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# Document Ref: SX008a-EN-EU Sheet 1 of 9

Title

Example: Sway stability
Eurocode Ref EN 1993-1-1
Made by Jonas Gozzi Date April 2005
CALCULATION SHEET

Checked by Bernt Johansson Date July 2005
Example: Sway stability
This example deals with design for global instability of frames, or sway
stability. The frame considered is a non-braced two-storey building frame..

A two-storey building is considered in this example according to the figure
below. The spacing between the frames in the building is s =10 m.

A
3,5
3,5
7,0 7,0
[m]

All connections are designed as rigid according to the figure below.
A

Example: Sway stability
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Document Ref: SX008a-EN-EU Sheet 2 of 9
Title

Example: Sway stability
Eurocode Ref EN 1993-1-1
Made by Jonas Gozzi Date April 2005
CALCULATION SHEET

Checked by Bernt Johansson Date July 2005
Frame data:
Outer columns HEA 200 S355
Second moment of area
4
y
3692 10 I = ⋅ mm
4
Inner columns HEA 220 S355
Second moment of area
4
y
5410 10 I = ⋅ mm
4
Upper beams IPE 400 S355
Second moment of area
4
y
23130 10 I = ⋅ mm
4
Lower beams IPE 450 S355
Second moment of area
4
y
33740 10 I = ⋅ mm
4

The following loads are considered on the structure.
Slab g
slab
=4,0 kN/m
2
Floor finishes g
ffin
=0,8 kN/m
2
Steel g
s
=0,3 kN/m
2
Partition walls g
W
=0,5 kN/m
2
Suspended ceiling g
sc
=0,2 kN/m
2
Installations g
I
=0,2 kN/m
2
Roof and insulation g
roof
=0,4 kN/m
2

Indoor live load q =2,5 kN/m
2
Snow q
snow
=1,0 kN/m
2
Wind, windward q
wind1
=05 075 0375 , , , ⋅ = kN/m
2
Wind, leeward q
wind2
=05 04 02 , , , ⋅ = kN/m
2

• γ
G
• γ
Q
• ψ
0

EN 1990
Example: Sway stability
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Document Ref: SX008a-EN-EU Sheet 3 of 9
Title

Example: Sway stability
Eurocode Ref EN 1993-1-1
Made by Jonas Gozzi Date April 2005
CALCULATION SHEET

Checked by Bernt Johansson Date July 2005
The design loads are calculated with the wind load as the principal load.

1 G roof slab s I sc Q 0 snow
( ( ) ) q g g g g g q s γ γ ψ = ⋅ + + + + + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =82,1 kN/m

2 G ffin W slab s I sc Q 0
( ( ) ) q g g g g g g q s γ γ ψ = ⋅ + + + + + + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =107,3kN/m
=5,6 kN/m
w1 wind1
15 , q q = ⋅ ⋅ s
s =3,0 kN/m
w2 wind2
15 , q q = ⋅ ⋅

EN1990
§6.4.3.2
(6.10)
In the figure below the structure is shown with these design loads.
q
1
q
2
q
w1
q
w2

Check if sway imperfections can be disregarded.

Ed Ed
015 , H V ≥ ⋅
=60,2 kN
Ed w1 w2
56 30 7 ( ) ( , , H q q h = + ⋅ = + ⋅ )
=2651,6 kN
Ed 1 2
821 1073 14 ( ) ( , , ) V q q L = + ⋅ = + ⋅

Ed Ed
602 015 26516 398 015 , , , , H V = < ⋅ = = ⋅
Sway imperfections have to be taken into account.
EN 1993-1-1
§5.3.2 (4)B
Example: Sway stability
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Document Ref: SX008a-EN-EU Sheet 4 of 9
Title

Example: Sway stability
Eurocode Ref EN 1993-1-1
Made by Jonas Gozzi Date April 2005
CALCULATION SHEET

Checked by Bernt Johansson Date July 2005
Calculate global initial sway imperfections.

