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PROTON

 … is a very small piece of atom.
 … has a positive electrical charge.
 .. has charge +1.
 .. was discovered by Rutherford in 1918
 … is found in the nucleus of all atoms.
 In addition to … in the nucleus of atoms are neutrons.
 The number of … in the atomic nucleus is what determines the atomic number of an element, as outlined in
the periodic table of the elements.
MATTER
 … has many definitions.
 The most common is that it is any substance which has mass and occupies space.
 All physical objects are composed of matter, in the form of atoms, which are in turn composed of protons,
neutrons, and electrons.
 … are the physical substances that exist in the universe
MOLECULE
 … is the simplest unit of a chemical substance.
 … is a group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds
 Examples of molecules include water H
2
O, oxygen, gas, O
2

 For example, oxygen atoms always have two bonds with other atoms. It was a simple molecule.
ATOM
 … is the smallest unit of any chemical element.
 Sonsisting of a positive nucleus surrounded by negative electrons.
 … can combine to form a molecule.
 Some of the atoms in nature exist as single atoms (the noble gases).
DENSITY
 Density is the relationship between the mass of a substance and its size.
 The symbol most often used for density is ρ.
 Mathematically, … is defined as mass divided by volume.
 … of a material varies with temperature and pressure.
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
 … of a substance are those properties that you can see.
 … are contrasted with chemical properties which determine the way a material behaves in a chemical reaction
 Examples of … include mass, density, color, boiling point, temperature, and volume.
 Changes of … that do not change the chemical nature of matter.
MELTING POINT
 …. is the temperature at which a substance melts.
 … of water isn’t always the same as the freezing point of water!
 For most purposes, you can consider … of water to be 0°C or 32°F.
 Different substances have different …
TEMPERATURE
 … is a physical quantity serving to describe the matter.
 … is the property of matter.
 It reflects the quantity of energy of motion of the component particles.
 There are several scales used to measure this value (e.g., Kelvin, Celsius, Fahrenheit).
 The degree of heat in the body of a living organism, usually about 37°C in humans.
SOLID
 One of four main states of matter.
 A substance that is solid is not a liquid or a gas.
 … is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas, and plasma).
 It is characterized by structural rigidity and resistance to changes of shape or volume.
STATES OF MATTER
 In physics, … is one of the distinct forms that different phases of matter take on.
 Matter occurs in four states: solids, liquids, gases, and plasma.
 Often … of a substance may be changed by adding or removing heat energy from it.
 For example, the addition of heat can melt ice into liquid water and turn water into steam.
 Four … are observable in everyday life: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma.

PARTICLES
 … is also any of the smallest pieces of matter that make up atoms or the parts of atoms.
 … is a small localized object to which can be ascribed several physical or chemical properties such as volume
or mass.
 … are very often represented as dots.
 This figure could represent the movement of atoms in a gas, people in crowds or stars in the night sky.
ISOTOPE
 … is a form of an atom.
 It has a different atomic weight from other forms of the same
atom
 …have the same chemical structure.
 Hydrogen has three …: protium (
1
H) with zero neutrons,
deuterium (
2
H) with one neutron, and tritium (
3
H) with two
neutrons.
 The element technetium hasn’t any ...
FORCE OF GRAVITY
 Gravity is a natural phenomenon by which all physical bodies attract each other.
 The force that makes objects fall toward the earth, or toward some other large object such as a planet or a star
 It is most commonly recognized and experienced as the agent that gives weight to physical objects, and causes
physical objects to fall toward the ground when dropped from a height.
 … is a 3D science fiction thriller and space drama film. The film is set in outer space.
 The Space is smaller than … on Earth
FORCE
 In physics, … is any influence that causes an object to undergo a certain change, either concerning its
movement, direction, or geometrical construction.
 It is measured in the SI unit of newtons and represented by the symbol F.
 …are also described as a push or pull on an object.
 They can be due to phenomena such as gravity, magnetism or anything that might cause a mass to accelerate.
PERIODIC TABLE
 It is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements.
 Elements in its are presented in order of increasing atomic number (the number of protons in the nucleus).
 It can also be deconstructed into four rectangular blocks: the s-block to the left, the p-block to the right, the
d-block in the middle, and the f-block below that.
 Mendeleev is generally credited with the publication, in 1869, of the first widely recognized periodic table.
 At the beginning of 2010 were 118 known elements.
 All elements have their place in the periodic table.
ELEMENT
 A chemical element is a substance that can’t be broken down by chemical means.
 They are defined by the number of protons they possess.
 Hydrogen is the first element on the periodic table of the elements.
 At the beginning of 2010 were 118 known elements.
 In 1919, the list of elements had 89 items.
 Only 92 elements are naturally on Earth.
 Elements with atomic numbers above 92 are radioactive.
 Elements in periodic table are presented in order of increasing atomic number (the number of protons in the
nucleus).
GRADUATED CYLINDER
 It is a piece of laboratory equipment used to measure the volume of a liquid.
 It can be made of glass or plastic.
 It has other names: measuring cylinder or mixing cylinder.
 Typical volume of it are between 5 ml and 2000 ml.
 They are generally more accurate and precise than laboratory flasks and beakers.
 However, they are less accurate than volumetric glassware, such as a volumetric flask or volumetric
pipette.
VOLUME
 It is an amount of space having length, height and width.
 The standard unit of volume is the cubic metre (m
3
).
 Volume is the quantity of three-dimensional space occupied by a liquid, solid, or gas.
 In chemistry, a volume meter is used, for example, graduated cylinder.
 The volume is not the same as the capacity.

EARTH
 Earth is the third planet in order of distance from the Sun.
 Earth is situated between Venus and Mars.
 Earth is the world on which we live.
 The Earth takes approximately 365 1/4 days to go round the Sun.
 Earth formed approximately 4.54 billion years ago.
 Life appeared on its surface within its first billion years.
STRUCTURE OF AN ATOM
 At the centre of an atom is a nucleus containing protons and neutrons.
 Electrons are arranged around the nucleus in energy levels or shells.
 The word 'atom' comes from the Greek for indivisible.
 We now know that atoms aren’t the smallest particles of matter.
 Atoms are made from smaller subatomic particles.