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# PART A: Introduction to Basic Gates & Integrated Circuit

Introduction
In this experiment, we will investigate the type of logic gates contained in each IC package. IC
package have total 8 gates but we use only 3 gates to determine the type of gate .
Objective
To investigate the logic gate operations
To use test euipment to detect the operation of IC logic gates
To become familiar with logic gates.
Scope
In this experiment ,!ogic trainer and "igital #ultimeter are used .\$or components ,%&'( IC )pc ,
%&3( IC ) pc ,%&'& IC )pc, %&'' IC ) pc and %&'8 IC )pc are used .
Project Background
!ogic gates are the simplest component of any lagic circuit .*o to understand the computer logic
,understand and master the logic gates .+ gate is a digital electronic circuit having one output and
one or more inputs .The output or a signal will appear at the output of te gate only for certain input
signal combinations .There are many types of logic gates such as +," ,-. and ,-T ,which are
usually called the three basic gates .-ther popular gates are the ,+," and the ,-. gates which
are simply combinations of an +," or an -. gate with a ,-Tgate inserted /ust before the output
signal .-ther gates include the 0-. 12xclusive -.3 and 0,-. 12xclusive ,-.3 gates .
Metodo!og"
). The input pins 1I+0 and I403 and output pin 1503 are identified for a logic gate of %&'8 IC.
(. + switch is connected to each of the input pins and a !2" to the output pin of the logic gate on a
3. The power supply is switched on and the output is observed .
&. The combination of the inputs is changed by switching -, and -\$\$ 16I76 and !-8 signal3
then the output is observed. -bservation is recorded.
9. The power supply is switched off , and the %&'8 IC is removed from the breadboard and replaced
with a %&3( IC.
:.*teps ) until 9 is repeated for each of the selected ICs.
Resu!t
#igure \$%&
IC %&'& ; ,-T
<
+ ; +
A '
' )
) '
Table 1
IC %&3( ; -.
5 ; + = 4
A B '
' ' '
' ) )
) ' )
) ) )
Table 2
IC %&'8 ; +,"
5 ; + . 4
A B '
' ' '
' ) '
) ' '
) ) )
Table 3
IC %&'( ; ,-.
< <
5 ; + = 4
A B '
' ' )
' ) '
) ' '
) ) '
Table 3
IC %&'' ; ,+,"
< <
5 ; + . 4
A B '
' ' )
' ) )
) ' )
) ) '
Table 4
Conc!usion
4ased on what that has been done, the experiment in part + enable to investigate the logic gate
operations .4readboard is use to detect the operation of IC logic gates .+fter testing the IC for
several times ,it is more easier to identify as we become familiar with the logic gates.
PART B: Si(p!i)ication and Co(binationa! O) *ogic Gate
Introduction
In this experiment, we will investigate the application of 4oolean theorems to simplification.
Objective
To use 4oolean theorems to simplify logic circuits.
To familiari>e with making connection and troubleshooting circuit.
Project Background
The process of simplyfing combinational logic circuits is called reduction ,and is achieved using the
laws and theorems of 4oolean algebra .
*a+ + = 4 ; 4 = +
+4 ; 4+
+ = 14 = C3 ; 1+ = 43 = C
+14C3 ; 1+43C
+14 = C3 ; +4 = +C
1+ = 431C = "3 ; +C = +" = 4C = 4"
Teore( + = ' ; +
+ , ) ; +
+ = ) ;)
+ , ' ; '

