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Q 1

Select a brand with a multiple-level brand hierarchy and analyze the supporting
marketing communications program to determine how the upper- and lower-level
names are linked and differentiated.
Market Dynamics:
While the firm's history and the product markets, in which it operates, shape the firm's
brand structure, market drivers create and continually change the context in which this
brand architecture evolves. In the first place, removal of political and economic barriers
between markets together with regulatory change creates opportunities to harmonize
branding across countries resulting in fewer brands. The integration of markets and in
particular, the growth of regional and global media also encourages a move towards
international brands in order to obtain cost efficiencies and reinforce brand strength.
Advances in global communication technology and the internationalization of retailing
further facilitate the growth of international branding and stimulate a shift towards
international brands. Increased consumer mobility enhances the value of establishing a
global identity and potential synergies from establishing a global presence.

Brand hierarchy
To help manage a visual identity system strategically, institutions of higher education
often call upon a brand architecture model. This model provides a brand hierarchy,
starting with the top-level brand for the institution as a whole, and then addressing other
entities, from schools and colleges to support offices to affiliated organizations. The five
categories w brand hierarchy .
Core brand
The core brand is the top tier of the brand hierarchy, and it represents the institution as
a whole. The visual identity for the core brand is the institutional logo, and it should be
used on any projects that encompass the full university, such as institutional websites,
television spots, annual reports, or strategic plans.
Core brand extension
A core brand extension is an overarching entity that advances the overall mission of the
university and aligns very closely with the core brand. At UW–Madison, core brand
extensions are schools and colleges.
Secondary brand extension
A secondary brand extension is administrative office, support unit, or academic
department that supports the overall mission of the university.
Sub brand
A sub brand is an entity, such as the Wisconsin Alumni Association or a school/college
alumni group that is linked to core brand for strategic and economic reasons. Its visual
identity may incorporate key elements of the core brand (such as the crest, or official
typefaces or colors), but does so in a way that establishes a more independent visual
Independent brand
An independent brand is an entity that presents its connection to the brand in an
understated manner for a variety of reasons. For example, an entity may exist through
an equal partnership among multiple universities. The entity may rely upon an external
funding source that must be prominently acknowledged. Or an entity’s mission may
differ significantly from core missions. The Wisconsin Institutes of Discovery is an
example of an independent brand.
Brand hierarchy:
A brand hierarchy visually illustrates the possible relationships that can be formed
among the firm’s products through the selection of common and distinctive brand
elements. The levels of the hierarchy might include the corporate or company brand at
the top, followed by a family brand used in more than one product category, an
individual brand that typically is restricted to one product category, and a modifier that
designates a specific item or model.
• A means of summarizing the branding strategy by displaying the number and
nature of common and distinctive brand elements across the firm’s products,
revealing the explicit ordering of brand elements
• A useful means of graphically portraying a firm’s branding strategy

Because a company’s marketing activity may result in different types of associations
becoming linked to the brand names at various levels of the hierarchy, each name has
the potential to impact the equity of brands at levels above and below it. In addition to
designating the optimal hierarchy, a company must also design marketing support
programs that create the desired awareness and associations at each level.
Family Brands:
Becomes necessary to create a family brand besides the Corporate brand when
products become dissimilar. Cost of introducing a related new product can be lower and
the likelihood of acceptance can be higher when marketers apply an existing family
brand to a new product.
Individual Brand:
• Restricted to essentially one product category
• There may be multiple product types offered on the basis of different models,
package sizes, flavors, etc.
• Signals refinements or differences in the brand related to factors such as quality
levels, attributes, functions, etc.
• Plays an important organizing role in communicating how different products
within a category that share the same brand name are
Corporate Image Dimensions:
• Corporate product attributes, benefits or attitudes
• Quality
• Innovativeness
• People and relationships
• Customer orientation
• Values and programs
• Concern with the environment
• Social responsibility
• Corporate credibility
• Expertise
• Trustworthiness
• Likability
Brand Hierarchy Decisions:
• The number of levels of the hierarchy to use in general
• How brand elements from different levels of the hierarchy are combined, if at all,
for any one particular product
• How any one brand element is linked, if at all, to multiple products
• Desired brand awareness and image at each level
Branding strategy is important as a means of enabling consumers to understand and
connect with the brand, since it can help consumers organize a company’s products
and services in their minds. Designing a brand strategy involves decisions regarding the
number of levels to use, how brand elements at different levels will be combined for a
given product, and how brand elements will be linked to multiple products. Each
successive level in a brand hierarchy allows the firm to communicate additional, specific
information about products. In general, associations for a higher-level brand should be
relevant to as many brands below it as possible, while brands at the same level
should be as differentiated as possible.
Q 2
Identify pairs of competing brands with different branding strategies.
Brand Strategies.
Successful brands are built on a foundation of meaningful brand strategy. And, that
strategy provides the framework for what your brands mean and how they should be
organized. Oftentimes, making decisions about the future of a brand can be politically
charged and challenging for an internal team to confront on its own. It’s difficult for a
company to be objective about themselves tenure and passion has a tendency to cloud
constructive decision-making. That’s where we come in. In our collaborative strategy
process, we balance business planning with creative thinking to create a clear roadmap
for where you want your brand to be in the future. But it doesn’t end there we also
design effective brand strategy tools to help you stay on the path to success.
Differentiate your brand:

