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The Australian

Curriculum
Learning Areas:
English, Health and Physical Education, Humanities and Social Sciences, Mathematics, Science, Technologies, The Arts
Subjects:
English, Health and Physical Education, Civics and Citizenship, Economics and Business, Geography, History,
Mathematics, Science, Design and Technologies, Digital Technologies, Dance, Drama, Media Arts, Music, Visual Arts
Levels:
Bands:
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English
Rationale and Aims
Rationale
Aims
Organisation
Organisation
Content structure
Language
Literature
Literacy
Relationships between the strands
English across Foundation to Year 12
Achievement Standards
Student diversity
General capabilities
Cross-curriculum priorities
Links to the other learning areas
Implications for teaching, assessment and reporting
Scope and sequence charts
Health and Physical Education
Rationale and Aims
Rationale
Aims
Organisation
Organisation
Content structure
Health and Physical Education across Foundation to Year 10
Student diversity
General capabilities
Cross-curriculum priorities
Links to other learning areas
Implications for teaching, assessment and reporting
Scope and sequence charts
Table of Contents
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Civics and Citizenship
Rationale and Aims
Rationale
Aims
Organisation
Organisation
Content structure
Achievement standards
Civics and Citizenship across Foundation to Year 10
Student diversity
General capabilities
Cross-curriculum priorities
Implications for teaching, assessment and reporting
Scope and sequence charts
Economics and Business
Rationale and Aims
Rationale
Aims
Organisation
Organisation
Content structure
Achievement standards
Economics and Business across Foundation to Year 10
Student diversity
General capabilities
Cross-curriculum priorities
Implications for teaching, assessment and reporting
Scope and sequence charts
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Geography
Rationale and Aims
Rationale
Aims
Organisation
Organisation
Content structure
Concepts for developing geographical understanding
Geography across Foundation to Year 10
Student diversity
General capabilities
Cross-curriculum priorities
Implications for teaching, assessment and reporting
Scope and sequence charts
History
Rationale and Aims
Rationale
Aims
Organisation
Organisation
Content structure
History across Foundation to Year 12
Achievement Standards
Student diversity
General capabilities
Cross-curriculum priorities
Links to the other learning areas
Implications for teaching, assessment and reporting
Scope and sequence charts
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Mathematics
Rationale and Aims
Rationale
Aims
Organisation
Organisation
Content structure
Mathematics across Foundation to Year 12
Achievement Standards
Student diversity
General capabilities
Cross-curriculum priorities
Links to the other learning areas
Implications for teaching, assessment and reporting
Scope and sequence charts
Science
Rationale and Aims
Rationale
Aims
Organisation
Organisation
Content structure
The overarching ideas
Science across Foundation to Year 12
Achievement Standards
Student diversity
General capabilities
Cross-curriculum priorities
Links to the other learning areas
Implications for teaching, assessment and reporting
Scope and sequence charts
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Technologies
Rationale and Aims
Technologies
Organisation
Organisation
Content structure
Design and Technologies
Digital Technologies
Technologies across Foundation to Year 10
Learning in Design and Technologies
Learning in Digital Technologies
Student Diversity
General capabilities
Cross-curriculum priorities
Links to other learning areas
Implications for teaching, assessment and reporting
Australian Curriculum connections
Design and Technologies
Rationale and Aims
Design and Technologies
Scope and sequence charts
Digital Technologies
Rationale and Aims
Digital Technologies
Scope and sequence charts
The Arts
Rationale and Aims
Aims
Rationale
Organisation
Organisation
Introduction
Content structure
The Arts across Foundation to Year 10
Student diversity
General capabilities
Cross-curriculum priorities
Links to other learning areas
Implications for teaching, assessment and reporting
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Dance
Rationale and Aims
Rationale
Aims
Drama
Rationale and Aims
Rationale
Aims
Media Arts
Rationale and Aims
Rationale
Aims
Music
Rationale and Aims
Rationale
Aims
Visual Arts
Rationale and Aims
Rationale
Aims
Scope and sequence charts
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The Australian Curriculum
English
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Rationale and Aims
Rationale
The study of English is central to the learning and development of all young Australians. It helps create confident
communicators, imaginative thinkers and informed citizens. It is through the study of English that individuals learn to analyse,
understand, communicate with and build relationships with others and with the world around them. The study of English helps
young people develop the knowledge and skills needed for education, training and the workplace. It helps them become ethical,
thoughtful, informed and active members of society. In this light it is clear that the Australian Curriculum: English plays an
important part in developing the understanding, attitudes and capabilities of those who will take responsibility for Australia’s
future.
Although Australia is a linguistically and culturally diverse country, participation in many aspects of Australian life depends on
effective communication in Standard Australian English. In addition, proficiency in English is invaluable globally. The Australian
Curriculum: English contributes both to nation-building and to internationalisation.
The Australian Curriculum: English also helps students to engage imaginatively and critically with literature to expand the scope
of their experience. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples have contributed to Australian society and to its contemporary
literature and its literary heritage through their distinctive ways of representing and communicating knowledge, traditions and
experience. The Australian Curriculum: English values, respects and explores this contribution. It also emphasises Australia’s
links to Asia.
Aims
The Australian Curriculum: English aims to ensure that students:
learn to listen to, read, view, speak, write, create and reflect on increasingly complex and sophisticated spoken, written
and multimodal texts across a growing range of contexts with accuracy, fluency and purpose
appreciate, enjoy and use the English language in all its variations and develop a sense of its richness and power to
evoke feelings, convey information, form ideas, facilitate interaction with others, entertain, persuade and argue
understand how Standard Australian English works in its spoken and written forms and in combination with non-linguistic
forms of communication to create meaning
develop interest and skills in inquiring into the aesthetic aspects of texts, and develop an informed appreciation of
literature.
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English
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Organisation
Content Structure
The Australian Curriculum: English Foundation to Year 10 is organised into three interrelated strands that support students'
growing understanding and use of Standard Australian English (English). Together the three strands focus on developing
students’ knowledge, understanding and skills in listening, reading, viewing, speaking and writing. The three strands are:
Language: knowing about the English language
Literature: understanding, appreciating, responding to, analysing and creating literature
Literacy: expanding the repertoire of English usage.
Strands and sub-strands
Content descriptions in each strand are grouped into sub-strands that, across the year levels, present a sequence of
development of knowledge, understanding and skills. The sub-strands are:
language literature literacy
Language variation and change Literature and context Texts in context
Language for interaction Responding to literature Interacting with others
Text structure and organisation Examining literature Interpreting, analysing and evaluating
Expressing and developing ideas Creating literature Creating texts
Sound and letter knowledge
Texts
Texts provide the means for communication. They can be written, spoken or multimodal, and in print or digital/online forms.
Multimodal texts combine language with other means of communication such as visual images, soundtrack or spoken word, as
in film or computer presentation media. Texts provide important opportunities for learning about aspects of human experience
and about aesthetic value. Many of the tasks that students undertake in and out of school involve understanding and producing
imaginative, informative and persuasive texts, media texts, everyday texts and workplace texts.
The term ‘literature’ refers to past and present texts across a range of cultural contexts that are valued for their form and style
and are recognised as having enduring or artistic value. While the nature of what constitutes literary texts is dynamic and
evolving, they are seen as having personal, social, cultural and aesthetic value and potential for enriching students’ scope of
experience. Literature includes a broad range of forms such as novels, poetry, short stories and plays; fiction for young adults
and children, multimodal texts such as film, and a variety of non-fiction. Literary texts also include excerpts from longer texts.
This enables a range of literary texts to be included within any one year level for close study or comparative purposes.
English educators use many ways of categorising texts. The descriptions of texts used in the Australian Curriculum: English are
based on practical as well as conceptual considerations. The specific designation of a strand labelled ‘literature’ is aimed at
encouraging teachers working at all year levels not only to use texts conventionally understood as ‘literary’, but also to engage
students in examining, evaluating and discussing texts in increasingly sophisticated and informed ‘literary’ ways.
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English
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The usefulness of distinctions among types of texts relates largely to how clearly at each year level these distinctions can guide
the selection of materials for students to listen to, read, view, write and create, and the kinds of purposeful activities that can be
organised around these materials.
The language modes
The processes of listening, speaking, reading, viewing and writing, also known as language modes, are interrelated and the
learning of one often supports and extends learning of the others. To acknowledge these interrelationships, content descriptions
in each strand of the Australian Curriculum: English incorporate the processes of listening, speaking, reading, viewing and
writing in an integrated and interdependent way.
Classroom contexts that address particular content descriptions will necessarily draw from more than one of these processes in
order to support students’ effective learning. For example, students will learn new vocabulary through listening and reading and
apply their knowledge and understanding in their speaking and writing as well as in their comprehension of both spoken and
written texts.
Content descriptions can also be viewed by these processes or language modes. In this aspect, each content description has
been placed in the mode in which a major focus of its learning occurs. Content descriptions can be filtered to identify all relevant
processes or language modes.
Year level descriptions
Year level descriptions have three functions. First, they emphasise the interrelated nature of the three strands and the
expectation that planning an English program will involve integration of content from the strands. Second, they provide
information about the learning contexts that are appropriate at each year for learning across the Language, Literature and
Literacy strands. Third, they provide an overview of the range of texts to be studied and an indication of their complexity and key
features. They also describe differences in the texts that students create. In the early years, development in reading and writing
is rapid and clear distinctions in text complexity can be made so descriptions are written for each year at Foundation, 1 and 2. In
Years 3–10, the two-year description provides for greater flexibility.
Content descriptions
The Australian Curriculum: English includes content descriptions at each year level. These describe the knowledge,
understanding, skills and processes that teachers are expected to teach and students are expected to learn, but do not
prescribe approaches to teaching. Learning in English is recursive and cumulative, and builds on concepts, skills and processes
developed in earlier years. Nevertheless, the content descriptions have been written to ensure that learning is appropriately
ordered and that unnecessary repetition is avoided. However, a concept or skill introduced at one year level may be revisited,
strengthened and extended at later year levels as needed.
Content elaborations
Content elaborations are provided for Foundation to Year 10 to illustrate and exemplify content and assist teachers in
developing a common understanding of the content descriptions. They are not intended to be comprehensive content points that
all students need to be taught.
Glossary
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A glossary is provided to support a common understanding of key terms in the content descriptions.
Language: knowing about the English language
In the Language strand, students develop their knowledge of the English language and how it works. They learn that changes
in English are related to historical developments and the geographical differences of its users over the centuries, and that there
are many differences in dialect and accent. They learn how language enables people to interact effectively, to build and
maintain relationships and to express and exchange knowledge, skills, attitudes, feelings and opinions. They discover the
patterns and purposes of English usage, including spelling, grammar and punctuation at the levels of the word, sentence and
extended text, and they study the connections between these levels. By developing a body of knowledge about these patterns
and their connections, students learn to communicate effectively through coherent, well-structured sentences and texts. They
gain a consistent way of understanding and talking about language, language-in-use and language-as-system, so they can
reflect on their own speaking and writing and discuss these productively with others.
Language
Language variation and change: Students learn that languages and dialects are constantly evolving due to historical, social
and cultural changes, demographic movements and technological innovations. They come to understand that these factors,
along with new virtual communities and environments, continue to affect the nature and spread of English.
Language for interaction: Students learn that the language used by individuals varies according to their social setting and the
relationships between the participants. They learn that accents and styles of speech and idiom are part of the creation and
expression of personal and social identities.
Text structure and organisation: Students learn how texts are structured to achieve particular purposes; how language is
used to create texts that are cohesive and coherent; how texts about more specialised topics contain more complex language
patterns and features; and how the author guides the reader/viewer through the text through effective use of resources at the
level of the whole text, the paragraph and the sentence.
Expressing and developing ideas: Students learn how, in a text, effective authors control and use an increasingly
differentiated range of clause structures, words and word groups, as well as combinations of sound, image, movement, verbal
elements and layout. They learn that the conventions, patterns and generalisations that relate to English spelling involve the
origins of words, word endings, Greek and Latin roots, base words and affixes.
Sound and letter knowledge: Students develop knowledge about the sounds of English and learn to identify the sounds in
spoken words. They learn the letters of the alphabet and how to represent spoken words by using combinations of these letters.
Language
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The Language strand is based on concepts drawn largely from historical and linguistic accounts of the English language. These
approaches draw attention to the ways in which languages change, and to the distinction between language-in-use and
language-as-system. These approaches also acknowledge that students’ ability to use grammar will exceed their ability to
explicitly reflect on grammar. Young children, for example, will use complex sentences before they can explain how these are
structured. These approaches, in describing language, also pay attention to both the structure (syntax) and meaning
(semantics) at the level of the word, the sentence and the text. The Australian Curriculum: English uses standard grammatical
terminology within a contextual framework, in which language choices are seen to vary according to the topics at hand, the
nature and proximity of the relationships between the language users, and the modalities or channels of communication
available. This strand informs the planning and conduct of teaching and learning activities in English and provides resources
that connect to key concepts and skills in the other strands.
Literature: understanding, appreciating, responding to, analysing and creating literature
The Literature strand aims to engage students in the study of literary texts of personal, cultural, social and aesthetic value.
These texts include some that are recognised as having enduring social and artistic value and some that attract contemporary
attention. Texts are chosen because they are judged to have potential for enriching the lives of students, expanding the scope
of their experience, and because they represent effective and interesting features of form and style. Learning to appreciate
literary texts and to create their own literary texts enriches students’ understanding of human experiences and the capacity for
language to deepen those experiences. It builds students’ knowledge about how language can be used for aesthetic ends, to
create particular emotional, intellectual or philosophical effects. Students interpret, appreciate, evaluate and create literary texts
such as short stories, novels, poetry, prose, plays, film and multimodal texts, in spoken, print and digital/online forms. Texts
recognised as having enduring artistic and cultural value are drawn from world and Australian literature. These include the oral
narrative traditions of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, texts from Asia, texts from Australia’s immigrant cultures
and texts of the students’ choice.
Literature
Literature and context: Students learn how ideas and viewpoints about events, issues and characters that are expressed by
authors in texts are drawn from and shaped by different historical, social and cultural contexts.
Responding to literature: Students learn to identify personal ideas, experiences and opinions about literary texts and discuss
them with others. They learn how to recognise areas of agreement and difference, and how to develop and refine their
interpretations through discussion and argument.
Examining literature: Students learn how to explain and analyse the ways in which stories, characters, settings and
experiences are reflected in particular literary genres, and how to discuss the appeal of these genres. They learn how to
compare and appraise the ways authors use language and literary techniques and devices to influence readers. They also learn
to understand, interpret, discuss and evaluate how certain stylistic choices can create multiple layers of interpretation and effect.
Creating literature: Students learn how to use personal knowledge and literary texts as starting points to create imaginative
writing in different forms and genres and for particular audiences. Using print, digital and online media, students develop skills
that allow them to convey meaning, address significant issues and heighten engagement and impact.
Literature
There are many approaches to the study of literature. Each makes different assumptions about the purposes of literature study,
the nature of literary texts and methods of analysis. The Australian Curriculum: English draws on a number of approaches and
emphasises:
the different ways in which literature is significant in everyday life
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close analysis of literary works and the key ideas and values on which they are based; for example, the detailed stylistic
study of differing styles of literary work
comparisons of works of literature from different language, ethnic and cultural backgrounds
historical study of the origins, authorship, readership and reception of texts
exploration of the relationships between historical, cultural and literary traditions.
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Literacy: expanding the repertoire of English usage
The Literacy strand aims to develop students’ ability to interpret and create texts with appropriateness, accuracy, confidence,
fluency and efficacy for learning in and out of school, and for participating in Australian life more generally. Texts chosen include
media texts, everyday texts and workplace texts from increasingly complex and unfamiliar settings, ranging from the everyday
language of personal experience to more abstract, specialised and technical language, including the language of schooling and
academic study. Students learn to adapt language to meet the demands of more general or more specialised purposes,
audiences and contexts. They learn about the different ways in which knowledge and opinion are represented and developed in
texts, and about how more or less abstraction and complexity can be shown through language and through multimodal
representations. This means that print and digital contexts are included, and that listening, viewing, reading, speaking, writing
and creating are all developed systematically and concurrently.
Literacy
Texts in context: Students learn that texts from different cultures or historical periods may reveal different patterns in how they
go about narrating, informing and persuading.
Interacting with others: Students learn how individuals and groups use language patterns to express ideas and key concepts
to develop and defend arguments. They learn how to promote a point of view by designing, rehearsing and delivering spoken
and written presentations and by appropriately selecting and sequencing linguistic and multimodal elements.
Interpreting, analysing, evaluating: Students learn to comprehend what they read and view by applying growing contextual,
semantic, grammatical and phonic knowledge. They develop more sophisticated processes for interpreting, analysing,
evaluating and critiquing ideas, information and issues from a variety of sources. They explore the ways conventions and
structures are used in written, digital, multimedia and cinematic texts to entertain, inform and persuade audiences, and they use
their growing knowledge of textual features to explain how texts make an impact on different audiences.
Creating texts: Students apply knowledge they have developed in other strands and sub-strands to create with clarity, authority
and novelty a range of spoken, written and multimodal texts that entertain, inform and persuade audiences. They do so by
strategically selecting key aspects of a topic as well as language, visual and audio features. They learn how to edit for enhanced
meaning and effect by refining ideas, reordering sentences, adding or substituting words for clarity, and removing repetition.
They develop and consolidate a handwriting style that is legible, fluent and automatic, and that supports sustained writing. They
learn to use a range of software programs including word processing software, selecting purposefully from a range of functions
to communicate and create clear, effective, informative and innovative texts.
Literacy
The Literacy strand takes account of approaches to literacy learning that are based on the development of skills, social and
psychological growth, and critical and cultural analysis. These approaches hold that the technical, intellectual and cultural
resources related to competence in literacy have developed to serve the big and small practical, everyday communication
purposes associated with living and participating in societies such as contemporary Australia. These technical, intellectual and
cultural resources include:
fluency in the sound–letter correspondences of English
an expanding reading, writing and speaking vocabulary and a grasp of grammatical and textual patterns sufficient to
understand and learn from texts encountered in and out of school, and to create effective and innovative texts
fluency and innovation in reading, viewing and creating texts in different settings
the skill and disposition needed to analyse and understand the philosophical, moral, political and aesthetic bases on
which many texts are built
an interest in expanding the range of materials listened to, viewed and read, and in experimenting with innovative ways of
expressing increasingly subtle and complex ideas through texts.
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Relationships between the strands
Each strand contributes to the study of English its own distinctive goals, body of knowledge, history of ideas and interests, and
each relates to material worth studying in its own right. Teaching, learning and assessment programs should balance and
integrate the three strands in order to support the development of knowledge, understanding and skills. The key focal point for a
unit of work or a learning activity may arise from any one of the strands, but the intention is that units and activities draw on all
three strands in ways that are integrated and clear to learners.
English across Foundation to Year 12
Complementing the year by year description of the curriculum, this advice describes the nature of learners and the curriculum
across four year-groupings:
Foundation – Year 2: typically students from 5 to 8 years of age
Years 3–6: typically students from 8 to 12 years of age
Years 7–10: typically students from 12 to 15 years of age
Senior secondary years: typically students from 15 to 18 years of age
Foundation – Year 2
Students bring with them to school a wide range of experiences with language and texts. These experiences are included in the
curriculum as valid ways of communicating and as rich resources for further learning about language, literature and literacy.
From Foundation to Year 2, students engage with purposeful listening, reading, viewing, speaking and writing activities for
different purposes and contexts.
The curriculum in these years aims to extend the abilities of students prior to school learning and to provide the foundation
needed for continued learning. The study of English from Foundation to Year 2 develops students’ skills and disposition to
expand their knowledge of language as well as strategies to assist that growth. It aims to do this through pleasurable and varied
experiences of literature and through the beginnings of a repertoire of activities involving listening, viewing, reading, speaking
and writing.
Years 3–6
Students practise, consolidate and extend what they have learned. They develop an increasingly sophisticated understanding of
grammar and language, and are increasingly able to articulate this knowledge. Gradually, more complex punctuation, clause
and sentence structures, and textual purposes and patterns are introduced. This deeper understanding includes more explicit
metalanguage, as students learn to classify words, sentence structures and texts. To consolidate both ‘learning to read and
write’ and ‘reading and writing to learn’, students explore the language of different types of texts, including visual texts,
advertising, digital/online and media texts.
Years 7–10
Students continue to practise, consolidate and extend what they have learned from previous years. They also extend their
understanding of how language works, and learn to transfer this knowledge to different contexts. To achieve this, students
develop an understanding of the requirements of different types of texts; they are introduced to increasingly sophisticated
analyses of various kinds of literary, popular culture, and everyday texts, and they are given opportunities to engage with the
technical aspects of texts, including those of their own choosing – and to explain why they made that choice.
The notion of valuing certain texts as ‘literature’ is introduced. Students learn how such texts can be discussed and analysed in
relation to themes, ideas and historical and cultural contexts.
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Students engage with a variety of genres and modes. They re-enact, represent and describe texts in order to display their
understanding of narrative, theme, purpose, context and argument and to defend their ideas in written and oral modes. Students
are given further opportunities to create increasingly sophisticated and multimodal texts in groups and individually.
Senior secondary years
The Australian Curriculum: English in the senior secondary years allows students to use, consolidate and expand on what they
have learned, and provides a range of choices from more specialised courses to meet students’ needs and interests. The three
strands of Language, Literature and Literacy also underpin the senior secondary English courses.
Achievement standards
Across Foundation to Year 10, achievement standards indicate the quality of learning students should typically demonstrate by
a particular point in their schooling. Achievement standards comprise a written description and student work samples.
An achievement standard describes the quality of learning (the extent of knowledge, the depth of understanding and the
sophistication of skills) that would indicate the student is well placed to commence the learning required at the next level of
achievement.
The sequence of achievement standards across Foundation to Year 10 describes progress in the learning area. This sequence
provides teachers with a framework of growth and development in the learning area.
Student work samples play a key role in communicating expectations described in the achievement standards. Each work
sample includes the relevant assessment task, the student’s response, and annotations identifying the quality of learning
evident in the student’s response in relation to relevant parts of the achievement standard.
Together, the description of the achievement standard and the accompanying set of annotated work samples help teachers to
make judgments about whether students have achieved the standard.
Student diversity
ACARA is committed to the development of a high-quality curriculum for all Australian students that promotes excellence and
equity in education.
All students are entitled to rigorous, relevant and engaging learning programs drawn from the Australian Curriculum: English.
Teachers take account of the range of their students’ current levels of learning, strengths, goals and interests and make
adjustments where necessary. The three-dimensional design of the Australian Curriculum, comprising learning areas, general
capabilities and cross-curriculum priorities, provides teachers with flexibility to cater for the diverse needs of students across
Australia and to personalise their learning.
More detailed advice has been developed for schools and teachers on using the Australian Curriculum to meet diverse learning
needs and is available under Student Diversity on the Australian Curriculum website.
Students with disability
The Disability Discrimination Act 1992 and the Disability Standards for Education 2005 require education and training
service providers to support the rights of students with disability to access the curriculum on the same basis as students without
disability.
Many students with disability are able to achieve educational standards commensurate with their peers, as long as the
necessary adjustments are made to the way in which they are taught and to the means through which they demonstrate their
learning.
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In some cases curriculum adjustments are necessary to provide equitable opportunities for students to access age-equivalent
conent in the Australlian Curriculum: English. Teachers can draw from content at differerent levels along the Foundation to Year
10 sequence. Teachers can also use the extended general capabilities learning continua in Literacy, Numeracy and Personal
and social capability to adjust the focus of learning according to individual student need.
Gifted and talented students
Teachers can use the Australian Curriculum: English flexibly to meet the individual learning needs of gifted and talented
students.
Teachers can enrich student learning by providing students with opportunities to work with learning area content in more depth
or breadth; emphasising specific aspects of the general capabilities learning continua (for example, the higher order cognitive
skills of the Critical and creative thinking capability); and/or focusing on cross-curriculum priorities. Teachers can also accelerate
student learning by drawing on content from later levels in the Australian Curriculum: English and/or from local state and
territory teaching and learning materials.
English as an additional language or dialect
Students for whom English is an additional language or dialect (EAL/D) enter Australian schools at different ages and at
different stages of English language learning and have various educational backgrounds in their first languages. Whilst many
EAL/D students bring already highly developed literacy (and numeracy) skills in their own language to their learning of Standard
Australian English, there is a significant number of students who are not literate in their first language, and have had little or no
formal schooling.
While the aims of the Australian Curriculum: English are the same for all students, EAL/D students must achieve these aims
while simultaneously learning a new language and learning content and skills through that new language. These students may
require additional time and support, along with teaching that explicitly addresses their language needs. Students who have had
no formal schooling will need additional time and support in order to acquire skills for effective learning in formal settings.
A national English as an Additional Language or Dialect: Teacher Resource has been developed to support teachers in
making the Australian Curriculum: Foundation to Year 10 in each learning area accessible to EAL/D students.
General capabilities
In the Australian Curriculum, the general capabilities encompass the knowledge, skills, behaviours and dispositions that,
together with curriculum content in each learning area and the cross-curriculum priorities, will assist students to live and work
successfully in the twenty-first century.
There are seven general capabilities:
Literacy
Numeracy
Information and communication technology (ICT) capability
Critical and creative thinking
Personal and social capability
Ethical understanding
Intercultural understanding.
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In the Australian Curriculum: English, general capabilities are identified wherever they are developed or applied in content
descriptions. They are also identified where they offer opportunities to add depth and richness to student learning through
content elaborations. Icons indicate where general capabilities have been identified in English content. Teachers may find
further opportunities to incorporate explicit teaching of the capabilities depending on their choice of activities.
Literacy
The Literacy general capability presents those aspects of the Language and Literacy strands of the English curriculum that
should also be applied in all other learning areas.
Students become literate as they develop the knowledge, skills and dispositions to interpret and use language confidently for
learning and communicating in and out of school and for participating effectively in society. Literacy involves students in
listening to, reading, viewing, speaking, writing and creating oral, print, visual and digital texts, and using and modifying
language for different purposes in a range of contexts.
Literacy is developed through the specific study of the English language in all its forms, enabling students to understand how
the English language works in different social contexts and critically assess writers’ opinions, bias and intent, and assisting them
to make increasingly sophisticated language choices in their own texts. The English learning area has a central role in the
development of literacy in a manner that is more explicit and foregrounded than is the case in other learning areas. Students
learn literacy knowledge and skills as they engage with the Literacy and Language strands of English. They apply their literacy
capability in English when they interpret and create spoken, print, visual and multimodal texts for a range of purposes.
Numeracy
Students become numerate as they develop the knowledge and skills to use mathematics confidently across all learning areas
at school and in their lives more broadly. Numeracy involves students in recognising and understanding the role of mathematics
in the world and having the dispositions and capacities to use mathematical knowledge and skills purposefully.
Numeracy can be addressed in learning contexts appropriate to English across Years F‒10. Students use numeracy skills when
interpreting, analysing and creating texts involving quantitative and spatial information such as percentages and statistics,
numbers, measurements and directions. When responding to or creating texts that present issues or arguments based on data,
students identify, analyse and synthesise numerical information using that understanding to discuss the credibility of sources.
Visual texts may present a range of numeracy demands. Interpreting and creating graphic organisers requires students to
examine relationships between various components of a situation and to sort information into categories including
characteristics that can be measured or counted. Understanding the mathematical ideas behind visual organisers such as Venn
diagrams or flowcharts helps students to use them more effectively.
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) capability
Students develop ICT capability as they learn to use ICT effectively and appropriately to access, create and communicate
information and ideas, solve problems and work collaboratively in all learning areas at school, and in their lives beyond school.
ICT capability involves students in learning to make the most of the technologies available to them, adapting to new ways of
doing things as technologies evolve and limiting the risks to themselves and others in a digital environment.
ICT capability is an important component of the English curriculum. Students use ICT when they interpret and create print,
visual and multimodal texts. They use communication technologies when they conduct research online, and collaborate and
communicate with others electronically. In particular, they employ ICT to access, analyse, modify and create multimodal texts,
including through digital publishing.
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As students interpret and create digital texts, they develop their capability in ICT including word processing, navigating and
following research trails and selecting and evaluating information found online.
Critical and creative thinking
Students develop capability in critical and creative thinking as they learn to generate and evaluate knowledge, clarify concepts
and ideas, seek possibilities, consider alternatives and solve problems. Critical and creative thinking are integral to activities that
require students to think broadly and deeply using skills, behaviours and dispositions such as reason, logic, resourcefulness,
imagination and innovation in all learning areas at school and in their lives beyond school.
Critical and creative thinking are essential to developing understanding in English. Students employ critical and creative thinking
through discussions, the close analysis of texts and through the creation of their own written, visual and multimodal texts that
require logic, imagination and innovation. Students use creative thinking when they imagine possibilities, plan, explore and
create ideas and texts.
Through listening to, reading, viewing, creating and presenting texts and interacting with others, students develop their ability to
see existing situations in new ways, and explore the creative possibilities of the English language. In discussion students
develop critical thinking as they state and justify a point of view and respond to the views of others. Through reading, viewing
and listening students critically analyse the opinions, points of view and unstated assumptions embedded in texts.
Personal and social capability
Students develop personal and social capability as they learn to understand themselves and others, and manage their
relationships, lives, work and learning more effectively. The personal and social capability involves students in a range of
practices including recognising and regulating emotions, developing empathy for and understanding of others, establishing
positive relationships, making responsible decisions, working effectively in teams and handling challenging situations
constructively.
There are many opportunities for students to develop personal and social capability in English. Language is central to personal
and social identity. Using English to develop communication skills and self-expression assists students’ personal and social
development as they become effective communicators able to articulate their own opinions and beliefs and to interact and
collaborate with others.
The study of English as a system helps students to understand how language functions as a key component of social
interactions across all social situations. Through close reading and discussion of texts students experience and evaluate a
range of personal and social behaviours and perspectives and develop connections and empathy with characters in different
social contexts.
Ethical understanding
Students develop ethical understanding as they identify and investigate the nature of ethical concepts, values, character traits
and principles, and understand how reasoning can assist ethical judgment. Ethical understanding involves students in building a
strong personal and socially oriented ethical outlook that helps them to manage context, conflict and uncertainty, and to develop
an awareness of the influence that their values and behaviour have on others.
Students develop ethical understanding as they study the issues and dilemmas present in a range of texts and explore how
ethical principles affect the behaviour and judgment of characters and those involved in issues and events. Students apply the
skills of reasoning, empathy and imagination, consider and make judgments about actions and motives, and speculate on how
life experiences affect and influence people’s decision making and whether various positions held are reasonable.
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The study of English helps students to understand how language can be used to influence judgments about behaviour,
speculate about consequences and influence opinions and that language can carry embedded negative and positive
connotations that can be used in ways that help or hurt others.
Intercultural understanding
Students develop intercultural understanding as they learn to value their own cultures, languages and beliefs, and those of
others. They come to understand how personal, group and national identities are shaped, and the variable and changing nature
of culture. The capability involves students in learning about and engaging with diverse cultures in ways that recognise
commonalities and differences, create connections with others and cultivate mutual respect.
Students develop intercultural understanding through the study of the English language and the ways it has been influenced by
different cultural groups, languages, speakers and writers. In interpreting and analysing authors’ ideas and positions in a range
of texts in English and in translation to English, they learn to question stated and unstated cultural beliefs and assumptions, and
issues of intercultural meaning.
Students use Intercultural understanding to comprehend and create a range of texts, that present diverse cultural perspectives
and to empathise with a variety of people and characters in various cultural settings.
Cross-curriculum priorities
The Australian Curriculum is designed to meet the needs of students by delivering a relevant, contemporary and engaging
curriculum that builds on the educational goals of the Melbourne Declaration. The Melbourne Declaration identified three key
areas that need to be addressed for the benefit of both individuals and Australia as a whole. In the Australian Curriculum these
have become priorities that provide students with the tools and language to engage with and better understand their world at a
range of levels. The priorities provide dimensions which will enrich the curriculum through development of considered and
focused content that fits naturally within learning areas. They enable the delivery of learning area content at the same time as
developing knowledge, understanding and skills relating to:
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures
Asia and Australia’s engagement with Asia
sustainability.
Cross-curriculum priorities are addressed through learning areas and are identified wherever they are developed or applied in
content descriptions. They are also identified where they offer opportunities to add depth and richness to student learning in
content elaborations. They will have a strong but varying presence depending on their relevance to the learning area.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and culture
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Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and culture
Across the Australian Curriculum, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures priority provides opportunities
for all learners to deepen their knowledge of Australia by engaging with the world’s oldest continuous living cultures. Students
will understand that contemporary Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Communities are strong, resilient, rich and diverse. The
knowledge and understanding gained through this priority will enhance the ability of all young people to participate positively in
the ongoing development of Australia.
The Australian Curriculum: English values Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories, cultures and perspectives. It
articulates relevant aspects of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages, literatures and literacies.
All students will develop an awareness and appreciation of, and respect for the literature of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
Peoples including storytelling traditions (oral narrative) as well as contemporary literature. Students will be taught to develop
respectful critical understandings of the social, historical and cultural contexts associated with different uses of language and
textual features.
Students will be taught that there are many languages and dialects spoken in Australia including Aboriginal English and
Yumplatok (Torres Strait Islander Creole) and that these languages may have different writing systems and oral traditions.
These languages can be used to enhance enquiry and understanding of English literacy.
Asia and Australia's engagement with Asia
Across the Australian curriculum, this priority will ensure that students learn about and recognise the diversity within and
between the countries of the Asia region. They will develop knowledge and understanding of Asian societies, cultures, beliefs
and environments, and the connections between the peoples of Asia, Australia, and the rest of the world. Asia literacy provides
students with the skills to communicate and engage with the peoples of Asia so they can effectively live, work and learn in the
region.
In the Australian Curriculum: English, the priority of Asia and Australia’s engagement with Asia provides rich and engaging
contexts for developing students’ abilities in listening, speaking, reading, viewing and writing.
The Australian Curriculum: English enables students to explore and appreciate the diverse range of traditional and
contemporary texts from and about the peoples and countries of Asia, including texts written by Australians of Asian heritage. It
enables students to understand how Australian culture and the English language have been influenced by the many Asian
languages used in Australian homes, classrooms and communities.
In this learning area, students draw on knowledge of the Asia region, including literature, to influence and enhance their own
creative pursuits. They develop communication skills that reflect cultural awareness and intercultural understanding.
Sustainability
Across the Australian Curriculum, sustainability will allow all young Australians to develop the knowledge, skills, values and
world views necessary for them to act in ways that contribute to more sustainable patterns of living. It will enable individuals and
communities to reflect on ways of interpreting and engaging with the world. The Sustainability priority is futures-oriented,
focusing on protecting environments and creating a more ecologically and socially just world through informed action. Actions
that support more sustainable patterns of living require consideration of environmental, social, cultural and economic systems
and their interdependence.
In the Australian Curriculum: English, the priority of sustainability provides rich and engaging contexts for developing students’
abilities in listening, speaking, reading, viewing and writing.
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The Australian Curriculum: English assists students to develop the skills necessary to investigate, analyse and communicate
ideas and information related to sustainability, and to advocate, generate and evaluate actions for sustainable futures. The
content in the language, literature and literacy strands is key to developing and sharing knowledge about social, economic and
ecological systems and world views that promote social justice.
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In this learning area, students may interrogate a range of texts to shape their decision making in relation to sustainability. They
develop the understanding and skills necessary to act responsibly and create texts that inform and persuade others to take
action for sustainable futures.
Links to other learning areas
The study of English involves the development of understanding and knowledge for informed and effective participation not only
in English but also in other learning areas. When knowledge, skills and comprehension from English are meaningfully applied to
other learning areas, learning becomes more relevant and understanding deepens.
The relationship between the learning areas is also reciprocal. Science, history and mathematics emphasise skills in English
literacy as well as students’ capacity to communicate coherently to a range of audiences. Each learning area draws upon what
is taught in the language strand of English and incorporates subject-specific language knowledge as required.
Mathematics
The skills taught in English of communicating with others, comprehending texts, making connections within and across texts and
creating new texts reinforce learning in mathematics. When reading texts, students develop an understanding of concepts such
as time, number and space. They interpret numerical symbols and combine these with pictures to make meaning. When
creating and responding to texts, students draw on an understanding of spatial features. Understanding statistical reasoning,
graphical representations, quantitative data and numerical scale and proportion is an invaluable skill for analysing argument in
English. Being able to present quantitative evidence as part of an argument is a persuasive tool. Deriving quantitative and
spatial information can also be an important aspect of understanding a range of texts.
Science
The skills of communicating with others, problem solving, comprehending and using texts and creating new texts reinforce
learning in science. In English, as in science, students base their discussions on the objective analysis of evidence, justifying
points of view, drawing conclusions and making presentations in a variety of media. The abilities to plan investigations; think
objectively about evidence; analyse data; describe objects and events; interpret descriptions; read and give instructions; explain
ideas to others; write clear reports and recommendations; and participate in group discussions are all important in both
disciplines.
History
The skills taught in English of communicating with others, comprehending and researching texts and creating new texts
reinforce learning in history. Literature, with its emphasis on studying texts from a range of historical and cultural contexts, helps
students understand the perspectives and contributions of people from around the world and from both the past and present. In
history, students use their English skills to undertake research, read texts with critical discernment and create texts that present
the results of historical understanding clearly and logically.
The Australian Curriculum: English takes account of what students have learned in these areas so their learning in English is
supported and their learning in other areas is enhanced.
Implications for teaching, assessment and reporting
In the Australian Curriculum: English, the three strands of Language, Literature and Literacy are interrelated and inform and
support each other. While the amount of time devoted to each strand may vary, each strand is of equal importance and each
focuses on developing skills in listening, speaking, reading, viewing, writing and creating. Teachers combine aspects of the
strands in different ways to provide students with learning experiences that meet their needs and interests.
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In Year 3, for example, students might select a favourite poem and share it with the class, explaining why they chose it
(Literature). They might explain the way particular grammatical choices affect meaning, for example the use of verbs,
adjectives and adverbs in the poem (Language). Students might then create their own poems and present them to the class
(Literacy). In Year 8, a teacher who wishes to develop a unit focusing on humour might have students begin by selecting and
analysing a variety of humorous texts (Literature), considering structure and vocabulary choices that create particular effects or
nuance (Language). They might then change some of the words to create different effects in the text (Literacy).
While content descriptions do not repeat key skills, it should be noted that many aspects of the English curriculum are recursive,
and teachers need to provide ample opportunity for revision, ongoing practice and consolidation of previously introduced
knowledge and skills.
Students learn at different rates and in different stages. Depending on each student’s rate of learning, not all of the content
descriptions for a particular year level may be relevant to a student in that year level. Some students may have already learned
a concept or skill, in which case it will not have to be explicitly taught to them in the year level stipulated. Other students may
need to be taught concepts or skills stipulated for earlier year levels.
The content descriptions in the Australian Curriculum: English enable teachers to develop a variety of learning experiences that
are relevant, rigorous and meaningful and allow for different rates of development, in particular for younger students and for
those who require additional support.
Some students will require additional support to develop their skills in listening, speaking, reading, viewing and creating. In the
Australian Curriculum: English it is expected that appropriate adjustments will be made for some students to enable them to
access and participate in meaningful learning, and demonstrate their knowledge, understanding and skills across the three
English strands. To provide the required flexibility teachers need to consider expanded interpretations of terms used in the
content descriptions and content elaborations. Terms such as ‘read’, ‘listen’ and ‘write’ could be expanded and interpreted as
‘read using text to speech software or Braille’; ‘listen using signed communication’; and ‘write using computer software’.
Teachers use the Australian Curriculum content and achievement standards first to identify current levels of learning and
achievement and then to select the most appropriate content (possibly from across several year levels) to teach individual
students and/or groups of students. This takes into account that in each class there may be students with a range of prior
achievement (below, at and above the year level expectations) and that teachers plan to build on current learning.
Teachers also use the achievement standards, at the end of a period of teaching, to make on-balance judgments about the
quality of learning demonstrated by the students – that is, whether they have achieved below, at or above the standard. To
make these judgments, teachers draw on assessment data that they have collected as evidence during the course of the
teaching period. These judgments about the quality of learning are one source of feedback to students and their parents and
inform formal reporting processes.
If a teacher judges that a student’s achievement is below the expected standard, this suggests that the teaching programs and
practice should be reviewed to better assist individual students in their learning in the future. It also suggests that additional
support and targeted teaching will be needed to ensure that the student does not fall behind.
Assessment of the Australian Curriculum takes place in different levels and for different purposes, including:
ongoing formative assessment within classrooms for the purposes of monitoring learning and providing feedback, to
teachers to inform their teaching, and for students to inform their learning
summative assessment for the purposes of twice-yearly reporting by schools to parents and carers on the progress and
achievement of students
annual testing of Years 3, 5, 7 and 9 students’ levels of achievement in aspects of literacy and numeracy, conducted as
part of the National Assessment Program – Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN)
periodic sample testing of specific learning areas within the Australian Curriculum as part of the National Assessment
Program (NAP).
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English Scope and Sequence: Foundation to Year 6
Sub
Strand
Focus of thread
within the sub-strand
Foundation Year Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6
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Language variation and
change
How English varies according to
context and purpose including
cultural and historical contexts
Understand that English
is one of many languages
spoken in Australia and
that diferent languages
may be spoken by
family, classmates and
community
Understand that people
use diferent systems of
communication to cater to
diferent needs and purposes
and that many people may use
sign systems to communicate
with others
Understand that spoken, visual
and written forms of language are
diferent modes of communication
with diferent features and their use
varies according to the audience,
purpose, context and cultural
background
Understand that
languages have diferent
written and visual
communication systems,
diferent oral traditions
and diferent ways of
constructing meaning
Understand that Standard
Australian English is one of
many social dialects used
in Australia, and that while it
originated in England it has
been infuenced by many
other languages
Understand that the
pronunciation, spelling and
meanings of words have
histories and change over time
Understand that
diferent social and
geographical dialects
or accents are used in
Australia in addition
to Standard Australian
English
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Language for social
interactions
How language used for diferent
formal and informal social
interactions is infuenced by the
purpose and audience
Explore how language is
used diferently at home
and school depending on
the relationships between
people
Understand that language is used
in combination with other means
of communication, for example
facial expressions and gestures
to interact with others
Understand that there are
diferent ways of asking for
information, making ofers and
giving commands
Understand that language varies
when people take on diferent
roles in social and classroom
interactions and how the use of key
interpersonal language resources
varies depending on context
Understand that
successful cooperation
with others depends
on shared use of social
conventions, including
turn-taking patterns, and
forms of address that
vary according to the
degree of formality in
social situations
Understand that social
interactions infuence the
way people engage with
ideas and respond to others
for example when exploring
and clarifying the ideas of
others, summarising their
own views and reporting
them to a larger group
Understand that patterns
of language interaction vary
across social contexts and
types of texts and that they
help to signal social roles and
relationships
Understand that
strategies for interaction
become more complex
and demanding as levels
of formality and social
distance increase
Evaluative language
How language is used to express
opinions, and make evaluative
judgments about people, places,
things and texts
Understand that language
can be used to explore
ways of expressing needs,
likes and dislikes
Explore diferent ways of
expressing emotions, including
verbal, visual, body language and
facial expressions
Identify language that can be used
for appreciating texts and the
qualities of people and things
Examine how evaluative
language can be varied
to be more or less
forceful
Understand diferences
between the language of
opinion and feeling and
the language of factual
reporting or recording
Understand how to move
beyond making bare assertions
and take account of difering
perspectives and points of view
Understand the uses of
objective and subjective
language and bias
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Purpose audience and
structures of diferent types
of texts
How texts serve diferent purposes
and how the structures of types
of texts vary according to the text
purpose
Understand that texts can
take many forms, can be
very short (for example an
exit sign) or quite long (for
example an information
book or a flm) and that
stories and informative
texts have diferent
purposes
Understand that the purposes
texts serve shape their structure
in predictable ways
Understand that diferent types
of texts have identifable text
structures and language features
that help the text serve its purpose
Understand how diferent
types of texts vary in use
of language choices,
depending on their
purpose and context (for
example, tense and types
of sentences)
Understand how texts
vary in complexity and
technicality depending
on the approach to the
topic, the purpose and the
intended audience
Understand how texts vary in
purpose, structure and topic as
well as the degree of formality
Understand how authors
often innovate on text
structures and play
with language features
to achieve particular
aesthetic, humorous and
persuasive purposes
and efects
Text cohesion
How texts work as cohesive
wholes through language features
which link the parts of the text
together, such as paragraphs,
connectives, nouns and
associated pronouns
Understand that some
language in written texts
is unlike everyday spoken
language
Understand patterns of repetition
and contrast in simple texts
Understand how texts are made
cohesive through resources,
for example word associations,
synonyms, and antonyms
Understand that
paragraphs are a key
organisational feature of
written texts
Understand how texts are
made cohesive through
the use of linking devices
including pronoun reference
and text connectives
Understand that the starting
point of a sentence gives
prominence to the message
in the text and allows for
prediction of how the text will
unfold
Understand that
cohesive links can
be made in texts by
omitting or replacing
words
Punctuation
How punctuation works to perform
diferent functions in a text.
Understand that
punctuation is a feature of
written text diferent from
letters; recognise how
capital letters are used for
names, and that capital
letters and full stops
signal the beginning and
end of sentences
Recognise that diferent types of
punctuation, including full stops,
question marks and exclamation
marks, signal sentences that
make statements, ask questions,
express emotion or give
commands
Recognise that capital letters
signal proper nouns and commas
are used to separate items in lists
Know that word
contractions are a feature
of informal language
and that apostrophes of
contraction are used to
signal missing letters
Recognise how quotation
marks are used in texts to
signal dialogue, titles and
quoted (direct) speech
Understand how the
grammatical category of
possessives is signalled
through apostrophes and
how to use apostrophes with
common and proper nouns
Understand the uses
of commas to separate
clauses
Concepts of print and
screen
The diferent conventions that
apply to how text is presented on
a page or screen
Understand concepts
about print and screen,
including how books,
flm and simple digital
texts work, and know
some features of print, for
example directionality
Understand concepts about
print and screen, including
how diferent types of texts are
organised using page numbering,
tables of content, headings and
titles, navigation buttons, bars
and links
Know some features of text
organisation including page and
screen layouts, alphabetical order,
and diferent types of diagrams, for
example timelines
Identify the features of
online texts that enhance
navigation
Identify features of
online texts that enhance
readability including text,
navigation, links, graphics
and layout
Investigate how the organisation
of texts into chapters, headings,
subheadings, home pages and
sub pages for online texts and
according to chronology or
topic can be used to predict
content and assist navigation
This sequence ends at
Year 5
Version 3.0
20 January 2012
Page 26 of 252
Sub
Strand
Focus of thread
within the sub-strand
Year 6 Year 7 Year 8 Year 9 Year 10
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Language variation and
change
How English varies according to
context and purpose including
cultural and historical contexts
Understand that diferent social and
geographical dialects or accents are
used in Australia in addition to Standard
Australian English
Understand the way language evolves
to refect a changing world, particularly
in response to the use of new
technology for presenting texts and
communicating
Understand the infuence and impact that the
English language has had on other languages
or dialects and how English has been
infuenced in return
Understand that Standard Australian
English is a living language within which
the creation and loss of words and the
evolution of usage is ongoing
Understand that Standard Australian
English in its spoken and written forms
has a history of evolution and change
and continues to evolve
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Language for social
interactions
How language used for diferent
formal and informal social
interactions is infuenced by the
purpose and audience
Understand that strategies for interaction
become more complex and demanding
as levels of formality and social distance
increase
Understand how accents, styles of
speech and idioms express and create
personal and social identities
Understand how conventions of speech
adopted by communities infuence the
identities of people in those communities
Understand that roles and relationships
are developed and challenged through
language and interpersonal skills
Understand how language use
can have inclusive and exclusive
social efects, and can empower or
disempower people
Evaluative language
How language is used to express
opinions, and make evaluative
judgments about people, places,
things and texts
Understand the uses of objective and
subjective language and bias
Understand how language is used to
evaluate texts and how evaluations
about a text can be substantiated by
reference to the text and other sources
Understand how rhetorical devices are used to
persuade and how diferent layers of meaning
are developed through the use of metaphor,
irony and parody
Investigate how evaluation can be
expressed directly and indirectly using
devices, for example allusion, evocative
vocabulary and metaphor
Understand that people’s evaluations
of texts are infuenced by their value
systems, the context and the purpose
and mode of communication
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Purpose audience and
structures of diferent types
of texts
How texts serve diferent purposes
and how the structures of types
of texts vary according to the text
purpose
Understand how authors often innovate
on text structures and play with language
features to achieve particular aesthetic,
humorous and persuasive purposes and
efects
Understand and explain how the text
structures and language features
of texts become more complex in
informative and persuasive texts and
identify underlying structures such
as taxonomies, cause and efect, and
extended metaphors
Analyse how the text structures and language
features of persuasive texts, including media
texts, vary according to the medium and mode
of communication
Understand that authors innovate with
text structures and language for specifc
purposes and efects
Compare the purposes, text structures
and language features of traditional and
contemporary texts in diferent media
Text cohesion
How texts work as cohesive
wholes through language features
which link the parts of the text
together, such as paragraphs,
connectives, nouns and
associated pronouns
Understand that cohesive links can be
made in texts by omitting or replacing
words
Understand that the coherence of
more complex texts relies on devices
that signal text structure and guide
readers, for example overviews, initial
and concluding paragraphs and topic
sentences, indexes or site maps or
breadcrumb trails for online texts
Understand how cohesion in texts is improved
by strengthening the internal structure of
paragraphs through the use of examples,
quotations and substantiation of claims
Understand how coherence is created in
complex texts through devices like lexical
cohesion, ellipsis, grammatical theme and text
connectives
Compare and contrast the use of
cohesive devices in texts, focusing on
how they serve to signpost ideas, to
make connections and to build semantic
associations between ideas
Understand how paragraphs and
images can be arranged for diferent
purposes, audiences, perspectives and
stylistic efects
Punctuation
How punctuation works to perform
diferent functions in a text.
Understand the uses of commas to
separate clauses
Understand the use of punctuation to
support meaning in complex sentences
with phrases and embedded clauses
Understand the use of punctuation
conventions including colons, semicolons,
dashes and brackets in formal and informal
texts
Understand how punctuation is used
along with layout and font variations in
constructing texts for diferent audiences
and purposes
Understand conventions for citing
others, and how to reference these in
diferent ways
Concepts of print and
screen
The diferent conventions that
apply to how text is presented on
a page or screen
This sequence ends at Year 5
English Scope and Sequence: Year 6 to Year 10
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Sub
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Focus of thread
within the sub-strand
Foundation Year Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6
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Sentences and clause level
grammar
What a clause is and how
simple, compound and complex
sentences are constructed
through one clause (simple) or by
combining clauses using diferent
types of conjunctions (compound
and complex)
Recognise that
sentences are key units
for expressing ideas
Identify the parts of a simple sentence
that represent ‘What’s happening?’,
‘Who or what is involved?’ and the
surrounding circumstances
Understand that simple
connections can be made
between ideas by using a
compound sentence with two or
more clauses usually linked by a
coordinating conjunction
Understand that a clause
is a unit of grammar
usually containing a
subject and a verb and
that these need to be in
agreement
Understand that the
meaning of sentences can
be enriched through the
use of noun groups/phrases
and verb groups/phrases
and prepositional phrases
Investigate how quoted
(direct) and reported
(indirect) speech work in
diferent types of text
Understand the diference
between main and
subordinate clauses and
that a complex sentence
involves at least one
subordinate clause
Investigate how complex
sentences can be used in a
variety of ways to elaborate,
extend and explain ideas
Word level grammar
The diferent classes of words
used in English (nouns, verbs
etc) and the functions they
perform in sentences and when
they are combined in particular
recognisable groups such as
phrases and noun groups.
Recognise that texts
are made up of words
and groups of words
that make meaning
Explore diferences in words that
represent people, places and
things (nouns, including pronouns),
happenings and states (verbs), qualities
(adjectives) and details such as when,
where and how (adverbs)
Understand that nouns represent
people, places, things and
ideas and can be, for example,
common, proper, concrete or
abstract, and that noun groups/
phrases can be expanded using
articles and adjectives
Understand that verbs
represent diferent
processes (doing,
thinking, saying, and
relating) and that these
processes are anchored
in time through tense
Understand how adverb
groups/phrases and
prepositional phrases
work in diferent ways to
provide circumstantial
details about an activity
Understand how noun
groups/phrases and
adjective groups/phrases
can be expanded in a
variety of ways to provide
a fuller description of
the person, place, thing
or idea
Understand how ideas can
be expanded and sharpened
through careful choice of
verbs, elaborated tenses and
a range of adverb groups/
phrases
Visual language
How images work in texts
to communicate meanings,
especially in conjunction with
other elements such as print and
sound
Explore the diferent
contribution of
words and images to
meaning in stories and
informative texts
Compare diferent kinds of images in
narrative and informative texts and
discuss how they contribute to meaning
Identify visual representations of
characters’ actions, reactions,
speech and thought processes
in narratives, and consider
how these images add to
or contradict or multiply the
meaning of accompanying words
Identify the efect on
audiences of techniques,
for example shot size,
vertical camera angle and
layout in picture books,
advertisements and flm
segments
Explore the efect of
choices when framing
an image, placement
of elements in the
image, and salience on
composition of still and
moving images in a range
of types of texts
Explain sequences of
images in print texts and
compare these to the
ways hyperlinked digital
texts are organised,
explaining their efect on
viewers’ interpretations
Identify and explain how
analytical images like fgures,
tables, diagrams, maps
and graphs contribute to
our understanding of verbal
information in factual and
persuasive texts
Vocabulary
The meanings of words including
everyday and specialist meanings
and how words take their
meanings from the context of
the text
Understand the use of
vocabulary in familiar
contexts related to
everyday experiences,
personal interests and
topics being taught at
school
Understand the use of vocabulary in
everyday contexts as well as a growing
number of school contexts, including
appropriate use of formal and informal
terms of address in diferent contexts
Understand the use of
vocabulary about familiar and
new topics and experiment with
and begin to make conscious
choices of vocabulary to suit
audience and purpose
Learn extended and
technical vocabulary
and ways of expressing
opinion including modal
verbs and adverbs
Incorporate new
vocabulary from a range
of sources into students’
own texts including
vocabulary encountered in
research
Understand the use of
vocabulary to express
greater precision of
meaning, and know that
words can have diferent
meanings in diferent
contexts
Investigate how vocabulary
choices, including evaluative
language can express
shades of meaning, feeling
and opinion
Spelling
Knowledge for spelling including
knowledge about how the sounds
of words are represented by
various letters and knowledge of
irregular spellings and spelling
rules
Know that spoken
sounds and words can
be written down using
letters of the alphabet
and how to write some
high-frequency sight
words and known
words
Know how to use onset
and rime to spell words
Know that regular one-syllable words
are made up of letters and common
letter clusters that correspond to the
sounds heard, and how to use visual
memory to write high-frequency words
Recognise and know how to use
morphemes in word families for example
‘play’ in ‘played’ and ‘playing’
Understand how to use
digraphs, long vowels, blends
and silent letters to spell words,
and use morphemes and
syllabifcation to break up simple
words and use visual memory to
write irregular words
Recognise common prefxes and
sufxes and how they change a
word’s meaning
Understand how to use
sound–letter relationships
and knowledge of
spelling rules, compound
words, prefxes,
sufxes, morphemes
and less common
letter combinations, for
example ‘tion’
Recognise high frequency
sight words
Understand how to use
strategies for spelling
words, including spelling
rules, knowledge of
morphemic word families,
spelling generalisations,
and letter combinations
including double letters
Recognise homophones
and know how to use
context to identify correct
spelling
Understand how to use
banks of known words,
as well as word origins,
prefxes and sufxes, to
learn and spell new words
Recognise uncommon
plurals, for example ‘foci’
Understand how to use
banks of known words, word
origins, base words, sufxes
and prefxes, morphemes,
spelling patterns and
generalisations to learn and
spell new words, for example
technical words and
words adopted from other
languages
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Phonemic awareness
(sounds of language)
Basic knowledge of sounds of
language and how these are
combined in spoken words
Recognise rhymes,
syllables and sounds
(phonemes) in spoken
words
Manipulate sounds in spoken words
including phoneme deletion and
substitution
Recognise most sound–letter
matches including silent letters,
vowel/consonant digraphs and
many less common sound–letter
combinations
This sequence ends at Year 2
Alphabet knowledge
The written code of English
(the letters) and how these are
combined in words
Recognise the letters of
the alphabet and know
there are lower and
upper case letters
Recognise sound letter — matches
including common vowel and consonant
digraphs and consonant blends
Understand the variability of sound —
letter matches
This sequence ends at Year 1
English Scope and Sequence: Foundation to Year 6
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Sub
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Focus of thread
within the sub-strand
Year 6 Year 7 Year 8 Year 9 Year 10
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Sentences and clause level
grammar
What a clause is and how
simple, compound and complex
sentences are constructed
through one clause (simple) or by
combining clauses using diferent
types of conjunctions (compound
and complex)
Investigate how complex sentences
can be used in a variety of ways to
elaborate, extend and explain ideas
Recognise and understand that
subordinate clauses embedded within
noun groups/phrases are a common
feature of written sentence structures and
increase the density of information
Analyse and examine how efective
authors control and use a variety of
clause structures, including clauses
embedded within the structure of a
noun group/phrase or clause
Explain how authors creatively use the
structures of sentences and clauses for
particular efects
Analyse and evaluate the efectiveness
of a wide range of sentence and clause
structures as authors design and craft
texts
Word level grammar
The diferent classes of words
used in English (nouns, verbs
etc) and the functions they
perform in sentences and when
they are combined in particular
recognisable groups such as
phrases and noun groups.
Understand how ideas can be
expanded and sharpened through
careful choice of verbs, elaborated
tenses and a range of adverb groups/
phrases
Understand how modality is achieved
through discriminating choices in modal
verbs, adverbs, adjectives and nouns
Understand the efect of nominalisation
in the writing of informative and
persuasive texts
Understand how certain abstract nouns
can be used to summarise preceding or
subsequent stretches of text
Analyse how higher order concepts
are developed in complex texts
through language features including
nominalisation, clause combinations,
technicality and abstraction
Visual language
How images work in texts to
communicate meanings, especially
in conjunction with other elements
such as print and sound
Identify and explain how analytical
images like fgures, tables, diagrams,
maps and graphs contribute to our
understanding of verbal information in
factual and persuasive texts
Analyse how point of view is generated
in visual texts by means of choices, for
example gaze, angle and social distance
Investigate how visual and multimodal
texts allude to or draw on other texts or
images to enhance and layer meaning
Analyse and explain the use of symbols, icons
and myth in still and moving images and how
these augment meaning
Evaluate the impact on audiences of
diferent choices in the representation of
still and moving images
Vocabulary
The meanings of words including
everyday and specialist meanings
and how words take their
meanings from the context of
the text
Investigate how vocabulary choices,
including evaluative language can
express shades of meaning, feeling
and opinion
Investigate vocabulary typical of extended
and more academic texts and the role of
abstract nouns, classifcation, description
and generalisation in building specialised
knowledge through language
Recognise that vocabulary choices
contribute to the specifcity,
abstraction and style of texts
Identify how vocabulary choices contribute
to specifcity, abstraction and stylistic
efectiveness
Refne vocabulary choices to discriminate
between shades of meaning, with
deliberate attention to the efect on
audiences
Spelling
Knowledge for spelling including
knowledge about how the sounds
of words are represented by
various letters and knowledge of
irregular spellings and spelling
rules
Understand how to use banks
of known words, word origins,
base words, sufxes and prefxes,
morphemes, spelling patterns and
generalisations to learn and spell
new words, for example technical
words and words adopted from other
languages
Understand how to use spelling rules
and word origins, for example Greek and
Latin roots, base words, sufxes, prefxes,
spelling patterns and generalisations to
learn new words and how to spell them
Understand how to apply learned
knowledge consistently in order to
spell accurately and to learn new words
including nominalisations
Understand how spelling is used creatively
in texts for particular efects, for example
characterisation and humour and to represent
accents and styles of speech
Understand how to use knowledge of
the spelling system to spell unusual and
technical words accurately, for example
those based on uncommon Greek and
Latin roots
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Phonemic awareness
(sounds of language)
Basic knowledge of sounds of
language and how these are
combined in spoken words
This sequence ends at Year 2
Alphabet knowledge
The written code of English
(the letters) and how these are
combined in words
This sequence ends at Year 1
English Scope and Sequence: Year 6 to Year 10
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20 January 2012
Page 29 of 252
Sub
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Focus of thread
within the sub-strand
Foundation Year Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6
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How texts refect the
context of culture and
situation in which they
are created
Recognise that texts are created
by authors who tell stories and
share experiences that may be
similar or diferent to students’
own experiences
Discuss how authors create
characters using language
and images
Discuss how depictions of
characters in print, sound
and images refect the
contexts in which they were
created
Discuss texts in which
characters, events and
settings are portrayed in
diferent ways, and speculate
on the authors’ reasons
Make connections between
the ways diferent authors
may represent similar
storylines, ideas and
relationships
Identify aspects of literary
texts that convey details or
information about particular
social, cultural and historical
contexts
Make connections between
students’ own experiences and
those of characters and events
represented in texts drawn
from diferent historical, social
and cultural contexts
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Personal responses to
the ideas, characters
and viewpoints in texts
An individual response to
the ideas, characters and
viewpoints in literary texts,
including relating texts to their
own experiences
Respond to texts, identifying
favourite stories, authors and
illustrators
Discuss characters and
events in a range of literary
texts and share personal
responses to these texts,
making connections with
students’ own experiences
Compare opinions about
characters, events and
settings in and between
texts
Draw connections between
personal experiences and the
worlds of texts, and share
responses with others
Discuss literary experiences
with others, sharing
responses and expressing a
point of view
Present a point of view about
particular literary texts using
appropriate metalanguage, and
refecting on the viewpoints of
others
Analyse and evaluate
similarities and diferences in
texts on similar topics, themes
or plots
Expressing preferences
and evaluating texts
Expressing a personal
preference for diferent texts
and types of texts, and
identifying the features of
texts that infuence personal
preference
Share feelings and thoughts
about the events and characters
in texts
Express preferences for
specifc texts and authors
and listen to the opinions
of others
Identify aspects of diferent
types of literary texts that
entertain, and give reasons
for personal preferences
Develop criteria for
establishing personal
preferences for literature
Use metalanguage to
describe the efects of ideas,
text structures and language
features of literary texts
Use metalanguage to describe
the efects of ideas, text
structures and language
features on particular audiences
Identify and explain how
choices in language, for
example modality, emphasis,
repetition and metaphor,
infuence personal response to
diferent texts
Literature English Scope and Sequence: Foundation to Year 6
Version 3.0
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Page 30 of 252
Sub
Strand
Focus of thread
within the sub-strand
Year 6 Year 7 Year 8 Year 9 Year 10
L
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a
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c
o
n
t
e
x
t
How texts refect the
context of culture and
situation in which they
are created
Make connections between students’
own experiences and those of characters
and events represented in texts drawn
from diferent historical, social and cultural
contexts
Identify and explore ideas and viewpoints
about events, issues and characters
represented in texts drawn from diferent
historical, social and cultural contexts
Explore the ways that ideas and viewpoints
in literary texts drawn from diferent historical,
social and cultural contexts may refect or
challenge the values of individuals and groups
Explore the interconnectedness of Country
and Place, People, Identity and Culture in
texts including those by Aboriginal and Torres
Strait Islander authors
Interpret and compare how
representations of people and culture
in literary texts are drawn from diferent
historical, social and cultural contexts
Compare and evaluate a range of
representations of individuals and groups
in diferent historical, social and cultural
contexts
R
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Personal responses to
the ideas, characters
and viewpoints in texts
An individual response to
the ideas, characters and
viewpoints in literary texts,
including relating texts to own
their own experiences
Analyse and evaluate similarities and
diferences in texts on similar topics, themes
or plots
Refect on ideas and opinions about
characters, settings and events in literary
texts, identifying areas of agreement and
diference with others and justifying a point
of view
Share, refect on, clarify and evaluate opinions
and arguments about aspects of literary texts
Present an argument about a literary
text based on initial impressions and
subsequent analysis of the whole text
Refect on, extend, endorse or refute
others’ interpretations of and responses
to literature
Expressing preferences
and evaluating texts
Expressing a personal
preference for diferent texts and
types of texts, and identifying
the features of texts that
infuence personal preference
Identify and explain how choices in
language, for example modality, emphasis,
repetition and metaphor infuence personal
response to diferent texts
Compare the ways that language and
images are used to create character, and
to infuence emotions and opinions in
diferent types of texts
Discuss aspects of texts, for example their
aesthetic and social value, using relevant
and appropriate metalanguage
Understand and explain how combinations
of words and images in texts are used to
represent particular groups in society, and
how texts position readers in relation to those
groups
Recognise and explain difering viewpoints
about the world, cultures, individual people
and concerns represented in texts
Refect on, discuss and explore notions
of literary value and how and why such
notions vary according to context
Explore and refect on personal
understanding of the world and
signifcant human experience
gained from interpreting various
representations of life matters in texts
Analyse and explain how text structures,
language features and visual features
of texts and the context in which texts
are experienced may infuence audience
response
Evaluate the social, moral and ethical
positions represented in texts
Literature English Scope and Sequence: Year 6 to Year 10
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Sub
Strand
Focus of thread
within the sub-strand
Foundation Year Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6
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Features of literary texts
The key features of literary texts
and how they work to construct
a literary work, such as plot,
setting, characterisation, mood
and theme
Identify some features of texts
including events and characters
and retell events from a text
Recognise some diferent types
of literary texts and identify some
characteristic features of literary
texts, for example beginnings
and endings of traditional texts
and rhyme in poetry
Discuss features of plot,
character and setting in
diferent types of literature
and explore some features
of characters in diferent
texts
Discuss the characters and
settings of diferent texts
and explore how language
is used to present these
features in diferent ways
Discuss how language is
used to describe the settings
in texts, and explore how the
settings shape the events
and infuence the mood of the
narrative
Discuss how authors and
illustrators make stories
exciting, moving and
absorbing and hold readers’
interest by using various
techniques, for example
character development and
plot tension
Recognise that ideas in literary
texts can be conveyed from
diferent viewpoints, which
can lead to diferent kinds of
interpretations and responses
Identify, describe, and discuss
similarities and diferences
between texts, including
those by the same author
or illustrator, and evaluate
characteristics that defne an
author’s individual style
Language devices in
literary texts including
fgurative language
The language devices that
authors use and how these
create certain meanings
and efects in literary texts,
especially devices in poetry
Replicate the rhythms and sound
patterns in stories, rhymes,
songs and poems from a range
of cultures
Listen to, recite and
perform poems, chants,
rhymes and songs,
imitating and inventing
sound patterns including
alliteration and rhyme
Identify, reproduce and
experiment with rhythmic,
sound and word patterns
in poems, chants, rhymes
and songs
Discuss the nature and
efects of some language
devices used to enhance
meaning and shape the
reader’s reaction, including
rhythm and onomatopoeia in
poetry and prose
Understand, interpret and
experiment with a range
of devices and deliberate
word play in poetry and
other literary texts, for
example nonsense words,
spoonerisms, neologisms
and puns
Understand, interpret and
experiment with sound devices
and imagery, including simile,
metaphor and personifcation,
in narratives, shape poetry,
songs, anthems and odes
Identify the relationship
between words, sounds,
imagery and language patterns
in narratives and poetry such
as ballads, limericks and free
verse
C
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Creating literary texts
Creating their own literary
texts based on the ideas,
features and structures of texts
experienced
Retell familiar literary texts
through performance, use of
illustrations and images
Recreate texts imaginatively
using drawing, writing,
performance and digital
forms of communication
Create events and
characters using diferent
media that develop key
events and characters from
literary texts
Create imaginative texts
based on characters, settings
and events from a students’
own and other cultures using
visual features, for example
perspective, distance and
angle
Create literary texts that
explore students’ own
experiences and imagining
Create literary texts using
realistic and fantasy settings
and characters that draw on
the worlds represented in texts
students have experienced
Create literary texts that adapt
or combine aspects of texts
students have experienced in
innovative ways
Experimentation
and adaptation
Creating a variety of texts,
including multimodal texts,
adapting ideas and devices
from literary texts
This sequence starts at this year level Create texts that adapt
language features and
patterns encountered in
literary texts, for example
characterisation, rhyme,
rhythm, mood, music, sound
efects and dialogue
Create literary texts by
developing storylines,
characters and settings
Create literary texts that
experiment with structures,
ideas and stylistic features of
selected authors
Experiment with text structures
and language features and their
efects in creating literary texts,
for example, using imagery,
sentence variation, metaphor
and word choice
Literature English Scope and Sequence: Foundation to Year 6
Version 3.0
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Page 32 of 252
Literature English Scope and Sequence: Year 6 to Year 10
Sub
Strand
Focus of thread
within the sub-strand
Year 6 Year 7 Year 8 Year 9 Year 10
E
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Features of literary texts
The key features of literary texts
and how they work to construct
a literary work, such as plot,
setting, characterisation, mood
and theme
Identify, describe, and discuss similarities
and diferences between texts, including
those by the same author or illustrator,
and evaluate characteristics that defne an
author’s individual style
Recognise and analyse the ways that
characterisation, events and settings
are combined in narratives, and discuss
the purposes and appeal of diferent
approaches
Recognise, explain and analyse the ways
literary texts draw on readers’ knowledge of
other texts and enable new understandings
and appreciation of aesthetic qualities
Analyse texts from familiar and
unfamiliar contexts, and discuss and
evaluate their content and the appeal of
an individual author’s literary style
Identify, explain and discuss how narrative
viewpoint, structure, characterisation
and devices including analogy and
satire shape diferent interpretations and
responses to a text
Language devices in
literary texts including
fgurative language
The language devices that
authors use and how these
create certain meanings and
efects in literary texts, especially
devices in poetry
Identify the relationship between words,
sounds, imagery and language patterns
in narratives and poetry such as ballads,
limericks and free verse
Understand, interpret and discuss how
language is compressed to produce a
dramatic efect in flm or drama, and to
create layers of meaning in poetry, for
example haiku, tankas, couplets, free
verse and verse novels
Identify and evaluate devices that create tone,
for example humour, wordplay, innuendo and
parody in poetry, humorous prose, drama or
visual texts
Interpret and analyse language choices,
including sentence patterns, dialogue,
imagery and other language features, in short
stories, literary essays and plays
Investigate and experiment with the
use and efect of extended metaphor,
metonymy, allegory, icons, myths and
symbolism in texts, for example poetry,
short flms, graphic novels and plays on
similar themes
Analyse text structures and language
features of literary texts, and make
relevant comparisons with other texts
Compare and evaluate how ‘voice’ as a
literary device can be used in a range of
diferent types of texts such as poetry to
evoke particular emotional responses
Analyse and evaluate text structures and
language features of literary texts and
make relevant thematic and intertextual
connections with other texts
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Creating literary texts
Creating their own literary
texts based on the ideas,
features and structures of texts
experienced
Create literary texts that adapt or combine
aspects of texts students have experienced
in innovative ways
Create literary texts that adapt stylistic
features encountered in other texts, for
example, narrative viewpoint, structure of
stanzas, contrast and juxtaposition
Create literary texts that draw upon text
structures and language features of other
texts for particular purposes and efects
Create literary texts, including hybrid
texts, that innovate on aspects of other
texts, for example by using parody,
allusion and appropriation
Create literary texts that refect an
emerging sense of personal style and
evaluate the efectiveness of these texts
Experimentation
and adaptation
Creating a variety of texts,
including multimodal texts,
adapting ideas and devices
from literary texts
Experiment with text structures and language
features and their efects in creating literary
texts, for example, using imagery, sentence
variation, metaphor and word choice
Experiment with text structures and
language features and their efects in
creating literary texts, for example, using
rhythm, sound efects, monologue, layout,
navigation and colour
Experiment with particular language features
drawn from diferent types of texts, including
combinations of language and visual choices
to create new texts
Experiment with the ways that language
features, image and sound can be
adapted in literary texts, for example the
efects of stereotypical characters and
settings, the playfulness of humour and
comedy, pun and hyperlink
Create literary texts with a sustained
‘voice’, selecting and adapting appropriate
text structures, literary devices, language,
auditory and visual structures and features
and for a specifc purpose and intended
audience
Create imaginative texts that make
relevant thematic and intertextual
connections with other texts
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Page 33 of 252
Literacy English Scope and Sequence: Foundation to Year 6
Sub
Strand
Focus of thread
within the sub-strand
Foundation Year Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6
T
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t
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Texts and the contexts
in which they are used
How texts relate to their
contexts and refect the society
and culture in which they were
created
Identify some familiar texts
and the contexts in which
they are used
Respond to texts drawn
from a range of cultures
and experiences
Discuss diferent texts on
a similar topic, identifying
similarities and diferences
between the texts
Identify the point of view in a
text and suggest alternative
points of view
Identify and explain language
features of texts from earlier
times and compare with the
vocabulary, images, layout and
content of contemporary texts
Show how ideas and points
of view in texts are conveyed
through the use of vocabulary,
including idiomatic expressions,
objective and subjective
language, and that these can
change according to context
Compare texts including media
texts that represent ideas
and events in diferent ways,
explaining the efects of the
diferent approaches
I
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t
i
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g