0 h m
= ⋅ ⋅ φ φ α α

0
1
200
= φ

h
2
h
α = where h is the height of the structure in m

m
1
05 1 ,
m
α

= ⋅ +

⎝ ⎠

where m is the number of columns in a row

3
1 2 1
05 1 309 10
200 3
70
φ

⎛ ⎞
= ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + = ⋅
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
, ,
,

EN 1993-1-1
§5.3.2 (3)
Calculate the equivalent horizontal forces, H
1
and H
2
, due to the sway
imperfections:
q
1
q
2
H
1
H
2
H
1
+ H
2

EN 1993-1-1
§5.3.2 (7)
=3,55 kN
3
1 1
309 10 821 14 H q L φ

= ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ , ,
=4,64 kN
3
2 2
309 10 1073 14 H q L φ

= ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ , ,

Example: Sway stability
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Document Ref: SX008a-EN-EU Sheet 5 of 9
Title

Example: Sway stability
Eurocode Ref EN 1993-1-1
Made by Jonas Gozzi Date April 2005
CALCULATION SHEET

Checked by Bernt Johansson Date July 2005
Determine sensitivity to sway, α
cr
:
There are several different ways to calculate the α
cr
. One is to use the method
given in EN 1993-1-1 §5.2.1 (4)B described first below. Another is to perform
a buckling analysis in a finite element package. This will also be described
and used below. The influence from sway can be neglected if the following
criterion is fulfilled.

cr
cr
Ed
10
F
F
α = ≥

See NCCI
SN001

EN 1993-1-1
§5.2.1 (3)
Check the sensitivity to sway for each storey:

Ed
cr
Ed H,Ed
H h
V
α
δ
⎛ ⎞
⎛ ⎞
=
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
⎝ ⎠

H
Ed
is the horizontal force. In this example only the equivalent
horizontal force is used.
V
Ed
is the total design vertical load on the structure on the bottom
of the storey.
δ
H,Ed
is the horizontal displacement at the top of the storey due to
the applied horizontal loads.
h is the storey height.
EN 1993-1-1
§5.2.1
Eq. (5.2)

See NCCI
SN001

EN 1993-1-1
Figure 5.1
The displacements on each storey due to the applied equivalent horizontal
loads are calculated by means of a frame analysis software. The
displacements, δ
H,Ed1
and δ
H,Ed2
,

are shown in the figure below.

H
1
H
2

δ
H,Ed1
=0,69 mm
δ
H,Ed2
=1,23 mm

δ
H,Ed1
δ
H,Ed2
Example: Sway stability
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Document Ref: SX008a-EN-EU Sheet 6 of 9
Title

Example: Sway stability
Eurocode Ref EN 1993-1-1
Made by Jonas Gozzi Date April 2005
CALCULATION SHEET

Checked by Bernt Johansson Date July 2005
Total vertical load on the two storeys:
=1149,4 kN
Ed1 1
821 14 , V q L = ⋅ = ⋅
=1502,2 kN
Ed2 2
1073 14 , V q L = ⋅ = ⋅
α
cr
for the upper storey:

1
cr
Ed1 H,Ed1
355 3500
11494 069
,
, ,
H h
V
α
δ
⎛ ⎞
⎛ ⎞
⎛ ⎞⎛
= =
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟⎜
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠⎝
⎝ ⎠
⎝ ⎠

=15,66 >10
α
cr
for the lower storey:

1 2
cr
Ed1 Ed2 H,Ed2
355 464 3500
11494 15022 123
, ,
, , ,
H H h
V V
α
δ
⎛ ⎞
⎛ ⎞ + + ⎛ ⎞⎛
= =
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟⎜
⎜ ⎟
+ +
⎝ ⎠⎝
⎝ ⎠
⎝ ⎠

=8,79 <10
The sway effects cannot be neglected for this frame.

The second alternative is to use a finite element package for determining α
cr
.
In this case only the vertical loads are considered as concentrated to the joints
of the frame according to the figure below.
V
Ed1o
V
Ed2o
V
Ed2o
V
Ed1o
V
Ed1i
V
Ed2i

From a buckling analysis the α
cr
can be directly determined.
α
cr
=7,51 <10
Hence, the sway effects cannot be neglected.
Example: Sway stability
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Document Ref: SX008a-EN-EU Sheet 7 of 9
Title

Example: Sway stability
Eurocode Ref EN 1993-1-1
Made by Jonas Gozzi Date April 2005
CALCULATION SHEET

Checked by Bernt Johansson Date July 2005
As can be seen the different methods gives different results. The finite
element analysis should give the most correct results since the equation from
EN 1993-1-1 is a simplification. In this case it gives a conservative result
because the columns are uniform and the upper part has less load than the
lower part. However, for large α
cr
values the difference in the contribution
from the sway on the frame is rather small. In this example the α
cr
from the
finite element analysis will be used.