Everybody wants a brand that’s different. The irony of that statement is intentional. It
belies the conservative manner in which most brands approach competitive difference.
They say they want to be distinctive to consumers but often, in their heart of hearts, they
actually want to align with the rest of the industry. One of the key issues for that is an
uncertainty on the part of brand makers and decision makers to find a starting point.
In some ways that’s actually less difficult and daunting than it first appears. Begin with a
premise that is truly one degree away from your rivals. By logically progressing that
premise over time, and with strong discipline, you will build a brand that is consistently
and markedly different.

Brand development by Identifying Brand Value:
The Cadbury brand name has been in existence since 1824 when John Cadbury
opened his first shop in Birmingham, England. Cadbury Schweppes is the fourth largest
confectionery business in the world selling chocolate, sugar and gum based products.
Cadbury Ireland is the number one confectionery company in Ireland. Today Cadbury’s
best tasting chocolate constitutes the main ingredient of much of these products
including everything from solid blocks to chocolate filled bars and novelties. The
Cadbury brand is associated with best tasting chocolate. This case shows how
marketing managers at Cadbury are working to ensure this association is continually
developed through their new ‘Choose Cadbury’ marketing strategy. Key concepts of
quality, taste and emotion underpin the Cadbury brand. These core values help to
differentiate Cadbury from other brands and ensure its competitive advantage.
The Cadbury Family of Brands:
The Umbrella Brand
In the chocolate market the Cadbury brand has in excess of fifty per cent market
share, selling 10 of the top 20 selling chocolate singles. Singles are individual
bars sold over the counter.
Research data shows that the Cadbury brand equity is highly differentiated from other
brands with consumers. Brand equity is the value consumer loyalty brings to a brand,
and reflects the likelihood that a consumer will repeat purchase. This is a major source
of competitive advantage The Cadbury umbrella brand has endured in a highly
competitive market, and has established the link, in the mind of the consumer, that
Cadbury equals chocolate. An umbrella brand is a parent brand that appears on a
number of products that may each have separate brand images. The Cadbury umbrella
brand image consists of four icons namely the Cadbury script, the glass and a half, dark
purple color and the swirling chocolate image. These elements create a visual identity
for Cadbury that communicates the ultimate in chocolate pleasure. Consumer research
is conducted regularly so managers can learn more about how the market perceives the
brand. This research has confirmed that the swirling chocolate and ‘glass and a half’ are
powerful images. Both clearly portray a desire for chocolate while the half full glass
suggests core values of goodness and quality.
Product Brands
The Cadbury brand has a profound impact on individual product brands. Brands have
individual personalities aimed at specific target markets for specific needs e.g. Time
Out, for example, is an ideal snack to have with a cup of tea. These brands derive
benefit from the Cadbury parentage, including quality and taste credentials. To ensure
the success of product brands every aspect of the parent brand is focused on. A Flake,
Crunchy or Time Out are clearly different and are manufactured to appeal to a variety of
consumer segments. However the strength of the umbrella brand supports the brand
value of each chocolate bar. Consumers know they can trust a chocolate bar that
carries Cadbury branding. The relationship between Cadbury and individual brands is
symbiotic with some brands benefiting more from the Cadbury relationship, i.e. pure
chocolate brands such as Dairy Milk. Other brands have a more distant relationship, as
the consumer motivation to purchase is ingredients other than chocolate, e.g. Crunchy.
Similarly issues such as specific advertising or product quality of a packet of Cadbury
biscuits or a single Crème Egg will, in turn, impact on the perception of the parent
brand. Similarly the umbrella brand has a strong brand value and a reputation that must
be supported by its individual brands.