w
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t
h

o
t
h
e
r
s
Listening and
speaking interactions
The purposes and contexts
through which students engage
in listening and speaking
interactions
Listen to and respond
orally to texts and to the
communication of others
in informal and structured
classroom situations
Engage in conversations
and discussions, using
active listening behaviours,
showing interest, and
contributing ideas,
information and questions
Listen for specifc purposes
and information, including
instructions, and extend
students’ own and others’
ideas in discussions
Listen to and contribute
to conversations and
discussions to share
information and ideas and
negotiate in collaborative
situations
Interpret ideas and information
in spoken texts and listen for
key points in order to carry out
tasks and use information to
share and extend ideas and
information

Clarify understanding of content
as it unfolds in formal and
informal situations, connecting
ideas to students’ own
experiences and present and
justify a point of view
Participate in and contribute
to discussions, clarifying and
interrogating ideas, developing
and supporting arguments,
sharing and evaluating
information, experiences and
opinions
Listening and
speaking interactions
The skills students use when
engaging in listening and
speaking interactions
Use interaction skills
including listening while
others speak, using
appropriate voice levels,
articulation and body
language, gestures and
eye contact
Use interaction skills
including turn-taking,
recognising the
contributions of others,
speaking clearly and using
appropriate volume and
pace
Use interaction skills
including initiating topics,
making positive statements
and voicing disagreement
in an appropriate manner,
speaking clearly and varying
tone, volume and pace
appropriately
Use interaction skills,
including active
listening behaviours and
communicate in a clear,
coherent manner using
a variety of everyday and
learned vocabulary and
appropriate tone, pace,
pitch and volume
Use interaction skills such as
acknowledging another’s point
of view and linking students’
response to the topic, using
familiar and new vocabulary
and a range of vocal efects
such as tone, pace, pitch and
volume to speak clearly and
coherently
Use interaction skills, for
example paraphrasing,
questioning and interpreting
non-verbal cues and choose
vocabulary and vocal efects
appropriate for diferent
audiences and purposes
Use interaction skills, varying
conventions of spoken
interactions such as voice
volume, tone, pitch and pace,
according to group size, formality
of interaction and needs and
expertise of the audience
Oral presentations
The formal oral presentations
that students engage in
including presenting recounts
and information, and presenting
and arguing a point of view
Deliver short oral
presentations to peers
Make short presentations
using some introduced text
structures and language,
for example opening
statements
Rehearse and deliver short
presentations on familiar and
new topics
Plan and deliver short
presentations, providing
some key details in logical
sequence
Plan, rehearse and deliver
presentations incorporating
learned content and taking
into account the particular
purposes and audiences
Plan, rehearse and deliver
presentations for defned
audiences and purposes
incorporating accurate and
sequenced content and
multimodal elements
Plan, rehearse and deliver
presentations selecting and
sequencing appropriate content
and multimodal elements for
defned audiences and purposes,
making appropriate choices for
modality and emphasis
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Literacy English Scope and Sequence: Year 6 to Year 10
Sub
Strand
Focus of thread
within the sub-strand
Year 6 Year 7 Year 8 Year 9 Year 10
T
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i
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c
o
n
t
e
x
t
Texts and the contexts
in which they are used
How texts relate to their
contexts and refect the society
and culture in which they were
created
Compare texts including media texts that
represent ideas and events in diferent
ways, explaining the efects of the diferent
approaches
Analyse and explain the efect of
technological innovations on texts,
particularly media texts
Analyse and explain how language has
evolved over time and how technology
and the media have infuenced language
use and forms of communication
Analyse how the construction and
interpretation of texts, including media
texts, can be infuenced by cultural
perspectives and other texts
Analyse and evaluate how people, cultures,
places, events, objects and concepts are
represented in texts, including media texts,
through language, structural and/or visual
choices
I
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a
c
t
i
n
g

w
i
t
h

o
t
h
e
r
s
Listening and
speaking interactions
The purposes and contexts
through which students engage
in listening and speaking
interactions
Participate in and contribute to
discussions, clarifying and interrogating
ideas, developing and supporting
arguments, sharing and evaluating
information, experiences and opinions
Identify and discuss main ideas, concepts
and points of view in spoken texts to
evaluate qualities, for example the strength
of an argument or the lyrical power of a
poetic rendition
Interpret the stated and implied
meanings in spoken texts, and use
evidence to support or challenge
diferent perspectives
Listen to spoken texts constructed for
diferent purposes, for example to entertain
and to persuade, and analyse how
language features of these texts position
listeners to respond in particular ways
Identify and explore the purposes and efects
of diferent text structures and language
features of spoken texts, and use this
knowledge to create purposeful texts that
inform, persuade and engage
Listening and
speaking interactions
The skills students use when
engaging in listening and
speaking interactions
Use interaction skills, varying conventions
of spoken interactions such as voice
volume, tone, pitch and pace, according
to group size, formality of interaction and
needs and expertise of the audience
Use interaction skills when discussing and
presenting ideas and information, selecting
body language, voice qualities and other
elements, (for example music and sound) to
add interest and meaning
Use interaction skills for identifed
purposes, using voice and language
conventions to suit diferent situations,
selecting vocabulary, modulating voice
and using elements such as music,
images and sound for specifc efects
Use interaction skills to present and
discuss an idea and to infuence and
engage an audience by selecting
persuasive language, varying voice tone,
pitch, and pace, and using elements such
as music and sound efects
Use organisation patterns, voice and
language conventions to present a point
of view on a subject, speaking clearly,
coherently and with efect, using logic,
imagery and rhetorical devices to engage
audiences
Oral presentations
The formal oral presentations
that students engage in
including presenting recounts
and information, and
presenting and arguing a point
of view
Plan, rehearse and deliver presentations
selecting and sequencing appropriate
content and multimodal elements for
defned audiences and purposes, making
appropriate choices for modality and
emphasis
Plan, rehearse and deliver presentations,
selecting and sequencing appropriate
content and multimodal elements to
promote a point of view or enable a new
way of seeing
Plan, rehearse and deliver presentations,
selecting and sequencing appropriate
content, including multimodal elements,
to refect a diversity of viewpoints
Plan, rehearse and deliver presentations,
selecting and sequencing appropriate
content and multimodal elements for
aesthetic and playful purposes
Plan, rehearse and deliver presentations
selecting and sequencing appropriate
content and multimodal elements to infuence
a course of action
Version 3.0
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Page 35 of 252
Literacy English Scope and Sequence: Foundation to Year 6
Sub
Strand
Focus of thread
within the sub-strand
Foundation Year Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6
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Purpose and audience
Recognising and analysing
diferences between diferent
types of texts
Identify some diferences
between imaginative and
informative texts
Describe some diferences
between imaginative
informative and persuasive
texts
Identify the audience of
imaginative, informative and
persuasive texts
Identify the audience and
purpose of imaginative,
informative and persuasive
texts
Identify characteristic
features used in imaginative,
informative and persuasive
texts to meet the purpose of
the text
Identify and explain
characteristic text structures
and language features used in
imaginative, informative and
persuasive texts to meet the
purpose of the text
Analyse how text structures
and language features work
together to meet the purpose
of a text
Reading processes
Strategies for using and
combining contextual, semantic,
grammatical and phonic
knowledge to decode texts
including predicting, monitoring,
cross-checking, self-correcting,
skimming and scanning
Read predictable texts,
practicing phrasing and
fuency, and monitor
meaning using concepts
about print and emerging
contextual, semantic,
grammatical and phonic
knowledge
Read supportive texts
using developing phrasing,
fuency, contextual, semantic,
grammatical and phonic
knowledge and emerging
text processing strategies,
for example prediction,
monitoring meaning and
rereading
Read less predictable texts
with phrasing and fuency
by combining contextual,
semantic, grammatical and
phonic knowledge using
text processing strategies,
for example monitoring
meaning, predicting,
rereading and self-correcting
Read an increasing range
of diferent types of texts
by combining contextual,
semantic, grammatical and
phonic knowledge, using text
processing strategies, for
example monitoring, predicting,
confrming, rereading, reading
on and self correcting
Read diferent types of texts
by combining contextual,
semantic, grammatical and
phonic knowledge using text
processing strategies, for
example monitoring meaning,
cross checking and reviewing
Navigate and read texts for
specifc purposes applying
appropriate text processing
strategies, for example
predicting and confrming,
monitoring meaning, skimming
and scanning
Select, navigate and read
texts for a range of purposes
applying appropriate text
processing strategies and
interpreting structural features,
for example table of contents,
glossary, chapters, headings
and subheadings
Comprehension strategies
Strategies of constructing
meaning from texts, including
literal and inferential meaning
Use comprehension
strategies to understand
and discuss texts listened
to, viewed or read
independently
Use comprehension
strategies to build literal and
inferred meaning about key
events, ideas and information
in texts that they listen to,
view and read by drawing
on growing knowledge of
context, text structures and
language features
Use comprehension
strategies to build literal and
inferred meaning and begin
to analyse texts by drawing
on growing knowledge
of context, language and
visual features and print and
multimodal text structures
Use comprehension strategies
to build literal and inferred
meaning and begin to evaluate
texts by drawing on growing
knowledge of context, text
structures and language
features
Use comprehension strategies
to build literal and inferred
meaning to expand content
knowledge, integrating and
linking ideas and analysing
and evaluating texts
Use comprehension strategies
to analyse information,
integrating and linking ideas
from a variety of print and
digital sources
Use comprehension strategies
to interpret and analyse
information and ideas,
comparing content from a
variety of textual sources
including media and digital
texts
Analysing and evaluating
texts
Analysis and evaluation of how
text structures and language
features construct meaning and
infuence readers/viewers
This sequence starts at this year level Analyse strategies authors use
to infuence readers
C
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Creating texts
Creating diferent types of
spoken, written and multimodal
texts using knowledge of
text structures and language
features
Create short texts to
explore, record and
report ideas and events
using familiar words and
phrases and beginning
writing knowledge
Create short imaginative and
information texts that show
emerging use of appropriate
text structure, sentence-
level grammar, word choice,
spelling, punctuation and
appropriate multimodal
elements, for example
illustrations and diagrams
Create short imaginative,
informative and persuasive
texts using growing
knowledge of text structures
and language features for
familiar and some less
familiar audiences, selecting
print and multimodal
elements appropriate to the
audience and purpose
Plan, draft and publish
imaginative, informative and
persuasive texts demonstrating
increasing control over text
structures and language
features and selecting print,
and multimodal elements
appropriate to the audience
and purpose
Plan, draft and publish
imaginative, informative and
persuasive texts containing
key information and supporting
details for a widening range
of audiences, demonstrating
increasing control over text
structures and language
features
Plan, draft and publish
imaginative, informative
and persuasive print and
multimodal texts, choosing
text structures, language
features, images and sound
appropriate to purpose and
audience
Plan, draft and publish
imaginative, informative and
persuasive texts, choosing
and experimenting with text
structures, language features,
images and digital resources
appropriate to purpose and
audience
Editing
Editing texts for meaning,
structure and grammatical
features
Participate in shared
editing of students’
own texts for meaning,
spelling, capital letters
and full stops
Reread student’s own
texts and discuss possible
changes to improve meaning,
spelling and punctuation
Reread and edit text for
spelling, sentence-boundary
punctuation and text
structure
Reread and edit texts for
meaning, appropriate structure,
grammatical choices and
punctuation
Reread and edit for meaning
by adding, deleting or moving
words or word groups to
improve content and structure
Reread and edit student’s own
and others’ work using agreed
criteria for text structures and
language features
Reread and edit students’ own
and others’ work using agreed
criteria and explaining editing
choices
Handwriting
Developing a fuent, legible
handwriting style, beginning
with unjoined letters and moving
to joined handwriting
Produce some lower
case and upper case
letters using learned letter
formations
Write using unjoined lower
case and upper case letters
Write legibly and with
growing fuency using
unjoined upper case and
lower case letters
Write using joined letters
that are clearly formed and
consistent in size
Write using clearly-formed
joined letters, and develop
increased fuency and
automaticity
Develop a handwriting style
that is becoming legible, fuent
and automatic
Develop a handwriting style
that is legible, fuent and
automatic and varies according
to audience and purpose
Use of software
Using a range of software
applications to construct and
edit print and multimodal texts
Construct texts using
software including word
processing programs
Construct texts that
incorporate supporting
images using software
including word processing
programs
Construct texts featuring
print, visual and audio
elements using software,
including word processing
programs
Use software including word
processing programs with
growing speed and efciency
to construct and edit texts
featuring visual, print and audio
elements
Use a range of software
including word processing
programs to construct, edit
and publish written text, and
select, edit and place visual,
print and audio elements
Use a range of software
including word processing
programs with fuency to
construct, edit and publish
written text, and select, edit
and place visual, print and
audio elements
Use a range of software,
including word processing
programs, learning new
functions as required to create
texts
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Page 36 of 252
Literacy English Scope and Sequence: Year 6 to Year 10
Sub
Strand
Focus of thread
within the sub-strand
Year 6 Year 7 Year 8 Year 9 Year 10
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i
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,