Determine if local bow imperfections have to be considered
Local bow imperfections should be considered if the following two conditions
are met:
• at least one moment resistant joint at one member end and

y
Ed
05 ,
A f
N
λ

>
where
N
Ed
is the design value of the compression force and

y
cr
A f
N
λ

= is the in-plane non-dimensional slenderness calculated
for the member considered as hinged at its ends

EN 1993-1-1
§5.3.2(6)

EN 1993-1-1
§6.3.1.2(1)
The conditions can be reformulated as follows:

y y
cr Ed
05 ,
A f A
N N
⋅ ⋅
>
f

Ed cr
025 , N N > ⋅

For the columns the buckling loads assuming hinged ends are:
Outer columns, HEA 200

2 2
2 2
210000 3692 10
3500
cr
E I
N
l
π ⋅ ⋅ π ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
= =
4
=6247 kN
Inner columns, HEA 220

2 2
2 2
210000 5410 10
3500
cr
E I
N
l
π ⋅ ⋅ π ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
= =
4
=9153 kN

Example: Sway stability
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Document Ref: SX008a-EN-EU Sheet 8 of 9
Title

Example: Sway stability
Eurocode Ref EN 1993-1-1
Made by Jonas Gozzi Date April 2005
CALCULATION SHEET

Checked by Bernt Johansson Date July 2005
The member that carries the highest normal force is the lower part of the outer
column and the middle column.
The normal force in the outer column, lower part, according to first order
analysis
N
Ed
=568 kN

Ed cr
568 kN 1562 kN 025 , N N = < = ⋅
The normal force in the inner column, lower part, according to first order
analysis
N
Ed
=1533 kN

Ed cr
1533 kN 2288 kN 025 , N N = < = ⋅
Since this two members do not meet the condition then no other member will
and hence, the bow imperfections does not have to be considered.

Select method of allowing for sway effects
The second order sway effects may be calculated according to first order
theory if the horizontal loads, i.e. wind, and equivalent horizontal loads are
increased by the factor:

cr
1
1 1α −

provided that
cr
30 , α ≥

EN 1993-1-1
§5.2.2(5)B &
(6)B
In this case α
cr
=7,51 and hence, this method can be used.
The following loads will be considered in the first order analysis:
q
1
q
2
q
w1a
q
w2a
H
1a
H
2a
1 3
10
9
8 7
6
5
4 2

The numbers are the member numbers.

Example: Sway stability
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Document Ref: SX008a-EN-EU Sheet 9 of 9
Title

Example: Sway stability
Eurocode Ref EN 1993-1-1
Made by Jonas Gozzi Date April 2005
CALCULATION SHEET

Checked by Bernt Johansson Date July 2005
Where the horizontal loads marked with a are increased by the factor

cr
1 1
115
1 1 1 1751
,
, α
= =
− −

i.e.
=4,08 kN
1a
115 355 H = ⋅ , ,
=5,34 kN
2a
115 464 H = ⋅ , ,
=6,44 kN/m
w1a
115 56 , , q = ⋅
=3,45 kN/m
w2a
115 30 , , q = ⋅

Member design forces for the frame:
In the table below the design forces for all members are shown. For shear
force and moment the two values corresponds to the two ends of the columns
and the beams. The first value for the columns is for the lower end and the
second is for the upper end and for the beams the first value is for the left end
and the second is for the right end.
Member N
Ed
[kN] V
Ed
[kN] M
Ed
[kNm]
1 546,9 0,95 21,6 6,0 42,2
2 238,3 42,9 65,4 86,0 103,5
3 1533,1 26,9 26,9 48,4 45,8
4 668,4 9,6 9,6 16,3 17,3
5 570,9 50,8 38,7 67,5 89,1
6 242,7 72,0 59,9 114,0 116,8
7 16,0 308,6 442,1 128,2 595,4
8 33,3 422,5 328,2 533,3 203,2
9 69,5 238,3 336,4 103,5 446,8
10 59,9 332,0 242,7 429,5

116,8

E x a m p l e : S w a y s t a b i l i t y
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Example: Sway stability
SX008a-EN-EU.doc

Quality Record

RESOURCE TITLE Sway stability
Reference(s)
ORIGINAL DOCUMENT
Name Company Date
Created by J onas Gozzi SBI 30/04/2005
Technical content checked by Bernt J ohansson SBI 18/05/2005
Editorial content checked by
Technical content endorsed by the
following STEEL Partners:

1. UK G W Owens SCI 7/7/05
2. France A Bureau CTICM 17/8/05
3. Sweden A Olsson SBI 8/8/05
4. Germany C Muller RWTH 10/8/05
5. Spain J Chica Labein 12/8/05
Resource approved by Technical
Coordinator
G W Owens SCI 21.05.06
TRANSLATED DOCUMENT
This Translation made and checked by:
Translated resource approved by:

Example: Sway stability
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