+ = + ; +
+ , + ; +

1+?3? ; +

+ = +? ;)
+ , +? ; '
Table 5
Metodo!og"
-no & kene bu ga(bar "g d!( !abseet so ko t!g !etak g(br and tu!is a"at procedure no&.
(. The circuit of \$igure 4@) is constructed on the breadboard. *witches is connected to inputs +, 4,
and C.-utput \$ is connected to a !2".
3. The truth table is constructed for expression \$ based on \$igure 4@).
&. The operation of the circuit is verified by setting the switches to each set of input and the output
is observed correspond to the input switches.
9. The output expression \$ is simplified .
:. The logic circuit diagram is drew based on the simplified expression.
%. The circuit is constructed for the simplified expression.The operation of the circuit is verified .
8. The output obtained in step & and step % is compared .
A. If each IC cost .#3, the circuit is redesign so that minimum cost is achieved.
Resu!t
#igure /
\$ormula B
<< <<< < < < <<<< <
C1+43 = 1+=43D = 14=C3 ; C + = 4 = 1+ . 4 3D1C=43
< < < < <<<<< <
; 1+ .C3 = 1C . 43 = C.4.+ = 4.+
< < << < < <
; + 1C=C43 = 4+ = C.4
000 0 000
1+.C = 4.+ = 4.C
A B C '
' ' ' )
' ' ) '
' ) ' )
' ) ) )
) ' ' )
) ' ) '
) ) ' '
) ) ) '
Table 6
2iscussion
4ased on the result achieved ,this experiment may give a wrong output .8hile doing this
experiment ,we find some difficulties cause by the output .+fter doing troubleshoot ,the output give
a right answer .To connect the gates ,choose the correct gates until it gives a right output .
Conc!usion
In this part of experiment ,based on what have been done ,to simplify logic circuits ,4oolean
theorems is used .\$rom this euation ,make it simple and for that it is easier to construct a logic
circuit .
*ome of IC may connect at wrong gates ,after testing for several times we may familiari>e with
making connection and troubleshooting circuit.
PART C: 3P3 and P3P
Introduction
In this experiment, you will investigate the basic configurations of transistor and its application.
Objectives
 To investigate the operation of ,E, transistor.
 To investigate the operation of E,E transistor.
 To investigate the usage of transistor.
Scope
Project Background
Part & -Metodo!og" 4 Resu!t.
Part /-Metodo!og" 4 Resu!t.
Part 5-Metodo!og" 4 Resu!t.
Metodo!og"
Resu!t
Part &
Part /
Part 5
2iscussion
Conc!usion
PART 2: 2esign Tra))ic *igt S"ste(
Introduction
In this experiment, you will need to design a traffic light system with given specifications.
Objectives
To apply what have been learned from the previous lab.
Scope
In this experiment ,3 types of gates are used that is ,-T gates ,+," gates and -. gates .
Metodo!og"
+ circuit is designed for the traffic system as shown in \$igure "@) with given conditions.
) .8hen *ensor ) 1*)3 and *ensor ( 1*(3 sense vehicles, traffic light 1!)3 when turn green.
( .8hen *ensor ) 1*)3 and *ensor ( 1*(3 don?t sense vehicles, traffic light 1!)3 when turn green.
3 .8hen *ensor ) 1*)3 sense vehicles and *ensor ( 1*(3 don?t sense vehicles, traffic light 1!)3 when
turn green.
& .8hen *ensor ) 1*)3 don?t sense vehicles and *ensor ( 1*(3 sense vehicles, traffic light 1!)3 when
turn red.
Resu!t
Picture
Sce(atic
2xplanation B
\$rom the experiment ,a table is constructed .\$rom the output ,take out the both inputs that make the
output become higher .Fsing the inputs ,and euation can be formed as below .*implify the answer
and final answer given is the output for !) .Fsing the euation ,logic circuit is more easier to
construct .The euation is for output !) .+s we have two outputs ,add the ,-T gate at the output
!) .\$rom the ,-T gate ,it will give output for !( .
S& S/ *& */
) ) ) '
' ' ) '
) ' ) '
' ) ' )
+ssume that *) as + and *( as 4 .
< < <
; +4 = +4 = +4
)) '' )'
< <
; +4 = 41+=+3
<
;+4=4
<
BB -utput !) is +4=4
2iscussion
4ased on previous experiment ,we get familiar with type of IC and know how to use 4oolean
algebra well .\$or this experiment ,we are not through many difficulties as before .
Conc!usion and Reco((endation
5g merah( tu kebanyakan kene letak picture .!epas tu ada yg aku tak reti mcm conclusion and
recommendation part d sbb takde ob/ective so aku tak tau nak tibai macamana .7una font )( and
times new roman /e .Ero/ect 4ackground part C tu /gn copy bulat( dr internet tau tp salin .*bb nanti
dia trace lepas tu kata kita tiru pulak .Go cuma masukkan kan maklumat yg takde /e dalam part c
kau ,okey Hsorry la sbb english aku translate melayu /e ayat dia .sbb aku buat sendiri so nampak
beno budak( nye .hehe .okay thanks .assalamualaikum .nanti ada pape yg salah bgtau okey .