e
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a
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a
t
i
n
g
Purpose and audience
Recognising and analysing
diferences between diferent
types of texts
Analyse how text structures and
language features work together to meet
the purpose of a text
Analyse and explain the ways text
structures and language features shape
meaning and vary according to audience
and purpose
Analyse and evaluate the ways that text
structures and language features vary
according to the purpose of the text and the
ways that referenced sources add authority
to a text
Interpret, analyse and evaluate how
diferent perspectives of an issue, event,
situation, individuals or groups are
constructed to serve specifc purposes
in texts
Identify and analyse implicit or explicit
values, beliefs and assumptions in texts and
how these are infuenced by purposes and
likely audiences
Reading processes
Strategies for using and
combining contextual,
semantic, grammatical and
phonic knowledge to decode
texts including predicting,
monitoring, cross-checking,
self-correcting, skimming and
scanning
Select, navigate and read texts
for a range of purposes applying
appropriate text processing strategies
and interpreting structural features, for
example table of contents, glossary,
chapters, headings and subheadings
Use prior knowledge and text processing
strategies to interpret a range of types of
texts.
Apply increasing knowledge of vocabulary,
text structures and language features to
understand the content of texts
Apply an expanding vocabulary to read
increasingly complex texts with fuency
and comprehension
Choose a reading technique and reading
path appropriate for the type of text, to
retrieve and connect ideas within and
between texts
Comprehension
strategies
Strategies of constructing
meaning from texts, including
literal and inferential meaning
Use comprehension strategies to
interpret and analyse information and
ideas comparing content from a variety
of textual sources including media and
digital texts
Use comprehension strategies to interpret,
analyse and synthesise ideas and
information, critiquing ideas and issues
from a variety of textual sources
Use comprehension strategies to interpret
and evaluate texts by refecting on the
validity of content and the credibility of
sources, including fnding evidence in the
text for the author’s point of view
Use comprehension strategies to interpret
and analyse texts, comparing and
evaluating representations of an event,
issue, situation or character in diferent
texts
Use comprehension strategies to compare
and contrast information within and between
texts, identifying and analysing embedded
perspectives, and evaluating supporting
evidence
Analysing and evaluating
texts
Analysis and evaluation of how
text structures and language
features construct meaning and
infuence readers/viewers
Analyse strategies authors use to
infuence readers
Compare the text structures and language
features of multimodal texts, explaining
how they combine to infuence audiences
Explore and explain the ways authors
combine diferent modes and media in
creating texts, and the impact of these
choices on the viewer/listener
Explore and explain the combinations of
language and visual choices that authors
make to present information, opinions and
perspectives in diferent texts
C
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a
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i
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g