Identifying Brand value.
We are all consciously and unconsciously affected by brands in our daily lives. When
we go to purchase a pair of training shoes we rarely make a purely practical decision.
There are numerous branded and non branded options available. For many people, a
pair of trainers must sport a brand logo because that will communicate certain values to
other people. The confectionery market elicits similar conscious and unconscious
feelings of passion, loyalty and enthusiasm. For many people, chocolate is Cadbury,
and no other brand will do. This consumer loyalty is critical because of the value of the
chocolate confectionery market and because, in all markets, a small number of
consumers account for a large proportion of sales. Loyal customers are the most
valuable customers to have because they will buy your product over and over again.
Branded products command premium prices. Consumers will happily pay that premium
if they believe that the brand offers levels of quality and satisfaction that competing
products do not. The most enduring brands have become associated with both tangible
and intangible properties over time. The most successful provoke a series of emotional
or inspirational associations and values in our minds that go way beyond the physical
product. Cadburys has identified these brand values and adjusts its advertising
strategies to reflect these values in different markets. Its strategy can vary from
increasing brand awareness, educating potential customers about a new product,
increasing seasonal purchases, or as is currently the case in the ‘Choose Cadbury’
campaign to highlight the positive emotional value of the brand. After identifying brand
values the marketing manager must match these to the specific market. For this reason
it is important to identify possible segments that have specific needs, and to highlight
appropriate brand values that will promote the brand in that market.
Consumption & Consumer Lifestyles:
Chocolate Consumption
Cadbury’s core markets are currently in the UK, Ireland, Australia and New Zealand.The
Cadbury brand is very well known in these markets and consumers have established
patterns of chocolate consumption. Ireland has one of the largest consumption rates in
the world along with Switzerland. In Ireland alone, the average person eats 8kg of
chocolate and 6kg of sweets each year. In key areas such as these, the Cadbury brand
has secured significant brand status. In Ireland, Cadbury has identified three key
consumer segments of ‘impulse’, ‘take home’ and ‘gift’. These segments reflect
consumers’ decision-making processes. For example, impulse purchases are typically
products bought for immediate consumption, e.g. single bars. Take Home confectionery
is generally bought in a supermarket and is most often driven by a specific need. A
specific need or usage can be an occasion, e.g.‘ I need something for the lunchbox’.
Here consumers make more rational decisions, e.g. brand influence, price/value
relationship. These areas are further subdivided, for example the ‘gift’ sector comprises
special occasions and token or spontaneous gifts. If marketers successfully identify and
isolate consumer segments in this way, it becomes easier to target products and
advertising in a more meaningful way to increase consumption.

