ MAR. 22. 00 .360 Voltage accross CT terminals for maximum through current on line side Driving Voltage.0 Maximum CT voltage accros terminals to guarantee rated accuracy (error) P: Protection.

2 Total External Resistance Burden BLine (Ω) = RL + Rrelay BLine (Ω) = 0.7500 FLAN_pu = FLA/CTN IN_pu = 3.1 Relay Burden in VA (VA): STARTING CURRENT.00 A FLAL_pu = IL_pu = FLA/CTL 3.VERIFICATION OF CURRENT TRANSFORMERS FOR MOTOR DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION APPLICATION MOTOR GENERAL DATA: KW: 1000 VOLTAGE (V): 11000 FLA (A) 150 LRA [Times FLA] 6.69 Rrelay (Ω) = 0.3750 Motor Starting current LRA = 2) BURDEN CALCULATIONS Line Lead Resistance RLkm 1. 10P20 CT Resistance in ohms 300 Cable Length from CT to Protective relay (in meters) 16 Cable cross section (in mm 2) MOTOR NEUTRAL SIDE: CT Primary Amps / CT Secondary Amps CTN Ratio: 200 5 VANeutral: 15 CT Rated Power Class: 5P20 Accuracy %.15 (ohms/Km): RL (Ω) = 2 * LCTL * RLkm/1000 Secondary Lead Resistance RNkm 1.7500 975 A LRAL_pu = IesL_pu = LRA/CTL 24.694 . Not required for calculations) Full Load current in amperes Locked Rotor curren in multiples of FLA CT Primary Amps / CT Secondary Amps 200 5 CT Rated Power Accuracy %.004 (ICT_sec2): 1A or 5 A Line CT Resistance RCTL (Ω) = 0. 10P20 RCTN (Ω): 0.15 (ohms/Km): RN (Ω) = [Obtained from cooper cable data table] 0.2 Neutral CT Resistance RCTN (Ω) = 0.703 RN_VA @ FLA = N_pu2 * RN (VA) = 9. Type (P. Eg.3750 LRAN_pu = LRA/CTN IesN_pu = 24.694 BNeutral (Ω) = Rs + Rrelay BNeutral (Ω) = 0. Eg. Limit Factor (Maximum CT times to satisfy accuracy).C). Limit Factor (Maximum CT times to satisfy accuracy).5 MOTOR LINE SIDE: CTL Ratio: VALine: Class: RCTL (Ω): 15 5P20 0.C).703 [Obtained from cooper cable data table] 2 * LCTN * RNkm/1000 Relay Resistance Rrelay (Ω) = VArelay/(ICT_sec2) RL (Ω) = RN (Ω) = 0. CURRENT THROUGH: External Shortcircuit (A) Maximum current through 975 1) UNIT VALUES Motor Full Load Current FLA = 150. Type (P. Not required for calculations) Rated Voltage in Volts (Only for information.69 RL_VA @ FLA = IL_pu2 * RL (VA) = 9.2 LCTL (m): Cross Section (mm2): Rated Power in KW (Only for information.2 CT Resistance in ohms LCTN (m): Cross Section (mm2): 300 Cable Length from CT to Protective relay (in meters) 16 Cable cross section (in mm 2) PROTECTION RELAY DATA: RELAY: ABB REF-542 Relay model (For information only) RELAY BURDEN 0.

Driving voltage is lower than Vacr limit CALCULATED BY: DATE: LUIS FERNANDEZ FERNANDEZ MAR.600 Vacr_Line (V) = 60.353 Driving Voltage.791 Voltage accross CT terminals during motor starting on neutral side 3.694 Vacr_Neutral Limit (V) VsfN (V) 60 21. C: Metering ZbLine Max (Ω) = VALine/ICT_sec2 Vacr_Line (V) = Limit Factor * ZbLine * ICT_sec Neutral side Accuracy: Type: Limit Factor: 5 P 20 ZbLine (Ω) = 0.600 Vacr_Neutral (V) = 60.791 Voltage accross CT terminals during motor starting on line side Driving Voltage.694 Vacr_Line Limit(V) VsfL (V) 60 21. Neutral Burden is higher than CT limit OK.0 Maximum CT voltage accros terminals to guarantee rated accuracy (error) P: Protection. Line side VsL (V) = (BLine + RCTL) * IL_pu VsL (V) = Driving Voltage. Line Burden is higher than CT limit OK.79125 WRONG. 22.3) CALCULATION OF CT BURDEN AND DRIVING VOLTAGES 3a) FULL LOAD OPERATION Driving Voltage. Primary side VsfL (V) = (BLine + RCTL) * IfL_pu VsfL (V) = 21. 2007 .6 0. Driving voltage is lower than Vacr limit Neutral side CT Limit Zb (Ω) BNeutral (Ω) 0. C: Metering ZbNeutral Max (Ω) = VANeutral/ICT_sec2 Vacr_Neutral (V) = Limit Factor * ZbNeutral * ICT_sec ZbNeutral (Ω) = 0. Secondary side VsfN (V) = (BNeutral + RCTN) * IfN_pu VsfN (V) = 21.79125 WRONG.353 Voltage accross CT terminals during Full Load operation on Line and Neutral sides 3b) EXTERNAL FAULT OPERATION 3c) CT VOLTAGE AND BURDEN LIMITS Line side Accuracy: Type: Limit Factor: 5 P 20 P: Protection. Neutral side VsN (V) = (BNeutral + RCTN) * IN_pu VsN (V) = 3.6 0.0 Maximum CT voltage accros terminals to guarantee rated accuracy (error) RESULTS: BURDEN AND VOLTAGE COMPARISON Line side CT Limit Zb (Ω) BLine (Ω) 0.