t
e
x
t
s
Creating texts
Creating diferent types of
spoken, written and multimodal
texts using knowledge of
text structures and language
features
Plan, draft and publish imaginative,
informative and persuasive texts
choosing and experimenting with text
structures, language features, images
and digital resources appropriate to
purpose and audience
Plan, draft and publish imaginative,
informative and persuasive texts selecting
aspects of subject matter and particular
language, visual, and audio features to
convey information and ideas
Create imaginative, informative and
persuasive texts that raise issues,
report events, and advance opinions,
using deliberate language and textual
choices, and including digital elements as
appropriate
Create imaginative, informative and
persuasive texts that present a point of
view and advance or illustrate arguments,
including texts that integrate visual, print
and/or audio features
Create sustained texts, including texts that
combine specifc digital or media content,
for imaginative, informative, or persuasive
purposes, and that refect upon challenging
and complex issues
Editing
Editing texts for meaning,
structure and grammatical
features
Reread and edit their students’ own and
others’ work using agreed criteria and
explaining editing choices
Edit for meaning by removing repetition,
refning ideas, reordering sentences and
adding or substituting words for impact
Experiment with text structures and
language features to refne and clarify ideas
to improve the efectiveness of students’
own texts
Review and edit students’ own and others’
texts to improve clarity and control over
content, organisation, paragraphing,
sentence structure, vocabulary and audio/
visual features.
Review, edit and refne students’ own
and others’ texts for control of content,
organisation, sentence structure,
vocabulary, and/or visual features, to
achieve particular purposes and efects
Handwriting
Developing a fuent, legible
handwriting style, beginning
with unjoined letters and
moving to joined handwriting
Develop a handwriting style that is
legible, fuent and automatic and varies
according to audience and purpose
Consolidate a personal handwriting style
that is legible, fuent and automatic and
supports writing for extended periods
This sequence ends at this year level
Use of software
Using a range of software
applications to construct and
edit print and multimodal texts
Use a range of software, including word
processing programs, learning new
functions as required to create texts
Use a range of software, including word
processing programs, to confdently
create, edit and publish written and
multimodal texts.
Use a range of software, including word
processing programs to create, edit and
publish texts imaginatively
Use a range of software, including
word processing programs, fexibly and
imaginatively to publish texts
Use a range of software, including word
processing programs, confdently,
fexibly and imaginatively to publish texts,
considering the identifed purpose and the
characteristics of the user
Version 3.0
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Page 37 of 252
The Australian Curriculum
Health and Physical Education
Page 38 of 252
Rationale and Aims
Health and Physical Education teaches students how to enhance their own and others’ health, safety, wellbeing and physical
activity participation in varied and changing contexts. The Health and Physical Education learning area has strong foundations
in scientific fields such as physiology, nutrition, biomechanics and psychology which inform what we understand about healthy,
safe and active choices. The Australian Curriculum: Health and Physical Education (F–10) is informed by these sciences and
offers students an experiential curriculum that is contemporary, relevant, challenging, enjoyable and physically active.
In Health and Physical Education, students develop the knowledge, understanding and skills to strengthen their sense of self,
and build and manage satisfying relationships. The curriculum helps them to be resilient, and to make decisions and take
actions to promote their health, safety and physical activity participation. As students mature, they develop and use critical
inquiry skills to research and analyse the knowledge of the field and to understand the influences on their own and others’
health, safety and wellbeing. They also learn to use resources for the benefit of themselves and for the communities with which
they identify and to which they belong.
Integral to Health and Physical Education is the acquisition of movement skills, concepts and strategies to enable students to
confidently, competently and creatively participate in a range of physical activities. As a foundation for lifelong physical activity
participation and enhanced performance, students develop proficiency in movement skills, physical activities and movement
concepts and acquire an understanding of the science behind how the body moves. In doing so, they develop an appreciation of
the significance of physical activity, outdoor recreation and sport both in Australian society and globally. Movement is a powerful
medium for learning, through which students can acquire, practise and refine personal, behavioural, social and cognitive skills.
Health and Physical Education addresses how contextual factors influence the health, safety, wellbeing, and physical activity
patterns of individuals, groups and communities. It provides opportunities for students to develop skills, self-efficacy and
dispositions to advocate for, and positively influence, their own and others’ health and wellbeing.
Healthy, active living benefits individuals and society in many ways. This includes promoting physical fitness, healthy body
weight, psychological wellbeing, cognitive capabilities and learning. A healthy, active population improves productivity and
personal satisfaction, promotes pro-social behaviour and reduces the occurrence of chronic disease. Health and Physical
Education teaches students how to enhance their health, safety and wellbeing and contribute to building healthy, safe and
active communities.
Given these aspirations, the Australian Curriculum: Health and Physical Education has been shaped by five interrelated
propositions that are informed by a strong and diverse research base for a futures-oriented curriculum:
Focus on educative purposes
The prime responsibility of the Health and Physical Education curriculum is to describe the progression and development of the
disciplinary knowledge, understanding and skills underpinning Health and Physical Education and how students will make
meaning of and apply them in contemporary health and movement contexts.
Although the curriculum may contribute to a range of goals that sit beyond its educative purposes, the priority for the Health and
Physical Education curriculum is to provide ongoing, developmentally appropriate and explicit learning about health and
movement. The Health and Physical Education curriculum draws on its multidisciplinary evidence base to ensure that students
are provided with learning opportunities to practise, create, apply and evaluate the knowledge, understanding and skills of the
learning area.
Take a strengths-based approach
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The Health and Physical Education curriculum is informed by a strengths-based approach. Rather than focusing only on
potential health risks or a deficit-based model of health, the curriculum has a stronger focus on supporting students to develop
the knowledge, understanding and skills they require to make healthy, safe and active choices that will enhance their own and
others’ health and wellbeing.
This approach affirms that all students and their communities have particular strengths and resources that can be nurtured to
improve their own and others' health, wellbeing, movement competence and participation in physical activity. The curriculum
recognises that students have varying levels of access to personal and community resources depending on a variety of
contextual factors that will impact on their decisions and behaviours.
Value movement
Health and Physical Education is the key learning area in the curriculum that focuses explicitly on developing movement skills
and concepts students require to participate in physical activities with competence and confidence. The knowledge,
understanding, skills and dispositions students develop through movement in Health and Physical Education encourage
ongoing participation across their lifespan and in turn lead to positive health outcomes. Movement competence and confidence
is seen as an important personal and community asset to be developed, refined and valued.
Health and Physical Education promotes an appreciation of how movement in all its forms is central to daily life — from meeting
functional requirements and providing opportunities for active living to acknowledging participation in physical activity and sport
as significant cultural and social practices. The study of movement has a broad and established scientific, social, cultural and
historical knowledge base, informing our understanding of how and why we move and how we can improve physical
performance.
The study of movement also provides challenges and opportunities for students to enhance a range of personal and social skills
and behaviours that contribute to health and wellbeing.
Develop health literacy
Health literacy can be understood as an individual’s ability to gain access to, understand and use health information and
services in ways that promote and maintain health and wellbeing. The Health and Physical Education curriculum focuses on
developing knowledge, understanding and skills related to the three dimensions of health literacy:
functional dimension — researching and applying information relating to knowledge and services in order to respond to a
health-related question
interactive dimension — requires more advanced knowledge, understanding and skills to actively and independently
engage with a health issue and to apply new information to changing circumstances
critical dimension — the ability to selectively access and critically analyse health information from a variety of sources
(which might include scientific information, health brochures or messages in the media) in order to take action to promote
personal health and wellbeing or that of others.
Consistent with a strengths-based approach, health literacy is a personal and community asset to be developed, evaluated,
enriched and communicated.
Include a critical inquiry approach
The Health and Physical Education curriculum engages students in critical inquiry processes that assist students in researching,
analysing, applying and appraising knowledge in health and movement fields. In doing so, students will critically analyse and
critically evaluate contextual factors that influence decision making, behaviours and actions, and explore inclusiveness, power
inequalities, taken-for-granted assumptions, diversity and social justice.
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The Health and Physical Education curriculum recognises that values, behaviours, priorities and actions related to health and
physical activity reflect varying contextual factors which influence the ways people live. The curriculum develops an
understanding that the meanings and interests individuals and social groups have in relation to health practices and physical
activity participation are diverse and therefore require different approaches and strategies.
The Australian Curriculum: Health and Physical Education (F–10) aims to develop the knowledge, understanding and skills to
enable students to:
access, evaluate and synthesise information to take positive action to protect, enhance and advocate for their own and
others’ health, wellbeing, safety and physical activity participation across their lifespan
develop and use personal, behavioural, social and cognitive skills and strategies to promote a sense of personal identity
and wellbeing and to build and manage respectful relationships
acquire, apply and evaluate movement skills, concepts and strategies to respond confidently, competently and creatively
in a variety of physical activity contexts and settings
engage in and enjoy regular movement-based learning experiences and understand and appreciate their significance to
personal, social, cultural, environmental and health practices and outcomes
analyse how varied and changing personal and contextual factors shape understanding of, and opportunities for, health
and physical activity locally, regionally and globally.
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Organisation
The curriculum is organised into two content strands — Personal, social and community health and Movement and
physical activity. Each strand contains content descriptions which are organised under three sub-strands.
Figure 1: Relationship of curriculum elements
Sub-strands
Being healthy, safe and active
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Health and Physical Education
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The content focuses on supporting students to make decisions about their own health, safety and wellbeing. The content
develops the knowledge, understanding and skills to support students to be resilient. It also enables them to access and
understand health information and empowers them to make healthy, safe and active choices. In addition, the content explores
personal identities and emotions, and the contextual factors that influence students’ health, safety and wellbeing. Students also
learn about the behavioural aspects related to regular physical activity and develop the dispositions required to be an active
individual.
Communicating and interacting for health and wellbeing
The content develops knowledge, understanding and skills to enable students to critically engage with a range of health focus
areas and issues. It also helps them apply new information to changing circumstances and environments that influence their
own and others’ health, safety and wellbeing.
Contributing to healthy and active communities
The content develops knowledge, understanding and skills to enable students to critically analyse contextual factors that
influence the health and wellbeing of communities. The content supports students to selectively access information, products,
services and environments to take action to promote the health and wellbeing of their communities.
Moving our body
The content lays the important early foundations of play and fundamental movement skills. It focuses on the acquisition and
refinement of a broad range of movement skills. Students apply movement concepts and strategies to enhance performance
and move with competence and confidence. Students develop skills and dispositions necessary for lifelong participation in
physical activities.
Understanding movement
The content focuses on developing knowledge and understanding about how and why our body moves and what happens to
our body when it moves. While participating in physical activities, students analyse and evaluate theories, techniques and
strategies that can be used to understand and enhance the quality of movement and physical activity performance. They
explore the place and meaning of physical activity, outdoor recreation and sport in their own lives, and across time and cultures.
Learning through movement
The content focuses on personal and social skills that can be developed through participation in movement and physical
activities. These skills include communication, decision making, problem-solving, critical and creative thinking, and cooperation.
The skills can be developed as students work individually and in small groups or teams to perform movement tasks or solve
movement challenges. Through movement experiences, students develop other important personal and social skills such as
self-awareness, self-management, persisting with challenges and striving for enhanced performance. They also experience the
varied roles within organised sport and recreation.
Focus areas
The focus areas provide the breadth of learning across Foundation to Year 10 that must be taught in order for students to
acquire and demonstrate the knowledge, understanding and skills described in the achievement standard for each band of
learning. The focus areas have been mapped to each content description and elaboration (annotations included in brackets) to
assist teachers in their planning. Descriptions of each of the focus areas and the learning expected in each can be accessed
through hyperlinks from the focus area annotations after each elaboration.
Across the Health and Physical Education curriculum from Foundation to Year 10, the focus areas that must be addressed in
each band of learning include, but are not limited to, those indicated with an asterisk (*) in Figure 2 below.
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Foundation–
Year 2
Years 3–6 Years 7–10
Alcohol and other drugs (AD) * Medicines * *
Food and nutrition (FN) * * *
Health benefits of physical activity (HBPA) * * *
Mental health and wellbeing (MH) * * *
Relationships and sexuality (RS) * Relationships * *
Safety (S) * * *
Active play and minor games (AP) * *
Challenge and adventure activities (CA) * *
Fundamental movement skills (FMS) * *
Games and sports (GS) * *
Lifelong physical activities (LLPA) * *
Rhythmic and expressive activities (RE) * * *
Figure 2: Focus areas across the learning continuum
Content descriptions
Each band level of the Australian Curriculum: Health and Physical Education (F–10) includes content descriptions. These set
out the knowledge, understanding and skills that teachers are expected to teach and students are expected to learn. However,
they do not prescribe approaches to teaching. The content descriptions have been written to ensure that learning is
appropriately ordered and unnecessary repetition is avoided. However, a concept or skill introduced at one band level may be
revisited, strengthened and extended at later year levels as needed.
Content elaborations
Content elaborations are provided for Foundation to Year 10 to illustrate and exemplify content and to assist teachers in
developing a common understanding of the content descriptions. They are not intended to be comprehensive content points that
all students need to be taught.
Achievement standards
The achievement standards describe expected student learning at each band level. They emphasise the depth of conceptual
understanding, the sophistication of skills and the ability to apply essential knowledge expected of students.
Glossary
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A glossary is provided to support a common understanding of key terms and concepts included in the Health and Physical
Education curriculum.
The Australian Curriculum: Health and Physical Education (F–10) is based on the principle that all young Australians are entitled
to study Health and Physical Education as part of the Australian Curriculum each year from Foundation to Year 10.
Foundation–Year 2
When students transition into school, they bring with them a wide range of health and movement experiences. Students’ sense
of self is evolving and they are beginning to develop the capacity to understand and self-regulate their emotions in ways that
account for their own feelings and those of others. They develop skills to initiate social interactions and begin to explore how
their body is growing and changing as they get older. Through the development of fundamental movement skills, physical play,
manipulation of equipment, and spatial awareness, children begin to develop movement competence. They also become
sufficiently skilled and confident to complete everyday tasks, explore their physical surroundings and participate in movement
activities.
The curriculum in Foundation to Year 2 focuses on developing the knowledge, understanding and skills to support students to
be healthy, safe and active individuals who can move competently and confidently in different physical spaces and on diverse
surfaces.
Year 3–Year 6
As students move through primary school, the focus broadens to include the knowledge, understanding and skills required to
support and enhance their own health, safety and wellbeing and that of their family and friends. Students are progressively more
connected to their world and their peers. Personal and social skills take on an increasing importance and students become
more aware of gender expectations and stereotypes. They look to family, peers, the media, the Internet and the community for
role models. Students in Year 3 to Year 6 further develop and refine their fundamental movement skills, learn about the
common features of games, and expand their understanding of movement concepts and strategies to engage more confidently
in a broad range of physical activities.
The Health and Physical Education curriculum in Year 3 to Year 6 provides explicit learning opportunities to develop
communication skills, social skills and behaviours required to work effectively with others in different environments and contexts.
The curriculum allows students to experience a range of movement activities and to further develop movement competence and
confidence. It also supports and encourages lifelong physical activity participation.
Year 7–Year 10
Students in these years are beginning to face more complex life decisions. Their lives and the environments in which they are
living are changing rapidly. A major influence on these students is the world around them, with peers becoming a key source of
information and motivation. Increasing levels of access to mobile technologies give students the capacity to be connected and
online at all hours of the day. It is important that students develop the knowledge, understanding and skills to manage their
online engagements, particularly their online identities, and balance their time online with schoolwork, sleep and other
commitments. Health and Physical Education in these years plays an important role in maintaining physical activity participation.
Practical learning experiences support students to select, implement and maintain appropriate physical activity routines to
enhance their health and wellbeing. They learn about the benefits of being fit and how fitness can be improved and maintained
through specific activities.
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The Health and Physical Education curriculum in Year 7 to Year 10 focuses on the broader role students play in contributing to
the health, safety and wellbeing of their wider community. The curriculum provides scope for students to examine and address
health areas relevant to them and their families and community, as well as developing health literacy skills. The curriculum
supports students to investigate techniques to assess the quality of movement performances using a range of tools to appraise,
analyse and enhance performances. In addition, students develop the skills and confidence to be creative in how they adapt
and improvise their movements to respond to different movement situations, stimuli, environments and challenges.
ACARA is committed to developing a high-quality curriculum for all Australian students, one that promotes excellence and
equity in education.
All students are entitled to rigorous, relevant and engaging learning programs drawn from the Australian Curriculum: Health and
Physical Education (F–10). Teachers take account of the range of their students’ current levels of learning, abilities, strengths,
goals and interests and make adjustments where necessary. The three-dimensional design of the Australian Curriculum,
comprising learning areas, general capabilities and cross-curriculum priorities, provides teachers with flexibility to personalise
learning and cater for the diverse needs of students across Australia.
The Health and Physical Education curriculum uses the principles of the Universal Design for Learning framework to ensure that
the curriculum is inclusive of all learners and values diversity by providing for multiple means of representation, action,
expression and engagement.
More detailed advice has been developed for schools and teachers on using the Australian Curriculum to meet diverse learning
needs. This is available under Student Diversity on the Australian Curriculum website.
Students with disability
The Disability Discrimination Act 1992 and the Disability Standards for Education 2005 require education and training
service providers to support the rights of students with disability to access the curriculum on the same basis as students without
disability.
Many students with disability are able to achieve educational standards commensurate with their peers’ provided that necessary
adjustments are made to the way in which they are taught and to the means through which they demonstrate their learning.
In some cases, curriculum adjustments are necessary to provide equitable opportunities for students to access age-equivalent
content in the Australian Curriculum: Health and Physical Education (F–10). Teachers can draw from content at different levels
along the Foundation to Year 10 continuum of learning. Teachers can also use the extended general capabilities learning
continua of Literacy, Numeracy and Personal and social capability to adjust the focus of learning according to individual
student need.
Adjustments to the practical delivery of movement-based lessons will be necessary to ensure that some students with physical
disability can access learning, participate and achieve on the same basis as their peers. Teachers may also need to consider
adjustments to assessment of students with disability to ensure that student achievement and demonstration of learning are
appropriately measured.
Gifted and talented students
Teachers can use the Australian Curriculum: Health and Physical Education (F–10) flexibly to meet the individual learning
needs of gifted and talented students, including students who are gifted and talented athletes or performers.
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Teachers can enrich student learning by providing students with opportunities to work with learning area content in more depth
or breadth; emphasising specific aspects of the general capabilities learning continua (for example, the higher order cognitive
skills of the Critical and creative thinking capability); or focusing on cross-curriculum priorities. Teachers can also accelerate
student learning by drawing on content from later levels in the Australian Curriculum: Health and Physical Education (F–10) or
from local state and territory teaching and learning materials.
Students for whom English is an additional language or dialect
Students for whom English is an additional language or dialect (EAL/D) enter Australian schools at different ages and at
different stages of English language learning. They also have various educational backgrounds in their first language. Many
EAL/D students bring already highly developed literacy and numeracy skills in their own language to their learning of Standard
Australian English. However, there is a significant number of students who are not literate in their first language and have had
little or no formal schooling.
While the aims of the Australian Curriculum: Health and Physical Education (F–10) are the same for all students, EAL/D
students must achieve these aims while simultaneously learning a new language and learning content and skills through that
new language. These students may require additional time and support, along with teaching that explicitly addresses their
language needs. Students who have had no formal schooling will need additional time and support to acquire skills for effective
learning in formal settings.
The English as an Additional Language or Dialect: Teacher Resource has been developed to support teachers as they
develop teaching and learning programs using the Australian Curriculum: Foundation to Year 10. It describes four phases of
language proficiency that will enable teachers to identify the typical language skills and understandings of their EAL/D students.
In Health and Physical Education it is important to be aware of cultural sensitivities when teaching some aspects of content.
Same-sex attracted and gender-diverse students
As with other areas of student diversity, it is crucial to acknowledge and affirm diversity in relation to sexuality and gender in
Health and Physical Education. Inclusive Health and Physical Education programs which affirm sexuality and gender diversity
acknowledge the impact of diversity on students’ social worlds, acknowledge and respond to the needs of all students, and
provide more meaningful and relevant learning opportunities for all students.
The Australian Curriculum: Health and Physical Education (F–10) is designed to allow schools flexibility to meet the learning
needs of all young people, particularly in the health focus area of relationships and sexuality. All school communities have a
responsibility when implementing the Health and Physical Education curriculum to ensure that teaching is inclusive and relevant
to the lived experiences of all students. This is particularly important when teaching about reproduction and sexual health, to
ensure that the needs of all students are met, including students who may be same-sex attracted, gender diverse or intersex.
In the Australian Curriculum, the general capabilities encompass the knowledge, skills, behaviours and dispositions that will
assist students to live and work successfully in the twenty-first century.
There are seven general capabilities:
literacy
numeracy
information and communication technology capability
critical and creative thinking
personal and social capability
ethical understanding
intercultural understanding.
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In the Australian Curriculum: Health and Physical Education (F–10), general capabilities are identified wherever they are
developed or applied in content descriptions. They are also identified where they offer opportunities to add depth and richness
to student learning.
Icons underneath the content descriptions on the Australian Curriculum website indicate where general capabilities have been
identified in Health and Physical Education content descriptions and elaborations. Depending on their choice of activities,
teachers may find further opportunities to incorporate explicit teaching of general capabilities. Students may also be encouraged
to develop capabilities through personally relevant initiatives of their own design.
The following descriptions provide an overview of how general capabilities are addressed in the Australian Curriculum: Health
and Physical Education (F–10). Detailed general capabilities materials, including learning continua, can be found on the
Australian Curriculum website in the General capabilities section
Literacy
The Australian Curriculum: Health and Physical Education (F–10) assists in the development of literacy by introducing specific
terminology used in health and physical activity contexts. Students understand the language used to describe health status,
products, information and services. They also develop skills that empower them to be critical consumers able to access,
interpret, analyse, challenge and evaluate the ever-expanding and changing knowledge base and influences in the fields of
health and physical education. In physical activity settings, as performers and spectators, students develop an understanding of
the language of movement and movement sciences. This is essential in analysing their own and others’ movement
performances.
Students also learn to comprehend and compose texts related to Health and Physical Education. This includes learning to
communicate effectively for a variety of purposes to different audiences, express their own ideas and opinions, evaluate the
viewpoints of others and express their emotions appropriately in a range of social and physical activity contexts.
Numeracy
The Australian Curriculum: Health and Physical Education (F–10) provides students with opportunities to recognise the
mathematics that exists in Health and Physical Education learning experiences. As they engage with Health and Physical
Education, students see the importance of numeracy, select relevant numeracy knowledge and skills, and apply these skills in a
range of contexts. Students use calculation, estimation and measurement to collect and make sense of information related to,
for example, nutrition, fitness, navigation in the outdoors or various skill performances. They use spatial reasoning in movement
activities and in developing concepts and strategies for individual and team sports or recreational pursuits. Students interpret
and analyse health and physical activity information using statistical reasoning, identifying patterns and relationships in data to
consider trends, draw conclusions, make predictions and inform health behaviour and practices.
Information and communication technology capability
The Australian Curriculum: Health and Physical Education (F–10) enhances ICT learning by helping students to effectively and
safely access online health and physical activity information and services to manage their own health and wellbeing. Students
further develop their understanding of the role ICT plays in the lives and relationships of children and young people. They
explore the nature of ICT and the implications for establishing and managing relationships in the twenty-first century. Students
develop an understanding of ethical online behaviour, including protocols and practices for using ICT for respectful
communication. Students use ICT as key tools for communicating, collaborating, creating content, seeking help, accessing
information and analysing performance in the Health and Physical Education field.
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They use a range of ICT to analyse, measure and enhance movement performances and to access and critically evaluate
health information, products and services. They also use ICT to develop personalised plans for nutrition and physical activity
participation.
Critical and creative thinking
The Australian Curriculum: Health and Physical Education (F–10) develops students’ ability to think logically, critically and
creatively in response to a range of Health and Physical Education issues, ideas and challenges. Students learn how to critically
evaluate evidence related to the learning area and the broad range of associated media messages to creatively generate and
explore original alternatives and possibilities. In Health and Physical Education, students’ critical and creative thinking skills are
developed through learning experiences that encourage them to pose questions and seek solutions to health issues by
designing appropriate strategies to promote and advocate personal, social and community health and wellbeing. Students also
use critical thinking to challenge societal factors that negatively influence their own and others’ health and wellbeing.
The Australian Curriculum: Health and Physical Education (F–10) also provides learning opportunities that support dance
making, games creation and technique refinement. Students develop understanding of the processes associated with creating
movement and reflect on their body’s responses and their feelings about these movement experiences.
Personal and social capability
The Australian Curriculum: Health and Physical Education (F–10) is a key contributor to the development of personal and social
capability for all students. Working collaboratively with others in movement- and non-movement-based activities develops
students' personal and social skills as well as an appreciation of their own strengths and abilities and those of their peers. They
develop a range of interpersonal skills such as communication, negotiation, teamwork and leadership, and an appreciation of
diverse perspectives.
The curriculum provides opportunities for students to explore their own identities and develop an understanding of factors that
influence and shape who they are. They learn how to recognise, understand, validate and respond appropriately to their own
emotions, strengths and values.
They develop the knowledge, understanding and skills to set and monitor personal and academic goals, effectively manage
their time, and prioritise tasks and responsibilities in order to balance their school, home, work and social commitments.
Ethical understanding
The Australian Curriculum: Health and Physical Education (F–10) focuses on the importance of treating others with integrity,
fairness and compassion, and valuing and respecting diversity and equality for all.
Students examine ethical principles and codes of practice appropriate to different contexts, such as at school, at home, in the
community, in relationships, on the sporting field, in the natural environment and when using digital technologies such as social
media. As students explore concepts and consequences of fair play, equitable participation, empathy and respect in
relationships, they develop skills to make ethical decisions and understand the consequences of their actions. They also
develop the capacity to apply these skills in everyday situations and movement-based contexts.
Intercultural understanding
The Australian Curriculum: Health and Physical Education (F–10) provides opportunities for students to recognise and respect
different ways of thinking about personal, family and social health issues. They also learn about different individual, group and
intergroup participation in physical activity and health practices. Students learn to appreciate that differences in beliefs and
perspectives may affect how some people make food and health choices, or how they are able to participate in physical
activities.
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Students recognise occasions when tensions between individuals and groups are based on cultural differences, and learn to act
in ways that maintain individual and group integrity and that respect the rights of all. They examine stereotypical representations
of various social and cultural groups in relation to community health issues and concepts of participation, success and failure in
physical activity. In doing so, students gain an understanding of how culture shapes personal and social perspectives and
interactions. They also gain an understanding of what is valued in terms of health and physical activity within their families,
social groups and institutions, and within other cultures in the broader community.
The Australian Curriculum across all learning areas gives special attention to three cross-curriculum priorities:
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures
Asia and Australia’s engagement with Asia
Sustainability.
In the Australian Curriculum: Health and Physical Education (F–10), these priorities will have a strong but varying presence
across the strands and sub-strands. Icons appearing beneath the content descriptions on the Australian Curriculum website
indicate where cross-curriculum priorities have been identified in Health and Physical Education content descriptions and
elaborations. Teachers may find further opportunities to incorporate explicit teaching of the priorities depending on their choice
of activities.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures
In the Australian Curriculum: Health and Physical Education (F–10), the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and
cultures priority will provide opportunities for all students to appreciate and celebrate the beauty of the world’s oldest continuous
living cultures. Students will gain a deeper understanding of the significance and impact Australia’s First Peoples’ histories and
dynamic cultures continue to have on our world. This priority provides important and engaging contexts for exploring personal,
community and group identities. In doing this, it builds understanding about differences and commonalities in systems of
knowledge and beliefs.
The Australian Curriculum: Health and Physical Education (F–10) encourages all students from Foundation to Year 10 to
engage with and appreciate the lived experiences of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Health and Physical
Education explores Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultural heritage and further develops student knowledge of key
concepts of country/place, peoples and cultures.
Students learn about the richness of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander modes of communication and ways of living, and
develop appreciation and understanding of uniquely Australian connections to place, people and ways of being. They explore
the importance of family and kinship structures for maintaining and promoting health, safety and wellbeing within their
community and the wider community. Students also have the opportunity to participate in physical activities and cultural
practices such as traditional and contemporary Indigenous games.
Asia and Australia’s engagement with Asia
In the Australian Curriculum: Health and Physical Education (F–10), the priority of Asia and Australia’s engagement with Asia
provides opportunities for students to explore the synergy between Asia and Australia in the areas of health and physical
activity. An understanding of the engagement between Australia and Asia underpins the capacity of students to be active and
informed citizens.
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The Australian Curriculum: Health and Physical Education (F–10) enables students to appreciate and engage with diverse
cultures, traditions and belief systems of the Asia region through the development of communication and interpersonal skills that
reflect cultural understanding, empathy and respect. Students examine the meaning of health and the mind-body-spirit
connection across the cultures of the Asia region through wellness practices. These include physical activity and traditions of
medicine and healthcare.
In Health and Physical Education, students recognise the influence within Australian culture of traditional and contemporary
movement activities from the Asia region. While exploring health and movement in the context of Asia, students develop an
understanding of the links between humans, environments and active living practices.
Sustainability
In the Australian Curriculum: Health and Physical Education (F–10), students explore how they connect and interact with
natural, managed and built environments, and with people in different social groups within their social networks and wider
communities. They consider how these connections and interactions within systems play an important role in promoting,
supporting and sustaining the wellbeing of individuals, the community and the environment as a whole, now and into the future.
Students develop an understanding of their potential to contribute to sustainable patterns of living. They will develop their world
view by exploring concepts of diversity, social justice and consumerism as these relate to the promotion and maintenance of
health and wellbeing. Through movement experiences, students are provided with opportunities to develop a connection in and
with environments and to gain an appreciation of the interdependence of the health of people and that of environments.
In Health and Physical Education, students develop a deeper understanding of the relationship between the health and
wellbeing of the individual and the environment. They develop this understanding through a range of activities including learning
in, and about, the outdoors; the creation of spaces for outdoor learning; active outdoor recreation; active transport options; and
growing, sourcing and choosing food products. As such, they will gain a capacity to advocate and act for a sustainable future.
Health and Physical Education provides rich opportunities for applying, integrating and extending learning from a range of
learning areas. This enables students to transfer knowledge and understanding and make and apply decisions in a range of
health- and movement-related experiences. It is important that students see connections to other learning areas within the
curriculum.
English
With the convergence of different textual forms and the growing importance for students to be able to interpret and critique
media texts, Health and Physical Education and English work together. The two learning areas help students understand codes
and conventions used to communicate meaning through different texts. Analysis of texts in English demonstrates the power of
language and symbol. The skills that are developed in English help students to critically analyse health and physical activity
texts to assess them for accuracy and reliability, as well as to deconstruct the subtleties of health messaging. These skills also
support the development of health literacy, which is a key proposition of the Health and Physical Education curriculum.
Mathematics
In Health and Physical Education and Mathematics, students develop their understanding of relationships between time, space
and rhythm through engagement with a variety of movement forms and composition ideas. In both learning areas, students
learn about size, scale, shape, pattern, proportion and orientation. There are also strong links to mathematical concepts such as
volume, data, ratios, percentages and proportions in the exploration of nutritional information, analysis of movement and
investigation of health- and skill-related fitness components. Students also build on Mathematics learning in Health and Physical
Education through opportunities to develop spatial awareness and mapping skills.
History
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Awareness of history is an essential characteristic of any society, and historical knowledge is fundamental to understanding
ourselves and others. The process of historical inquiry in the History curriculum links strongly with a number of key skills
developed in Health and Physical Education, including supporting students to ask relevant questions, critically analyse and
interpret sources, consider context, respect and explain different perspectives, develop and substantiate interpretations, and
communicate effectively.
In both History and Health and Physical Education, students learn about their own social context of family, friends and school.
When exploring these contexts, students can also investigate the changing perceptions in society in relation to health, food and
physical activity. They also explore concepts related to the history of sport and physical activity, as well as the place of these
activities in Australian society and how this has changed over time.
Science
Some skills central to Health and Physical Education, such as communicating with others, problem-solving, comprehending and
using existing resources to develop new ideas, also reinforce learning in Science. Both Science and Health and Physical
Education support the development of observational skills, predicting outcomes, speculation and encouragement of curiosity
and questioning.
Health and Physical Education provides opportunities for students to explore specific aspects of the biological sciences sub-
strand of the Science curriculum through the study of human anatomy. This learning includes understanding about the
importance of food and nutrition to the human body, physical development of the body as students move through puberty, and
mechanisms for human reproduction. Health and Physical Education and Science also provide opportunities to develop an
understanding of how systems work together to produce energy and movement through activities that explore body responses
to exercise and activity.
In addition, Health and Physical Education has links to content in the physical sciences sub-strand of the Science curriculum.
Students use tools, techniques and processes to analyse and investigate movement performance in a practical context while
exploring concepts such as force, motion, speed and energy. Using knowledge and understanding developed in Health and
Physical Education enables students to challenge thinking about scientific issues that affect society.
Geography
Students are curious about the world in which they live. They are interested in exploring it from local, regional and global
perspectives. Through Health and Physical Education, students learn about how they are connected to places throughout the
world by engaging in physical activities and cultural practices from other places, with their own families and different cultural
groups in their community. Students also explore their own sense of place, space and environment and consider how these
impact on their identities and physical activity participation. Challenge and adventure activities in Health and Physical Education
and participation in field trips through Geography provide practical and meaningful ways for students to learn about their
community, connect with their environment, and enhance their identity and sense of belonging.
The Arts
Dance is a key movement medium in Health and Physical Education and is identified in the Arts learning area as one of five art
forms. Dance has been taught for many years in Health and Physical Education in primary and secondary schools and holds an
important place in the Health and Physical Education curriculum. The primary emphasis for teaching dance in Health and
Physical Education is to value dance as a lifelong physical activity and to develop movement skills, concepts and patterns
associated with dance. Dance also provides a medium for students to develop personal and social skills and critically appraise
cultural and social factors that shape their own identities, body and communities.
Technologies
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In the Technologies learning area from Foundation through to Year 8, students learn how to apply nutrition knowledge through
the preparation of food. Students learn practical food-preparation skills through the Food technologies context in the Design and
Technologies curriculum.
Food and nutrition is one of the focus areas in the Health and Physical Education curriculum. This focus area enables students
to develop and apply knowledge, understanding and skills to make healthier choices in relation to food and nutrition, as well as
to understand the range of social, cultural and contextual factors that shape what we eat and drink.
In the Australian Curriculum: Health and Physical Education (F–10), the two strands, Personal, social and community health and
Movement and physical activity, are interrelated and inform and support each other. Both strands of the Health and Physical
Education curriculum must be taught in each year from Foundation to Year 10.
Health and Physical Education lessons will provide students with the opportunity to participate in physical activity on a weekly
basis as a minimum.
When developing teaching and learning programs, teachers are encouraged to combine content descriptions from across sub-
strands to provide students with learning experiences that meet their needs, interests, abilities and local contexts.
Guidelines for selecting focus areas in the Health and Physical Education curriculum
The content in the curriculum must be taught through twelve focus areas. Advice on appropriate timing for when to address
each focus area is provided in Figure 2 and the band descriptions. It is expected that the focus areas identified in each band
description will contribute substantially to the Health and Physical Education teaching and learning program for that particular
band of learning. Decisions about the specific timing of when each focus area will be taught within the two-year band (for
example, whether to teach about safety in Year 3 or Year 4 or in both years) are the responsibility of schools and teachers.
Planning decisions should take into account local needs, available resources, students’ readiness and community priorities.
Planning considerations
When planning teaching and learning programs in Health and Physical Education, teachers should ensure that learning
experiences draw on content descriptions from across sub-strands and, where appropriate, include content from both strands.
In teaching Health and Physical Education, creating opportunities for practical application will enhance the development of
knowledge, understanding and skills across a range of relevant and meaningful health and movement focus areas.
The content descriptions in the Australian Curriculum: Health and Physical Education (F–10) enable teachers to develop a
variety of learning experiences that are relevant, rigorous and meaningful. Some students will require additional support to
develop their skills in Health and Physical Education. Organisation of the curriculum in bands provides an additional level of
flexibility to support teachers to plan and implement learning programs that are developmentally appropriate for all students.
In any given classroom, students may demonstrate a wide range of strengths, abilities and needs. Teachers should plan
programs that recognise this diversity and provide students with multiple means of demonstrating their abilities and what they
have learnt through the teaching and learning process. The use of flexible groupings when teaching Health and Physical
Education and the provision of ongoing assessment are important elements of teaching and learning programs that
accommodate a diversity of learning needs.
Assessment of the Australian Curriculum: Health and Physical Education (F–10) takes place for different purposes, including:
ongoing formative assessment to monitor learning and provide feedback to teachers to enhance their teaching, and for
students to improve their learning
summative assessment to assist schools in reporting the progress and achievement of students to parents and carers.
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Teachers use the achievement standards during and at the end of a period of teaching to make on-balance judgments about the
quality of learning students demonstrate.
Organisation of learning
The curriculum recognises that schools organise learning depending on local needs, resource availability and timetabling
structures. In secondary settings in particular, the content from the Health and Physical Education curriculum can be organised
and delivered in a range of ways and through a number of different school subjects, such as home economics or outdoor
education.
Home economics
Home economics supports students to develop the capacity to make decisions, solve problems and respond critically and
creatively to practical concerns of individuals, families and communities in local and global contexts. Elements of learning in
home economics will draw from content in both Health and Physical Education and Technologies in the Australian Curriculum.
The primary content drawn from the Health and Physical Education curriculum is in relation to food and nutrition, growth and
development, identity and connecting to others.
The Health and Physical Education curriculum focuses on developing knowledge, understanding and skills that will support
students to make healthy choices about food and nutrition. Students learn about this by exploring the influences on these
choices and developing skills to access and assess nutritional information to support healthy choices. In Health and Physical
Education, students learn about different stages of life and take increasing responsibility for their own growth and development
by exploring and learning how to manage the many different factors that influence their identities. They also develop a practical
understanding of how connections to other people influence health and wellbeing.
Outdoor education
Outdoor education engages students in practical and active learning experiences in natural environments and settings typically
beyond the school boundary. In these environments, students develop knowledge, understanding and skills to move safely and
competently while valuing a positive relationship with and promoting the sustainable use of these environments. Elements of
learning in outdoor education will draw on content from across the Australian Curriculum: Foundation to Year 10, including
Health and Physical Education, Geography and Science. The primary content drawn from Health and Physical Education will be
in the areas of outdoor recreation and the influence of connection to place and communities on health and wellbeing.
In the Australian Curriculum: Health and Physical Education (F–10), outdoor recreation refers to recreational activities, or the act
of engaging in recreational activities. These are typically associated with outdoor, natural or semi-natural settings. These
activities are an important part of learning in the Health and Physical Education curriculum as they promote lifelong physical
activity. They also contribute to health and wellbeing through direct personal experiences and connections with natural
environments. Outdoor activities provide a valid environment for developing movement competence, promoting a sense of
wellbeing, enhancing personal and social skills, and developing an understanding of the concept of risk versus challenge.
Importance of a healthy school environment
It has long been recognised that the broader school environment can enhance the delivery of the Health and Physical Education
curriculum. Learning in Health and Physical Education supports students to make decisions about their health, wellbeing, safety
and physical activity participation. If consistent messages are evident across the school and wider school community, this
learning is validated and reinforced. Students are also better able to practise and reinforce their learning in Health and Physical
Education if teaching and learning in all curriculum areas and the whole school environment reflect the knowledge,
understanding and skills delivered in the Health and Physical Education curriculum. A healthy and supportive school
environment may be enriched through health-promoting school policies and processes, and partnerships with parents,
community organisations and specialist services.
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The Australian Curriculum | Version 1.0 dated Monday, 18 November 2013
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Foundation Year 1-2 Year 3-4 Year 5-6 Year 7-8 Year 9-10
Sub strand 1 – Being healthy, safe and active
Identify personal strengths Describe their own strengths
and achievements and those of
others, and identify how these
contribute to personal identities
Examine how success, challenge
and failure strengthen personal
identities
Explore personal and cultural
identities and how they change
and adapt to different contexts
and situations
Investigate the impact of
transition and change on
identities
Evaluate factors that shape
identities and analyse how
individuals impact the identities
of others
Name parts of the body and
describe how their body is
growing and changing
Describe physical and social
changes that occur as children
grow older and discuss
how family and community
acknowledge these
Explore strategies to manage
physical, social and emotional
change
Investigate resources and
strategies to manage changes
and transitions associated with
puberty
Evaluate strategies to manage
personal, physical and social
changes that occur as they grow
older
Examine the impact of changes
and transitions on relationships
Identify people and demonstrate
protective behaviours that help
keep themselves safe and
healthy
Practise strategies they can use
when they need help with a task,
problem or situation
Describe and apply strategies
that can be used in situations that
make them feel uncomfortable or
unsafe
Investigate community resources
and strategies to seek help about
health, safety and wellbeing
Practise and apply strategies
to seek help for themselves or
others
Plan, rehearse and evaluate
options (including CPR and frst
aid) for managing situations
where their own or others’ health,
safety and wellbeing may be at
risk
Recognise situations and
opportunities to promote health,
safety and wellbeing
Identify and practise strategies
to promote health, safety and
wellbeing
Plan and practise strategies
to promote health, safety and
wellbeing
Investigate and select strategies
to promote health, safety and
wellbeing
Propose, practise and evaluate
responses in situations where
external infuences may impact
on their ability to make healthy
and safe choices
Sub-strand 2: Communicating and interacting for health and wellbeing
Practise personal and social
skills to interact with and include
others
Describe ways to include others
to make them feel that they
belong
Describe how respect, empathy
and valuing difference can
positively infuence relationships
Practise skills to establish and
manage relationships
Investigate the benefts of
relationships and examine their
impact on their own and others’
health and wellbeing
Investigate how empathy
and ethical decision making
contribute to respectful
relationships
Identify and describe emotional
responses people may
experience in different situations
Identify and practise emotional
responses that account for own
and others’ feelings
Investigate how emotional
responses vary in depth and
strength
Examine the infuence of
emotional responses on
behaviour and relationships
Analyse factors that influence
emotions, and develop strategies
to demonstrate empathy and
sensitivity
Evaluate situations and propose
appropriate emotional responses
and then refect on possible
outcomes of different responses
Examine health messages
and how they relate to health
decisions and behaviours
Discuss and interpret health
information and messages in the
media and on the Internet
Recognise how media and
important people in the
community infuence personal
attitudes, beliefs, decisions and
behaviours
Develop skills to evaluate health
information and express health
concerns
Evaluate and apply health
information from a range of
sources to health decisions and
situations
Health and Physical Education
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Foundation Year 1-2 Year 3-4 Year 5-6 Year 7-8 Year 9-10
Sub-strand 3: Contributing to healthy and active communities
Identify actions that promote
health, safety and wellbeing
Explore actions that help make
the classroom a healthy, safe and
active place
Describe strategies to make
the classroom and playground
healthy, safe and active spaces
Investigate the role of preventive
health in promoting and
maintaining health, safety and
wellbeing for individuals and their
communities
Plan and use health practices,
behaviours and resources to
enhance the health, safety and
wellbeing of their communities
Plan, implement and critique
strategies to enhance the health,
safety and wellbeing of their
communities
Participate in play that promotes
engagement with outdoor
settings and the natural
environment
Identify and explore natural
and built environments in the
local community where physical
activity can take place
Participate in outdoor games
and activities to examine
how participation promotes
a connection between the
community, natural and built
environments, and health and
wellbeing
Explore how participation in
outdoor activities supports
personal and community health
and wellbeing and creates
connections to the natural and
built environment
Plan and implement strategies
for connecting to natural and
built environments to promote
the health and wellbeing of their
communities
Plan and evaluate new and
creative interventions that
promote their own and others’
connection to community and
natural and built environments
Recognise similarities and
differences in individuals and
groups, and explore how these
are celebrated and respected
Research own heritage and
cultural identities, and explore
strategies to respect and value
diversity
Investigate and refect on how
valuing diversity positively
infuences the wellbeing of the
community
Examine the benefts to
individuals and communities of
valuing diversity and promoting
inclusivity
Critique behaviours and
contextual factors that infuence
the health and wellbeing of their
communities
Sub-strand 1: Moving our body
Practise fundamental movement
skills and movement sequences
using different body parts and in
response to stimuli
Perform fundamental movement
skills in different movement
situations
Practise and refne fundamental
movement skills in different
movement situations
Practise specialised movement
skills and apply them in different
movement situations
Use feedback to improve
body control and coordination
when performing specialised
movement skills situations
Perform and refne specialised
movement skills in challenging
movement situations
Construct and perform
imaginative and original
movement sequences in
response to stimuli
Perform movement sequences
which link fundamental
movement skills
Design and perform a variety of
movement sequences
Compose and perform movement
sequences for specifc purposes
in a variety of contexts
Evaluate own and others’
movement compositions and
provide and apply feedback in
order to enhance performance
situations
Participate in games with and
without equipment
Create and participate in games Practise and apply movement
concepts and strategies
Propose and apply movement
concepts and strategies
Practise, apply and transfer
movement concepts and
strategies
Develop, implement and
evaluate movement concepts
and strategies for successful
outcomes
Health and Physical Education
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Foundation Year 1-2 Year 3-4 Year 5-6 Year 7-8 Year 9-10
Sub-strand 2: Understanding movement
Explore how regular physical
activity keeps individuals healthy
and well
Discuss the body’s reactions to
participating in physical activities
Examine the benefts of physical
activity and physical ftness to
health and wellbeing
Participate in physical activities
designed to enhance ftness,
and discuss the impact regular
participation can have on health
and wellbeing
Participate in physical activities
that develop health-related and
skill-related ftness components,
and create and monitor personal
ftness plans
Design, implement and evaluate
personalised plans for improving
or maintaining their own and
others’ physical activity and
ftness levels
Identify and describe how their
body moves in relation to effort,
space, time, objects and people
Incorporate elements of effort,
space, time, objects and people
in performing simple movement
sequences
Combine the elements of effort,
space, time, objects and people
when performing movement
sequences
Manipulate and modify the
elements of effort, space, time,
objects and people to perform
movement sequences
Demonstrate and explain how the
elements of effort, space, time,
objects and people can enhance
performance
Analyse the impact of effort,
space, time, objects and people
when composing and performing
movement sequences
Participate in physical activities
from their own and other cultures
and examine how involvement
creates community connections
and intercultural understanding
Participate in and investigate the
cultural and historical signifcance
of a range of physical activities
Examine the role physical
activity, outdoor recreation
and sport play in the lives of
Australians and investigate how
this has changed over time
Sub-strand 3: Learning through movement
Cooperate with others when
participating in physical activities
Use strategies to work in group
situations when participating in
physical activities
Adopt inclusive practices when
participating in physical activities
Participate positively in groups
and teams by encouraging
others and negotiating roles and
responsibilities
Practise and apply personal and
social skills when undertaking
a range of roles in physical
activities
Devise, implement and refne
strategies demonstrating
leadership and collaboration
skills when working in groups or
teams
Test possible solutions to
movement challenges through
trial and error
Propose a range of alternatives
and test their effectiveness when
solving movement challenges
Apply innovative and creative
thinking in solving movement
challenges
Apply critical and creative
thinking processes in order to
generate and assess solutions to
movement challenges
Evaluate and justify reasons
for decisions and choices of
action when solving movement
challenges
Transfer understanding from
previous movement experiences
to create solutions to movement
challenges
Follow rules when participating in
physical activities
Identify rules and play fairly when
participating in physical activities
Apply basic rules and scoring
systems, and demonstrate fair
play when participating
Demonstrate ethical behaviour
and fair play that aligns with the
rules when participating in a
range of physical activities
Modify rules and scoring systems
to allow for fair play, safety and
inclusive participation
Refect on how fair play and
ethical behaviour can infuence
the outcomes of movement
activities
Health and Physical Education
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The Australian Curriculum
Humanities and Social Sciences
- Civics and Citizenship
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Rationale and Aims
Civics and Citizenship is essential in enabling students to become active and informed citizens who participate in and sustain
Australia’s democracy. Through the study of Civics and Citizenship, students investigate political and legal systems, and explore
the nature of citizenship, diversity and identity in contemporary society.
The Australian Curriculum: Civics and Citizenship provides opportunities to develop students’ knowledge and understanding of
Australia's representative democracy and the key institutions, processes, and roles people play in Australia’s political and legal
systems. Emphasis is placed on Australia's federal system of government, derived from the Westminster system, and the liberal
democratic values that underpin it such as freedom, equality and the rule of law. The curriculum explores how the people, as
citizens, choose their governments; how the system safeguards democracy by vesting people with civic rights and
responsibilities; how laws and the legal system protect people’s rights; and how individuals and groups can influence civic life.
The curriculum recognises that Australia is a secular nation with a multicultural and multi-faith society, and promotes the
development of inclusivity by developing students’ understanding of broader values such as respect, civility, equity, justice and
responsibility. It acknowledges the experiences and contributions of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples and their
identities within contemporary Australia. While the curriculum strongly focuses on the Australian context, students also reflect on
Australia’s position, obligations and the role of the citizen today within an interconnected world.
Through the study of civics and citizenship, students can develop skills of inquiry, values and dispositions that enable them to
be active and informed citizens; to question, understand and contribute to the world in which they live. The curriculum also
offers opportunities for students to develop a wide range of general skills and capabilities, including an appreciation of diverse
perspectives, empathy, collaboration, negotiation, self-awareness and intercultural understanding.
The Civics and Citizenship curriculum aims to reinforce students’ appreciation and understanding of what it means to be a
citizen. It explores ways in which students can actively shape their lives, value their belonging in a diverse and dynamic society,
and positively contribute locally, nationally, regionally and globally. As reflective, active and informed decision-makers, students
will be well placed to contribute to an evolving and healthy democracy that fosters the wellbeing of Australia as a democratic
nation.
The Australian Curriculum: Civics and Citizenship aims to ensure students develop:
a lifelong sense of belonging to and engagement with civic life as an active and informed citizen in the context of Australia
as a secular democratic nation with a dynamic, multicultural and multi-faith society
knowledge, understanding and appreciation of the values, principles, institutions and practices of Australia’s system of
democratic government and law, and the role of the citizen in Australian government and society
skills − including questioning and research; analysis, synthesis and interpretation; problem solving and decision making;
communication and reflection − to investigate contemporary civics and citizenship, and foster responsible participation in
Australia’s democracy
the capacities and dispositions to participate in the civic life of their nation at a local, regional and global level.
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Organisation
The Years 3–10 Australian Curriculum: Civics and Citizenship is organised into two interrelated strands: Civics and Citizenship
Knowledge and Understanding, and Civics and Citizenship Skills.
Civics and Citizenship Knowledge and Understanding
The Civics and Citizenship Knowledge and Understanding strand comprises three key focus areas or sub-strands at each year
level: Government and democracy; Laws and citizens; and Citizenship, diversity and identity.
Government and democracy involves a study of Australian democracy and the key institutions, processes and roles people
play in Australia’s system of government. Laws and citizens examines Australia’s legal system, the creation of laws and the
rights and legal obligations of Australian citizens. Citizenship, diversity and identity explores the shared values of Australian
citizenship, Judeo-Christian traditions, the diversity of Australia as a multicultural and multi-faith society, and what shapes
identity.
Civics and Citizenship Skills
The Civics and Citizenship Skills strand focuses on the skills of questioning and research; analysis, synthesis and interpretation;
problem solving and decision making; and communication and reflection.
Questioning and research involves students asking questions about the society in which they live. Students identify, locate
and research a range of sources of information to investigate Australia’s political and legal systems. Analysis, synthesis and
interpretation engages students in applying critical thinking skills and developing and accounting for different points of view.
Problem solving and decision making involves students working collaboratively, negotiating and developing strategies to
resolve issues, and planning for action. In Communication and reflection students present ideas, viewpoints and arguments
based on evidence about civics and citizenship topics and issues using subject-specific language, and reflect on their cultural
identity, motivations, values and behaviours.
Civics and Citizenship Skills are described in bands of schooling at two-year intervals.
Relationship between the strands
The two strands are to be integrated in the development of a teaching and learning program. The Knowledge and
Understanding strand provides the content focus through which particular skills are to be developed. The sequencing and
description of the Civics and Citizenship Skills in two-year bands (3–4, 5–6, 7–8, 9–10) may assist in multi-age programming by
providing a common skills focus for the teaching and learning of the knowledge and understanding content.
Year level descriptions
Year level descriptions provide an overview of the content that is being studied at each year level. They also emphasise the
interrelated nature of the two strands and the expectation that planning will involve integration of content from across the
strands.
Key questions
Each year level includes key questions which provide a guiding framework for developing students’ Civics and Citizenship
knowledge, understanding and skills of inquiry.
Content descriptions
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The Australian Curriculum: Civics and Citizenship includes content descriptions at each year level. These describe the
knowledge, understanding and skills that teachers are expected to teach and students are expected to learn. However, they do
not prescribe approaches to teaching. The content descriptions have been written to ensure that learning is appropriately
ordered and that unnecessary repetition is avoided. However, a concept or skill introduced at one year level may be revisited,
strengthened and extended at later year levels as needed.
Content elaborations
Content elaborations are provided for each year level to illustrate and exemplify content and to assist teachers in developing a
common understanding of the content descriptions. They are not intended to be comprehensive content points that all students
need to be taught.
Glossary
A glossary is provided to support a common understanding of key terms and concepts in the content descriptions.
In the Australian Curriculum achievement standards describe what students are typically able to understand and do.
Achievement standards will describe the learning (understanding and skills) expected of students at each year level from F–10.
Across F–10 the set of achievement standards describe a broad sequence of expected learning. The sequence of achievement
standards provides teachers with a framework of growth and development in a curriculum area. This will assist teachers to plan
and monitor learning, and to make judgments about student achievement.
Achievement standards can support formative and summative assessment practices and aid consistency of assessment and
reporting across states and territories. For each subject the achievement standards will be accompanied by portfolios of
annotated work samples that illustrate the expected learning.
Complementing the year-by-year description of the curriculum, this section provides advice on the nature of learners and the
relevant curriculum across the following groupings:
Foundation – Year 2: typically students from 5 to 8 years of age
Years 3–6: typically students from 8 to 12 years of age
Years 7–10: typically students from 12 to 15 years of age.
Foundation – Year 2
While there is no formal Civics and Citizenship curriculum for these years of schooling, students will have opportunities to
develop relevant knowledge, understanding and skills in Foundation to Year 2 through other learning areas and subjects, as
well as the general capabilities. Students will have opportunities to learn about civics and citizenship themes and concepts such
as ‘rules’ as part of the school ethos/classroom setting, ‘relationships’, ‘responsibilities’, and interpersonal, communication and
language skills. Students will build on these understandings and skills as they commence study of the Australian Curriculum:
Civics and Citizenship in Year 3.
Year 3–6 curriculum focus
During these years of schooling, students typically begin to understand and recognise different points of view and draw on a
range of experiences to inform their thinking and decision making. Students develop a better awareness of justice and fair play
and they increasingly engage in discussions about community and national issues, with a focus on contemporary issues, in
order to consider why and for whom decisions are made. They have a broader awareness of the world beyond Australia’s
national borders.
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Through the Civics and Citizenship curriculum in Years 3 and 4, students develop their knowledge and understanding of how
decisions can be made democratically, the purpose of government, rules and laws, community participation, and identity. In
Years 5 and 6, students develop awareness of key aspects of Australia’s Anglo-Celtic heritage, including the Westminster
system, and knowledge and understanding of the key features and processes of Australia’s system of government. Students
examine civic issues and develop their understanding of citizenship in local, national, regional and global contexts, and the skills
that enable active and informed citizenship.
Year 7–10 curriculum focus
During these years of schooling, students typically develop a broader awareness of and concern with civics and citizenship
issues. Students are developing their capacities to think, act and engage with more abstract concepts, follow more complex
explanations, and challenge and debate ideas. Students develop increasing independence in critical thinking and skill
application. They further develop their awareness of global, regional, national and community issues and have a broader
awareness of individual and group civic identity, the rights and responsibilities of being a citizen, and how citizens can influence
governments.
Through the Civics and Citizenship curriculum in Years 7 and 8 students develop knowledge and understanding of Australia’s
political system, with particular emphasis on freedoms, representative democracy and the role of the constitution. They develop
an understanding of the key features of Australia’s legal system and the different sources of law used in Australia. Students also
learn about the diversity of Australian society and the importance of a national identity. In Years 9 and 10 students develop their
understanding of how Australia’s democracy operates and enables change, the key features and role of the court system and a
critical perspective on the influence of the media, including social media, within society. Students develop an understanding of
Australia’s roles and responsibilities at a global level and its international legal obligations. Students learn about the values and
practices that enable a resilient democracy to be sustained.
ACARA is committed to the development of a high-quality curriculum that promotes excellence and equity in education for all
Australian students.
All students are entitled to rigorous, relevant and engaging learning programs drawn from the Australian Curriculum: Civics and
Citizenship. Teachers take account of the range of their students’ current levels of learning, strengths, goals and interests and
make adjustments where necessary. The three-dimensional design of the Australian Curriculum, comprising learning areas,
general capabilities and cross-curriculum priorities, provides teachers with flexibility to cater for the diverse needs of students
across Australia and to personalise their learning.
More detailed advice for schools and teachers on using the Australian Curriculum to meet diverse learning needs is available
under Student Diversity on the Australian Curriculum website.
Students with disability
The Disability Discrimination Act 1992 and the Disability Standards for Education 2005 require education and training service
providers to support the rights of students with disability to access the curriculum on the same basis as students without
disability.
Many students with disability are able to achieve educational standards commensurate with their peers, as long as the
necessary adjustments are made to the way in which they are taught and to the means through which they demonstrate their
learning.
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In some cases curriculum adjustments are necessary to provide equitable opportunities for students to access age-equivalent
content in the Australian Curriculum: Civics and Citizenship. Teachers can draw from content at different levels along the Year 3
to Year 10 sequence. Teachers can also use the extended general capabilities learning continua in Literacy, Numeracy and
Personal and social capability to adjust the focus of learning according to individual student need.
English as an additional language or dialect
Students for whom English is an additional language or dialect (EAL/D) enter Australian schools at different ages and at
different stages of English language learning and have various educational backgrounds in their first languages. Whilst many
EAL/D students bring already highly developed literacy (and numeracy) skills in their own language to their learning of Standard
Australian English, there are a significant number of students who are not literate in their first language, and have had little or no
formal schooling.
While the aims of the Australian Curriculum: Civics and Citizenship are the same for all students, EAL/D students must achieve
these aims while simultaneously learning a new language and learning content and skills through that new language. These
students may require extra time and support, along with teaching that explicitly addresses their language needs. Students who
have had no formal schooling will need extra time and support in order to acquire skills for effective learning in formal settings.
A national English as an Additional Language or Dialect: Teacher Resource has been developed to support teachers in making
the Australian Curriculum across Foundation to Year 10 in each learning area accessible to EAL/D students.
Gifted and talented students
Teachers can use the Australian Curriculum: Civics and Citizenship flexibly to meet the individual learning needs of gifted and
talented students.
Teachers can enrich learning by providing students with opportunities to work with learning area content in more depth or
breadth; emphasising specific aspects of the general capabilities learning continua (for example, the higher order cognitive skills
of the Critical and creative thinking capability); and/or focusing on cross-curriculum priorities. Teachers can also accelerate
student learning by drawing on content from later levels in the Australian Curriculum: Civics and Citizenship and/or from local
state and territory teaching and learning materials.
In the Australian Curriculum, the general capabilities encompass the knowledge, skills, behaviours and dispositions that,
together with curriculum content in each learning area and the cross-curriculum priorities, will assist students to live and work
successfully in the twenty-first century.
There are seven general capabilities:
Literacy (LIT)
Numeracy (NUM)
Information and communication technology capability (ICT)
Critical and creative thinking (CCT)
Personal and social capability (PSC)
Ethical understanding (EU)
Intercultural understanding (ICU).
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In the Australian Curriculum: Civics and Citizenship, general capabilities are identified wherever they are developed or applied
in content descriptions. They are also identified where they offer opportunities to add depth and richness to student learning
through content elaborations. Teachers may find further opportunities to incorporate explicit teaching of the capabilities
depending on their choice of activities.
Literacy
Across the Australian Curriculum, students become literate as they develop the knowledge, skills and dispositions to interpret
and use language confidently for learning and communicating in and out of school and for participating effectively in society.
Literacy involves students in listening to, reading, viewing, speaking, writing and creating oral, print, visual and digital texts, and
using and modifying language for different purposes in a range of contexts.
In the Australian Curriculum: Civics and Citizenship students develop literacy capability as they research, read and analyse
sources of information on aspects of Australia’s political and legal systems and contemporary civics and citizenship issues.
They learn to understand and use language to discuss and communicate information, concepts and ideas related to the subject.
This involves learning to recognise how language can be used to manipulate meaning, distinguish between fact and opinion on
political and social issues, and communicate ideas, concepts and plans to a variety of audiences. Communication is critical in
Civics and Citizenship, in particular for articulating, debating and evaluating ideas and participating in group discussions.
Numeracy
Across the Australian Curriculum, students become numerate as they develop the knowledge and skills to use mathematics
confidently across all learning areas at school, and in their lives more broadly. Numeracy involves students in recognising and
understanding the role of mathematics in the world and having the dispositions and capacities to use mathematical knowledge
and skills purposefully.
In the Australian Curriculum: Civics and Citizenship students develop and apply numeracy knowledge and skills to analyse,
interpret and present information in numerical and graphical form. This includes investigating the voting process, researching
and using statistics on civics and citizenship topics and issues, conducting surveys among community members and
representing findings in graphs and charts.
Information and communication technology (ICT) capability
Across the Australian Curriculum, students develop ICT capability as they learn to use ICT effectively and appropriately to
access, create and communicate information and ideas; solve problems; and work collaboratively in all learning areas at school,
and in their lives beyond school. ICT capability involves students in learning to make the most of the technologies available to
them, adapting to new ways of doing things as technologies evolve, and limiting the risks to themselves and others in a digital
environment.
In the Australian Curriculum: Civics and Citizenship students develop the knowledge and skills to use digital technologies to
research and source information on civics and citizenship, including critically analysing that information. Students learn about
and have opportunities to use social media to collaborate, communicate, share information and build consensus on political,
legal and social issues. Students develop and apply ICT skills through organising and presenting information digitally using
multimodal elements.
Critical and creative thinking
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Across the Australian Curriculum, students develop capability in critical and creative thinking as they learn to generate and
evaluate knowledge, clarify concepts and ideas, seek possibilities, consider alternatives and solve problems. Critical and
creative thinking are integral to activities that require students to think broadly and deeply using skills, behaviours and
dispositions such as reason, logic, resourcefulness, imagination and innovation in all learning areas at school and in their lives
beyond school.
In the Australian Curriculum: Civics and Citizenship students develop critical thinking skills in their investigation of Australia’s
democratic system of government. They learn to apply decision making processes and use strategies to negotiate and resolve
differences. Students develop critical and creative thinking through the examination of political, legal and social issues that do
not have obvious or straightforward answers and that require problem solving and innovative solutions. Students consider
multiple perspectives and alternatives, think creatively about appropriate courses of action and develop plans for action. The
Civics and Citizenship curriculum stimulates students to think creatively about the impact of civic issues on their own lives and
the lives of others, and to consider how these issues might be addressed.
Personal and social capability
Across the Australian Curriculum, students develop personal and social capability as they learn to understand themselves and
others, and manage their relationships, lives, work and learning more effectively. The personal and social capability involves
students in a range of practices including recognising and regulating emotions, developing empathy for and understanding of
others, establishing positive relationships, making responsible decisions, working effectively in teams and handling challenging
situations constructively.
In the Australian Curriculum: Civics and Citizenship students are encouraged to develop and apply personal, interpersonal and
social skills, behaviours and dispositions, through working collaboratively and constructively in groups, developing their
communication, decision making, conflict resolution and leadership skills, and learning to appreciate the insights and
perspectives of others.
Ethical understanding
Across the Australian Curriculum, students develop ethical understanding as they identify and investigate ethical concepts,
values, character traits and principles, and understand how reasoning can assist ethical judgment. Ethical understanding
involves students in building a strong personal and socially oriented ethical outlook that helps them to manage context, conflict
and uncertainty, and to develop an awareness of the influence that their values and behaviour have on others.
In the Australian Curriculum: Civics and Citizenship, students discuss and apply ethical concepts such as equality, respect and
fairness, which underpin Australia’s democracy. They explore and analyse democratic values in particular contexts; for
example, evaluating the fairness of voting systems or particular government policies. Students explore different beliefs about
civics and citizenship issues and the consequences of particular decisions. They examine shared beliefs and values which
support Australian democracy and the rights and responsibilities of citizenship. Students develop the skills to recognise different
perspectives and have opportunities to explore ambiguities and ethical considerations related to political, legal and social
issues.
Intercultural understanding
Across the Australian Curriculum, students develop intercultural understanding as they learn to value their own cultures,
languages and beliefs, and those of others. They come to understand how personal, group and national identities are shaped,
and the variable and changing nature of culture. The capability involves students in learning about and engaging with diverse
cultures in ways that recognise commonalities and differences, create connections with others and cultivate mutual respect.
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In the Australian Curriculum: Civics and Citizenship, students investigate diverse cultural contexts and develop skills in being
able to see common issues through diverse cultural lenses. They explore the notion of citizenship, the contribution of diverse
cultural influences, and the critical role of shared beliefs and values in an evolving Australian identity. They recognise similarities
as well as differences within and across cultural groups, and the importance of practising empathy and facilitating dialogue to
understand different perspectives. They explore how people interact across cultural boundaries and consider how factors such
as group membership, traditions, customs and religious and cultural practices impact on civic life.
The Australian Curriculum is designed to meet the needs of students by delivering a relevant, contemporary and engaging
curriculum that builds on the educational goals of the Melbourne Declaration. The Melbourne Declaration identified three key
areas that need to be addressed for the benefit of individuals and Australia as a whole. In the Australian Curriculum these have
become priorities that provide students with the tools and language to engage with and better understand their world at a range
of levels. The priorities provide dimensions which will enrich the curriculum through development of considered and focused
content that fits naturally within learning areas. They enable the delivery of learning area content at the same time as developing
knowledge, understanding and skills relating to:
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures
Asia and Australia’s engagement with Asia
Sustainability.
Cross-curriculum priorities are addressed through learning areas and are identified wherever they are developed or applied in
content descriptions. They are also identified where they offer opportunities to add depth and richness to student learning in
content elaborations. They will have a strong but varying presence depending on their relevance to the learning area.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures
Across the Australian Curriculum, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures priority provides opportunities
for all learners to deepen their knowledge of Australia by engaging with the world’s oldest continuous living cultures. Students
will understand that contemporary Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities are strong, resilient, rich and diverse. The
knowledge and understanding gained through this priority will enhance the ability of young people to participate positively in the
ongoing development of Australia.
The Australian Curriculum: Civics and Citizenship values Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories, cultures and
perspectives. Students are introduced to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander customary law and develop an understanding of
contemporary Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples’ experiences of Australia’s legal system. They examine the unique
identities of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples and how they shape national Australian identity. They consider how
these communities are maintaining and developing their identities and what this means for Australia as a whole.
Asia and Australia’s engagement with Asia
Across the Australian Curriculum, this priority will ensure that students learn about and recognise the diversity within and
between the countries of the Asia region. Students develop knowledge and understanding of Asian societies, cultures, beliefs,
and environments, and the connections between the peoples of Asia, Australia, and the rest of the world. Asia literacy provides
students with the skills to communicate and engage with the peoples of Asia so they can effectively live, work and learn in the
region.
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In the Australian Curriculum: Civics and Citizenship, the priority of Asia and Australia’s engagement with Asia provides rich and
engaging opportunities for developing students’ civics and citizenship knowledge, understanding and skills. In particular, the
curriculum recognises that Australia’s engagement with Asia has the capacity to build understanding and appreciation of
diversity within Australian society and contribute to harmonious local, regional and global communities. In examining what
shapes personal and national identity, students are encouraged to investigate the cultural or religious groups to which
Australians of Asian heritage belong. In studying Australian citizenship, students have an opportunity to explore the experiences
of people of Asian heritage who have migrated to Australia and taken up Australian citizenship. Students can also have
opportunities to reflect on how Australians can participate in the Asia region as active and informed citizens.
Sustainability
Across the Australian Curriculum, the Sustainability priority allows young Australians to develop the knowledge, skills, values
and worldviews necessary for them to act in ways that contribute to more sustainable patterns of living. Education for
sustainability enables individuals and communities to reflect on ways of interpreting and engaging with the world. The
Sustainability priority is futures-oriented, focusing on protecting environments and creating a more ecologically and socially just
world through informed action. Actions that support more sustainable patterns of living require consideration of environmental,
social, cultural and economic systems and their interdependence.
In the Australian Curriculum: Civics and Citizenship, the priority of Sustainability can provide a context for developing students’
civics and citizenship knowledge, understanding and skills. In the knowledge and understanding strand, students have the
opportunity to explore sustainability issues as they relate to government services and the different levels of government. They
develop the understanding that sustaining a resilient democracy depends on the informed participation of its citizens, and
develop skills and dispositions to support active citizenship. They explore contemporary issues and develop action plans and
possible solutions to local, national and global issues which have social, economic and environmental perspectives.
The Australian Curriculum: Civics and Citizenship takes an integrated approach to the study of ‘civics’ with the study of
‘citizenship’ and provides opportunities to develop teaching and learning programs that cater for local needs and interests. It
emphasises inquiry-based teaching and learning.
Students’ interest in and enjoyment of civics and citizenship can be enhanced through active participation in school and
community activities, for example, student governance, community service programs, parliamentary education programs, and
the work of non-government organisations (including at the regional and international level).
Teachers use the Australian Curriculum content and achievement standards first to identify current levels of learning and
achievement and then to select the most appropriate content (possibly from across several year levels) to teach individual
students and/or groups of students. This takes into account that in each class there may be students with a range of prior
achievement and that teachers plan to build on current learning.
Teachers also use the achievement standards, at the end of a period of teaching, to make on-balance judgments about the
quality of learning demonstrated by the students. To make these judgments, teachers draw on assessment data that they have
collected as evidence during the course of the teaching period. These judgments about the quality of learning are one source of
feedback to students and their parents and inform formal reporting processes.
Assessment of the Australian Curriculum takes place in different levels and for different purposes, including:
ongoing formative assessment within classrooms for the purposes of monitoring learning and providing feedback, to
teachers to inform their teaching, and for students to inform their learning
summative assessment for the purposes of twice-yearly reporting by schools to parents and carers on the progress and
achievement of students
annual testing of Years 3, 5, 7 and 9 for students’ levels of achievement in aspects of literacy and numeracy, conducted
as part of the National Assessment Program – Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN)
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periodic sample testing of specific learning areas within the Australian Curriculum as part of the National Assessment
Program (NAP).
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Year 3-10 Australian Curriculum: Civics and Citizenship Page 1 of 4
Civics and Citizenship Knowledge and Understanding Scope and Sequence: Year 3 – 10


Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Year 7 Year 8 Year 9 Year 10
K
e
y

i
n
q
u
i
r
y

q
u
e
s
t
i
o
n
s

How are decisions
made
democratically?
Why do we make
rules?
How can I
participate in my
community?
How can local
government
contribute to
community life?
What is the
difference between
rules and laws and
why are they
important?
How has my
identity been
shaped by the
groups to which I
belong?
What is democracy
in Australia and
why is voting in a
democracy
important?
How do laws affect
the lives of
citizens?
How and why do
people participate
in groups to
achieve shared
goals?
What are the roles
and responsibilities
of the different
levels of
government in
Australia?
How are laws
developed in
Australia?
What does it mean
to be an Australian
citizen?
How is Australia’s
system of
democratic
government shaped
by the Constitution?
What principles of
justice help to
protect the
individual’s rights to
justice in Australia’s
system of law?
How is Australia a
diverse society and
what factors
contribute to a
cohesive society?
What are the
freedoms and
responsibilities of
citizens in
Australia’s
democracy?
How are laws made
and applied in
Australia?
What different
perspectives are
there about national
identity?
What influences
shape the operation
of Australia's
political system?
How does
Australia's court
system work in
support of a
democratic and just
society?
How do citizens
participate in an
interconnected
world?
How is Australia’s
democracy defined
and shaped by the
global context?
How are
government policies
shaped by
Australia’s
international legal
obligations?
What are the
features of a
resilient
democracy?

