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G945 and 913g Closed Maps in Ideal Topological Spaces

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Gα And Αg Closed Maps In Ideal Topological

Spaces

K. Indirani, P. Sathishmohan, V. Rajendran

Abstract: In this paper some properties of gl±-I-closed maps, l±g-I- closed maps, wgl±-Iclosed, wl±g-I- closed functions are studied

————————————————————

1. INTRODUCTION AND PRELIMINARIES

An ideal I on a topological space (X, t) is a non-empty

collection of subsets of X which satisfies the following

properties. (1) A eI and B _ A implies B e I, (2) A e I and B

e I implies ABeI. An ideal topological space is a

topological space (X, t) with an ideal I on X and is denoted

by (X, t, I). For a subset A _ X , A*(I,t)={x e X : A · U eI for

every Ueτ (X,x)} is called the local function of A with respect

to I and t [4]. We simply write A* in case there is no chance

for confusion. A kuratowski closure operator cl*(.) for a

topology τ*(I, t) called the *- topology ,finer than t is defined

by cl*(A) = A A* [9]. If A _ X, cl(A) and int(A) will

respectively, denote the closure and interior of A in (X, t).

Definition1.1. A subset A of a topological space (X,τ) is

called

1) og-closed [5], if o cl (A) _ U whenever A _ U and

U is open in (X,t)

2) go-closed [5], if ocl(A) _ U whenever A _ U and U

is o-open in (X, t)

3) wgo-closed [10], if ocl (int(A)) _ U whenever A _ U

and U is o-open in (X, t).

4) wog-closed [10], if ocl (int(A)) _ U whenever A _ U

and U is open in (X, t).

The complements of the above mentioned closed sets are

called their respective open sets.

Definition 1.2. [1] A subset A of an Ideal topological space

(X, t, I) is said to be oI-open if A _ int(Cl*(int(A))). The

complement of the oI-open set is called oI-closed.

Definition 1.3. A subset A of an ideal topological spaces (X,

t, I) is said to be

1) og - I – closed [ 8], if o I cl(A) _ U whenever A _ U

and U is open in X.

2) go - I – closed [ 8], if o I cl(A) _ U whenever A _ U

and U is o - open in X.

3) wgo-I-closed [3], if oIcl (int(A)) _ U whenever A _

U and U is o-open in (X, t).

4) wog-I-closed [3], if oIcl (int(A)) _ U whenever A _

U and U is open in (X, t).

5) Ig-closed [7] , if A*_ U whenever A _ U and U is

open in X.

The complements of the above mentioned closed sets are

called their respective open sets.

2. goI – closed maps

Definition 2.1. A map f : (X, t, I) ÷ (Y, o, J) is called goI –

closed map if for each closed set F of (X, t, I), f(F) is a goI -

closed set of (Y, o, J).

Example 2.2. Let X = Y = {a,b,c}, t = o = {C, {a}, {b,c}, X}

and I = {C, {c}}. Define a map f : (X, t, I) ÷ (Y, o, J) as

follows. f(a) = a, f(b) = b, f(c) = c. Then for {b,c} which is

closed in X, f ({b,c}) = {a,c} is not o - I - closed in Y. Hence f

is not an oI-closed map. However, f is a goI - closed map.

Definition 2.3. A map f : (X, t, I) ÷ (Y, o, J) is said to be pre

oI-closed, if f (U) is oI-closed in (Y, o, J) for every oI-closed

set U in (X, t, I).

Definition 2.4. A map f: (X, t, I) ÷ (Y, o, J) is said to be oI-

irresolute, if the inverse image of every o-I set in Y is o-I-set

in X.

Theorem 2.5. Let f : (X, t, I) ÷ (Y, o, J), h : (Y, o, J) ÷ (Z,

q, K) be two mapping such that h ο f : (X, t, I) ÷ (Z, q, K) is

a goI - closed map. Then

1. If f is continuous and surjective, then h is goI-

closed.