New Products Reflecting Consumer Lifestyles
New product development has played a key role in developing markets as brands strive
to offer something to a consumer that is truly different. We take a crumbly flake texture
or honeycomb for granted but, when introduced, they were remarkably innovative.
Changing lifestyle patterns; eating on the go, and impulse snacking has and continues
to play a pivotal role in the confectionary market. Continued snacking or ‘grazing’ has
replaced traditional mealtimes for many people. The Cadbury product range addresses
the needs of each and every consumer, from childhood to maturity, from impulse
purchase to family treats. For example an analysis of the ‘gift’ sector highlights the
importance of developing innovative products to address specific markets. Cadbury
designs products to coincide with Christmas, Easter, Valentine’s, Mother’s and Father’s
Day and other calendar landmarks. Cadbury use marketing strategies such as the
‘Choose Cadbury’ strategy to encourage a link between chocolate and these events
ensuring there is a Cadbury chocolate product suitable and available for every
Why Advertising is used to Promote a Brand
The confectionery market is full of brands that need to fight for our attention. The role of
advertising is to keep a brand in the mind of the consumer. We are constantly presented
with countless brand images and messages on a daily basis. During the lifetime of a
brand, companies will develop marketing strategies that communicate brand identity
and core values to gain our attention. In order to keep its product competitive and
contemporary, these messages need to change over time. Cadbury provides one of the
most successful examples of how an advertising message can be modified from one
campaign to the next to attribute new values to a brand giving consumers more reasons
to buy Cadburys. Healthy brand equity or brand strength is critical in an impulse-driven,
competitive market. Advertising plays a key role in maintaining this strength. Cadbury
employs all types of advertising from the internet to posters, from TV, radio and cinema
to print media. This same creative message is then communicated through point of sale,
merchandising, package design and public relations.

Marketing Strategy
The ‘glass and a half’, corporate purple and flowing script has become synonymous with
Cadbury: these design elements have been used to great effect in developing the
connotation of goodness that this imagery suggests. In the 1980s another vital attribute
- taste - was highlighted. Regardless of national preferences about how chocolate
should taste (e.g. dark chocolate is traditionally more popular in Europe whereas
Australians prefer creamier milk chocolate) the implication was clear - Cadbury offers
taste and texture that appeals to all. In the 1990s further emphasis was placed on
‘taste’. The strap line ‘Chocolate is Cadbury’, which was built upon previous brand
values and allowed Cadbury to stake its claim and taking ownership of the word
‘chocolate’ and the chocolate eating experience. Earlier this year, Cadbury introduced a
new global marketing strategy called ‘Choose Cadbury’. This strategy came about as a
result of extensive research into consumer behavior and perception. It is a campaign
that perfectly illustrates how a brand can evolve and how different messages can be
communicated without losing the core strength and brand values that are already
established. The classic icons have played a major role in establishing the look and feel
of how Cadbury’s advertisements should look through successive campaigns. These
key ‘look and feel’ icons were heavily researched to ensure that the messages they
impart are always relevant to the Cadbury consumer. In depth customer research is
conducted to ‘test’ these messages. Research results confirmed that color recognition
of dark purple is strongly associated with Cadbury. Its logo is readily recognized and
scores a ninety six per cent recognition level alongside other global brands such as
Coca Cola and McDonalds. The glass and a half symbol, which plays a key role in the
current ‘Choose Cadbury’ strategy, continues to communicate the quality and superior
taste of Cadbury’s chocolate. The central message of the ‘Choose Cadbury’ strategy
hinges on the established glass and a half symbol. Is the glass half full or half empty?
Cadbury suggests that the glass is always half full appealing to our emotions.
Therefore, in choosing Cadbury we are taking a decision to embrace the positive. This
optimistic metaphor is, according to consumer testing in the UK and Australia, well
understood amongst consumers. In this ‘Choose Cadbury’ campaign, the product
ingredient of milk has been elevated from a practical, rational platform to an emotional
one Cadbury can deliver on optimism, happiness and a feel-good factor. If a brand can
do all this, the decision to purchase this brand over all other chocolate brands seems to
be logical and inevitable. The ‘Choose Cadbury’ strap line is a call to action designed to
motivate us. We are not expected to simply absorb the advertising message, we are
being called upon to make a conscious purchase decision. We are reassured that the
Cadbury product will remain unchanged, (Cadbury is Chocolate and it still tastes good),
but we are given more reasons to remain brand loyal (Cadbury is Chocolate – feels
good i.e. positive, uplifting, mood enhancing, providing enjoyment and happiness). At no
stage in the evolution of the Cadbury brand has there been as much reliance on taking
ownership of the emotional side of eating chocolate as there is now. Owning the
emotional territory for chocolate helps Cadbury to elevate its product in the mind of the
consumer. With the ‘Choose Cadbury’ campaign consumers are being offered both
logical and emotional reasons to buy a Cadbury product as a first option on every