Government and democracy
C
o
n
t
e
n
t

d
e
s
c
r
i
p
t
i
o
n
s

How and why
decisions are made
democratically in
communities
The purpose of
government and
some familiar
services provided
at the local level
The key values that
underpin Australia’s
democratic system
of government
The key institutions
of Australia’s
democratic system
of government
based on the
Westminster
system, including
the monarchy,
parliaments, and
courts
The purpose and
value of the
Australian
Constitution
The freedoms that
enable active
participation in
Australia’s
democracy within
the bounds of the
law, including
freedom of speech,
association,
assembly, religion,
and movement
The role of political
parties, and
independent
representatives in
Australia’s system
of government,
including the
formation of
governments
The key features
and values of
Australia’s system
of government
compared with
ONE other system
of government in
the Asia region
The roles and
responsibilities of
electors and
The roles and
responsibilities of
the three levels of
The key features of
government under
the Australian
How citizens can
participate in
Australia’s
How citizens’
choices are shaped
at election time,
Australia’s role and
responsibilities at a
global level, for
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Year 3-10 Australian Curriculum: Civics and Citizenship Page 2 of 4

Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Year 7 Year 8 Year 9 Year 10
representatives in
Australia’s
democracy
government,
including shared
roles and
responsibilities
within Australia’s
federal system
Constitution with a
focus on: the
separation of
powers; the roles of
the Houses of
Parliament; and the
division of powers
democracy,
including use of the
electoral system,
contact with their
elected
representatives,
use of lobby
groups, and direct
action
including the
influence of the
media
example provision
of foreign aid,
peacekeeping,
participation in
international
organisations and
the United Nations
The key features of
the Australian
electoral process
The process for
constitutional
change through a
referendum

Laws and citizens
How and why
people make rules
The differences
between ‘rules’ and
‘laws’

How laws affect the
lives of citizens,
including
experiences of
Aboriginal and
Torres Strait
Islander Peoples
How state/territory
and federal laws
are initiated and
passed through
parliament
How Australia’s
legal system aims
to provide justice,
through the rule of
law, presumption of
innocence, burden
of proof, right to a
fair trial and right to
legal representation
How laws are made
in Australia through
parliaments
(statutory law) and
through the courts
(common law)
The key features of
Australia’s court
system, including
jurisdictions and
how courts apply
and interpret the
law, resolve
disputes and make
law through
judgements
The role of the High
Court, including in
interpreting the
Constitution
Why laws are
important
The roles and
responsibilities of
key personnel in
law enforcement
and in the legal
system
The types of law in
Australia, including
criminal law and
civil law; and the
place of Aboriginal
and Torres Strait
Islander customary
law
The key principles
of Australia’s justice
system, including
equality before the
law, independent
judiciary, and right
of appeal
How Australia’s
international legal
obligations shape
Australian law and
government
policies, including in
relation to
Aboriginal and
Torres Strait
Page 70 of 252

Year 3-10 Australian Curriculum: Civics and Citizenship Page 3 of 4

Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Year 7 Year 8 Year 9 Year 10
Islander Peoples
Citizenship, diversity and identity
Why people
participate within
communities and
how students can
actively participate
and contribute
How a person’s
identity can be
shaped by the
different cultural,
religious and/or
social groups to
which they may
belong
Why people work in
groups to achieve
their aims, and how
they can express
their shared beliefs
and values and
exercise influence
Who can be an
Australian Citizen;
the formal rights
and responsibilities,
and shared values
of Australian
Citizenship
How Australia is a
secular nation and
a multi-faith society
Judeo-Christian
traditions of
Australian society
and religions
practised in
contemporary
Australia
How and why
groups, including
religious groups,
participate in civic
life
The challenges to,
and ways of
sustaining, a
resilient democracy
and cohesive
society
The obligations
citizens may
consider they have
beyond their own
national borders as
active and informed
global citizens
How values,
including freedom,
respect, inclusion,
civility,
responsibility,
compassion,
equality and a ‘fair
go’, can promote
cohesion within
Australian society
Different
perspectives about
Australia’s national
identity, including
Aboriginal and
Torres Strait
Islander
perspectives, and
what it means to be
Australian
The influence of a
range of media,
including social
media, in shaping
identities and
attitudes to diversity

How groups,
including Aboriginal
and Torres Strait
Islander Peoples,
express their
particular identities;
how this influences
their perceptions of
others, and others’
perception of them
How national
identity can shape
a sense of
belonging in
Australia’s
multicultural society
How ideas about
and experiences of
Australian identity
are influenced by
global
connectedness and
mobility

Page 71 of 252

Year 3-10 Australian Curriculum: Civics and Citizenship Page 4 of 4
Civics and Citizenship skills scope and sequence: Year 3 to Year 10
Years 3 and 4
Years 5 and 6 Years 7 and 8 Years 9 and 10
Questioning and Research
Pose questions about the society in which
they live
Develop questions and gather a range of
information to investigate the society in
which they live
Develop a range of questions to
investigate Australia's political and legal
systems
Develop, select and evaluate a range of
questions to investigate Australia's political
and legal systems
Identify, gather and sort information and
ideas from a range of sources
Identify, gather and sort information and
ideas from a range of sources and
reference as appropriate
Analysis, synthesis and interpretation
Distinguish facts from opinions in relation
to civics and citizenship topics and issues
Identify over-generalised statements in
relation to civics and citizenship topics and
issues
Critically analyse information and ideas
from a range of sources in relation to
civics and citizenship topics and issues
Critically evaluate information and ideas
from a range of sources in relation to
civics and citizenship topics and issues
Use information to develop a point of view Use and evaluate a range of information to
develop a point of view
Account for different interpretations and
points of view
Problem-solving and decision-making
Interact with others with respect, share
views and recognise there are different
points of view
Interact with others with respect, identify
different points of view and share personal
perspectives and opinions
Appreciate multiple perspectives and use
strategies to mediate differences
Recognise and consider multiple
perspectives and ambiguities, and use
strategies to negotiate and resolve
contentious issues
Work in groups to identify issues, possible
solutions and a plan for action
Work in groups to identify issues and
develop possible solutions and plan for
action using decision-making processes
Use democratic processes to reach
consensus on a course of action relating
to a civics or citizenship issue and plan for
that action
Use democratic processes to reach
consensus on a course of action relating
to a civics or citizenship issue and plan for
that action
Communication and reflection
Present ideas and opinions on civics and
citizenship topics and issues using civics
and citizenship terms
Present civics and citizenship ideas and
viewpoints for a particular purpose using
civics and citizenship terms and concepts
Present evidence-based civics and
citizenship arguments using subject-
specific language
Present evidence-based civics and
citizenship arguments using subject-
specific language
Reflect on their cultural identity and how it
might be similar and different from others
Reflect on personal roles and actions as a
citizen in the school and in the community
Reflect on their role as a citizen in
Australia’s democracy
Reflect on their role as a citizen in
Australian, regional and global contexts
Page 72 of 252
The Australian Curriculum
Humanities and Social Sciences
- Economics and Business
Page 73 of 252
Rationale and Aims
Economics and Business explores the ways individuals, families, the community, businesses and governments make decisions
in relation to the allocation of resources. It aims to enable students to understand the process of economic and business
decision-making and its effects on themselves and others, now and in the future.
The study of economics and business develops the knowledge, understanding and skills that will inform students about the
economy and encourage them to participate in and contribute to it. The curriculum examines those aspects of economics and
business that underpin decision-making at personal, local, national, regional and global levels. Students learn to appreciate the
interdependence of decisions made, as well as the effects of these decisions on consumers, businesses, governments and
other economies.
The Economics and Business curriculum is informed by four organising ideas that help in developing students’ economics and
business knowledge, understanding and skills: resource allocation and making choices; the business environment; consumer
and financial literacy; and work and work futures. At the same time, students are exposed to and encouraged to develop
enterprising behaviours and capabilities such as embracing change; seeking innovation; working with others; showing initiative,
flexibility and leadership; using new technologies; planning and organising; managing risk; and using resources efficiently. In
studying economics and business students will develop transferable skills that enable them to identify contemporary economic
and business issues or events; investigate these by collecting and interpreting relevant information and data; apply economic
and business reasoning and concepts to make informed decisions; and reflect on, evaluate and communicate their conclusions.
By developing economics and business knowledge, understanding and skills, students will be better placed now and in their
adult lives to actively and effectively participate in economic and business activities. This will enable them to contribute to the
development of prosperous, sustainable and equitable Australian and global economies, and to secure their own financial
wellbeing.
The Year 5–10 Australian Curriculum: Economics and Business aims to develop students’:
enterprising behaviours and capabilities that can be transferable into life, work and business opportunities and will
contribute to the development and prosperity of individuals and society
understanding of the ways society allocates limited resources to satisfy needs and wants, and how they participate in the
economy as consumers, workers and producers
understanding of the work and business environments within the Australian economy and its interactions and relationships
with the global economy, in particular the Asia region
reasoning and interpretation skills to apply economics and business concepts to make informed decisions
understanding of economics and business decision-making and its role in creating a prosperous, sustainable and
equitable economy for all Australians
understandings that will enable them to actively and ethically participate in the local, national, regional and global
economy as economically, financially and business-literate citizens
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Organisation
The Australian Curriculum: Economics and Business is organised in two related strands: Economics and Business Knowledge
and Understanding, and Economics and Business Skills.
In both these strands, the study of economics and business issues, events and business case studies form an integral
component of the curriculum. A focus on contemporary issues, events and business case studies stimulates student interest
and curiosity. The content is intended to be taught through a relevant context, which will help students make the connections
between what they are learning in class and events or issues that are happening in their local area, Australia and the world.
Both strands also focus on developing enterprising behaviours and capabilities. Through the study of economics and business,
students will develop their understanding of the importance and role of enterprising behaviours and capabilities at an individual
and business level. They will also be encouraged to develop the capabilities that will enable them to actively participate in the
economy, now and in the future.
Enterprising behaviours and capabilities refer to the suite of skills, attributes and behaviours that allow individuals to engage in
and contribute to the economic wellbeing of society. Broadly, they encourage students to be adaptable, demonstrate initiative,
solve problems and take on leadership roles in all aspects of life. In a constantly changing world, enterprising behaviours and
capabilities provide individuals with the necessary skills to manage change. Students develop and practise skills and attributes
in the context of economics and business including accepting challenges, showing initiative, accepting responsibility, developing
economic and business vocabulary, working sustainably, being socially responsible, setting goals, and negotiating solutions;
and using associated behaviours such as working with others, planning and organising, reflecting and reviewing performance,
analysing economic and business issues, taking opportunities and making decisions.
Economics and Business Knowledge and Understanding
Economics and business knowledge refers to the facts, principles, theories and models developed in Economics and Business.
Economics and business understanding is the ability to see the relationships between concepts and the interdependence of
sectors of the economy.
The Economics and Business Knowledge and Understanding strand comprises four key organising ideas: resource allocation
and making choices; the business environment; consumer and financial literacy; and work and work futures.
Resource allocation and making choices focuses on the process of using available, limited resources for competing alternative
uses that satisfy society’s unlimited needs. As every need and want cannot be satisfied with available resources, choices must
be made about how resources are allocated most effectively, based on the actions of consumers, producers and governments.
The business environment examines the ways businesses operate at many levels, and the ways they respond to opportunities
and changing circumstances and conditions. As businesses operate in markets, the decisions they make have social, economic
and environmental consequences.
Consumer and financial literacy explores the role of making responsible and informed decisions about consumer issues and
managing money and assets, and how these decisions affect the individual’s and the community’s quality of life, sense of
security and awareness of future options.
Work and work futures focuses on work and the work environment and the contribution of work to individual and collective
wellbeing. It explores the factors that influence the work environment now and into the future and the rights and responsibilities
of participants in the work environment.
Economics and Business Skills
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The Economics and Business Skills strand focuses on the skills of questioning and research; interpretation and analysis;
economic reasoning, decision-making and application; and communication and reflection.
Questioning and research involves students asking questions about a contemporary issue or event and planning and
conducting investigations. Students gather information and data from a range of sources to investigate the issue or event .
Interpretation and analysis engages students in transforming and critically examining information and data and accounting for
different perspectives.
Economic reasoning, decision-making and application involves students making informed decisions using economic reasoning
and applying economics and business knowledge, skills and concepts to familiar and new situations.
In Communication and reflection students present findings, arguments and evidence-based conclusions using subject-specific
language, concepts and conventions and reflect on the intended and unintended consequences of decisions.
Economics and Business Skills are described in bands of schooling at two-year intervals.
Relationship between the strands
The two strands are integral to the development of a teaching and learning program. The Economics and Business Knowledge
and Understanding strand provides the content focus through which particular skills are to be developed. It is developed year by
year. The sequencing and description of the Economics and Business Skills in two-year bands (5–6, 7–8, 9–10) may help in
multi-age programming by providing a common skills focus for the teaching and learning of the knowledge and understanding
content.
Contemporary economic and/or business events, issues and case studies are used to provide the context for learning
knowledge and understanding and the development of skills.
Year-level descriptions
Year-level descriptions provide an overview of the content that is being studied at each year level. The descriptions identify the
key economics and business concepts that are to be the focus for teaching and articulate how students’ economics and
business knowledge, understanding and skills will be developed. They also emphasise the interrelated nature of the two strands
and the expectation that planning will involve integration of content from across the strands.
Key questions
Each year level includes key questions which provide a guiding framework for developing students’ economics and business
knowledge, understanding and skills of inquiry.
Content descriptions
The Years 5–10 Australian Curriculum: Economics and Business includes content descriptions at each year level. These set out
the knowledge, understanding and skills that teachers are expected to teach and students are expected to learn. However, they
do not prescribe approaches to teaching. The content descriptions have been written to ensure that learning is appropriately
ordered. Economics and business concepts and skills are introduced early in the curriculum; their complexity increases as
students move through the year levels.
Content elaborations
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Content elaborations are provided for Year 5 to Year 10 to illustrate and exemplify content and to assist teachers in developing
a common understanding of the content descriptions. They are not intended to be comprehensive content points that all
students need to be taught.
Glossary
A glossary is provided to support a common understanding of key terms and concepts included in the content descriptions.
In the Australian Curriculum achievement standards describe what students are typically able to understand and do.
Achievement standards describe the learning (understanding and skills) expected of students at each year level from F–10.
Across F–10 the set of achievement standards describe a broad sequence of expected learning. The sequence of achievement
standards provides teachers with a framework of growth and development in a curriculum area. This will help teachers to plan
and monitor learning, and to make judgments about student achievement.
Achievement standards can support formative and summative assessment practices and aid consistency of assessment and
reporting across states and territories. For each subject the achievement standards will be accompanied by portfolios of
annotated work samples that illustrate the expected learning.
Complementing the year-by-year description of the curriculum, this section provides advice on the nature of learners and the
relevant curriculum across the following groupings:
Foundation – Year 4: typically students from 5 to 10 years of age
Years 5–6: typically students from 10 to 12 years of age
Years 7–10: typically students from 12 to 15 years of age.
Foundation – Year 4
While there is no formal economics and business curriculum for these years of schooling, students will have opportunities to
begin to develop relevant knowledge, understanding and skills in Foundation to Year 4 through other learning areas and
subjects. They may also bring a basic understanding of concepts such as scarcity through their experience of selecting between
alternatives when making everyday decisions about spending money or using time. In the Australian Curriculum, students will
have opportunities to develop skills in decision-making, working cooperatively in group situations, and basic money and financial
mathematics. Students will build on these understandings and skills as they commence study of the Australian Curriculum:
Economics and Business in Year 5.
Year 5–6 curriculum focus
During these years of schooling, students draw on a range of experiences to inform their thinking and decision-making. Their
interests extend beyond their own communities and they develop a broader awareness of national and regional issues.
In these years students are introduced to the concepts of scarcity and opportunity cost at an age-appropriate level. They learn
about the need to make choices because of unlimited wants and limited resources and begin to understand why decisions about
the alternative use of resources involve trade-offs. They explore the various factors that may influence them when making
decisions and begin to develop personal consumer and financial strategies to help them make informed decisions. They
consider the effect of their decisions on individuals, the community and the environment. Students are introduced to the
business environment by considering the different ways businesses provide goods and services to satisfy the needs and wants
of society.
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Specific economics and business skills in Year 5–6 include developing questions related to local economic and business issues
or events, planning investigations and undertaking research, using interpretation skills to do simple analysis, applying economic
reasoning and economics and business concepts to familiar situations, and communicating the conclusions formed.
Year 7–10 curriculum focus
During these years, students begin to see themselves as active members in community, business and economic life, and are
often concerned about and further develop their awareness of local, national, regional and global social and environmental
issues.
Specific economics and business skills in Years 7–10 emphasise interpretation and analysis of economic and business data
and/or information, economic reasoning and decision-making, the application of concepts to new situations, drawing
conclusions based on evidence, the communication of these conclusions in different formats, and reflecting on the
consequences of economic and business decisions.
Year 7 and 8
In Year 7 and 8 students develop an understanding of the way the market system operates in Australia, the interdependence of
consumers and producers in the market, and why governments may influence the market’s operation. Students consider factors
that influence individual, business and financial success. They examine the rights, responsibilities and opportunities that arise
for businesses, consumers and governments. Work and work futures are also introduced as students consider why people
work, how they derive an income and the influences on the way people work now and in the future.
Year 9 and 10
In each of these years, students are expected to be taught the content through contemporary issues, events and/or case
studies. Teachers will design programs that cover different contexts (personal, local, national, regional, global), and meet the
needs and requirements of their students.
In Years 9 and 10 students build on their understanding of the ways decisions are made about the allocation of resources by
considering the Australian economy, its place in the broader global economy and the interdependence of participants in the
global economy. They explore reasons for variations in the performance of economies and investigate the role of governments
in managing economic performance to improve living standards. They explore how businesses respond to changing economic
conditions and consider different strategies that can be used by consumers, businesses and governments to improve economic,
business and financial outcomes. They learn about the roles and responsibilities of participants in the workplace, including the
way that businesses can manage their workforce to improve productivity.
ACARA is committed to the development of a high-quality curriculum that promotes excellence and equity in education for all
Australian students.
All students are entitled to rigorous, relevant and engaging learning programs drawn from the Australian Curriculum: Economics
and Business. Teachers take account of the range of their students’ current levels of learning, strengths, goals and interests and
make adjustments where necessary. The three-dimensional design of the Australian Curriculum, comprising learning areas,
general capabilities and cross-curriculum priorities, provides teachers with flexibility to cater for the diverse needs of students
across Australia and to personalise their learning.
More detailed advice for schools and teachers on using the Australian Curriculum to meet diverse learning needs is available
under Student Diversity on the Australian Curriculum website.
Students with disability
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The Disability Discrimination Act 1992 and the Disability Standards for Education 2005 require education and training service
providers to support the rights of students with disability to access the curriculum on the same basis as students without
disability.
Many students with disability are able to achieve educational standards commensurate with their peers, as long as the
necessary adjustments are made to the way in which they are taught and to the means through which they demonstrate their
learning.
In some cases curriculum adjustments are necessary to provide equitable opportunities for students to access age-equivalent
content in the Australian Curriculum: Economics and Business. Teachers can draw from content at different levels along the
Year 5 to Year 10 sequence. Teachers can also use the extended general capabilities learning continua in Literacy, Numeracy
and Personal and social capability to adjust the focus of learning according to individual student need.
English as an additional language or dialect
Students for whom English is an additional language or dialect (EAL/D) enter Australian schools at different ages and at
different stages of English language learning and have various educational backgrounds in their first languages. Whilst many
EAL/D students bring already highly developed literacy (and numeracy) skills in their own language to their learning of Standard
Australian English, there are a significant number of students who are not literate in their first language, and have had little or no
formal schooling.
While the aims of the Australian Curriculum: Economics and Business are the same for all students, EAL/D students must
achieve these aims while simultaneously learning a new language and learning content and skills through that new language.
These students may require extra time and support, along with teaching that explicitly addresses their language needs.
Students who have had no formal schooling will need extra time and support in order to acquire skills for effective learning in
formal settings.
A national English as an Additional Language or Dialect: Teacher Resource has been developed to support teachers in making
the Australian Curriculum across Foundation to Year 10 in each learning area accessible to EAL/D students.
Gifted and talented students
Teachers can use the Australian Curriculum: Economics and Business flexibly to meet the individual learning needs of gifted
and talented students.
Teachers can enrich learning by providing students with opportunities to work with learning area content in more depth or
breadth; emphasising specific aspects of the general capabilities learning continua (for example the higher order cognitive skills
of the Critical and creative thinking capability); and/or focusing on cross-curriculum priorities. Teachers can also accelerate
student learning by drawing on content from later levels in the Australian Curriculum: Economics and Business and/or from local
state and territory teaching and learning materials.
In the Australian Curriculum, the general capabilities encompass the knowledge, skills, behaviours and dispositions that
together with curriculum content in each learning area and the cross-curriculum priorities will assist students to live and work
successfully in the twenty-first century.
There are seven general capabilities:
Literacy
Numeracy
Information and communication technology (ICT) capability
Critical and creative thinking
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Personal and social capability
Ethical understanding
Intercultural understanding.
In the Australian Curriculum: Economics and Business general capabilities are identified wherever they are developed or
applied in content descriptions. They are also identified where they offer opportunities to add depth and richness to student
learning through content elaborations. Icons indicate where general capabilities have been identified in economics and business
content. Teachers may find further opportunities to incorporate explicit teaching of the capabilities depending on their choice of
activities.
Literacy
Across the Australian Curriculum, students become literate as they develop the knowledge, skills and dispositions to interpret
and use language confidently for learning and communicating in and out of school and for participating effectively in society.
Literacy involves students in listening to, reading, viewing, speaking, writing and creating oral, print, visual and digital texts, and
using and modifying language for different purposes in a range of contexts.
In Economics and Business, students learn to examine and interpret a variety of economics and business data and/or
information. They will learn to use effectively the specialised language and terminology of economics and business when
applying concepts to contemporary issues and events, and communicating conclusions to a range of audiences through a range
of multimodal approaches. Students learn to make increasingly sophisticated language choices and comprehend and create an
increasing range of texts involving economics and business issues and events. They participate in debates and discussions
developing a considered point of view when communicating conclusions.
Numeracy
Across the Australian Curriculum, students become numerate as they develop the knowledge and skills to use mathematics
confidently across all learning areas at school and in their lives more broadly. Numeracy involves students in recognising and
understanding the role of mathematics in the world and having the dispositions and capacities to use mathematical knowledge
and skills purposefully.
In Economics and Business, students use numeracy to understand the principles of financial management, and to make
informed financial and business decisions. They apply their numeracy knowledge and skills to display, interpret and analyse
economics and business data, draw conclusions, make predictions and forecast outcomes. Through the study of economics and
business, students appreciate the ways numeracy knowledge and skills are used in society and apply these to hypothetical
and/or real-life experiences.
Information and communication technology (ICT) capability
Across the Australian Curriculum, students develop ICT capability as they learn to use ICT effectively and appropriately to
access, create and communicate information and ideas, solve problems and work collaboratively in all learning areas at school
and in their lives beyond school. The capability involves students in learning to make the most of the technologies available to
them, adapting new ways of doing things as technologies evolve, and limiting the risks to themselves and others in a digital
environment.
In Economics and Business, students develop ICT capability when they access and use digital technologies as an investigative
and creative tool. They locate, evaluate, research, plan, share and display data and/or information. Using digital technologies,
students create, communicate and present economics and business data and information for a variety of reasons and
audiences.
Critical and creative thinking
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Across the Australian Curriculum, students develop capability in critical and creative thinking as they learn to generate and
evaluate knowledge, clarify concepts and ideas, seek possibilities, consider alternatives and solve problems. Critical and
creative thinking are integral to activities that require students to think broadly and deeply using skills, behaviours and
dispositions such as reason, logic, resourcefulness, imagination and innovation in all learning areas at school and in their lives
beyond school.
In Economics and Business, students develop their critical and creative thinking as they identify, explore and determine
questions to clarify economics and business issues and/or events and apply reasoning, interpretation and analytical skills to
data and/or information. They develop enterprising behaviours and capabilities to imagine possibilities, consider alternatives,
test hypotheses, and seek and create innovative solutions to economic and business issues and/or events.
Personal and social capability
Across the Australian Curriculum, students develop personal and social capability as they learn to understand themselves and
others, and manage their relationships, lives, work and learning more effectively. The capability involves students in a range of
practices including recognising and regulating emotions, developing empathy for and understanding of others, establishing
positive relationships, making responsible decisions, working effectively in teams and handling challenging situations
constructively.
In Economics and Business, students learn to appreciate the effects of economic and business decisions, and the effect of
these on their lives and those of others. They develop and use personal and social skills and enterprising behaviours and
capabilities such as leadership and initiative, developing and maintaining positive relationships, negotiating and resolving
conflict and making informed and responsible decisions, while working independently or collaboratively to achieve desired
outcomes.
Ethical understanding
Across the Australian Curriculum, students develop capability in ethical understanding as they identify and investigate the
nature of ethical concepts, values, character traits and principles, and understand how reasoning can assist ethical judgment.
Ethical understanding involves students in building a strong personal and socially oriented ethical outlook that helps them to
manage context, conflict and uncertainty, and to develop an awareness of the influence that their values and behaviour have on
others.
In Economics and Business, students develop informed, ethical values and attitudes and become aware of their own roles,
rights and responsibilities as participants in the economy. Students also develop an understanding of the ethical considerations
that may be involved in making economics and business decisions and their implications for individuals, society and the
environment.
Intercultural understanding
Across the Australian Curriculum, students develop intercultural understanding as they learn to value their own cultures,
languages and beliefs, and those of others. They come to understand how personal, group and national identities are shaped,
and that culture is variable and can change. The capability involves students in learning about and engaging with diverse
cultures in ways that recognise commonalities and differences, create connections with others and cultivate mutual respect.
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In Economics and Business, students develop an understanding and appreciation of the different ways other countries respond
to economic and business issues and events. They consider the effects of decisions made by consumers, producers,
businesses and governments in Australia on other countries, and the way decisions in other countries affect the Australian
economy.
The Australian Curriculum is designed to meet the needs of students by delivering a relevant, contemporary and engaging
curriculum that builds on the educational goals of the Melbourne Declaration. The Melbourne Declaration identified three key
areas that need to be addressed for the benefit of individuals and Australia as a whole. In the Australian Curriculum these have
become priorities that provide students with the tools and language to engage with and better understand their world at a range
of levels. The priorities provide dimensions which will enrich the curriculum through development of considered and focused
content that fits naturally within learning areas. They enable the delivery of learning area content at the same time as developing
knowledge, understanding and skills relating to:
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures
Asia and Australia’s engagement with Asia
Sustainability.
Cross-curriculum priorities are addressed through learning areas and are identified wherever they are developed or applied in
content descriptions. They are also identified where they offer opportunities to add depth and richness to student learning in
content elaborations. They will have a strong but varying presence depending on their relevance to the learning area.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures
Across the Australian Curriculum, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures priority provides opportunities
for all learners to deepen their knowledge of Australia by engaging with the world’s oldest continuous living cultures. Students
will understand that contemporary Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities are strong, resilient, rich and diverse. The
knowledge and understanding gained through this priority will enhance the ability of all young people to participate positively in
the ongoing development of Australia.
The Australian Curriculum: Economics and Business values Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories, cultures and
perspectives.
In Economics and Business the priority of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures provides engaging and
diverse learning contexts for students to value and appreciate the past and present enterprising behaviours of the world’s oldest
continuous living cultures. In Economics and Business, students explore how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples
apply a range of traditional, contemporary and emerging economic practices to purposefully build and/or maintain cultural,
community and economic capacity. The curriculum enables students to identify, explore, understand and analyse the
interconnectedness between People, Culture and Country/Place and past and present economic activities.
Asia and Australia’s engagement with Asia
Across the Australian Curriculum, this priority will ensure that students learn about and recognise the diversity within and
between the countries of the Asia region. They will develop knowledge and understanding of Asian societies, cultures, beliefs
and environments, and the connections between the peoples of Asia, Australia, and the rest of the world. Asia literacy provides
students with the skills to communicate and engage with the peoples of Asia so they can effectively live, work and learn in the
region.
In the Australian Curriculum: Economics and Business, the Asia and Australia’s engagement with Asia priority provides relevant,
contemporary content and contexts for developing an understanding of business activities and employment in the Asia region.
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The priority is addressed through investigation of the interdependence between the Australian economy and economies in the
Asia region, as well as current and future trade relationships. It also considers the significant role that Australia plays in
economic development in the Asia region and the contribution of Asian economies to economic and business activity in
Australia.
Sustainability
Across the Australian Curriculum, the Sustainability priority allows young Australians to develop the knowledge, skills, values
and worldviews necessary for them to act in ways that contribute to more sustainable patterns of living. Education for
sustainability enables individuals and communities to reflect on ways of interpreting and engaging with the world. The
Sustainability priority is futures-oriented, focusing on protecting environments and creating a more ecologically and socially just
world through informed action. Actions that support more sustainable patterns of living require consideration of environmental,
social, cultural and economic systems and their interdependence.
The Australian Curriculum: Economics and Business provides content that supports the development of students’ worldviews,
particularly in relation to judgments about access to and sustainable use of the Earth’s resources, local and global equity and
fairness across generations for the long-term wellbeing of our world.
The curriculum prepares students to be informed consumers, to act in enterprising and innovative ways and to perceive
business opportunities in changing local, regional and global economic environments. Students have opportunities to appreciate
the need for balancing economic development, environmental sustainability, and society’s obligation to meet the needs of the
present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs.
The Australian Curriculum: Economics and Business emphasises inquiry-based learning and teaching. Opportunities for
student-led questioning and investigations should be provided at all stages of schooling. Contemporary economic and/or
business events and issues or case studies should also be used to provide a context for learning the knowledge and
understanding and skills. Teachers are encouraged to deliver the curriculum in a way that promotes deep learning and
promotes the Australian Curriculum cross-curriculum priorities.
The curriculum should also provide opportunities for students to apply their knowledge, understanding and skills in real-life
contexts. This could include any class or school activity such as charity fundraising, product design and development, business
ventures and special events. These teaching and learning methods should be supported by forms of assessment that enable
students to demonstrate their ability to think economically and apply economics and business skills and concepts.
Teachers use the Australian Curriculum content and achievement standards first to identify current levels of learning and
achievement and then to select the most appropriate content (possibly from across several year levels) to teach individual
students and/or groups of students. This takes into account that in each class there may be students with a range of prior
achievement and that teachers plan to build on current learning.
Teachers also use the achievement standards, at the end of a period of teaching, to make on-balance judgments about the
quality of learning demonstrated by the students. To make these judgments, teachers draw on assessment data that they have
collected as evidence during the course of the teaching period. These judgments about the quality of learning are one source of
feedback to students and their parents and inform formal reporting processes.
Assessment of the Australian Curriculum takes place in different levels and for different purposes, including:
ongoing formative assessment within classrooms for the purposes of monitoring learning and providing feedback, to
teachers to inform their teaching, and for students to inform their learning
summative assessment for the purposes of twice-yearly reporting by schools to parents and carers on the progress and
achievement of students
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annual testing of Years 3, 5, 7 and 9 for students’ levels of achievement in aspects of literacy and numeracy, conducted
as part of the National Assessment Program – Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN)
periodic sample testing of specific learning areas within the Australian Curriculum as part of the National Assessment
Program (NAP).
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Page 1 of 4
Year 5-10 Australian Curriculum: Economics and Business



Economics and Business: Knowledge and Understanding Scope and Sequence: Year 5 – 10


Year 5 Year 6 Year 7 Year 8 Year 9 Year 10
K
e
y

i
n
q
u
i
r
y

q
u
e
s
t
i
o
n
s

Why do I have to make
choices as a consumer?
What influences the
decisions I make?
What can I do to make
informed decisions?
Why are there trade-offs
associated with making
decisions?
What are the possible
effects of my consumer
and financial choices?
Why do businesses exist
and what are the different
ways they provide goods
and services?
Why is there a relationship
between consumers and
producers in the market?
Why is personal,
organisational and
financial planning for the
future important for both
consumers and
businesses?
How does entrepreneurial
behaviour contribute to a
successful business?
What types of work exist
and in what other ways
can people derive an
income?
Why are markets needed,
and why are governments
involved?
Why do consumers and
businesses have both
rights and responsibilities?
What may affect the ways
people work now and in
the future?
How do different
businesses respond to
opportunities in the
market?
How do participants in the
global economy interact?
What strategies can be
used to manage financial
risks and rewards?
How does creating a
competitive advantage
benefit business?
What are the
responsibilities of
participants in the
workplace and why are
these important?
How is the performance of
an economy measured?
Why do variations in
economic performance in
different economies exist?
What strategies do
governments use to
manage the economy?
How do governments,
businesses and individuals
respond to changing
economic conditions?
C
o
n
t
e
n
t

d
e
s
c
r
i
p
t
i
o
n
s
The difference between
needs and wants and why
choices need to be made
about how limited
resources are used
How the concept of
opportunity cost involves
choices about the
alternative use of
resources and the need to
consider trade-offs
The ways consumers and
producers respond to and
influence each other in the
market

The ways markets operate
in Australia and why they
may be influenced by
government

Australia as an ‘economy’
and its place within the
broader Asia and global
economy

Indicators of economic
performance and how
Australia’s economy is
performing
Page 85 of 252
Page 2 of 4
Year 5-10 Australian Curriculum: Economics and Business



Year 5 Year 6 Year 7 Year 8 Year 9 Year 10
Types of resources
(natural, human, capital)
and the ways societies use
them in order to satisfy the
needs and wants of present
and future generations
The effect that consumer
and financial decisions can
have on the individual, the
broader community and
the environment
Why and how individuals
and businesses plan to
achieve short-term and
long-term personal,
organisational and
financial objectives
The traditional markets of
Aboriginal and Torres
Strait Islander communities
and their participation in
contemporary markets

Why and how participants
in the global economy are
dependent on each other
The links between
economic performance
and living standards, the
variations that exist within
and between economies,
and the possible causes
Influences on consumer
choices and methods that
can be used to help make
informed personal
consumer and financial
choices
The reasons businesses
exist and the different
ways they provide goods
and services
Characteristics of
entrepreneurs and
successful businesses
The rights and
responsibilities of
consumers and
businesses in Australia
Why and how people
manage financial risks and
rewards in the current
Australian and global
financial landscape
The ways that
governments manage the
economy to improve
economic performance
and living standards
Why individuals work,
types of work and how
people derive an income
Types of businesses and
the ways that businesses
respond to opportunities in
Australia
How and why businesses
seek to create and
maintain a competitive
advantage in the global
market
Factors that influence
major consumer and
financial decisions and the
short- and long-term
consequences of these
decisions
Influences on the ways
people work and factors
that might affect work in
the future
The roles and
responsibilities of
participants in the
changing Australian or
global workplace
The ways businesses
organise themselves to
improve productivity,
including the ways they
manage their workforce,
and how they respond to
changing economic
conditions
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Page 3 of 4
Year 5-10 Australian Curriculum: Economics and Business






Economics and Business skills scope and sequence: Year 5 to Year 10

Years 5 and 6 Years 7 and 8 Years 9 and 10
Questioning and Research
Develop questions to guide an investigation of an
economic or business issue or event, and gather data
and information from observation, print and online
sources
Develop questions about an economic or business issue
or event, and plan and conduct an investigation or
project
Develop questions and hypotheses about an economic or
business issue or event, and plan and conduct an
investigation
Gather relevant data and information from a range of
digital, online and print sources
Gather relevant and reliable data and information from a
range of digital, online and print sources
Interpretation and analysis
Sort data and information into categories
Interpret data and information displayed in different
formats to identify relationships and trends
Analyse data and information in different formats to explain
cause and effect relationships, make predictions and
illustrate alternative perspectives
Economic reasoning, decision-making and application
Identify alternative responses to an issue or event, and
consider the advantages and disadvantages of preferring
one to others
Generate a range of alternatives in response to an
observed economic or business issue or event, and
evaluate the potential costs and benefits of each
alternative
Generate a range of viable options in response to an
economic or business issue or event, use cost-benefit
analysis and appropriate criteria to recommend and justify a
course of action and predict the potential consequences of
the proposed action
Apply economics and business knowledge and skills in
familiar situations
Apply economics and business knowledge, skills and
concepts in familiar and new situations
Apply economics and business knowledge, skills and
concepts in familiar, new and hypothetical situations

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Page 4 of 4
Year 5-10 Australian Curriculum: Economics and Business


Years 5 and 6 Years 7 and 8 Years 9 and 10
Communication and reflection
Present findings in an appropriate format using
economics and business terms, and reflect on the
possible effects of decisions
Present evidence-based conclusions using economics
and business language and concepts in a range of
appropriate formats, and reflect on the consequences of
alternative actions
Present reasoned arguments and evidence-based
conclusions in a range of appropriate formats using
economics and business conventions, language and
concepts and concepts
Reflect on the intended and unintended consequences of
economics and business decisions