2. If h is oI-irresolute, Pre-oI- closed and injective, then

f is goI - closed.

Proof.

(1) Let B be a closed set of Y. Then f-1(B) is closed in X.

But (h ο f) (f-1(B)) is goI-closed in Z and hence h(B)

is goI - closed in Z. Therefore h is a goI-closed map.

(2) Let A be closed in Y. Then (h ο f) (A) is goI-closed in

Z. But h is oI-irresolute. Therefore h-1[(h ο f) (A)] is

goI-closed in Y. This implies f(A) is goI - closed in Y.

_____________________

- P.Sathishmohan is currently working as Head of the

Department of Mathematics CA in KSG College of

Arts and Science, Coimbatore. Tamilnadu, India,

PH-09994662019. E-mail: iiscsathish@yahoo.co.in

- V.Rajendran is currently working as Assistant

Professor in Department of Mathematics CA at KSG

College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore.

Tamilnadu, India, PH-09597454845.

E-mail: mathsraj05@yahoo.co.in

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC & TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH VOLUME 3, ISSUE 1, JANUARY 2014 ISSN 2277-8616

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Hence f is a goI-closed map.

Theorem 2.6.

(1) If f : (X, t, I) ÷ (Y, o, J) is goI- closed and A is oI-

closed set of X then its restriction f / A : (A, t / A, I)

÷ (Y, o, J) is goI - closed.

(2) Let B be open and goI-closed is a subset of Y. If f :

(X, t, I) ÷ (Y, o, J) is oI- closed then f / A : (A, t / A,

I) ÷ (Y, o, J) is goI - closed. Where A = f-1(B).

(3) If B is oI – closed, f : (X, t, I) ÷ (Y, o, J) is goI-

closed then f / A : (A, t / A, I) ÷ (Y, o, J) is goI -

closed.Where A = f-1(B).

Proof: To prove (1). Let F be a closed set of A. Since F is

closed in X, (f / A) (F) = f(F) is goI - closed in Y. Hence f / A

is a goI – closed map. To prove (2). Let F be a closed set of

A. Then F = A · H for some closed set H of X. But f (H) is

oI-closed in Y, since f is an oI-closed map. We have (f / A)

(F) = f (A · H) = f(H) · B. But f(H) · B is goI- closed in Y,

since B is open and goI- closed in Y.This implies that B is

goI- closed in Y, since f(H) is oI–closed in Y. Therefore f / A

is a goI- closed map. To prove (3). Let F be a closed set of

A. Then F = A · H for some closed set H of X. But f(H) is a

goI – closed set in Y, since f is a goI – closed map. We

have (f / A) (F) = f (A · H) = f(H) · B, since f(H) is goI–

closed and B is oI–closed. We have f(H) · B is goI–closed.

Hence f / A is a goI–closed map.

Definition 2.7. An Ideal topological space (X, t, I) is said to

be oI-normal if for every pair of disjoint closed sets A and B

of (X, t, I) there exists disjoint oI-open sets U and V such

that A c U and B c V.

Theorem 2.8. If f : (X, t, I) ÷ (Y, o, J) is continuous, goI -

closed surjection and if (X, t, I) is normal then (Y, o, J) is

oI–normal.

Proof. Let A, B be disjoint closed set of Y. Since X is

normal, there exist disjoint open sets U and V of X. Such

that f-1(a) c U and f-1(B) c V. Then there exist goI–open

sets in G and H such that A c G, B c H and f-1(G) c U. f-1

(H) c V. Then we have f-1(G) · f-1(H) = |. Since G is goI-

open and A is oI – closed, G A implies oIint(H) A.

Similarly oIint(H) B. Therefore oIint(G) · oIint(H) = G ·

H = | and hence Y is oI-normal.

3. ogI – closed maps

Definition 3.1. A map f : (X, t, I) ÷ (Y, o, J) is called ogI-

closed map if for each closed set F of (X, t, I), f(F) is a ogI-

closed set of (Y, o, J).