Page 88 of 252
The Australian Curriculum
Humanities and Social Sciences
- Geography
Page 89 of 252
Rationale and Aims
Rationale
Geography is a structured way of exploring, analysing and understanding the characteristics of the places that make up our
world, using the concepts of place, space, environment, interconnection, sustainability, scale and change. It addresses scales
from the personal to the global and time periods from a few years to thousands of years.
Geography integrates knowledge from the natural sciences, social sciences and humanities to build a holistic understanding of
the world. Students learn to question why the world is the way it is, reflect on their relationships with and responsibilities for that
world, and propose actions designed to shape a socially just and sustainable future.
The concept of place develops students’ curiosity and wonder about the diversity of the world’s places, peoples, cultures and
environments. Students examine why places have particular environmental and human characteristics, explore the similarities
and differences between them, investigate their meanings and significance to people and examine how they are managed and
changed.
Students use the concept of space to investigate the effects of location and distance on the characteristics of places, the
significance of spatial distributions, and the organisation and management of space at different scales. Through the concept of
environment students learn about the role of the environment in supporting the physical and emotional aspects of human life,
the important interrelationships between people and environments, and the range of views about these interrelationships.
Students use the concept of interconnection to understand how the causal relationships between places, people and
environments produce constant changes to their characteristics. Through the concept of sustainability students explore how the
environmental functions that support their life and wellbeing can be sustained. The concept of scale helps them explore
problems and look for explanations at different levels, for example, local or regional. The concept of change helps them to
explain the present and forecast possible futures.
Geography uses an inquiry approach to assist students to make meaning of their world. It teaches them to respond to questions
in a geographically distinctive way, plan an inquiry; collect, evaluate, analyse and interpret information; and suggest responses
to what they have learned. They conduct fieldwork, map and interpret data and spatial distributions, and use spatial
technologies. Students develop a wide range of general skills and capabilities, including information and communication
technology skills, an appreciation of different perspectives, an understanding of ethical research principles, a capacity for
teamwork and an ability to think critically and creatively. These skills can be applied in everyday life and at work.
Aims
The Foundation - Year 10 Australian Curriculum: Geography aims to ensure that students develop:
a sense of wonder, curiosity and respect about places, people, cultures and environments throughout the world
a deep geographical knowledge of their own locality, Australia, the Asia region and the world
the ability to think geographically, using geographical concepts
the capacity to be competent, critical and creative users of geographical inquiry methods and skills
as informed, responsible and active citizens who can contribute to the development of an environmentally and
economically sustainable, and socially just world.
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Organisation
Content structure
The Australian Curriculum: Geography is organised in two related strands: Geographical Knowledge and Understanding, and
Geographical Inquiry and Skills.
Geographical Knowledge and Understanding
Geographical Knowledge refers to the facts, generalisations, principles, theories and models developed in geography. This
knowledge is dynamic and its interpretation can be contested, with opinions and conclusions supported by evidence and logical
argument.
Geographical Understanding is the ability to see the relationships between aspects of knowledge and construct explanatory
frameworks to illustrate these relationships. It is also the ability to apply this knowledge to new situations or to solve new
problems.
Geographical Inquiry and Skills
Geographical Inquiry is a process by which students learn about and deepen their understanding of geography. It involves
individual or group investigations that start with geographical questions and proceed through the collection, evaluation, analysis
and interpretation of information to the development of conclusions and proposals for actions. Inquiries may vary in scale and
geographical context.
Geographical Skills are the techniques that geographers use in their investigations, both in fieldwork and in the classroom.
Students learn to think critically about the methods used to obtain, represent, analyse and interpret information and
communicate findings. Key skills developed through Australian Curriculum: Geography include formulating a question and
research plan, recording and data representation skills, using a variety of spatial technologies and communicating with
appropriate geographical vocabulary.
Geographical Skills are described in the curriculum under five sub-headings representing the stages of a complete investigation.
Over each two-year stage students should learn the methods and skills specified for that stage, but it is not intended that they
should always be learned in the context of a complete inquiry. Teachers could, for example, provide students with data to
represent or analyse rather than have them collect the information themselves. Inquiry does not always require the collection
and processing of information: the starting point could be a concept or an ethical or aesthetic issue that can be explored orally.
Many inquiries should start from the observations, questions and curiosity of students. Inquiry will progressively move from more
teacher-centred to more student-centred as students develop cognitive abilities and gain experience with the process and
methods across the years of schooling.
The stages of an investigation are:
Observing, questioning and planning: Identifying an issue or problem and developing geographical questions to investigate
the issue or find an answer to the problem.
Collecting, recording, evaluating and representing : Collecting information from primary and/or secondary sources,
recording the information, evaluating it for reliability and bias, and representing it in a variety of forms.
Interpreting analysing and concluding : Making sense of information gathered by identifying order, diversity, trends, patterns,
anomalies, generalisations and cause-and-effect relationships, using quantitative and qualitative methods appropriate to the
type of inquiry and developing conclusions. It also involves interpreting the results of this analysis and developing conclusions.
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Geography
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Communicating: Communicating the results of investigations using combinations of methods (written, oral, audio, graphical,
visual and mapping) appropriate to the subject matter, purpose and audience.
Reflecting and responding : Reflecting on the findings of the investigation; what has been learned; the process and
effectiveness of the inquiry; and proposing actions that consider environmental, economic and social factors.
Relationship between the strands
The two strands are integrated in the development of a teaching and learning program. The Geographical Knowledge and
Understanding strand is developed year by year and provides the contexts through which particular skills are developed.
Following the Foundation Year the Geographical Inquiry and Skills strand has common content descriptions for each two-year
band of schooling, but with elaborations specific to each Year to support the changing content of the Geographical Knowledge
and Understanding strand.
Inquiry questions
Each year level from Foundation to Year 10 includes key inquiry questions that provide a framework for developing students’
geographical knowledge and understanding, and inquiry and skills.
Year-level descriptions
Year-level descriptions provide a focus of study at each year level. The descriptions identify the key geographical concepts that
are to be the focus for understanding and articulate how students’ geographical knowledge, understanding, skills and mental
map of the world will be developed. They also emphasise the interrelated nature of the two strands and the expectation that
planning will involve integration of content from across the strands.
Key inquiry questions
Each year level from Foundation to Year 10 includes key inquiry questions that provide a framework for developing students’
geographical knowledge and understanding, and inquiry and skills.
Content descriptions
The Australian Curriculum: Geography includes content descriptions at each year level. These set out the knowledge,
understanding and skills that teachers are expected to teach and students are expected to learn. However, they do not
prescribe approaches to teaching. The content descriptions have been written to ensure that learning is appropriately ordered
and that unnecessary repetition is avoided. However, a concept or skill introduced at one year level may be revisited,
strengthened and extended at later year levels as needed.
Content elaborations
Content elaborations are provided for Foundation to Year 10 to illustrate and exemplify content and to assist teachers in
developing a common understanding of the content descriptions. They are not intended to be comprehensive content points that
all students need to be taught.
Achievement standards
The achievement standards describe expected student learning at each year level. They emphasise the depth of conceptual
understanding, the sophistication of skills and the ability to apply essential knowledge expected of students. Achievement
standards will be accompanied by sets of annotated student work samples as support material that illustrates actual
achievement in relation to the achievement standard.
Glossary
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A glossary is provided to support a common understanding of key terms and concepts included in the content descriptions.
Concepts for developing geographical understanding
The Australian Curriculum: Geography identifies the concepts of place, space, environment, interconnection, sustainability,
scale and change, as integral to the development of geographical understanding. These are high-level ideas or ways of thinking
that can be applied across the subject to identify a question, guide an investigation, organise information, suggest an
explanation or assist decision–making. They are the key ideas involved in teaching students to think geographically.
In Foundation to Year 2 there is a particular emphasis on the use of the concepts of place, space and environment in studies at
a personal and local scale. The concept of interconnection is introduced in Year 2 to develop students’ understanding of how
people are connected to places in Australia and across the world. These concepts continue to be a focus of study in Years 3–6
but the scale of the places studied moves from the local to national, world regional and global scales. The concepts of
sustainability and change are also introduced in these years. In Years 7–10, students further develop their understanding of
place, space, environment, interconnection, sustainability and change and apply this understanding to a wide range of places
and environments at the full range of scales, from local to global, and in a range of locations.
Place
The concept of place is about the significance of places and what they are like. In the Australian Curriculum: Geography, an
understanding of the concept of place is developed in the following ways:
Places are parts of the Earth’s surface that are identified and given meaning by people. They may be perceived,
experienced, understood and valued differently. They range in size from a part of a room or garden to a major world
region. They can be described by their location, shape, boundaries, features and environmental and human
characteristics. Some characteristics are tangible, for example, landforms and people, while others are intangible, for
example, scenic quality and culture.
Places are important to our security, identity and sense of belonging, and they provide us with the services and facilities
needed to support and enhance our lives. Where people live can influence their wellbeing and opportunities.
The environmental characteristics of a place are influenced by human actions and the actions of environmental processes
over short to long time periods.
The human characteristics of a place are influenced by its environmental characteristics and resources, relative location,
connections with other places, the culture of its population, the economy of a country, and the decisions and actions of
people and organisations over time and at different scales.
The places in which we live are created, changed and managed by people.
Each place is unique in its characteristics. As a consequence, the outcomes of similar environmental and socioeconomic
processes vary in different places, and similar problems may require different strategies in different places.
The sustainability of places may be threatened by a range of factors, for example, natural hazards; climate change;
economic, social and technological change; government decisions; conflict; exhaustion of a resource and environmental
degradation.
Space
The concept of space is about the significance of location and spatial distribution, and ways people organise and manage the
spaces that we live in. In the Australian Curriculum: Geography, an understanding of the concept of space is developed in the
following ways:
The environmental and human characteristics of places are influenced by their location, but the effects of location and
distance from other places on people are being reduced, though unequally, by improvements in transport and
communication technologies.
The individual characteristics of places form spatial distributions, and the analysis of these distributions contributes to
geographical understanding. The distributions also have environmental, economic, social and political consequences.
Spaces are perceived, structured, organised and managed by people, and can be designed and redesigned, to achieve
particular purposes.
Environment
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Environment
The concept of environment is about the significance of the environment in human life, and the important interrelationships
between humans and the environment. In the Australian Curriculum: Geography, an understanding of the concept of
environment is developed in the following ways:
The environment is the product of geological, atmospheric, hydrological, geomorphic, edaphic (soil), biotic and human
processes.
The environment supports and enriches human and other life by providing raw materials and food, absorbing and
recycling wastes, maintaining a safe habitat and being a source of enjoyment and inspiration. It presents both
opportunities for, and constraints on, human settlement and economic development. The constraints can be reduced but
not eliminated by technology and human organisation.
Culture, population density, type of economy, level of technology, values and environmental worldviews influence the
different ways in which people perceive, adapt to and use similar environments.
Management of human-induced environmental change requires an understanding of the causes and consequences of
change, and involves the application of geographical concepts and techniques to identify appropriate strategies.
Each type of environment has its specific hazards. The impact of these hazards on people is determined by both natural
and human factors, and can be reduced but not eliminated by prevention, mitigation and preparedness.
Interconnection
The concept of interconnection emphasises that no object of geographical study can be viewed in isolation. In the Australian
Curriculum: Geography, an understanding of the concept of interconnection is developed in the following ways:
Places and the people and organisations in them are interconnected with other places in a variety of ways. These
interconnections have significant influences on the characteristics of places and on changes in these characteristics.
Environmental and human processes, for example, the water cycle, urbanisation or human-induced environmental
change, are sets of cause-and-effect interconnections that can operate between and within places. They can sometimes
be organised as systems involving networks of interconnections through flows of matter, energy, information and actions.
Holistic thinking is about seeing the interconnections between phenomena and processes within and between places.
Sustainability
The concept of sustainability is about the capacity of the environment to continue to support our lives and the lives of other living
creatures into the future. In the Australian Curriculum: Geography, an understanding of the concept of sustainability is
developed in the following ways:
Sustainability is both a goal and a way of thinking about how to progress towards that goal.
Progress towards environmental sustainability depends on the maintenance or restoration of the environmental functions
that sustain all life and human wellbeing (economic and social).
An understanding of the causes of unsustainability requires a study of the environmental processes producing the
degradation of an environmental function; the human actions that have initiated these processes; and the attitudinal,
demographic, social, economic and political causes of these human actions. These can be analysed through the
framework of human–environment systems.
There are a variety of contested views on how progress towards sustainability should be achieved and these are often
informed by worldviews such as stewardship.
Scale
The concept of scale is about the way that geographical phenomena and problems can be examined at different spatial levels.
In the Australian Curriculum: Geography, an understanding of the concept of scale is developed in the following ways:
Generalisations made and relationships found at one level of scale may be different at a higher or lower level. For
example, in studies of vegetation, climate is the main factor at the global scale but soil and drainage may be the main
factors at the local scale.
Cause-and-effect relationships cross scales from the local to the global and from the global to the local. For example,
local events can have global outcomes, such as the effects of local vegetation removal on global climate.
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Change
The concept of change is about explaining geographical phenomena by investigating how they have developed over time. In the
Australian Curriculum: Geography, an understanding of the concept of change is developed in the following ways:
Environmental change can occur over both short and long time frames, and both time scales have interrelationships with
human activities.
Environmental, economic, social and technological change is spatially uneven, and affects places differently.
An understanding of the current processes of change can be used to predict change in the future and to identify what
would be needed to achieve preferred and more sustainable futures.
Geography across Foundation to Year 10
Complementing the year-by-year description of the curriculum, this document provides advice on the nature of learners and the
relevant curriculum across the following groupings:
Foundation to Year 2: typically students from 5 to 8 years of age
Years 3–4: typically students from 8 to 10 years of age
Years 5–6: typically students from 10 to 12 years of age
Years 7–10: typically students from 12 to 15 years of age.
Foundation to Year 2: Curriculum focus- Exploring local and more distant places
Young students are curious about their personal world and are interested in exploring it. In Foundation to Year 2, the curriculum
explores the geography of their lives and their own places. Students think about aspects of place, space and environment.
Learning about their own place, and building a connection with it, also contributes to their sense of identity and belonging, and
an understanding that places should be cared for. While the local place should be the initial focus for learning, young students
are also aware of and interested in more distant places and the curriculum provides opportunities to build on this curiosity.
Students are introduced to the concept of interconnections when learning how they are connected to places throughout the
world.
Students’ spatial thinking starts by learning about direction and distance and how familiar things can be arranged in space for
different purposes. They become aware of the distances between places and how distance constrains their activities. They
begin to develop a mental map of the world and of where they are located in relation to other places. Students are introduced to
the concept of the environment through the exploration of the environment of their own and other places and by recognising
how places vary in terms of their natural features. They become aware of why the environment needs to be cared for and are
prompted to consider how they can contribute to this, laying foundations for active citizenship.
Specific geographical skills introduced throughout the early years include observing and describing the features of places,
drawing a map, using directional language, understanding distance and interviewing relatives.
Years 3–4: Curriculum focus - Investigating places and environments
In Years 3–4 students ask more complex geographical questions and contribute to planning their geographical inquiries and
learning. They can provide reasons for what they think and justify their conclusions.
The curriculum focus shifts from exploration to more purposeful investigation. In these years, students learn to describe and
compare the environmental and human characteristics of places in different locations at the local, regional and national scale.
They reflect on how people feel about places and learn how the environment supports their life and the life of other living things.
They examine different views on how to protect environments and how to use resources and manage waste sustainably.
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Sustainability is also examined through a study of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples’ custodial responsibility for their
Country/Place. The development of a student’s mental map of the world is extended through a study of the location and
characteristics of places in the southern hemisphere, including Australia and its near neighbours.
In their investigations, students collaborate to collect and record information, identify patterns and trends and draw conclusions,
and communicate their findings using appropriate geographical vocabulary. Specific new geographical skills in Years 3–4
include the use of aerial photographs and satellite images, the construction of simple graphs and the interpretation of maps.
Years 5–6: Curriculum focus - Explaining places and investigating the world
In Years 5–6, students become more critical, analytical and evaluative in their thinking. They are increasingly aware of the wider
community and are learning to take on individual and group responsibilities.
In these years, students are introduced to the factors that shape the diverse characteristics of different places and how people,
places and environments are interconnected. They examine how human action influences the environmental characteristics of
places and how these characteristics influence the human characteristics of places. They also examine how human decisions
and actions influence the way spaces within places are organised and managed. The scale of study in Year 6 shifts to the global
with a study of the world’s cultural, economic, demographic and social diversity. Students also study Australia’s connections
with other places, the effects of these interconnections and the factors that affect people’s knowledge and opinions of other
places. The development of a student’s mental map of the world is extended through a study of the location of countries in
continents of the northern hemisphere and countries of the Asia region.
Specific new geographical skills in Years 5–6 include interpreting spatial distributions, comparing places, making and
interpreting graphs, constructing large- and small-scale maps, and using spatial technologies and information and
communication technologies.
Years 7–10: Curriculum focus - Regional and global places in an environmental and human geography
context
As students move into adolescence, their interests extend beyond their own communities and they begin to develop concerns
about wider issues. They are able to work with more abstract concepts and consider increasingly complex ideas, and are keen
to debate alternative answers and interpretations.
The geography curriculum in these years seeks to accommodate the needs of learners through a much wider exploration of the
world and ideas about it. There is a focus on citizenship, as students study local, national and global issues and identify actions
that they could take. One sequence of units focuses on environmental geography and introduces students to the basic elements
of hydrology, geomorphology and biogeography. The Year 10 unit applies the knowledge gained from these three units to
studies of environmental change and environmental management. All units combine studies of both environmental and human
processes and have an applied focus on the management of environmental resources. Sustainability is a continuing theme and
is progressively developed to become the major focus in Year 10. The second sequence of units focuses on some key aspects
of human geography, including the liveability of places; spatial change in the distribution of populations; interconnections, with
an emphasis on how people, including students, are connected to and have impacts on places and environments around the
world; and the geography of human wellbeing at the local, regional and global levels.
The Years 7–10 curriculum continues to develop students’ geographical knowledge and mental map of the world through the
investigation of selective studies of world regions and specific countries. Where studies of place are not specified, teachers can
select an area of Australia, or countries of the Asia region, or areas of the world, which are contextually appropriate.
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Specific geographical skills in Years 7–10 emphasise analysing and interpreting geographical data and information, using
spatial technologies and other digital techniques, and developing reasoned arguments based on evidence to support
conclusions.
Student diversity
ACARA is committed to the development of a high-quality curriculum that promotes excellence and equity in education for all
Australian students.
All students are entitled to rigorous, relevant and engaging learning programs drawn from the Australian Curriculum:
Geography. Teachers take account of the range of their students’ current levels of learning, strengths, goals and interests and
make adjustments where necessary. The three-dimensional design of the Australian Curriculum, comprising learning areas,
general capabilities and cross-curriculum priorities, provides teachers with flexibility to cater for the diverse needs of students
across Australia and to personalise their learning.
More detailed advice for schools and teachers on using the Australian Curriculum to meet diverse learning needs is available
under Student Diversity on the Australian Curriculum website.
Students with disability
The Disability Discrimination Act 1992 and the Disability Standards for Education 2005 require education and training
service providers to support the rights of students with disability to access the curriculum on the same basis as students without
disability.
Many students with disability are able to achieve educational standards commensurate with their peers, as long as the
necessary adjustments are made to the way in which they are taught and to the means through which they demonstrate their
learning.
In some cases, curriculum adjustments are necessary to provide equitable opportunities for students to access age-equivalent
content in the Australian Curriculum: Geography. Teachers can draw from content at different levels along the Foundation to
Year 10 sequence. Teachers can also use the extended general capabilities learning continua in Literacy, Numeracy and
Personal and social capability to adjust the focus of learning according to individual student need.
English as an additional language or dialect
Students for whom English is an additional language or dialect (EAL/D) enter Australian schools at different ages and at
different stages of English language learning and have various educational backgrounds in their first languages. While many
EAL/D students bring already highly developed literacy (and numeracy) skills in their own language to their learning of Standard
Australian English, there are a significant number of students who are not literate in their first language and have had little or no
formal schooling.
While the aims of the Australian Curriculum: Geography are the same for all students, EAL/D students must achieve these aims
while simultaneously learning a new language and learning content and skills through that new language. These students may
require extra time and support, along with teaching that explicitly addresses their language needs. Students who have had no
formal schooling will need extra time and support in order to acquire skills for effective learning in formal settings.
A national English as an Additional Language or Dialect: Teacher Resource has been developed to support teachers in
making the Australian Curriculum: Foundation to Year 10 in each learning area accessible to EAL/D students.
Gifted and talented students
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Teachers can use the Australian Curriculum: Geography flexibly to meet the individual learning needs of gifted and talented
students.
Teachers can enrich learning by providing students with opportunities to work with learning area content in more depth or
breadth; emphasising specific aspects of the general capabilities learning continua, for example, the higher order cognitive skills
of the Critical and creative thinking capability; and/or focusing on cross-curriculum priorities. Teachers can also accelerate
student learning by drawing on content from later levels in the Australian Curriculum: Geography and/or from local state and
territory teaching and learning materials.
General capabilities
In the Australian Curriculum, the general capabilities encompass the knowledge, skills, behaviours and dispositions that,
together with curriculum content in each learning area and the cross-curriculum priorities, will assist students to live and work
successfully in the twenty-first century.
There are seven general capabilities:
Literacy
Numeracy
Information and communication technology (ICT) capability
Critical and creative thinking
Personal and social capability
Ethical understanding
Intercultural understanding.
In the Australian Curriculum: Geography, general capabilities are identified wherever they are developed or applied in content
descriptions. They are also identified where they offer opportunities to add depth and richness to student learning through
content elaborations. Icons indicate where general capabilities have been identified in geography content. Teachers may find
further opportunities to incorporate explicit teaching of the capabilities depending on their choice of activities.
Literacy
Across the Australian Curriculum, students become literate as they develop the knowledge, skills and dispositions to interpret
and use language confidently for learning and communicating in and out of school and for participating effectively in society.
Literacy involves students in listening to, reading, viewing, speaking, writing and creating oral, print, visual and digital texts, and
using and modifying language for different purposes in a range of contexts.
In Geography, students develop literacy capability as they learn how to build geographical knowledge and understanding and
how to explore, discuss, analyse and communicate geographical information, concepts and ideas. They use a wide range of
informational and literary texts, for example, interviews, reports, stories, photographs and maps, to help them understand the
places that make up our world, learning to evaluate these texts and recognising how language and images can be used to make
and manipulate meaning.
Students develop oral and written skills as they use language to ask distinctively geographical questions. They plan a
geographical inquiry, collect and evaluate information, communicate their findings, reflect on the conduct of their inquiry and
respond to what they have learned. Students progressively learn to use geography’s scientific and expressive modes of writing
and the vocabulary of the discipline. They learn to comprehend and compose graphical and visual texts through working with
maps, diagrams, photographs and remotely sensed and satellite images.
Numeracy
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Numeracy
Across the Australian Curriculum, students become numerate as they develop the knowledge and skills to use mathematics
confidently across all learning areas at school and in their lives more broadly. Numeracy involves students in recognising and
understanding the role of mathematics in the world and having the dispositions and capacities to use mathematical knowledge
and skills purposefully.
In Geography, students develop numeracy capability as they investigate concepts fundamental to geography, for example, the
effects of location and distance, spatial distributions and the organisation and management of space within places. They apply
numeracy skills in geographical analysis by counting and measuring, constructing and interpreting tables and graphs,
calculating and interpreting statistics and using statistical analysis to test relationships between variables. In constructing and
interpreting maps, students work with numerical concepts of grids, scale, distance, area and projections.
Information and communication technology (ICT) capability
Across the Australian Curriculum, students develop ICT capability as they learn to use ICT effectively and appropriately to
access, create and communicate information and ideas; solve problems and work collaboratively in all learning areas at school
and in their lives beyond school. The capability involves students in learning to make the most of the technologies available to
them, adapting to new ways of doing things as technologies evolve and limiting the risks to themselves and others in a digital
environment.
In Geography, students develop ICT capability when they locate, select, evaluate, communicate and share geographical
information using digital technologies and learn to use spatial technologies.
They enhance their ICT capability by exploring the effects of technologies on places, on the location of economic activities and
on people’s lives. They understand the geographical changes produced by the increasing use of technology.
Critical and creative thinking
Across the Australian Curriculum, students develop capability in critical and creative thinking as they learn to generate and
evaluate knowledge, clarify concepts and ideas, seek possibilities, consider alternatives and solve problems. Critical and
creative thinking are integral to activities that require students to think broadly and deeply using skills, behaviours and
dispositions, such as, reason, logic, resourcefulness, imagination and innovation, in all learning areas at school and in their lives
beyond school.
In Geography, students develop critical and creative thinking as they investigate geographical information, concepts and ideas
through inquiry-based learning. They develop and practise critical and creative thinking by using strategies that help them think
logically when evaluating and using evidence, testing explanations, analysing arguments and making decisions, and when
thinking deeply about questions that do not have straightforward answers. Students learn the value and process of developing
creative questions and the importance of speculation. Students are encouraged to be curious and imaginative in investigations
and fieldwork. The geography curriculum also stimulates students to think creatively about the ways that the places and spaces
they use might be better designed, and about possible, probable and preferable futures.
Personal and social capability
Across the Australian Curriculum, students develop personal and social capability as they learn to understand themselves and
others, and manage their relationships, lives, work and learning more effectively. The capability involves students in a range of
practices, including recognising and regulating emotions, developing empathy for and understanding of others, establishing
positive relationships, making responsible decisions, working effectively in teams and handling challenging situations
constructively.
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In Geography, students develop personal and social capability as they engage in geographical inquiry, and learn how
geographical knowledge informs their personal identity, sense of belonging and capacity to empathise with others, as well as
offering opportunities to consider ways of contributing to their communities.
Inquiry-based learning assists students to develop their capacity for self-management. It gives them a role in directing their own
learning and in planning and carrying out investigations, and provides them with opportunities to express and reflect on their
opinions, beliefs, values and questions appropriately. This enables them to become independent learners who can apply
geographical understanding and skills to decisions they will have to make in the future. Through working collaboratively in the
classroom and in the field, students develop their interpersonal and social skills, and learn to appreciate the different insights
and perspectives of other group members.
Ethical understanding
Across the Australian Curriculum, students develop capability in their ethical understanding as they identify and investigate the
nature of ethical concepts, values, character traits and principles, and understand how reasoning can assist ethical judgment.
Ethical understanding involves students in building a strong personal and socially oriented ethical outlook that helps them to
manage context, conflict and uncertainty, and to develop an awareness of the influence that their values and behaviour have on
others.
In Geography, students develop ethical understanding as they investigate current geographical issues and evaluate their
findings against the criteria of environmental protection, economic prosperity and social advancement. These criteria raise
ethical questions about human rights and citizenship; for example, who bears the costs and who gains the benefits, and about
group and personal responsibilities. By exploring such questions, students develop informed values and attitudes and become
aware of their own roles and responsibilities as citizens.
When undertaking fieldwork, students learn about ethical procedures for investigating and working with people and places,
including working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples. When thinking about the environment, students consider
their responsibilities to protect other forms of life that share the environment.
Intercultural understanding
Across the Australian Curriculum, students develop intercultural understanding as they learn to value their own cultures,
languages and beliefs, and those of others. They come to understand how personal, group and national identities are shaped,
and the variable and changing nature of culture. The capability involves students in learning about and engaging with diverse
cultures in ways that recognise commonalities and differences, create connections with others and cultivate mutual respect.
In Geography, students develop intercultural understanding as they learn about the diversity of the world’s places, peoples,
cultures and environments. As they investigate the interconnection between people and places and the meaning and
significance that places hold, they come to appreciate how various cultural identities, including their own, are shaped.
Through opportunities to study the lives, cultures, values and beliefs of people in different places, students learn to appreciate
and interpret different perspectives and to challenge stereotypical or prejudiced representations of social and cultural groups
where they exist.
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Through their study of people in diverse places, including those countries from which migrants to Australia have come, students
come to recognise their similarities with other people, to better understand their differences, and to demonstrate respect for
cultural diversity and the human rights of all people in local, national, regional and global settings.
Cross-curriculum priorities
The Australian Curriculum is designed to meet the needs of students by delivering a relevant, contemporary and engaging
curriculum that builds on the educational goals of the Melbourne Declaration. The Melbourne Declaration identified three key
areas that need to be addressed for the benefit of individuals and Australia as a whole. In the Australian Curriculum these have
become priorities that provide students with the tools and language to engage with and better understand their world at a range
of levels. The priorities provide dimensions which will enrich the curriculum through development of considered and focused
content that fits naturally within learning areas. They enable the delivery of learning area content at the same time as developing
knowledge, understanding and skills relating to
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures
Asia and Australia’s engagement with Asia, and
Sustainability.
Cross-curriculum priorities are addressed through learning areas and are identified wherever they are developed or applied in
content descriptions. They are also identified where they offer opportunities to add depth and richness to student learning in
content elaborations. They will have a strong but varying presence depending on their relevance to the learning area.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures
Across the Australian Curriculum, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures priority provides opportunities
for all learners to deepen their knowledge of Australia by engaging with the world’s oldest continuous living cultures. Students
will understand that contemporary Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Communities are strong, resilient, rich and diverse. The
knowledge and understanding gained through this priority will enhance the ability of all young people to participate positively in
the ongoing development of Australia.
The Australian Curriculum: Geography values Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories, cultures and perspectives.
The Australian Curriculum: Geography emphasises the relationships people have with place and their interconnection with the
environments in which they live. The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures priority provides the opportunity
for students to develop a deeper understanding of these concepts by investigating the thousands of years of Aboriginal and
Torres Strait Islander connection to land, water and sky and the knowledge and practices that developed as a result of these
experiences. Students will examine the effects of European colonisation on people and environments. The Aboriginal and
Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures priority also contributes to an understanding of spatial inequalities in human welfare,
sustainable development and human rights.
The Australian Curriculum: Geography curriculum also enables students to learn that there are different ways of thinking about
and interacting with the environment. It integrates Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples' use of the land, governed by a
holistic, spiritually-based connection to Country and Place, with the continuing influence of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
Peoples on Australian places, and in environmental management and regional economies.
In including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander knowledge and practices, and engaging with communities and local and
regional environments, students develop a wide range of critical and creative thinking skills. Students explore ways of
experiencing landscapes by conducting fieldwork with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples and reading, listening to, or
performing Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples’ explanations of the origins of particular landforms.
Asia and Australia’s engagement with Asia
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Asia and Australia’s engagement with Asia
Across the Australian curriculum, this priority will ensure that students learn about and recognise the diversity within and
between the countries of the Asia region. They will develop knowledge and understanding of Asian societies, cultures, beliefs
and environments, and the connections between the peoples of Asia, Australia, and the rest of the world. Asia literacy provides
students with the skills to communicate and engage with the peoples of Asia so they can effectively live, work and learn in the
region.
In the Australian Curriculum: Geography, students are provided with rich contexts to investigate the interrelationships between
diverse places, environments and peoples in the Asia region.
The Australian Curriculum: Geography also enables students to study Asia as an important region of the world. Students can
explore groups of countries, individual countries, or specific regions and locations within countries. In doing so, they develop
knowledge and skills that help foster intercultural understanding as they come to appreciate the diversity that exists between
and within the countries of Asia, and how this diversity influences the way people perceive and interact with places and
environments.
Students also learn about the ways in which Australia and Asia are interconnected, both environmentally and socially, and how
transnational collaboration supports the notion of shared and sustainable futures within the Asia region.
Sustainability
Across the Australian Curriculum, sustainability will allow all young Australians to develop the knowledge, skills, values and
world views necessary for them to act in ways that contribute to more sustainable patterns of living. It will enable individuals and
communities to reflect on ways of interpreting and engaging with the world. The Sustainability priority is futures-oriented,
focusing on protecting environments and creating a more ecologically and socially just world through informed action. Actions
that support more sustainable patterns of living require consideration of environmental, social, cultural and economic systems
and their interdependence.
In the Australian Curriculum: Geography, this priority is strengthened through the geographical concept of sustainability.
Together, the sustainability priority and concept afford rich and engaging learning opportunities and purposeful contexts through
which students can develop and apply geographical understanding. It supports an integrated approach to human and
environmental geography and furthers the development of inquiry skills through examination of a range of contemporary issues
related to sustainability. Geography enables students to develop a holistic understanding of human dependence on the
environment. It provides opportunities for students to integrate their study of biophysical processes with investigations of the
attitudinal, demographic, social, economic and political influences on human use and management of the environment. It
enables students to explore how worldviews influence these relationships and interactions with the environment.
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In Geography, students examine the effects of human activities on environments, including how human usage of resources
affects ecosystems, and how challenges to sustainability, and strategies to address these, vary from place to place. Students
evaluate these strategies to determine their effects on environments, economies and societies and how they contribute to
actions that support more sustainable patterns of living.
Implications for teaching, assessment and reporting
The Australian Curriculum: Geography emphasises inquiry-based learning and teaching. Opportunities for student-led
questioning and investigation should be provided at all stages of schooling. The curriculum should also provide opportunities for
fieldwork at all stages, as this is an essential component of geographical learning. Fieldwork is any activity involving the
observation and recording of information outside the classroom. It could be within the school grounds, around neighbouring
areas, or in more distant locations. These teaching and learning methods should be supported by forms of assessment that
enable students to demonstrate their ability to think geographically and apply geographical skills.
Students’ enthusiasm for geographical learning should be stimulated by a wide variety of activities, for example, field trips,
interpretation of remotely sensed images, reading literary accounts of places, listening to traditional accounts, statistical
analysis, role plays and class debates. Learning activities should also emphasise the ability to understand, explain, appreciate
and use knowledge, rather than simply reproduce it. The learning of skills should be made meaningful by using them to answer
questions or communicate information. This will help to connect the two strands of the curriculum.
The Australian Curriculum: Geography specifies some study of world regions that all students must undertake. These are
designed to ensure that students learn about Australia’s neighbouring countries, the countries of the Asia region, Africa, Europe,
North America and South America. The curriculum also provides freedom for teachers to include contexts appropriate to the
needs and interests of their student cohort and of the communities where they are situated. In early primary school the places
studied should include the local area and places at a local scale that students belong to or are aware of through visits, the
origins of their families, classmates who have come from other places, the media and books they are reading. In upper primary
and secondary school the places studied should be drawn from a variety of countries, including some located in the Asia region.
When engaged in studies drawn from other countries, students should gain a balanced knowledge of those countries, avoiding
stereotyping and simplification.
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Geographical knowledge and understanding scope and sequence: Foundation to Year 10

Foundation Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6
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People live in places Places have
distinctive features
People are connected
to many places
Places are both
similar and different
The Earth’s
environment sustains
all life
Factors that shape the
human and
environmental
characteristics of
places
A diverse and
connected world
K
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What are places like?
What makes a place
special?
How can we look after
the places we live in?
What are the different
features of places?
How can we care for
places?
How can spaces within
a place be rearranged
to suit different
purposes?
What is a place?
How are people
connected to their place
and other places?
What factors affect my
connection to places?
How and why are
places similar and
different?
What would it be like to
live in a neighbouring
country?
How do people’s
feelings about places
influence their views
about the protection of
places?
How does the
environment support
the lives of people and
other living things?
How do different views
about the environment
influence approaches to
sustainability?
How can people use
places and
environments more
sustainably?
How do people and
environments influence
one another?
How do people
influence the human
characteristics of places
and the management of
spaces within them?
How can the impact of
bushfires or floods on
people and places be
reduced?
How do places, people
and cultures differ
across the world?
What are Australia’s
global connections
between people and
places?
How do people’s
connections to places
affect their perception
of them?
K
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In Foundation to Year 2 there is a particular emphasis on the use of the
concepts of place, space and environment in studies at a personal and local
scale.
The concept of interconnection is introduced in Year 2 to develop students’
understanding of how people are connected to places in Australia and across
the world.
The F2 concepts continue to be a focus of study in Years 3–6 but the scale of the places studied moves
from the local to national, world regional and global scales.
The concepts of sustainability and change are also introduced in these years.
C
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The representation of
the location of places
and their features on
maps and a globe

The natural, managed
and constructed
features of places, their
location, how they
change and how they
can be cared for

The location of the major
geographical divisions of
the world in relation to
Australia

The representation of
Australia as states and
territories, and
Australia’s major
natural and human
features

The location of the
major countries of
Africa and South
America in relation to
Australia, and their
main characteristics,
including the types of
natural vegetation and
native animals in at
least two countries from
both continents

The location of the
major countries of
Europe and North
America in relation to
Australia and the
influence of people on
the environmental
characteristics of places
in at least two countries
from both continents

The location of the
major countries of the
Asia region in relation
to Australia and the
geographical diversity
within the region

Page 104 of 252

Foundation Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6
The places people live
in and belong to, their
familiar features and
why they are important
to people

The weather and
seasons of places and
the ways in which
different cultural
groups, including
Aboriginal and Torres
Strait Islander Peoples,
describe them
The definition of places
as parts of the Earth’s
surface that have been
given meaning by
people, and how places
can be defined at a
variety of scales

The many
Countries/Places of
Aboriginal and Torres
Strait Islander Peoples
throughout Australia

The types of natural
vegetation and the
significance of
vegetation to the
environment and to
people

The influence of people,
including Aboriginal and
Torres Strait Islander
Peoples, on the
environmental
characteristics of
Australian places

Differences in the
economic, demographic
and social
characteristics between
countries across the
world

The Countries/Places
that Aboriginal and
Torres Strait Islander
Peoples belong to in
the local area and why
they are important to
them

The ways the activities
located in a place
create its distinctive
features

The ways in which
Aboriginal and Torres
Strait Islander Peoples
maintain special
connections to particular
Country/Place

The location of
Australia’s
neighbouring countries
and their diverse
characteristics

The importance of
environments to
animals and people,
and different views on
how they can be
protected

The influence of the
environment on the
human characteristics
of a place

The world’s cultural
diversity, including that
of its indigenous
peoples

The reasons why some
places are special to
people, and how they
can be looked after
The ways that space
within places, such as
the classroom or
backyard, can be
rearranged to suit
different activities or
purposes
The connections of
people in Australia to
other places in Australia,
the countries of the Asia
region, and across the
world

The main climate types
of the world and the
similarities and
differences between
the climates of different
places

The custodial
responsibility Aboriginal
and Torres Strait
Islander Peoples have
for Country/Place, and
how this influences their
past and present views
about the use of
resources

The influence people
have on the human
characteristics of places
and the management of
spaces within them

Significant events that
connect people and
places throughout the
world

The influence of
purpose, distance and
accessibility on the
frequency with which
people visit places
The similarities and
differences in
individuals’ and
groups’ feelings and
perceptions about
places, and how they
influence views about
the protection of these
places

The natural resources
provided by the
environment, and
different views on how
they could be used
sustainably

The impact of bushfires
or floods on
environments and
communities, and how
people can respond
The various
connections Australia
has with other countries
and how these
connections change
people and places

Page 105 of 252

Foundation Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6
The similarities and
differences between
places in terms of their
type of settlement,
demographic
characteristics and the
lives of the people who
live there
The sustainable
management of waste
from production and
consumption
The effects that
people’s connections
with, and proximity to,
places throughout the
world have on shaping
their awareness and
opinion of those places
Page 106 of 252
Year 7 Year 7 Year 8 Year 8
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Water in the world Place and liveability Landforms and landscapes Changing nations
K
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q
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How do people’s reliance on places and environments influence their
perception of them?
What effect does the uneven distribution of resources and services have
on the lives of people?
What approaches can be used to improve the availability of resources and
access to services?
How do environmental and human processes affect the characteristics of places and
environments?
How do the interconnections between places, people and environments affect the lives of people?
What are the consequences of changes to places and environments and how can these changes
be managed?
K
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C
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In Years 7–10, students further develop their understanding of place, space, environment, interconnection, sustainability and change and apply this understanding to a wide
range of places and environments at the full range of scales, from local to global, and in a range of locations.
C
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s

The classification of
environmental resources and the
forms that water takes as a
resource

The factors that influence the
decisions people make about where
to live and their perceptions of the
liveability of places

The different types of landscapes and their
distinctive landform features

The causes and consequences of urbanisation,
drawing on a study from Indonesia, or another
country of the Asia region

The ways that flows of water
connect places as it moves
through the environment and the
way this affects places

The influence of accessibility to
services and facilities on the
liveability of places

The aesthetic, cultural and spiritual value of
landscapes and landforms for people,
including Aboriginal and Torres Strait
Islander Peoples

The differences in urban concentration and urban
settlement patterns between Australia and the
United States of America, and their causes and
consequences

The quantity and variability of
Australia’s water resources
compared with those in other
continents

The influence of environmental
quality on the liveability of places

The geomorphic processes that produce
landforms, including a case study of at least
one landform

The reasons for and effects of internal migration in
Australia

The nature of water scarcity and
ways of overcoming it, including
studies drawn from Australia and
West Asia and/or North Africa

The influence of social
connectedness, community identity
and perceptions of crime and safety
on the liveability of places

The human causes and effects of
landscape degradation

The reasons for and effects of internal migration in
China

Page 107 of 252
The economic, cultural, spiritual
and aesthetic value of water for
people, including Aboriginal and
Torres Strait Islander Peoples and
peoples of the Asia region
The strategies used to enhance the
liveability of places, especially for
young people, including examples
from Australia and Europe
The ways of protecting significant
landscapes

The reasons for and effects of international
migration in Australia

The causes, impacts and
responses to an atmospheric or
hydrological hazard
The causes, impacts and responses to a
geomorphological hazard
The management and planning of Australia’s urban
future

Page 108 of 252
Year 9 Year 9 Year 10 Year 10
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Biomes and food security Geographies of interconnections Environmental change and
management
Geographies of human wellbeing
K
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C
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p
t
s

In Years 7–10, students further develop their understanding of place, space, environment, interconnection, sustainability and change and apply this understanding to a wide
range of places and environments at the full range of scales, from local to global, and in a range of locations.
K
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i
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q
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q
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t
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What are the causes and consequences of change in places and environments and
how can this change be managed?
What are the future implications of changes to places and environments?
Why are interconnections and interdependencies important for the future of places
and environments
How can the spatial variation between places and changes in environments be
explained?
What management options exist for sustaining human and natural systems into the
future?
How do worldviews influence decisions on how to manage environmental and social
change?
C
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t
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d
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c
r
i
p
t
i
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n
s

The distribution and characteristics of
biomes as regions with distinctive
climates, soils, vegetation and
productivity

The perceptions people have of place,
and how this influences their connections
to different places

The human-induced environmental
changes that challenge sustainability

The different ways of measuring and
mapping human wellbeing and
development, and how these can be
applied to measure differences between
places
The environmental worldviews of people
and their implications for environmental
management
The reasons for spatial variations
between countries in selected indicators
of human wellbeing

The human alteration of biomes to
produce food, industrial materials and
fibres, and the environmental effects of
these alterations

The way transportation and information
and communication technologies are
used to connect people to services,
information and people in other places

The Aboriginal and Torres Strait
Islander Peoples’ approaches to
custodial responsibility and
environmental management in different
regions of Australia

The issues affecting the development of
places and their impact on human
wellbeing, drawing on a study from a
developing country or region in Africa,
South America or the Pacific Islands

The environmental, economic and
technological factors that influence crop
yields in Australia and across the world

The ways that places and people are
interconnected with other places through
trade in goods and services, at all scales

Select ONE of the following types of
environment as the context for study:
land, inland water, coast, marine or
urban. A comparative study of
examples selected from Australia
and at least one other country should
be included.
The reasons for and consequences of
spatial variations in human wellbeing on
a regional scale within India or another
country of the Asia region

Page 109 of 252
The challenges to food production,
including land and water degradation,
shortage of fresh water, competing land
uses, and climate change, for Australia
and other areas of the world

The effects of the production and
consumption of goods on places and
environments throughout the world and
including a country from North−East Asia

The application of human−environment
systems thinking to understanding the
causes and likely consequences of the
environmental change being
investigated

The reasons for and consequences of
spatial variations in human wellbeing in
Australia at the local scale

The capacity of the world’s environments
to sustainably feed the projected future
population to achieve food security for
Australia and the world
The effects of people’s travel,
recreational, cultural or leisure choices on
places, and the implications for the future
of these places
The application of geographical
concepts and methods to the
management of the environmental
change being investigated

The role of international and national
government and non-government
organisations’ initiatives in improving
human wellbeing in Australia and other
countries
The application of environmental,
economic and social criteria in
evaluating management responses to
the change


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Geographical inquiry and skills scope and sequence: Foundation to Year 10

Foundation Years 1-2 Years 3-4 Years 5-6 Years 7-8 Years 9-10
Observing, questioning and planning
Make observations about
familiar places and pose
questions about them

Pose questions about familiar
and unfamiliar places
Develop geographical
questions to investigate
Develop geographical
questions to investigate and
plan an inquiry
Develop geographically
significant questions and plan
an inquiry using appropriate
geographical methodologies
and concepts
Develop geographically
significant questions and plan
an inquiry that identifies and
applies appropriate
geographical methodologies
and concepts
Collecting, recording, evaluating and representing
Record geographical data
and information collected by
observation

Collect and record
geographical data and
information, for example, by
observing, by interviewing, or
from sources such as
photographs, plans, satellite
images, story books and films

Collect and record relevant
geographical data and
information, for example, by
observing, by interviewing,
conducting surveys,
measuring, or from sources
such as maps, photographs,
satellite images, the media
and the internet

Collect and record relevant
geographical data and
information, using ethical
protocols, from primary and
secondary sources, for
example, people, maps,
plans, photographs, satellite
images, statistical sources
and reports

Collect, select and record
relevant geographical data
and information, using ethical
protocols, from appropriate
primary and secondary
sources

Collect, select, record and
organise relevant
geographical data and
information, using ethical
protocols, from a range of
appropriate primary and
secondary sources

Represent the location of
features of a familiar place on
pictorial maps and models

Represent data and the
location of places and their
features by constructing
tables, plans and labelled
maps
Represent data by
constructing tables and
graphs

Evaluate sources for their
usefulness, and represent
data in different forms, for
example, maps, plans,
graphs, tables, sketches and
diagrams

Evaluate sources for their
reliability and usefulness, and
represent data in a range of
appropriate forms, for
example, climate graphs,
compound column graphs,
population pyramids, tables,
field sketches and annotated
diagrams, with and without
the use of digital and spatial
technologies

Evaluate sources for their
reliability, bias and
usefulness, and represent
multi-variable data in a range
of appropriate forms, for
example, scatter plots, tables,
field sketches and annotated
diagrams, with and without
the use of digital and spatial
technologies


Represent the location of
places and their features by
constructing large-scale
maps that conform to
cartographic conventions
including scale, legend, title,
and north point, and describe
their location using simple
grid references, compass
direction and distance
Represent the location and
features of places and
different types of
geographical information by
constructing large-scale and
small-scale maps that
conform to cartographic
conventions including border,
source, scale, legend, title
and north point, using spatial
technologies as appropriate
Represent the spatial
distribution of different types
of geographical phenomena
by constructing appropriate
maps at different scales that
conform to cartographic
conventions, using spatial
technologies as appropriate
Represent the spatial
distribution of geographical
phenomena by constructing
special-purpose maps that
conform to cartographic
conventions, using spatial
technologies as appropriate

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Interpreting, anal ysing and concluding
Draw conclusions based on
discussions of observations

Draw conclusions based on
the interpretation of
geographical information
sorted into categories
Interpret geographical data to
identify distributions and
patterns and draw
conclusions
Interpret geographical data
and other information, using
digital and spatial
technologies as appropriate,
and identify spatial
distributions, patterns and
trends, and infer relationships
to draw conclusions
Analyse geographical data
and other information using
qualitative and quantitative
methods, and digital and
spatial technologies as
appropriate, to identify and
propose explanations for
spatial distributions, patterns
and trends, and infer
relationships

Evaluate multi-variable data
and other geographical
information using qualitative
and quantitative methods,
and digital and spatial
technologies as appropriate,
to make generalisations and
inferences, propose
explanations for patterns,
trends, relationships and
anomalies, and predict
outcomes


Apply geographical concepts
to draw conclusions based on
the analysis of the data and
information collected
Apply geographical concepts
to synthesise information
from various sources and
draw conclusions based on
the analysis of data and
information, taking into
account alternative points of
view


Identify how geographic
information system (GIS)
might be used to analyse
geographical data and make
predictions
Communicating
Present information using
everyday language to
describe location and
direction

Present findings in a range of
communication forms, for
example, written, oral, digital
and visual, and describe the
direction and location of
places, using terms such as
north, south, opposite, near,
far
Present findings in a range of
communication forms, for
example, written, oral, digital,
graphic, tabular and visual,
and use geographical
terminology
Present findings and ideas in
a range of communication
forms, for example, written,
oral, digital, graphic, tabular,
visual and maps, using
geographical terminology and
digital technologies as
appropriate
Present findings, arguments
and ideas in a range of
communication forms
selected to suit a particular
audience and purpose, using
geographical terminology and
digital technologies as
appropriate
Present findings, arguments
and explanations in a range
of appropriate communication
forms, selected for their
effectiveness and to suit
audience and purpose, using
relevant geographical
terminology and digital
technologies as appropriate

Reflecting and responding
Reflect on their learning to
suggest ways that they can
look after a familiar place

Reflect on their learning and
suggest responses to their
findings
Reflect on their learning to
propose individual action in
response to a contemporary
geographical challenge and
identify the expected effects
Reflect on their learning to
propose individual and
collective action in response
to a contemporary
Reflect on their learning to
propose individual and
collective action in response
to a contemporary
geographical challenge,
Reflect on and evaluate the
findings of the inquiry to
propose individual and
collective action in response
to a contemporary
Page 112 of 252
of the proposal geographical challenge and
describe the expected effects
of their proposal on different
groups of people

taking account of
environmental, economic and
social considerations, and
predict the expected
outcomes of their proposal
geographical challenge,
taking account of
environmental, economic and
social considerations; and
explain the predicted
outcomes and consequences
of their proposal