Remark 3.2. Every oI-closed map, Ig-closed map and goI-

closed map are ogI-closed. However the converse are not

true in general as seen from the following examples.

Example 3.3. Let X = Y = {a,b,c}, t = {|, {a}, X}, I = {|, {c}}

and o = {|, {b}, {c}, {b,c}, X}. Define f: (X, t, I) ÷ (Y, o, J) as

follows. f(a) = b, f(b) = c and f(c) = a. Then the image f{b,c}

= {a,c} is not oI-closed. Hence f is not an oI-closed map.

However f is an ogI-closed map.

Example 3.4. Let X = Y = {a,b,c}, t = {|, {a,b}, X}, I = {|, {a}}

and o = {|, {a}, {a,c}, X}. Define f : (X, t, I) ÷ (Y, o, J) as

follows. f(a) = a, f(b) = c, f(c) = b. Then the image f({c}) = {b}

is not Ig-closed in (Y, o, J). Hence f is not Ig-closed map.

However f is og-I-closed.

Example 3.5. Let X = Y = {a,b,c}, o = t = {|, {a}, X}, I = {|,

{c}}. Define f : (X, t, I) ÷ (Y, o, J) as follows. f(a) = b, f(b) =

a, f(c) = c. Then the image f{b,c} = {a,c} is not goI-closed in

(Y, o, I). Hence f is not goI-closed. However f is ogI-closed.

Theorem 3.6. A map f : (X, t, I) ÷ (Y, o, J) is ogI-closed if

and only if for each subset S of Y and for each open set V

containing f-1(S), there exists an ogI-open set V of Y

containing S and f-1(V) c U.

Proof. Necessity. Let S be a subset of Y and U be open set

of X such that f-1(S) c U. Then Y / f (X / U) say V, is an ogI-

open set containing S such that f-1(V) c U. Sufficiency. Let

F be a closed set of X. Then f-1 (Y / f (F)) c X / F. By taking

S = Y / f(F) and V = X / F in hypothesis there exists an ogI-

open set V of Y containing Y / f (F) and f-1(V) c X / F. Then

we have F c X / f-1(V) and Y / V = f (F). Since Y / V is ogI-

closed and thus f is an ogI-closed. Therefore f(F) is ogI-

closed and thus f is an ogI-closed map.

Theorem 3.7. 1. If a map f : (X, t, I) ÷ (Y, o, J) is

continuous and Pre-oI-closed, then for every ogI-closed set

F of X, f(F) is ogI-closed in Y. 2. If a map f : (X, t, I) ÷ (Y, o,

J) is continuous and ogI-closed for every Ig-closed set F of

X, f(F) is ogI-closed.

Proof. To prove (1) Let F be an ogI-closed set of (X, t, I) .

Let O be an open set of (Y, o, J). Such that f(F) c O. Then F

c f-1 (O) implies oICl(F) c f-1(O). since F is ogI-closed and

f-1(O) is open. This implies f(oICl(F)) c O. Since f is Pre-

oI-closed, f(oICl(F)) is oI-closed. Therefore oICl(f(oICl(F)))

= f(oICl(F)) c O. This implies oICl(f(F))c O and hence f(F)

is ogI-closed in (Y, o, J). To prove (2) let U an open set of Y

such that f(F) c U . We claim that f(F) is ogI-closed. But F c

f-1(V) and f-1(U) is open set of X and hence Cl(F) c f-1(U),

since F is a Ig-closed set. Therefore f(Cl(F)) c U and

f(Cl(F)) is an ogI-closed set, since f is an ogI-closed map

and this implies oICl(f(oICl(F))) c U. Hence oICl(f(F)) c U.

Therefore f(F) is an ogI-closed set.

Theorem 3.8. Let f : (X, t, I) ÷ (Y, o, J) and h : (Y, o, J) ÷

(Z, q, K) be two mappings such that h ο f : (X, t, I) ÷(Z, q,

K) is a goI-closed map. Thena) If f is a continuous,

surjection then h is ogI-closed. b) If h is oI-irresolute, Pre-

oI-closed injection then f is ogI-closed.

Proof. To prove (1). Let F be closed in Y. Then f-1(F) is

closed in X. Since f is continuous. By hypothesis (h ο f) (f-

1(F)) is goI-closed set in Z. This implies h(F) is goI-closed

set and therefore h(F) is an ogI-closed set. Hence h is an

ogI-closed map. To prove (2). Let F be closed in X. Then (h

ο f) (F) is goI-closed in Z and h-1(h ο f) (F) is goI-closed in

Y. Since f(F) is goI-closed in Y. But every goI-closed set is

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC & TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH VOLUME 3, ISSUE 1, JANUARY 2014 ISSN 2277-8616

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an ogI-closed set. Therefore f(F) is ogI-closed. Hence f is

ogI-closed.

Theorem 3.9. 1. If f : (X, t, I) ÷ (Y, o, J) is ogI-closed and h

: (Y, o, J) ÷ (Z, q, K) is continuous and Pre-oI-closed then

h ο f : (X, t, I) ÷ (Z, q, K) is ogI-closed. 2. if f : (X, t, I) ÷

(Y, o, J) is closed and h : (Y, o, J) ÷ (Z, q, K) is ogI-closed

then h ο f : (X, o, I) ÷ (Z, q, K) is ogI-closed.

Proof. To prove (1). Let F be closed in (X, t, I) , Then f(F) is

ogI-closed in (Y, o, J). By theorem 3.7 (2), h(f(F)) is ogI-

closed in (Z, q, K). Therefore h ο f is ogI-closed. To prove

(2). Let F be closed in (X, t, I). Then f(F) is closed in (Y, o,

J). Since h is ogI-closed map. h(f(F)) is ogI-closed in (Z, q,

K). Therefore h ο f is ogI-closed.

4. wog-I-closed and wgo -I-closed function

Definition 4.1. A function f : (X, t, I) ÷ (Y, o, J) is said to be

wog-I-closed function if the image of every closed set in (X,

t, I) is wog-I-closed in (Y, o, J). The complement of wog-I-

closed set is wog-I-open.

Theorem 4.2. Every closed map is wog-I-closed map but

not conversely. Proof. Let f : (X, t, I) ÷ (Y, o, J) be an

closed map and V be a closed set in X. Then f(V) is closed

and hence f(V) is wog-I-closed in Y. Thus f is wog-I-closed.

Example 4.3. Let X = Y = {a, b, c}, t = {|, {a}, {ac}, X}, o =

{|, {ab}, X} and I = {|, {a}}. Let f : X ÷ Y be the identity

function then f is wog-I-closed but not closed.

Theorem 4.4. A function f : (X, t, I) ÷ (Y, o, J) is wog- I-

closed if and only if for each subset B of Y and for each

open set G containing f-1(B) there exists a wog-I-open set

F of Y such that f-1(F) _ G.

Proof. Necessity. Let G open subset of (X, t, I) and B be a

subset of Y such that f-1(B) _ G. Then F = Y – f (X – G) is

wog-I-open set containing B such that f-1(F) _ G.

Sufficiency. Let U be a closed subset of (X, t, I) . Then f-1(Y

– f(U)) _ X – U and X – U is open. By hypothesis, there is a

wog-I-open set F of (Y, o, J) such that Y – f(U) _ F and f-

1(F) _ X – U. Therefore U _ X – f-1(F). Hence Y – F _ f(U)

_ f (X – f-1(F)) _ Y – F. which implies f(U) = Y – F and

hence f(U) is wog-I-closed in (Y, o, J). Therefore, f is wog-I-

closed function.