Page 113 of 252
The Australian Curriculum
Humanities and Social Sciences
- History
Page 114 of 252
Rationale and Aims
Rationale
History is a disciplined process of inquiry into the past that develops students' curiosity and imagination. Awareness of history is
an essential characteristic of any society, and historical knowledge is fundamental to understanding ourselves and others. It
promotes the understanding of societies, events, movements and developments that have shaped humanity from earliest times.
It helps students appreciate how the world and its people have changed, as well as the significant continuities that exist to the
present day. History, as a discipline, has its own methods and procedures which make it different from other ways of
understanding human experience. The study of history is based on evidence derived from remains of the past. It is interpretative
by nature, promotes debate and encourages thinking about human values, including present and future challenges. The
process of historical inquiry develops transferable skills, such as the ability to ask relevant questions; critically analyse and
interpret sources; consider context; respect and explain different perspectives; develop and substantiate interpretations, and
communicate effectively.
The curriculum generally takes a world history approach within which the history of Australia is taught. It does this in order to
equip students for the world (local, regional and global) in which they live. An understanding of world history enhances students’
appreciation of Australian history. It enables them to develop an understanding of the past and present experiences of
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, their identity and the continuing value of their culture. It also helps students to
appreciate Australia's distinctive path of social, economic and political development, its position in the Asia-Pacific region, and
its global interrelationships. This knowledge and understanding is essential for informed and active participation in Australia's
diverse society.
Aims
The Australian Curriculum: History aims to ensure that students develop:
interest in, and enjoyment of, historical study for lifelong learning and work, including their capacity and willingness to be
informed and active citizens
knowledge, understanding and appreciation of the past and the forces that shape societies, including Australian society
understanding and use of historical concepts, such as evidence, continuity and change, cause and effect, perspectives,
empathy, significance and contestability
capacity to undertake historical inquiry, including skills in the analysis and use of sources, and in explanation and
communication.
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Organisation
Content Structure
The Australian Curriculum: History is organised into two interrelated strands: Historical Knowledge and Understanding and
Historical Skills.
Historical Knowledge and Understanding
This strand includes personal, family, local, state or territory, national, regional and world history. There is an emphasis on
Australian history in its world history context at Foundation to Year 10 and a focus on world history in the senior secondary
years. The strand includes a study of societies, events, movements and developments that have shaped world history from the
time of the earliest human communities to the present day.
This strand explores key concepts for developing historical understanding, such as: evidence, continuity and change, cause and
effect, significance, perspectives, empathy and contestability. These concepts may be investigated within a particular historical
context to facilitate an understanding of the past and to provide a focus for historical inquiries.
Historical Skills
This strand promotes skills used in the process of historical inquiry: chronology, terms and concepts; historical questions and
research; the analysis and use of sources; perspectives and interpretations; explanation and communication. Within this strand
there is an increasing emphasis on historical interpretation and the use of evidence.
Relationship between the strands
The two strands are integrated in the development of a teaching and learning program. The Historical Knowledge and
Understanding strand provides the contexts through which particular skills are to be developed. Historical Skills have been
described in bands of schooling (over three years at Foundation to Year 2 and at two-year intervals in subsequent year levels).
The sequencing and description of the Historical Skills strand, in bands of schooling will assist in multi-age programming by
providing a common focus for the teaching and learning of content in the Historical Knowledge and Understanding strand.
Inquiry questions
Each year level from Foundation to Year 10 includes key inquiry questions that provide a framework for developing students’
historical knowledge, understanding and skills.
Overviews
Historical Knowledge and Understanding includes an overview of the historical period to be covered in each year level 7–10.
The overview is not intended to be taught in depth; it will constitute approximately 10% of the total teaching time for the year.
The overview content identifies important features of the historical period at the relevant year level and provides an expansive
chronology that helps students understand broad patterns of historical change.
Depth studies
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In addition to the overview, Historical Knowledge and Understanding includes three depth-studies for the historical period at
each year level 7–10. For each depth study, there are up to three electives that focus on a particular society, event, movement
or development. It is expected that ONE elective is studied in detail, which will constitute approximately 30% of the total
teaching time for the year. The content in each elective is designed to allow detailed study of specific aspects of the historical
period. The order and detail in which content is taught is a programming decision. Content may be integrated in ways
appropriate to the specific local context; and it may be integrated with the content of other depth-study electives.
Relationship between overviews and depth studies
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Relationship between overviews and depth studies
As part of a teaching and learning program, the depth-study content at each year level 7-10 may be integrated with the overview
content. The overview provides the broader context for the teaching of depth-study content. This means that the overview
content can provide students with an introduction to the historical period; it can make the links to and between the depth studies,
and it can consolidate understanding through a review of the period.
Concepts for developing historical understanding
The Australian Curriculum: History includes concepts for developing historical understanding, such as: evidence, continuity and
change, cause and effect, perspectives, empathy, significance and contestability.
In Foundation to Year 2, there is a particular emphasis on the concepts of continuity and change, cause and effect, and
significance within the context of personal, family and local history. These concepts continue to be a focus of study in Years 3-6
with the inclusion of content related to perspectives challenging the notion that the past is a given and is unproblematic. In
Years 7-10 the concepts of evidence and contestability are introduced to further develop student's understanding of the nature
of historical interpretation and argument.
Year level descriptions
Year level descriptions provide an overview of the content that is being studied at that year level. They also emphasise the
interrelated nature of the two strands and the expectation that planning will involve integration of content from across the
strands.
Content descriptions
The Australian Curriculum: History includes content descriptions at each year level. These set out the knowledge,
understanding and skills that teachers are expected to teach and students are expected to learn. However they do not prescribe
approaches to teaching. The content descriptions have been written to ensure that learning is appropriately ordered and that
unnecessary repetition is avoided. However, a concept or skill introduced at one year level may be revisited, strengthened and
extended at later year levels as needed.
Content elaborations
Content elaborations are provided for Foundation to Year 10 to illustrate and exemplify content and to assist teachers in
developing a common understanding of the content descriptions. They are not intended to be comprehensive content points that
all students need to be taught.
Glossary
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A glossary is provided to support a common understanding of key terms and concepts in the content descriptions.
History across Foundation to Year 12
Complementing the year by year description of the curriculum, this document provides advice across the four year groupings on
the nature of learners and the relevant curriculum:
Foundation–Year 2: typically students from 5 to 8 years of age
Years 3–6: typically students from 8 to 12 years of age
Years 7–10: typically students from 12 to 15 years of age
Senior secondary years: typically students from 15 to 18 years of age.
Foundation–Year 2
Curriculum focus: Awareness of family history and community heritage
Through experimentation, practice and play, children in these years use their interest in people and how things work to make
sense of their world.
This history curriculum enables students in Foundation to Year 2 to learn about their own social context of family, friends and
school, and the significance of the past. They engage with the remains of the past; develop a concept of time as present, past
and future, and through role play use their imagination to speculate about the lives of others in the past.
Years 3–6
Curriculum focus: Local/national history and use of a range of sources
Students draw on their growing experience of family, school and the wider community to develop their understanding of the
world and their relationship to others past and present. In these years, students begin to better understand and appreciate
different points of view and to develop an awareness of justice and fair play.
This history curriculum seeks to target the distinct nature of learners in Years 3–6 by including content about Aboriginal and
Torres Strait Islander societies, democratic concepts and rights, and the diversity of Australian society.
In this way, students develop an understanding of the heritage of their community and of their ability to contribute to it. They
become aware of similarities and differences between people and become more aware of diversity in the wider community as
well as the concept of change over time.
Years 7–10
Curriculum focus: World and Australian history, the analysis and use of sources and historical
interpretation
As students move into adolescence, they undergo a range of important physical, cognitive, emotional and social changes.
Students often begin to question established conventions, practices and values. Their interests extend well beyond their own
communities and they begin to develop concerns about wider issues.
Students in this age range increasingly look for and value learning that is perceived to be relevant, is consistent with personal
goals, and/or leads to important outcomes. Increasingly they are able to work with more abstract concepts and are keen to
explore the nature of evidence and the contestability of ideas.
Through this history curriculum, students in Years 7–10 pursue broad questions such as: How do we know about the ancient
past? What key beliefs and values emerged and how did they influence societies? How did the nature of global conflict change
during the twentieth century? This curriculum also provides opportunities to engage students through contexts that are
meaningful and relevant to them and through past and present debates.
Senior secondary years
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Senior secondary years
Curriculum focus: World history, the evaluation of sources and historical debates
The senior secondary history curriculum consists of two courses: Ancient History and Modern History. These courses offer more
opportunities for specialisation in learning, through electives.
In this curriculum, students further develop their capacity for historical inquiry and their ability to critically evaluate historians’
claims by examining the sources on which those claims are based.
Curriculum structure: Foundation–Year 6 and Years 7–10
The curriculum structure at each year level (F–6) includes a description of the content focus and key inquiry questions. The
curriculum provides opportunities for the content to be taught using specific local contexts.
The curriculum structure at each year level (7–10) includes a description of the content focus, key inquiry questions, overview of
the historical period, and depth studies. The overview is designed to introduce the broad content and contexts for study. In
addition, for Years 7–10 there are three depth studies that provide an opportunity to investigate aspects in greater depth and
thus provide scope for the development of historical knowledge, understanding and skills. The curriculum provides opportunities
for the content to be taught using specific local contexts. The study of history in Years 7–10 consists of four historical periods:
the Year 7 curriculum focuses on history from the time of the earliest human communities to the end of the ancient period
(approximately 60 000 BCE – c.650 CE); a period defined by the development of cultural practices and organised
societies
the Year 8 curriculum focuses on history from the end of the ancient period to the beginning of the modern period (c.650 –
1750); a span of human history marked by significant economic, religious and political change
the Year 9 curriculum focuses on the making of the modern world and Australia from 1750 to 1918; an era of
industrialism, nationalism and imperialism
the Year 10 curriculum focuses on the history of the modern world and Australia from 1918 to the present; The twentieth
century was an important period in Australia’s social, cultural, economic and political development.
The curriculum structure for the senior secondary courses in Ancient History and Modern History consists of four units for each
course.
Achievement Standards
Across Foundation to Year 10, achievement standards indicate the quality of learning that students should typically demonstrate
by a particular point in their schooling. Achievement standards comprise a written description and student work samples.
An achievement standard describes the quality of learning (the extent of knowledge, the depth of understanding, and the
sophistication of skills) that would indicate the student is well placed to commence the learning required at the next level of
achievement.
The sequence of achievement standards across Foundation to Year 10 describes progress in the learning area. This sequence
provides teachers with a framework of growth and development in the learning area.
Student work samples play a key role in communicating expectations described in the achievement standards. Each work
sample includes the relevant assessment task, the student’s response, and annotations identifying the quality of learning
evident in the student’s response in relation to relevant parts of the achievement standard.
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Together, the description of the achievement standard and the accompanying set of annotated work samples help teachers to
make judgments about whether students have achieved the standard.
Student diversity
ACARA is committed to the development of a high-quality curriculum for all Australian students that promotes excellence and
equity in education.
All students are entitled to rigorous, relevant and engaging learning programs drawn from the Australian Curriculum: History.
Teachers take account of the range of their students’ current levels of learning, strengths, goals and interests and make
adjustments where necessary. The three-dimensional design of the Australian Curriculum, comprising learning areas, general
capabilities and cross-curriculum priorities, provides teachers with flexibility to cater for the diverse needs of students across
Australia and to personalise their learning.
More detailed advice has been developed for schools and teachers on using the Australian Curriculum to meet diverse learning
needs and is available under Student Diversity on the Australian Curriculum website.
Students with disability
The Disability Discrimination Act 1992 and the Disability Standards for Education 2005 require education and training service
providers to support the rights of students with disability to access the curriculum on the same basis as students without
disability.
Many students with disability are able to achieve educational standards commensurate with their peers, as long as the
necessary adjustments are made to the way in which they are taught and to the means through which they demonstrate their
learning.
In some cases curriculum adjustments are necessary to provide equitable opportunities for students to access age-equivalent
content in the Australian Curriculum: History. Teachers can draw from content at different levels along the Foundation to Year
10 sequence. Teachers can also use the extended general capabilities learning continua in Literacy, Numeracy and Personal
and social capability to adjust the focus of learning according to individual student need.
Gifted and talented students
Teachers can use the Australian Curriculum: History flexibly to meet the individual learning needs of gifted and talented
students.
Teachers can enrich student learning by providing students with opportunities to work with learning area content in more depth
or breadth; emphasising specific aspects of the general capabilities learning continua (for example, the higher order cognitive
skills of the Critical and creative thinking capability); and/or focusing on cross-curriculum priorities. Teachers can also accelerate
student learning by drawing on content from later levels in the Australian Curriculum: History and/or from local state and territory
teaching and learning materials.
English as an additional language or dialect
Students for whom English is an additional language or dialect (EAL/D) enter Australian schools at different ages and at
different stages of English language learning and have various educational backgrounds in their first languages. Whilst many
EAL/D students bring already highly developed literacy (and numeracy) skills in their own language to their learning of Standard
Australian English, there is a significant number of students who are not literate in their first language, and have had little or no
formal schooling.
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While the aims of the Australian Curriculum: History are the same for all students, EAL/D students must achieve these aims
while simultaneously learning a new language and learning content and skills through that new language. These students may
require additional time and support, along with teaching that explicitly addresses their language needs. Students who have had
no formal schooling will need additional time and support in order to acquire skills for effective learning in formal settings.
A national English as an Additional Language or Dialect: Teacher Resource has been developed to support teachers in
making the Australian Curriculum: Foundation to Year 10 in each learning area accessible to EAL/D students.
General capabilities
In the Australian Curriculum, the general capabilities encompass the knowledge, skills, behaviours and dispositions that,
together with curriculum content in each learning area and the cross-curriculum priorities, will assist students to live and work
successfully in the twenty-first century.
There are seven general capabilities:
Literacy
Numeracy
Information and communication technology (ICT) capability
Critical and creative thinking
Personal and social capability
Ethical understanding
Intercultural understanding.
In the Australian Curriculum: History, general capabilities are identified wherever they are developed or applied in content
descriptions. They are also identified where they offer opportunities to add depth and richness to student learning through
content elaborations. Icons indicate where general capabilities have been identified in History content. Teachers may find
further opportunities to incorporate explicit teaching of the capabilities depending on their choice of activities.
Literacy
Students become literate as they develop the knowledge, skills and dispositions to interpret and use language confidently for
learning and communicating in and out of school and for participating effectively in society. Literacy involves students in
listening to, reading, viewing, speaking, writing and creating oral, print, visual and digital texts, and using and modifying
language for different purposes in a range of contexts.
Students develop literacy capability as they learn how to build historical knowledge and to explore, analyse, question, discuss
and communicate historical information, concepts and ideas. Historical texts typically include those that recount a sequence of
events, present past events as a narrative, discuss concepts and ideas, and argue a point of view. These texts are often
accompanied by graphics such as illustrations, maps, tables and timelines that provide significant information and are supported
by references and quotations from primary and secondary sources.
Students understand that language varies according to context and they develop their ability to use language flexibly. This
includes understanding and using the language features of historical texts including topic vocabulary, past tense verbs for
recounting events, complex sentences to establish sequential or cause-and-effect relationships, the wide use of adverbs to
describe places, people and events, and extended noun groups employing descriptive adjectives.
Numeracy
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Students become numerate as they develop the knowledge and skills to use mathematics confidently across all learning areas
at school and in their lives more broadly. Numeracy involves students in recognising and understanding the role of mathematics
in the world and having the dispositions and capacities to use mathematical knowledge and skills purposefully.
Students develop numeracy capability as they learn to organise and interpret historical events and developments. Students
learn to analyse numerical data to make meaning of the past, for example to understand cause and effect, and continuity and
change. Students learn to use scaled timelines, including those involving negative and positive numbers, as well as calendars
and dates to recall information on topics of historical significance and to illustrate the passing of time.
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) capability
Students develop ICT capability as they learn to use ICT effectively and appropriately to access, create and communicate
information and ideas, solve problems and work collaboratively in all learning areas at school, and in their lives beyond school.
ICT capability involves students in learning to make the most of the technologies available to them, adapting to new ways of
doing things as technologies evolve and limiting the risks to themselves and others in a digital environment.
Students develop ICT capability when they locate, process, analyse and communicate historical information. They use their ICT
capability to access a range of digital sources of information; critically analyse evidence and historical trends; communicate,
present and represent their learning; and collaborate, discuss and debate to co-construct their knowledge.
Critical and creative thinking
Students develop capability in critical and creative thinking as they learn to generate and evaluate knowledge, clarify concepts
and ideas, seek possibilities, consider alternatives and solve problems. Critical and creative thinking are integral to activities that
require students to think broadly and deeply using skills, behaviours and dispositions such as reason, logic, resourcefulness,
imagination and innovation in all learning areas at school and in their lives beyond school.
Critical thinking is essential to the historical inquiry process because it requires the ability to question sources, interpret the past
from incomplete documentation, develop an argument using evidence, and assess reliability when selecting information from
resources. Creative thinking is important in developing new interpretations to explain aspects of the past that are contested or
not well understood.
Personal and social capability
Students develop personal and social capability as they learn to understand themselves and others, and manage their
relationships, lives, work and learning more effectively. The personal and social capability involves students in a range of
practices including recognising and regulating emotions, developing empathy for and understanding of others, establishing
positive relationships, making responsible decisions, working effectively in teams and handling challenging situations
constructively.
As students gain understanding about human experience and develop skills of historical inquiry, they develop and use personal
and social capability. This includes empathy, reflective practice, appreciation of the perspective of others, communication skills,
teamwork, advocacy skills and a disposition to make a contribution to their communities and society more broadly.
The History curriculum enhances personal and social capability by providing opportunities for students to engage with
understandings such as historical empathy, contestability, perspectives, cause and effect, and continuity and change.
Ethical understanding
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Students develop ethical understanding as they identify and investigate the nature of ethical concepts, values, character traits
and principles, and understand how reasoning can assist ethical judgment. Ethical understanding involves students in building a
strong personal and socially oriented ethical outlook that helps them to manage context, conflict and uncertainty, and to develop
an awareness of the influence that their values and behaviour have on others.
Students develop ethical understanding of ethical behaviour as they critically explore the character traits, actions and
motivations of people in the past that may be the result of different standards and expectations and changing societal attitudes.
Students recognise that examining the nature of evidence deepens their understanding of ethical issues and investigate the
ways that diverse values and principles have influenced human affairs.
Intercultural understanding
Students develop intercultural understanding as they learn to value their own cultures, languages and beliefs, and those of
others. They come to understand how personal, group and national identities are shaped, and the variable and changing nature
of culture. The capability involves students in learning about and engaging with diverse cultures in ways that recognise
commonalities and differences, create connections with others and cultivate mutual respect.
Students learn about the perspectives, beliefs and values of people, past and present, and the importance of understanding
their own and others' histories. This includes learning about the origins and development of Australia’s national identity and the
forging of its cultural heritage.
Students recognise the significance of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples’ histories and cultures. They have
opportunities to learn about the contribution of migration from countries in Europe, Africa, the Middle East and the Asia-Pacific
region, and the historic benefits and challenges of interacting with other countries and cultural groups in local, regional and
international contexts. They learn about events and developments that have influenced diverse societies and cultural groups
over time, and come to understand the nature, causes and consequences of cultural interdependence, dispossession and
conflict. They refer to a range of sources portraying different cultural perspectives in order to develop historical understanding.
Cross-curriculum priorities
The Australian Curriculum is designed to meet the needs of students by delivering a relevant, contemporary and engaging
curriculum that builds on the educational goals of the Melbourne Declaration. The Melbourne Declaration identified three key
areas that need to be addressed for the benefit of both individuals and Australia as a whole. In the Australian Curriculum these
have become priorities that provide students with the tools and language to engage with and better understand their world at a
range of levels. The priorities provide dimensions which will enrich the curriculum through development of considered and
focused content that fits naturally within learning areas. They enable the delivery of learning area content at the same time as
developing knowledge, understanding and skills relating to:
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures
Asia and Australia’s engagement with Asia
sustainability.
Cross-curriculum priorities are addressed through learning areas and are identified wherever they are developed or applied in
content descriptions. They are also identified where they offer opportunities to add depth and richness to student learning in
content elaborations. They will have a strong but varying presence depending on their relevance to the learning area.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures
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Across the Australian Curriculum, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures priority provides opportunities
for all learners to deepen their knowledge of Australia by engaging with the world’s oldest continuous living cultures. Students
will understand that contemporary Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Communities are strong, resilient, rich and diverse. The
knowledge and understanding gained through this priority will enhance the ability of all young people to participate positively in
the ongoing development of Australia.
The Australian Curriculum: History values Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures. It celebrates Aboriginal
and Torres Strait Islander histories as part of the shared history belonging to all Australians.
Students will examine historical perspectives from an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander viewpoint. They will learn about
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples prior to colonisation by the British, the ensuing contact and its impacts. They will
examine key policies and political movements over the last two centuries. Students will develop an awareness of the significant
roles of Aboriginal and Torres Strait islander people in Australian society.
Asia and Australia’s engagement with Asia
Across the Australian curriculum, this priority will ensure that students learn about and recognise the diversity within and
between the countries of the Asia region. They will develop knowledge and understanding of Asian societies, cultures, beliefs
and environments, and the connections between the peoples of Asia, Australia, and the rest of the world. Asia literacy provides
students with the skills to communicate and engage with the peoples of Asia so they can effectively live, work and learn in the
region.
In the Australian Curriculum: History, the priority of Asia and Australia’s engagement with Asia provides rich and engaging
content and contexts for developing students’ historical knowledge, understanding and skills.
The Australian Curriculum: History enables students to develop an understanding of histories of the diverse peoples of Asia and
their contributions to the region and the world, and an appreciation of the importance of the region for Australia and the world.
This happens as students learn about the importance of the traditions, beliefs and celebrations of peoples from the Asia region
and through the study of ancient societies, trade, conflicts, progressive movements and migration to Australia by people from
Asia.
In this learning area, students recognise the dynamic nature of socio-political relationships within the region over time, and the
role that individuals, governments and other organisations play in shaping relationships between peoples and countries. They
develop an appreciation of the history of Australia-Asia engagement and how this influences contemporary relationships within
Australian society and relationships between Australia and the countries of Asia. Students also understand the ongoing role
played by Australia and individual Australians, including Australians of Asian heritage, in major events and developments in the
Asia region.
Sustainability
Across the Australian Curriculum, sustainability will allow all young Australians to develop the knowledge, skills, values and
world views necessary for them to act in ways that contribute to more sustainable patterns of living. It will enable individuals and
communities to reflect on ways of interpreting and engaging with the world. The Sustainability priority is futures-oriented,
focusing on protecting environments and creating a more ecologically and socially just world through informed action. Actions
that support more sustainable patterns of living require consideration of environmental, social, cultural and economic systems
and their interdependence.
In the Australian Curriculum: History, the priority of sustainability provides a context for developing students’ historical
knowledge, understanding and skills. It assists students in understanding the forces that influence continuity and change.
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The Australian Curriculum: History provides content that supports the development of students’ world views, particularly in
relation to judgments about past social and economic systems, and access to and use of the Earth’s resources. It provides
opportunities for students to develop an historical perspective on sustainability. Making decisions about sustainability to help
shape a better future requires an understanding of how the past relates to the present, and needs to be informed by historical
trends and experiences.
In this learning area, students develop understanding, for example, of the changes in environments over time, the role played by
individuals and communities in protecting environments, the emergence of farming and settled communities, the development of
the Industrial Revolution and the growth of population, the overuse of natural resources and the rise of environmental
movements.
Links to the other learning areas
Learning in history involves the use of knowledge and skills learnt in other areas, particularly in English, mathematics and
science
English
Strong connections exist between English and history, and literacy is essential to historical understanding. Through the study of
history, students learn how to read texts with critical discernment and how to create their own texts that present the results of
historical understanding clearly and logically. In their studies, they encounter representations of the past that demonstrate the
power of language and symbol, and they learn to extend the range of their own expression. These skills are developed across a
range of textual genres and formats, including art, photography, film, music, fiction and multimedia.
Mathematics
Much of the evidence and reasoning in historical understanding is quantitative: chronology, demography, economic activity,
changes in the movement of peoples and in the size and reach of institutions. All of these call for an appreciation of numerical
scale and proportion.
Science
A knowledge and understanding of history provides a useful context for student learning in science. The history of invention and
discovery provides students with an awareness of the pace of scientific and technological development over time and its
implications for the future. An understanding of the past provides opportunities to engage in an informed manner in present
debates about, for example, the ethical use of technology and the management of the environment. This is relevant to content
within the strand Science as a Human Endeavour in the Australian Curriculum: Science. The study of sources of evidence and
the conservation of historical sites and materials broadens students’ understanding of the various applications of science.
Implications for teaching, assessment and reporting
The Australian Curriculum: History employs a skills and inquiry-based model of teaching. The skills of historical inquiry are
developed through teacher-directed and student-centred learning, enabling students to pose and investigate questions with
increasing initiative, self-direction and expertise. In the teaching of history there should not be an artificial separation of content
and process, nor a focus on historical method at the expense of historical knowledge. In Years 7–10 there is a particular
emphasis on the use of overviews and depth studies, which draw on a range of historical contexts.
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Students’ interest in and enjoyment of history is enhanced through a range of different approaches such as the use of artefacts,
museums, historical sites, hands-on activities and archives. Historical narrative is used so that students experience the ‘story’ in
history, and this can be extended to investigations of cause and consequence, historical significance and contestability.
Connections are made where appropriate between past and present events and circumstances to make learning more
meaningful for students and to help students make sense of key ideas.
Teachers use the Australian Curriculum content and achievement standards first to identify current levels of learning and
achievement and then to select the most appropriate content (possibly from across several year levels) to teach individual
students and/or groups of students. This takes into account that in each class there may be students with a range of prior
achievement (below, at, and above the year level expectations) and that teachers plan to build on current learning.
Teachers also use the achievement standards, at the end of a period of teaching, to make on-balance judgments about the
quality of learning demonstrated by the students – that is whether they have achieved below, at, or above the standard. To
make these judgments, teachers draw on assessment data that they have collected as evidence during the course of the
teaching period. These judgments about the quality of learning are one source of feedback to students and their parents and
inform formal reporting processes.
If a teacher judges that a student’s achievement is below the expected standard, this suggests that the teaching programs and
practice should be reviewed to better assist individual students in their learning in the future. It also suggests that additional
support and targeted teaching will be needed to ensure that the student does not fall behind.
Assessment of the Australian Curriculum takes place in different levels and for different purposes, including:
ongoing formative assessment within classrooms for the purposes of monitoring learning and providing feedback, to
teachers to inform their teaching, and for students to inform their learning
summative assessment for the purposes of twice-yearly reporting by schools to parents and carers on the progress and
achievement of students
annual testing of Years 3, 5, 7 and 9 students’ levels of achievement in aspects of literacy and numeracy, conducted as
part of the National Assessment Program – Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN)
periodic sample testing of specific learning areas within the Australian Curriculum as part of the National Assessment
Program (NAP).
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Foundation Year Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6
H
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t
o
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i
c
a
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S
k
i
l
l
s
Chronology,
terms and
concepts
Sequence familiar objects and events
Distinguish between the past, present and future
Sequence historical people and events
Use historical terms
Sequence historical people and events
Use historical terms and concepts
Historical
questions
and research
Pose questions about the past using sources provided Pose a range of questions about the past
Identify sources
Identify questions to inform an historical inquiry
Identify and locate a range of relevant sources
Analysis and
use of sources
Explore a range of sources about the past
Identify and compare features of objects from the past and present
Locate relevant information from sources provided Locate information related to inquiry questions in a range of
sources
Compare information from a range of sources
Perspectives and
interpretations
Explore a point of view Identify diferent points of view Identify points of view in the past and present
Explanation and
communication
Develop a narrative about the past
Use a range of communication forms (oral, graphic, written, role play) and digital
technologies
Develop texts, particularly narratives
Use a range of communication forms (oral, graphic,
written) and digital technologies
Develop texts, particularly narratives and descriptions, which
incorporate source materials
Use a range of communication forms (oral, graphic, written)
and digital technologies
Historical Skills Scope and Sequence: Foundation to Year 6
Version 3.0
20 January 2012
Page 128 of 252
Year 5 Year 6 Year 7 Year 8 Year 9 Year 10
H
i
s
t
o
r
i
c
a
l

S
k
i
l
l
s
Chronology,
terms and
concepts
Sequence historical people and events
Use historical terms and concepts
Sequence historical events, developments and periods
Use historical terms and concepts
Use chronological sequencing to demonstrate the relationship
between events and developments in diferent periods and places
Use historical terms and concepts
Historical
questions
and research
Identify questions to inform an historical inquiry
Identify and locate a range of relevant sources
Identify a range of questions about the past to inform an historical
inquiry
Identify and locate relevant sources, using ICT and other methods
Identify and select diferent kinds of questions about the past to
inform historical inquiry
Evaluate and enhance these questions
Identify and locate relevant sources, using ICT and other methods
Analysis and
use of sources
Locate information related to inquiry questions in a range of
sources
Compare information from a range of sources
Identify the origin and purpose of primary and secondary sources
Locate, compare, select and use information from a range of
sources as evidence
Draw conclusions about the usefulness of sources

Identify the origin, purpose and context of primary and secondary
sources
Process and synthesise information from a range of sources for use
as evidence in an historical argument
Evaluate the reliability and usefulness of primary and secondary
sources
Perspectives and
interpretations
Identify points of view in the past and present Identify and describe points of view, attitudes and values in
primary and secondary sources
Identify and analyse the perspectives of people from the past
Identify and analyse diferent historical interpretations (including
their own)
Explanation and
communication
Develop historical texts, particularly narratives and descriptions,
which incorporate source materials
Use a range of communication forms (oral, graphic, written)
and digital technologies
Develop texts, particularly descriptions and explanations that use
evidence from a range of sources that are acknowledged
Use a range of communication forms (oral, graphic, written) and
digital technologies
Develop texts, particularly explanations and discussions that use
evidence from a range of sources that are referenced
Select and use a range of communication forms (oral, graphic,
written) and digital technologies
Historical Skills Scope and Sequence: Year 5 to Year 10
Version 3.0
20 January 2012
Page 129 of 252
Historical Knowledge and Understanding Scope and Sequence: Foundation to Year 6
Version 3.0
20 January 2012
Foundation Year Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6
Y
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f
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s
Personal and
family histories
Present and past
family life
The past in the
present
Community and remembrance First contacts The Australian colonies Australia as a nation
K
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y

q
u
e
s
t
i
o
n
s
What is my
history and how
do I know?
What stories do
other people tell
about the past?
How can stories
of the past be told
and shared?
How has family life
changed or remained
the same over time?
How can we show that
the present is different
from or similar to the
past?
How do we describe
the sequence of time?
What aspects of
the past can you
see today? What
do they tell us?
What remains
of the past are
important to the
local community?
Why?
How have
changes in
technology
shaped our daily
life?
Who lived here first and how do we know?
How has our community changed? What
features have been lost and what features
have been retained?
What is the nature of the contribution made
by different groups and individuals in the
community?
How and why do people choose to remember
significant events of the past?
Why did the great journeys of
exploration occur?
What was life like for
Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait
Islander Peoples before the
arrival of the Europeans?
Why did the Europeans settle
in Australia?
What was the nature and
consequence of contact
between Aboriginal and/or
Torres Strait Islander Peoples
and early traders, explorers
and settlers?
What do we know about the lives of
people in Australia’s colonial past and
how do we know?
How did an Australian colony develop
over time and why?
How did colonial settlement change
the environment?
What were the significant events and
who were the significant people that
shaped Australian colonies?
Why and how did Australia
become a nation?
How did Australian society
change throughout the
twentieth century?
Who were the people who
came to Australia? Why did
they come?
What contribution have
significant individuals
and groups made to the
development of Australian
society?
K
e
y

c
o
n
c
e
p
t
s
The content provides opportunities to develop historical
understanding through key concepts including continuity and
change, cause and effect, perspectives, empathy and significance.
The content provides opportunities to develop historical understanding through key concepts including sources, continuity and change, cause and effect,
perspectives, empathy and significance.
K
n
o
w
l
e
d
g
e

a
n
d

u
n
d
e
r
s
t
a
n
d
i
n
g
Who the people
in their family are,
where they were
born and raised
and how they are
related to each
other
The different
structures of
families and family
groups today, and
what they have in
common
How they, their
family and friends
commemorate
past events that
are important to
them
How the stories
of families and
the past can be
communicated,
for example
through
photographs,
artefacts, books,
oral histories,
digital media, and
museums
Differences in family
structures and roles
today, and how these
have changed or
remained the same
over time
How the present,
past and future are
signified by terms
indicating time such
as ‘a long time ago’,
‘then and now’, ‘now
and then’, ‘old and
new’, ‘tomorrow’,
as well as by dates
and changes that
may have personal
significance, such as
birthdays, celebrations
and seasons
Differences and
similarities between
students’ daily
lives and life during
their parents’ and
grandparents’
childhoods, including
family traditions,
leisure time and
communications.
The history of a
significant person,
building, site or
part of the natural
environment in the
local community
and what it
reveals about the
past
The importance
today of an
historical site of
cultural or spiritual
significance;
for example,
a community
building, a
landmark, a war
memorial
The impact
of changing
technology on
people’s lives
(at home and in
the ways they
worked, travelled,
communicated,
and played in the
past)
The importance of Country and Place to
Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander
Peoples who belong to a local area. (This
is intended to be a local area study with a
focus on one Language group; however,
if information or sources are not readily
available, another representative area may be
studied)
ONE important example of change and
ONE important example of continuity over
time in the local community, region or state/
territory; for example, in relation to the areas
of transport, work, education, natural and built
environments, entertainment, daily life
The role that people of diverse backgrounds
have played in the development and character
of the local community
Days and weeks celebrated or commemorated
in Australia (including Australia Day, ANZAC
Day, Harmony Week, National Reconciliation
Week, NAIDOC week and National Sorry Day)
and the importance of symbols and emblems.
Celebrations and commemorations in other
places around the world; for example, Bastille
Day in France, Independence Day in the USA,
including those that are observed in Australia
such as Chinese New Year, Christmas Day,
Diwali, Easter, Hanukkah, the Moon Festival
and Ramadan
The diversity and longevity
of Australia’s first peoples
and the ways Aboriginal
and/or Torres Strait Islander
Peoples are connected to
Country and Place (land, sea,
waterways and skies) and
the implications for their daily
lives.
The journey(s) of AT LEAST
ONE world navigator, explorer
or trader up to the late
eighteenth century, including
their contacts with other
societies and any impacts.
Stories of the First Fleet,
including reasons for the
journey, who travelled
to Australia, and their
experiences following arrival.
The nature of contact
between Aboriginal people
and/or Torres Strait Islanders
and others, for example,
the Macassans and the
Europeans, and the effects
of these interactions on, for
example families and the
environment
Reasons (economic, political and
social) for the establishment of British
colonies in Australia after 1800.
The nature of a convict or colonial
presence, including the factors that
influenced patterns of development,
aspects of the daily life of the
inhabitants (including Aboriginal
Peoples and Torres Strait Islanders
Peoples), and how the environment
changed.
The impact of a significant
development or event on a colony;
for example, frontier conflict, the gold
rushes, the Eureka Stockade, internal
exploration, the advent of rail, the
expansion of farming, drought.
The reasons people migrated to
Australia from Europe and Asia, and
the experiences and contributions of
a particular migrant group within a
colony.
The role that a significant individual
or group played in shaping a colony;
for example, explorers, farmers,
entrepreneurs, artists, writers,
humanitarians, religious and political
leaders, and Aboriginal and/or Torres
Strait Islander Peoples.
Key figures and events that
led to Australia’s Federation,
including British and
American influences on
Australia’s system of law and
government.
Experiences of Australian
democracy and citizenship,
including the status and
rights of Aboriginal people
and/or Torres Strait Islanders,
migrants, women, and
children
Stories of groups of people
who migrated to Australia
(including from ONE Asian
country) and the reasons they
migrated, such as World War
II and Australian migration
programs since the war.
The contribution of
individuals and groups,
including Aboriginal people
and/or Torres Strait Islanders
and migrants, to the
development of Australian
society, for example in
areas such as the economy,
education, science, the arts,
sport.
Page 130 of 252
Year 7 Year 8 Year 9 Year 10
Y
e
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l
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f
o
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u
sThe ancient world
The Year 7 curriculum provides a study of
history from the time of the earliest human
communities to the end of the ancient period,
approximately 60 000 BC (BCE) – c.650 AD
(CE)
The ancient to the modern world
The Year 8 curriculum provides study of history from the end
of the ancient period to the beginning of the modern period,
c.650 AD (CE) – 1750.
The making of the modern world
The Year 9 curriculum provides a study of the
history of the making of the modern world from
1750 to 1918.
The modern world and Australia
The Year 10 curriculum provides a study of the history of
the modern world and Australia from 1918 to the present,
with an emphasis on Australia in its global context.
K
e
y

q
u
e
s
t
i
o
n
s
How do we know about the ancient past?
Why and where did the earliest societies
develop?
What emerged as the defining characteristics
of ancient societies?
What have been the legacies of ancient
societies?
How did societies change from the end of the ancient period
to the beginning of the modern age?
What key beliefs and values emerged and how did they
influence societies?
What were the causes and effects of contact between
societies in this period?
Which significant people, groups and ideas from this period
have influenced the world today?
What were the changing features of the
movements of people from 1750 to 1918?
How did new ideas and technological
developments contribute to change in this
period?
What was the origin, development, significance
and long-term impact of imperialism in this
period?
What was the significance of World War I?
How did the nature of global conflict change during the
twentieth century?
What were the consequences of World War II? How did
these consequences shape the modern world?
How was Australian society affected by other significant
global events and changes in this period?
K
e
y

c
o
n
c
e
p
t
sThe content provides opportunities to develop historical understanding through key concepts, including evidence, continuity and change, cause and effect, perspectives, empathy, significance and contestability.
O
v
e
r
v
i
e
w
Overview content for the ancient world
(Egypt, Mesopotamia, Persia, Greece, Rome,
India, China and the Maya) includes the
following:
the theory that people moved out of Africa
around 60 000 BC (BCE) and migrated to
other parts of the world, including Australia.
the evidence for the emergence and
establishment of ancient societies (including
art, iconography, writing tools and pottery)
key features of ancient societies (farming,
trade, social classes, religion, rule of law)
Overview content for the ancient to modern world (Byzantine,
Celtic, Anglo-Saxon, Viking, Ottoman, Khmer, Mongols, Yuan
and Ming dynasties, Aztec, Inca) includes the following:
the transformation of the Roman world and the spread of
Christianity and Islam
key features of the medieval world (feudalism, trade routes,
voyages of discovery, contact and conflict)
the emergence of ideas about the world and the
place of people in it by the end of the period (such
as the Renaissance, the Scientific Revolution and the
Enlightenment).
Overview content for the making of the modern
world includes the following:
the nature and significance of the Industrial
Revolution and how it affected living and
working conditions, including within Australia
the nature and extent of the movement of
peoples in the period (slaves, convicts and
settlers)
the extent of European imperial expansion
and different responses, including in the Asian
region
the emergence and nature of significant
economic, social and political ideas in the
period, including nationalism
Overview content for the Modern World and Australia
includes the following:
the inter-war years between World War I and World War II,
including the Treaty of Versailles, the Roaring Twenties and
the Great Depression
continuing efforts post-World War II to achieve lasting
peace and security in the world, including Australia’s
involvement in UN peacekeeping
the major movements for rights and freedom in the world
and the achievement of independence by former colonies
the nature of the Cold War and Australia’s involvement in
Cold War and post-Cold War conflicts (Korea, Vietnam, The
Gulf Wars, Afghanistan), including the rising influence of
Asian nations since the end of the Cold War
developments in technology, public health, longevity
and standard of living during the twentieth century, and
concern for the environment and sustainability
D
e
p
t
h