Theorem 4.5. If a function f: (X, t, I) ÷ (Y, o, J) is closed

and a map g : (Y, o, J) ÷ (Z, q) is wog-I-closed then their

composition g ο f : (X, t, I) ÷ (Z, q) is wog-I-closed.

Proof . Let G be a closed set in X. Then f(G) is closed in Y

and (g ο f) (H) = g (f(H)) is wog-I-closed, as g is wog-I-

closed. Thus g ο f is wog-I-closed.

Definition 4.6. A function f : (X, t, I) ÷ (Y, o, J) is said to be

wgo-I-closed function if the image of every closed set in (X,

t, I) is wgo-I-closed in (Y, o, J). The complement of wgo-I-

closed set is wgo-I-open.

Theorem 4.7. Every closed map is wgo-I-closed but not

conversely.

Proof. Let f : (X, t, I) ÷ (Y, o, J) be a closed map and V be

a closed set in X. Then f(V) is wgo-I-closed in Y. Thus f is

wgo-I-closed.

Example 4.8. Let X = Y = {a, b, c}, t = {|,{ ab}, X}, o = {|,

{a}, {ab}, X } and I = {|, {a}}. Let f : X ÷ Y be the identity

function then f is wgo-I-closed but not closed.

Theorem 4.9. A function f : (X, t, I) ÷ (Y, o, J) is wgo- I-

closed if and only if for each subset B of Y and for each

open set G containing f-1(B) there exists a wgo-I-open set

F of Y such that f-1(F) _ G.

Proof. Necessity. Let G open subset of (X, t, I) and B be a

subset of (Y, o, J) such that f-1(B) _ G. Let F = Y – f(X – G)

since f is wgo-I-closed, F is wgo-I-open set containing B.

Such that f-1(F) _ G. Sufficiency. Let U be a closed subset

of (X, t, I) . Then f-1(Y – f(U) _ X – U and X – U is open. By

hypothesis, there is a wgo-I-open set F of (Y, o, J) such that

Y – f(U) _ F and f-1(F) _ X – U. Therefore U _ X – f-1(F).

Hence Y – F _ f(U) _ f (X – f-1(F)) _ Y – F. which implies

f(U) = Y – F and hence f(U) is wgo-I-closed in (Y, o, J).

Therefore, f is wgo-I-closed function.

Theorem 4.10. If a function f : (X, t, I) ÷ (Y, o, J) is closed

and a map g : (Y, o, J) ÷ (Z, q) is wgo-I-closed then their

composition g ο f : (X, t, I) ÷ (Z, q) is wgo-I-closed.

Proof: Let G be a closed in X. Then f(G) is closed in Y and

(g ο f) (G) = g(f(G)) is wgo-I-closed as g is wgo-I-closed.

Thus g ο f is wgo-I-closed.

REFERENCES

[1]. A. A cikgoz, T. Noiri and S.Yuksal, on o-I-

continuous and o-I-open functions, Acta Math.

Hunger., 105 (1- 2) (2004), 27 – 37.

[2]. Devi, R.Balachandran. K and Maki. H (1997) : on

generalized o-continuous maps and o-generalised

continuous maps, for East J. Math., Sci., Special

Volume, Part I, 1.

[3]. K.Indirani, V.Rajendran and P.Sathishmohan, On

wgo-I-continuity and wog-I-continuity, Global

Journal of Advances in Pure and Applied

Mathematics Volume 1. Issue 1(2012), Pages 1-8.

[4]. K. Kuratowski, Topology, Vol. I, Academic Press,

Newyork (1966).

[5]. H.Maki, R.Devi and K.Balachandran, Associate

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Univ. Ser., (1994), 51 – 63.

[6]. O. Njastad, On some classes of nearly open sets,

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[7]. M. Navaneethakrishnan and J. Paulraj Joseph, g-

closed sets in ideal topological spaces, Acta Math.

Hunger, 119(4) (2008), 365 – 371.

[8]. M.Rajamani and V.Rajendran, A study on go-

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