s
t
u
d
i
e
s
The depth studies for this year level include:
1. Investigating the ancient past
2. The Mediterranean world (ONE of Egypt,
Greece, Rome)
3. The Asian world (ONE of China, India)
The depth studies for this year level include:
1. The Western and Islamic World (ONE of The Vikings,
Renaissance Italy, Medieval Europe, The Ottoman Empire)
2. The Asia-Pacific World (ONE of Angkor/Khmer Empire,
Japan under the Shoguns, The Polynesian expansion
across the Pacific)
3. Expanding contacts (ONE of Mongol Expansion, The
Spanish Conquest of the Americas, The Black Death in
Asia, Europe and Africa)
The depth studies for this year level include:
1. Making a Better World? (ONE of Progressive
ideas and movements, The Industrial
Revolution, Movement of peoples)
2. Australia and Asia (ONE of Asia and the
world, Making a nation)
3. World War I
The depth studies for this year level include:
1. World War II
2. Rights and freedoms
3. The globalising world (ONE of Popular culture, The
environment movement, Migration experiences)
Historical Knowledge and Understanding Scope and Sequence: Year 7 to Year 10
Version 3.0
20 January 2012
Page 131 of 252
The Australian Curriculum
Mathematics
Page 132 of 252
Rationale and Aims
Rationale
Learning mathematics creates opportunities for and enriches the lives of all Australians. The Australian Curriculum:
Mathematics provides students with essential mathematical skills and knowledge in Number and Algebra, Measurement and
Geometry, and Statistics and Probability. It develops the numeracy capabilities that all students need in their personal, work
and civic life, and provides the fundamentals on which mathematical specialties and professional applications of mathematics
are built.
Mathematics has its own value and beauty and the Australian Curriculum: Mathematics aims to instil in students an appreciation
of the elegance and power of mathematical reasoning. Mathematical ideas have evolved across all cultures over thousands of
years, and are constantly developing. Digital technologies are facilitating this expansion of ideas and providing access to new
tools for continuing mathematical exploration and invention. The curriculum focuses on developing increasingly sophisticated
and refined mathematical understanding, fluency, logical reasoning, analytical thought and problem-solving skills. These
capabilities enable students to respond to familiar and unfamiliar situations by employing mathematical strategies to make
informed decisions and solve problems efficiently.
The Australian Curriculum: Mathematics ensures that the links between the various components of mathematics, as well as the
relationship between mathematics and other disciplines, are made clear. Mathematics is composed of multiple but interrelated
and interdependent concepts and systems which students apply beyond the mathematics classroom. In science, for example,
understanding sources of error and their impact on the confidence of conclusions is vital, as is the use of mathematical models
in other disciplines. In geography, interpretation of data underpins the study of human populations and their physical
environments; in history, students need to be able to imagine timelines and time frames to reconcile related events; and in
English, deriving quantitative and spatial information is an important aspect of making meaning of texts.
The curriculum anticipates that schools will ensure all students benefit from access to the power of mathematical reasoning and
learn to apply their mathematical understanding creatively and efficiently. The mathematics curriculum provides students with
carefully paced, in-depth study of critical skills and concepts. It encourages teachers to help students become self-motivated,
confident learners through inquiry and active participation in challenging and engaging experiences.
Aims
The Australian Curriculum: Mathematics aims to ensure that students:
are confident, creative users and communicators of mathematics, able to investigate, represent and interpret situations in
their personal and work lives and as active citizens
develop an increasingly sophisticated understanding of mathematical concepts and fluency with processes, and are able
to pose and solve problems and reason in Number and Algebra, Measurement and Geometry, and Statistics and
Probability
recognise connections between the areas of mathematics and other disciplines and appreciate mathematics as an
accessible and enjoyable discipline to study.
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Mathematics
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Page 133 of 252
Organisation
Content structure
The Australian Curriculum: Mathematics is organised around the interaction of three content strands and four proficiency
strands.
The content strands are Number and Algebra, Measurement and Geometry, and Statistics and Probability. They describe
what is to be taught and learnt.
The proficiency strands are Understanding, Fluency, Problem Solving, and Reasoning. They describe how content is
explored or developed, that is, the thinking and doing of mathematics. They provide the language to build in the developmental
aspects of the learning of mathematics and have been incorporated into the content descriptions of the three content strands
described above. This approach has been adopted to ensure students’ proficiency in mathematical skills develops throughout
the curriculum and becomes increasingly sophisticated over the years of schooling.
Content strands
Number and Algebra
Number and Algebra are developed together, as each enriches the study of the other. Students apply number sense and
strategies for counting and representing numbers. They explore the magnitude and properties of numbers. They apply a range
of strategies for computation and understand the connections between operations. They recognise patterns and understand the
concepts of variable and function. They build on their understanding of the number system to describe relationships and
formulate generalisations. They recognise equivalence and solve equations and inequalities. They apply their number and
algebra skills to conduct investigations, solve problems and communicate their reasoning.
Measurement and Geometry
Measurement and Geometry are presented together to emphasise their relationship to each other, enhancing their practical
relevance. Students develop an increasingly sophisticated understanding of size, shape, relative position and movement of two-
dimensional figures in the plane and three-dimensional objects in space. They investigate properties and apply their
understanding of them to define, compare and construct figures and objects. They learn to develop geometric arguments. They
make meaningful measurements of quantities, choosing appropriate metric units of measurement. They build an understanding
of the connections between units and calculate derived measures such as area, speed and density.
Statistics and Probability
Statistics and Probability initially develop in parallel and the curriculum then progressively builds the links between them.
Students recognise and analyse data and draw inferences. They represent, summarise and interpret data and undertake
purposeful investigations involving the collection and interpretation of data. They assess likelihood and assign probabilities
using experimental and theoretical approaches. They develop an increasingly sophisticated ability to critically evaluate chance
and data concepts and make reasoned judgments and decisions, as well as building skills to critically evaluate statistical
information and develop intuitions about data.
Proficiency strands
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Mathematics
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Proficiency strands
The proficiency strands describe the actions in which students can engage when learning and using the content. While not all
proficiency strands apply to every content description, they indicate the breadth of mathematical actions that teachers can
emphasise.
Understanding
Students build a robust knowledge of adaptable and transferable mathematical concepts. They make connections between
related concepts and progressively apply the familiar to develop new ideas. They develop an understanding of the relationship
between the ‘why’ and the ‘how’ of mathematics. Students build understanding when they connect related ideas, when they
represent concepts in different ways, when they identify commonalities and differences between aspects of content, when they
describe their thinking mathematically and when they interpret mathematical information.
Fluency
Students develop skills in choosing appropriate procedures, carrying out procedures flexibly, accurately, efficiently and
appropriately, and recalling factual knowledge and concepts readily. Students are fluent when they calculate answers efficiently,
when they recognise robust ways of answering questions, when they choose appropriate methods and approximations, when
they recall definitions and regularly use facts, and when they can manipulate expressions and equations to find solutions.
Problem Solving
Students develop the ability to make choices, interpret, formulate, model and investigate problem situations, and communicate
solutions effectively. Students formulate and solve problems when they use mathematics to represent unfamiliar or meaningful
situations, when they design investigations and plan their approaches, when they apply their existing strategies to seek
solutions, and when they verify that their answers are reasonable.
Reasoning
Students develop an increasingly sophisticated capacity for logical thought and actions, such as analysing, proving, evaluating,
explaining, inferring, justifying and generalising. Students are reasoning mathematically when they explain their thinking, when
they deduce and justify strategies used and conclusions reached, when they adapt the known to the unknown, when they
transfer learning from one context to another, when they prove that something is true or false and when they compare and
contrast related ideas and explain their choices.
Content descriptions
The mathematics curriculum includes content descriptions at each year level. These describe the knowledge, concepts, skills
and processes that teachers are expected to teach and students are expected to learn. However, they do not prescribe
approaches to teaching. The content descriptions are intended to ensure that learning is appropriately ordered and that
unnecessary repetition is avoided. However, a concept or skill introduced at one year level may be revisited, strengthened and
extended at later year levels as needed.
Sub-strands
Content descriptions are grouped into sub-strands to illustrate the clarity and sequence of development of concepts through and
across the year levels. They support the ability to see the connections across strands and the sequential development of
concepts from Foundation to Year 10.
Number and Algebra Measurement and Geometry Statistics and Probability
Number and place value (F-8) Using units of measurement
(F-10)
Chance (1-10)
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Fractions and decimals (1-6) Shape (F-7) Data representation and interpretation (F-
10)
Real numbers (7-10) Geometric reasoning (3-10)
Money and financial mathematics (1-
10)
Location and transformation
(F-7)

Patterns and algebra (F-10) Pythagoras and trigonometry (9-
10)

Linear and non-linear relationships (7-
10)

Year level descriptions
Year level descriptions emphasise the importance of working mathematically within the content. They provide an overview of the
relationship between the proficiencies (Understanding, Fluency, Problem Solving and Reasoning) and the content for each
year level.
Content elaborations
Content elaborations are provided for Foundation to Year 10 to illustrate and exemplify content and assist teachers to develop a
common understanding of the content descriptions. They are not intended to be comprehensive content points that all students
need to be taught.
Glossary
A glossary is provided to support the common understanding of key terms in the content descriptions.
This support document contains additional information to support the glossary.
Mathematics across Foundation to Year 12
Although the curriculum is described year by year, this document provides advice across four year groupings on the nature of
learners and the relevant curriculum:
Foundation – Year 2: typically students from 5 to 8 years of age
Years 3–6: typically students from 8 to 12 years of age
Years 7–10: typically students from 12 to 15 years of age
Senior secondary years: typically students from 15 to 18 years of age.
Foundation – Year 2
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Foundation – Year 2
The early years (5–8 years of age) lay the foundation for learning mathematics. Students at this level can access powerful
mathematical ideas relevant to their current lives and learn the language of mathematics, which is vital to future progression.
Children have the opportunity to access mathematical ideas by developing a sense of number, order, sequence and pattern; by
understanding quantities and their representations; by learning about attributes of objects and collections, position, movement
and direction, and by developing an awareness of the collection, presentation and variation of data and a capacity to make
predictions about chance events.
Understanding and experiencing these concepts in the early years provides a foundation for algebraic, statistical and
multiplicative thinking, that will develop in subsequent years. These foundations also enable children to pose basic
mathematical questions about their world, to identify simple strategies to investigate solutions, and to strengthen their reasoning
to solve personally meaningful problems.
Years 3–6
These years emphasise the importance of students studying coherent, meaningful and purposeful mathematics that is relevant
to their lives. Students still require active experiences that allow them to construct key mathematical ideas, but also gradually
move to using models, pictures and symbols to represent these ideas.
The curriculum develops key understandings by extending the number, measurement, geometric and statistical learning from
the early years; by building foundations for future studies through an emphasis on patterns that lead to generalisations; by
describing relationships from data collected and represented; by making predictions; and by introducing topics that represent a
key challenge in these years, such as fractions and decimals.
In these years of schooling, it is particularly important for students to develop a deep understanding of whole numbers to build
reasoning in fractions and decimals and to develop a conceptual understanding of place value. These concepts allow students
to develop proportional reasoning and flexibility with number through mental computation skills, and to extend their number
sense and statistical fluency.
Years 7–10
These years of school mark a shift in mathematics learning to more abstract ideas. Through key activities such as the
exploration, recognition and application of patterns, the capacity for abstract thought can be developed and the ways of thinking
associated with abstract ideas can be illustrated.
The foundations built in previous years prepare students for this change. Previously established mathematical ideas can be
drawn upon in unfamiliar sequences and combinations to solve non-routine problems and to consequently develop more
complex mathematical ideas. However, students of this age also need an understanding of the connections between
mathematical concepts and their application in their world as a motivation to learn. This means using contexts directly related to
topics of relevance and interest to this age group.
During these years, students need to be able to represent numbers in a variety of ways; to develop an understanding of the
benefits of algebra, through building algebraic models and applications and the various applications of geometry; to estimate
and select appropriate units of measure; to explore ways of working with data to allow a variety of representations; and to make
predictions about events based on their observations.
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The intent of the curriculum is to encourage the development of important ideas in more depth, and to promote the
interconnectedness of mathematical concepts. An obvious concern is the preparation of students intending to continue studying
mathematics in the senior secondary years. Teachers will, in implementing the curriculum, extend the more mathematically able
students by using appropriate challenges and extensions within available topics. A deeper understanding of mathematics in the
curriculum enhances a student’s potential to use this knowledge to solve non-routine problems, both at this level of study and at
later stages.
The 10A content is optional and is intended for students who require more content to enrich their mathematical study whilst
completing the common Year 10 content. It is NOT anticipated that all students will attempt the 10A content, but doing so would
be advantageous for students intending to pursue Mathematical Methods (Course C) or Specialist Mathematics (Course D) in
the senior secondary years. A selection of topics from the 10A curriculum can be completed according to the needs of the
students.
It is anticipated that all students will study the Australian Curriculum: Mathematics up to the end of Year 10. From Year 10, the
curriculum should provide pathway options suitable for students of differing abilities and interests, and with a range of future
career and study plans.
Senior secondary years
Four mathematics courses have been designed for the senior secondary years. They have been designed to allow flexibility for
students, taking into account a range of future pathways and the reality that some students reassess their choice of
mathematics program part way through the senior secondary years.
The elements of the content strands from Foundation to Year 10 are evident in the senior secondary curriculum, but are not
used as the major organisers. The proficiency strands of Understanding, Fluency, Reasoning and Problem Solving are
integrated into the content descriptions as in the Foundation to Year 10 curriculum.
Achievement Standards
Across Foundation to Year 10, achievement standards indicate the quality of learning that students should typically demonstrate
by a particular point in their schooling. Achievement standards comprise a written description and student work samples.
An achievement standard describes the quality of learning (the extent of knowledge, the depth of understanding, and the
sophistication of skills) that would indicate the student is well placed to commence the learning required at the next level of
achievement.
The sequence of achievement standards across Foundation to Year 10 describes progress in the learning area. This sequence
provides teachers with a framework of growth and development in the learning area.
Student work samples play a key role in communicating expectations described in the achievement standards. Each work
sample includes the relevant assessment task, the student’s response, and annotations identifying the quality of learning
evident in the student’s response in relation to relevant parts of the achievement standard.
Together, the description of the achievement standard and the accompanying set of annotated work samples help teachers to
make judgments about whether students have achieved the standard.
Student diversity
ACARA is committed to the development of a high-quality curriculum for all Australian students that promotes excellence and
equity in education.
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All students are entitled to rigorous, relevant and engaging learning programs drawn from the Australian Curriculum:
Mathematics. Teachers take account of the range of their students’ current levels of learning, strengths, goals and interests and
make adjustments where necessary. The three-dimensional design of the Australian Curriculum, comprising learning areas,
general capabilities and cross-curriculum priorities, provides teachers with flexibility to cater for the diverse needs of students
across Australia and to personalise their learning.
More detailed advice has been developed for schools and teachers on using the Australian Curriculum to meet diverse learning
needs and is available under Student Diversity on the Australian Curriculum website.
Students with disability
The Disability Discrimintion Act 1992 and the Disability Standards for Education 2005 require education and training service
providers to support the rights of students with disability to access the curriculum on the same basis as students without
disability.
Many students with disability are able to achieve educational standards commensurate with their peers, as long as the
necessary adjustments are made to the way in which they are taught and to the means through which they demonstrate their
learning.
In some cases curriculum adjustments are necessary to provide equitable opportunities for students to access age-equivalent
content in the Australian Curriculum: Mathematics. Teachers can draw from content at different levels along the Foundation to
Year 10 sequence. Teachers can also use the extended general capabilities learning continua in Literacy, Numeracy and
Personal and social capability to adjust the focus of learning according to individual student need.
Gifted and talented students
Teachers can use the Australian Curriculum: Mathematics flexibly to meet the individual learning needs of gifted and talented
students.
Teachers can enrich student learning by providing students with opportunities to work with learning area content in more depth
or breadth; emphasising specific aspects of the general capabilities learning continua (for example, the higher order cognitive
skills of the Critical and creative thinking capability); and/or focusing on cross-curriculum priorities. Teachers can also accelerate
student learning by drawing on content from later levels in the Australian Curriculum: Mathematics and/or from local state and
territory teaching and learning materials.
English as an additional language or dialect
Students for whom English is an additional language or dialect (EAL/D) enter Australian schools at different ages and at
different stages of English language learning and have various educational backgrounds in their first languages. Whilst many
EAL/D students bring already highly developed literacy (and numeracy) skills in their own language to their learning of Standard
Australian English, there is a significant number of students who are not literate in their first language, and have had little or no
formal schooling.
While the aims of the Australian Curriculum: Mathematics are the same for all students, EAL/D students must achieve these
aims while simultaneously learning a new language and learning content and skills through that new language. These students
may require additional time and support, along with teaching that explicitly addresses their language needs. Students who have
had no formal schooling will need additional time and support in order to acquire skills for effective learning in formal settings.
A national English as an Additional Language or Dialect: Teacher Resource has been developed to support teachers in
making the Australian Curriculum: Foundation to Year 10 in each learning area accessible to EAL/D students.
General capabilities
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In the Australian Curriculum, the general capabilities encompass the knowledge, skills, behaviours and dispositions that,
together with curriculum content in each learning area and the cross-curriculum priorities, will assist students to live and work
successfully in the twenty-first century.
There are seven general capabilities:
Literacy
Numeracy
Information and communication technology (ICT) capability
Critical and creative thinking
Personal and social capability
Ethical understanding
Intercultural understanding.
In the Australian Curriculum: Mathematics, general capabilities are identified wherever they are developed or applied in content
descriptions. They are also identified where they offer opportunities to add depth and richness to student learning through
content elaborations. Icons indicate where general capabilities have been identified in Mathematics content. Teachers may find
further opportunities to incorporate explicit teaching of the capabilities depending on their choice of activities.
Literacy
Students become literate as they develop the knowledge, skills and dispositions to interpret and use language confidently for
learning and communicating in and out of school and for participating effectively in society. Literacy involves students in
listening to, reading, viewing, speaking, writing and creating oral, print, visual and digital texts, and using and modifying
language for different purposes in a range of contexts.
Literacy is an important aspect of mathematics. Students develop literacy in mathematics as they learn the vocabulary
associated with number, space, measurement and mathematical concepts and processes. This vocabulary includes synonyms
(minus, subtract), technical terminology (digits, lowest common denominator), passive voice (If 7 is taken from 10) and common
words with specific meanings in a mathematical context (angle, area). They develop the ability to create and interpret a range of
texts typical of Mathematics ranging from calendars and maps to complex data displays.
Students use literacy to understand and interpret word problems and instructions that contain the particular language features of
mathematics. They use literacy to pose and answer questions, engage in mathematical problem solving, and to discuss,
produce and explain solutions.
Numeracy
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Numeracy
Students become numerate as they develop the knowledge and skills to use mathematics confidently across all learning areas
at school and in their lives more broadly. Numeracy involves students in recognising and understanding the role of mathematics
in the world and having the dispositions and capacities to use mathematical knowledge and skills purposefully.
Mathematics has a central role in the development of numeracy in a manner that is more explicit and foregrounded than is the
case in other learning areas. It is important that the Mathematics curriculum provides the opportunity to apply mathematical
understanding and skills in context, both in other learning areas and in real world contexts. A particularly important context for
the application of Number and Algebra is financial mathematics. In Measurement and Geometry, there is an opportunity to
apply understanding to design. The twenty-first century world is information driven, and through Statistics and Probability
students can interpret data and make informed judgments about events involving chance.
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) capability
Students develop ICT capability as they learn to use ICT effectively and appropriately to access, create and communicate
information and ideas, solve problems and work collaboratively in all learning areas at school, and in their lives beyond school.
ICT capability involves students in learning to make the most of the technologies available to them, adapting to new ways of
doing things as technologies evolve and limiting the risks to themselves and others in a digital environment.
Students develop ICT capability when they investigate, create and communicate mathematical ideas and concepts using fast,
automated, interactive and multimodal technologies. They employ their ICT capability to perform calculations, draw graphs,
collect, manage, analyse and interpret data; share and exchange information and ideas and investigate and model concepts
and relationships.
Digital technologies, such as spreadsheets, dynamic geometry software and computer algebra software, can engage students
and promote understanding of key concepts.
Critical and creative thinking
Students develop capability in critical and creative thinking as they learn to generate and evaluate knowledge, clarify concepts
and ideas, seek possibilities, consider alternatives and solve problems. Critical and creative thinking are integral to activities that
require students to think broadly and deeply using skills, behaviours and dispositions such as reason, logic, resourcefulness,
imagination and innovation in all learning areas at school and in their lives beyond school.
Students develop critical and creative thinking as they learn to generate and evaluate knowledge, ideas and possibilities, and
use them when seeking solutions. Engaging students in reasoning and thinking about solutions to problems and the strategies
needed to find these solutions are core parts of the Mathematics curriculum.
Students are encouraged to be critical thinkers when justifying their choice of a calculation strategy or identifying relevant
questions during a statistical investigation. They are encouraged to look for alternative ways to approach mathematical
problems, for example, identifying when a problem is similar to a previous one, drawing diagrams or simplifying a problem to
control some variables.
Personal and social capability
Students develop personal and social capability as they learn to understand themselves and others, and manage their
relationships, lives, work and learning more effectively. The personal and social capability involves students in a range of
practices including recognising and regulating emotions, developing empathy for and understanding of others, establishing
positive relationships, making responsible decisions, working effectively in teams and handling challenging situations
constructively.
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Students develop and use personal and social capability as they apply mathematical skills in a range of personal and social
contexts. This may be through activities that relate learning to their own lives and communities, such as time management,
budgeting and financial management, and understanding statistics in everyday contexts.
The Mathematics curriculum enhances the development of students’ personal and social capabilities by providing opportunities
for initiative taking, decision making, communicating their processes and findings, and working independently and
collaboratively in the Mathematics classroom.
Ethical understanding
Students develop ethical understanding as they identify and investigate the nature of ethical concepts, values, character traits
and principles, and understand how reasoning can assist ethical judgment. Ethical understanding involves students in building a
strong personal and socially oriented ethical outlook that helps them to manage context, conflict and uncertainty, and to develop
an awareness of the influence that their values and behaviour have on others.
There are opportunities in the Mathematics curriculum to explore, develop and apply ethical understanding in a range of
contexts, for example through analysing data and statistics; seeking intentional and accidental distortions; finding inappropriate
comparisons and misleading scales when exploring the importance of fair comparison; and interrogating financial claims and
sources.
Intercultural understanding
Students develop intercultural understanding as they learn to value their own cultures, languages and beliefs, and those of
others. They come to understand how personal, group and national identities are shaped, and the variable and changing nature
of culture. The capability involves students in learning about and engaging with diverse cultures in ways that recognise
commonalities and differences, create connections with others and cultivate mutual respect.
Intercultural understanding can be enhanced in Mathematics when students are exposed to a range of cultural traditions.
Students learn to understand that mathematical expressions use universal symbols, while mathematical knowledge has its
origin in many cultures. Students realise that proficiencies such as understanding, fluency, reasoning and problem solving are
not culture or language specific, but that mathematical reasoning and understanding can find different expression in different
cultures and languages. New technologies and digital learning environments provide interactive contexts for exploring
mathematical problems from a range of cultural perspectives and within diverse cultural contexts. Students can apply
mathematical thinking to identify and resolve issues related to living with diversity.
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Cross-curriculum priorities
The Australian Curriculum is designed to meet the needs of students by delivering a relevant, contemporary and engaging
curriculum that builds on the educational goals of the Melbourne Declaration. The Melbourne Declaration identified three key
areas that need to be addressed for the benefit of both individuals and Australia as a whole. In the Australian Curriculum these
have become priorities that provide students with the tools and language to engage with and better understand their world at a
range of levels. The priorities provide dimensions which will enrich the curriculum through development of considered and
focused content that fits naturally within learning areas. They enable the delivery of learning area content at the same time as
developing knowledge, understanding and skills relating to:
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures
Asia and Australia’s engagement with Asia
sustainability.
Cross-curriculum priorities are addressed through learning areas and are identified wherever they are developed or applied in
content descriptions. They are also identified where they offer opportunities to add depth and richness to student learning in
content elaborations. They will have a strong but varying presence depending on their relevance to the learning area.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and culture
Across the Australian Curriculum, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures priority provides opportunities
for all learners to deepen their knowledge of Australia by engaging with the world’s oldest continuous living cultures. Students
will understand that contemporary Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Communities are strong, resilient, rich and diverse. The
knowledge and understanding gained through this priority will enhance the ability of all young people to participate positively in
the ongoing development of Australia.
The Australian Curriculum: Mathematics values Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures. It provides
opportunities for students to appreciate that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander societies have sophisticated applications of
mathematical concepts.
Students will explore connections between representations of number and pattern and how they relate to aspects of Aboriginal
and Torres Strait Islander cultures. They will investigate time, place, relationships and measurement concepts in Aboriginal and
Torres Strait Islander contexts. Students will deepen their understanding of the lives of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
Peoples through the application and evaluation of statistical data.
Asia and Australia’s engagement with Asia
Across the Australian curriculum, this priority will ensure that students learn about and recognise the diversity within and
between the countries of the Asia region. They will develop knowledge and understanding of Asian societies, cultures, beliefs
and environments, and the connections between the peoples of Asia, Australia, and the rest of the world. Asia literacy provides
students with the skills to communicate and engage with the peoples of Asia so they can effectively live, work and learn in the
region.
In the Australian Curriculum: Mathematics, the priority of Asia and Australia’s engagement with Asia provides rich and engaging
contexts for developing students’ mathematical knowledge, skills and understanding.
The Australian Curriculum: Mathematics provides opportunities for students to learn about the understandings and applications
of Mathematics in Asia. Mathematicians from Asia continue to contribute to the ongoing development of Mathematics.
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In this learning area, students develop mathematical understanding in fields such as number, patterns, measurement, symmetry
and statistics by drawing on knowledge of and examples from the Asia region. These could include calculation, money, art,
architecture, design and travel. Investigations involving data collection, representation and analysis can be used to examine
issues pertinent to the Asia region.
Sustainability
Across the Australian Curriculum, sustainability will allow all young Australians to develop the knowledge, skills, values and
world views necessary for them to act in ways that contribute to more sustainable patterns of living. It will enable individuals and
communities to reflect on ways of interpreting and engaging with the world. The Sustainability priority is futures-oriented,
focusing on protecting environments and creating a more ecologically and socially just world through informed action. Actions
that support more sustainable patterns of living require consideration of environmental, social, cultural and economic systems
and their interdependence.
In the Australian Curriculum: Mathematics, the priority of sustainability provides rich, engaging and authentic contexts for
developing students’ abilities in number and algebra, measurement and geometry, and statistics and probability.
The Australian Curriculum: Mathematics provides opportunities for students to develop the proficiencies of problem solving and
reasoning essential for the exploration of sustainability issues and their solutions. Mathematical understandings and skills are
necessary to measure, monitor and quantify change in social, economic and ecological systems over time. Statistical analysis
enables prediction of probable futures based on findings and helps inform decision making and actions that will lead to preferred
futures.
In this learning area, students can observe, record and organise data collected from primary sources over time and analyse
data relating to issues of sustainability from secondary sources. They can apply spatial reasoning, measurement, estimation,
calculation and comparison to gauge local ecosystem health and can cost proposed actions for sustainability.
Learning in mathematics involves the use of knowledge and skills learnt in other areas, particularly in English, science and
history.
The Australian National Numeracy Review Report (2008) identified numeracy as requiring an across-the-school commitment,
including mathematical, strategic and contextual aspects. This across-the-school commitment can be managed by including
specific references to other curriculum areas in the mathematics curriculum, and the identification of key numeracy capacities in
the descriptions of other curriculum areas being developed. For example, the following are some of the numeracy perspectives
that could be relevant to English, science and history.
English
One aspect of the link with English and literacy is that, along with other elements of study, numeracy can be understood and
acquired only within the context of the social, cultural, political, economic and historical practices to which it is integral. Students
need to be able to draw on quantitative and spatial information to derive meaning from certain types of texts encountered in the
subject of English.
Science
Practical work and problem solving across all the sciences require the capacity to organise and represent data in a range of
forms; plot, interpret and extrapolate graphs; estimate and solve ratio problems; use formulas flexibly in a range of situations;
perform unit conversions; and use and interpret rates including concentrations, sampling, scientific notation, and significant
figures.
History
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Learning in history includes interpreting and representing large numbers and a range of data such as those associated with
population statistics and growth, financial data, figures for exports and imports, immigration statistics, mortality rates, war
enlistments and casualty figures; chance events, correlation and causation; imagining timelines and time frames to reconcile
related events; and the perception and spatial visualisation required for geopolitical considerations, such as changes in borders
of states and in ecology.
Implications for teaching, assessment and reporting
In mathematics, challenging problems can be posed using basic age-appropriate content. Accelerating students by using
content beyond their year level may not be the best way to extend proficient mathematicians. Choosing engaging experiences
as contexts for a variety of tasks assists in making mathematics inclusive, and these tasks can be effectively differentiated both
for students experiencing difficulty and those who complete tasks easily. The proficiency strands apply expectations of the
range and nature of how mathematical content is enacted, and can help focus teaching.
Teachers use the Australian Curriculum content and achievement standards first to identify current levels of learning and
achievement and then to select the most appropriate content (possibly from across several year levels) to teach individual
students and/or groups of students. This takes into account that in each class there may be students with a range of prior
achievement (below, at, and above the year level expectations) and that teachers plan to build on current learning.
Teachers also use the achievement standards, at the end of a period of teaching, to make on-balance judgments about the
quality of learning demonstrated by the students – that is whether they have achieved below, at, or above the standard. To
make these judgments, teachers draw on assessment data that they have collected as evidence during the course of the
teaching period. These judgments about the quality of learning are one source of feedback to students and their parents and
inform formal reporting processes.
If a teacher judges that a student’s achievement is below the expected standard, this suggests that the teaching programs and
practice should be reviewed to better assist individual students in their learning in the future. It also suggests that additional
support and targeted teaching will be needed to ensure that the student does not fall behind.
Assessment of the Australian Curriculum takes place in different levels and for different purposes, including:
ongoing formative assessment within classrooms for the purposes of monitoring learning and providing feedback, to
teachers to inform their teaching, and for students to inform their learning
summative assessment for the purposes of twice-yearly reporting by schools to parents and carers on the progress and
achievement of students
annual testing of Years 3, 5, 7 and 9 students’ levels of achievement in aspects of literacy and numeracy, conducted as
part of the National Assessment Program – Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN)
periodic sample testing of specific learning areas within the Australian Curriculum as part of the National Assessment
Program (NAP).
ACARA | The Australian Curriculum | Version 6.0 dated Tuesday, 18 February 2014
The Australian Curriculum is licensed under Creative Commons. For more information see http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/copyright
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Number
and
place
value
Establish understanding of
the language and processes
of counting by naming
numbers in sequences,
initially to and from 20,
moving from any starting
point
Connect number names,
numerals and quantities,
including zero, initially up to
10 and then beyond
Subitise small collections
of objects
Represent practical
situations to model addition
and sharing
Compare, order and make
correspondences between
collections, initially to 20,
and explain reasoning
Develop confdence with
number sequences to and
from 100 by ones from any
starting point. Skip count
by twos, fves and tens
starting from zero
Recognise, model, read,
write and order numbers
to at least 100. Locate
these numbers on a
number line
Count collections to 100
by partitioning numbers
using place value
Represent and solve
simple addition and
subtraction problems
using a range of strategies
including counting
on, partitioning and
rearranging parts
Investigate number sequences, initially
those increasing and decreasing by twos,
threes, fves and ten from any starting
point, then moving to other sequences.
Recognise, model, represent and order
numbers to at least 1000
Group, partition and rearrange collections
up to 1000 in hundreds, tens and ones to
facilitate more efcient counting
Explore the connection between addition
and subtraction
Solve simple addition and subtraction
problems using a range of efcient mental
and written strategies
Recognise and represent multiplication as
repeated addition, groups and arrays
Recognise and represent division as
grouping into equal sets and solve simple
problems using these representations
Investigate the conditions required for a
number to be odd or even and identify odd
and even numbers
Recognise, model, represent and order
numbers to at least 10 000
Apply place value to partition, rearrange and
regroup numbers to at least 10 000 to assist
calculations and solve problems
Recognise and explain the connection
between addition and subtraction
Recall addition facts for single-digit numbers
and related subtraction facts to develop
increasingly efcient mental strategies for
computation
Recall multiplication facts of two, three, fve
and ten and related division facts
Represent and solve problems involving
multiplication using efcient mental and
written strategies and appropriate digital
technologies
Recall multiplication facts up to
10 _ 10 and related division facts
Investigate and use the
properties of odd and even
numbers
Recognise, represent and order
numbers to at least tens of
thousands
Apply place value to partition,
rearrange and regroup numbers
to at least tens of thousands to
assist calculations and solve
problems
Investigate number sequences
involving multiples of 3, 4, 6, 7,
8, and 9
Develop efcient mental and
written strategies and use
appropriate digital technologies
for multiplication and for division
where there is no remainder
Identify and describe factors
and multiples of whole
numbers and use them to solve
problems
Use estimation and rounding
to check the reasonableness of
answers to calculations
Solve problems involving
multiplication of large numbers
by one- or two-digit numbers
using efcient mental, written
strategies and appropriate
digital technologies
Solve problems involving
division by a one digit number,
including those that result in a
remainder
Use efcient mental and
written strategies and apply
appropriate digital technologies
to solve problems
Identify and describe properties of prime,
composite, square and triangular numbers
Select and apply efcient mental and written
strategies and appropriate digital technologies
to solve problems involving all four operations
with whole numbers
Investigate everyday situations that use
integers. Locate and represent these numbers
on a number line
Fractions
and
decimals
Recognise and describe
one-half as one of two
equal parts of a whole.
Recognise and interpret common uses
of halves, quarters and eighths of shapes
and collections
Model and represent unit fractions including
1/2, 1/4, 1/3, 1/5 and their multiples to a
complete whole
Investigate equivalent fractions
used in contexts
Count by quarters halves and
thirds, including with mixed
numerals. Locate and represent
these fractions on a number line
Recognise that the place value
system can be extended to
tenths and hundredths. Make
connections between fractions
and decimal notation
Compare and order common
unit fractions and locate and
represent them on a number
line
Investigate strategies to solve
problems involving addition
and subtraction of fractions
with the same denominator
Recognise that the place
value system can be extended
beyond hundredths
Compare, order and represent
decimals
Compare fractions with related denominators
and locate and represent them on a number
line
Solve problems involving addition and
subtraction of fractions with the same or
related denominators
Find a simple fraction of a quantity where the
result is a whole number, with and without
digital technologies
Add and subtract decimals, with and without
digital technologies, and use estimation and
rounding to check the reasonableness of
answers
Multiply decimals by whole numbers and
perform divisions by non-zero whole numbers
where the results are terminating decimals,
with and without digital technologies
Multiply and divide decimals by powers of 10
Make connections between equivalent
fractions, decimals and percentages
Real
numbers
This sequence ends at Year 7
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Number
and
place value
Identify and describe properties of prime,
composite, square and triangular numbers
Select and apply efcient mental and written
strategies and appropriate digital technologies to
solve problems involving all four operations with
whole numbers
Investigate everyday situations that use positive
and negative whole numbers and zero. Locate and
represent these numbers on a number line
Investigate index notation and represent whole numbers
as products of powers of prime numbers
Investigate and use square roots of perfect square
numbers
Apply the associative, commutative and distributive laws
to aid mental and written computation
Compare, order, add and subtract integers
Use index notation with numbers
to establish the index laws with
positive integral indices and the
zero index
Carry out the four operations with
rational numbers and integers,
using efcient mental and written
strategies and appropriate digital
technologies
This sequence ends at this year level
Fractions
and
decimals
Compare fractions with related denominators and
locate and represent them on a number line
Solve problems involving addition and subtraction
of fractions with the same or related denominators
Find a simple fraction of a quantity where the
result is a whole number, with and without digital
technologies
Add and subtract decimals, with and without
digital technologies, and use estimation and
rounding to check the reasonableness of answers
Multiply decimals by whole numbers and perform
divisions that result in terminating decimals, with
and without digital technologies
Multiply and divide decimals by powers of 10
Make connections between equivalent fractions,
decimals and percentages
This sequence ends at Year 6
Real
numbers
This sequence starts at Year 7 Compare fractions using equivalence. Locate and
represent positive and negative fractions and mixed
numbers on a number line
Solve problems involving addition and subtraction of
fractions, including those with unrelated denominators
Multiply and divide fractions and decimals using efcient
written strategies and digital technologies
Express one quantity as a fraction of another, with and
without the use of digital technologies
Round decimals to a specifed number of decimal places
Connect fractions, decimals and percentages and carry
out simple conversions
Find percentages of quantities and express one quantity
as a percentage of another, with and without digital
technologies.
Recognise and solve problems involving simple ratios
Investigate terminating and
recurring decimals
Investigate the concept of
irrational numbers, including π
Solve problems involving the
use of percentages, including
percentage increases and
decreases, with and without digital
technologies
Solve a range of problems
involving rates and ratios, with and
without digital technologies
Solve problems involving direct
proportion. Explore the relationship
between graphs and equations
corresponding to simple rate problems
Apply index laws to numerical
expressions with integer indices
Express numbers in scientifc notation
Defne rational and irrational
numbers and perform operations
with surds and fractional indices
Use the defnition of a logarithm
to establish and apply the laws of
logarithms
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Money and
fnancial
mathematics
Recognise, describe and
order Australian coins
according to their value
Count and order small collections of
Australian coins and notes according to
their value
Represent money values in multiple ways
and count the change required for simple
transactions to the nearest fve cents
Solve problems involving
purchases and the calculation
of change to the nearest fve
cents with and without digital
technologies
Create simple fnancial plans Investigate and calculate percentage
discounts of 10%, 25%and 50%on sale
items, with and without digital technologies
Patterns and
algebra
Sort and classify familiar
objects and explain
the basis for these
classifcations. Copy,
continue and create patterns
with objects and drawings
Investigate and describe
number patterns formed
by skip counting and
patterns with objects
Describe patterns with numbers and
identify missing elements
Solve problems by using number
sentences for addition or subtraction
Describe, continue, and create number
patterns resulting from performing
addition or subtraction
Explore and describe number
patterns resulting from
performing multiplication
Solve word problems by using
number sentences involving
multiplication or division where
there is no remainder
Use equivalent number
sentences involving addition
and subtraction to fnd unknown
quantities
Describe, continue and
create patterns with fractions,
decimals and whole numbers
resulting from addition and
subtraction
Use equivalent number
sentences involving
multiplication and division to
fnd unknown quantities
Continue and create sequences involving
whole numbers, fractions and decimals.
Describe the rule used to create the sequence
Explore the use of brackets and order of
operations to write number sentences
Linear and
non-linear
relationships
This sequence starts at Year 7
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Money and
fnancial
mathematics
Investigate and calculate percentage
discounts of 10%, 25%and 50%on sale
items, with and without digital technologies
Investigate and calculate‘best buys’, with and without
digital technologies
Solve problems involving proft
and loss, with and without digital
technologies
Solve problems involving simple interest Connect the compound interest
formula to repeated applications of
simple interest using appropriate
digital technologies
Patterns and
algebra
Continue and create sequences involving
whole numbers, fractions and decimals.
Describe the rule used to create the sequence
Explore the use of brackets and order of
operations to write number sentences
Introduce the concept of variables as a way of
representing numbers using letters
Create algebraic expressions and evaluate them by
substituting a given value for each variable
Extend and apply the laws and properties of arithmetic
to algebraic terms and expressions
Extend and apply the distributive
law to the expansion of algebraic
expressions
Factorise algebraic expressions by
identifying numerical factors
Simplify algebraic expressions
involving the four operations
Extend and apply the index laws to
variables, using positive integer indices
and the zero index
Apply the distributive law to the
expansion of algebraic expressions,
including binomials, and collect like
terms where appropriate
Factorise algebraic expressions
by taking out a common algebraic
factor
Simplify algebraic products and
quotients using index laws
Apply the four operations to simple
algebraic fractions with numerical
denominators
Expand binomial products
and factorise monic quadratic
expressions using a variety of
strategies
Substitute values into formulas to
determine an unknown
Investigate the concept of a
polynomial and apply the factor
and remainder theorems to solve
problems
Linear and
non-linear
relationships
This sequence starts at Year 7 Given coordinates, plot points on the Cartesian plane,
and fnd coordinates for a given point
Solve simple linear equations
Investigate, interpret and analyse graphs from authentic
data
Plot linear relationships on the
Cartesian plane with and without
the use of digital technologies
Solve linear equations using
algebraic and graphical
techniques. Verify solutions by
substitution
Find the distance between two points
located on a Cartesian plane using a
range of strategies, including graphing
software
Sketch linear graphs using the
coordinates of two points and solve linear
equations
Find the midpoint and gradient of a line
segment (interval) on the Cartesian plane
using a range of strategies, including
graphing software
Graph simple non-linear relations
with and without the use of digital
technologies and solve simple related
equations
Solve problems involving linear
equations, including those derived
from formulas
Solve linear inequalities and graph
their solutions on a number line
Solve linear simultaneous
equations, using algebraic and
graphical techniques including
using digital technology
Solve problems involving parallel
and perpendicular lines
Explore the connection between
algebraic and graphical
representations of relations such
as simple quadratics, circles
and exponentials using digital
technology as appropriate
Solve linear equations involving
simple algebraic fractions
Solve simple quadratic equations
using a range of strategies
Describe, interpret and sketch
parabolas, hyperbolas, circles and
exponential functions and their
transformations
Solve simple exponential equations
Apply understanding of polynomials
to sketch a range of curves and
describe the features of these
curves from their equation
Factorise monic and non-monic
quadratic expressions and solve a wide
range of quadratic equations derived
from a variety of contexts
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Using units of
measurement
Use direct and indirect
comparisons to decide which
is longer, heavier or holds
more, and explain reasoning
in everyday language
Compare and order the
duration of events using the
everyday language of time
Connect days of the week to
familiar events and actions
Measure and compare
the lengths and
capacities of pairs of
objects using uniform
informal units
Tell time to the half-
hour
Describe duration
using months, weeks,
days and hours
Compare and order several shapes
and objects based on length,
area, volume and capacity using
appropriate uniform informal units
Compare masses of objects using
balance scales
Tell time to the quarter-hour, using the
language of ‘past’ and ‘to’
Name and order months and seasons
Use a calendar to identify the date
and determine the number of days in
each month
Measure, order and compare
objects using familiar metric
units of length, mass and
capacity
Tell time to the minute and
investigate the relationship
between units of time
Use scaled instruments to measure
and compare lengths, masses,
capacities and temperatures
Convert between units of time
Use am and pm notation and solve
simple time problems
Compare objects using familiar metric
units of area and volume
Choose appropriate units of
measurement for length, area, volume,
capacity and mass
Calculate the perimeter and area of
rectangles using familiar metric units
Compare 12- and 24-hour time
systems and convert between them
Connect decimal representations to the
metric system
Convert between common metric units of
length, mass and capacity
Solve problems involving the comparison of
lengths and areas using appropriate units
Connect volume and capacity and their units
of measurement
Interpret and use timetables
Shape Sort, describe and name
familiar two-dimensional
shapes and three-
dimensional objects in the
environment
Recognise and
classify familiar two-
dimensional shapes
and three-dimensional
objects using obvious
features
Describe and draw two-dimensional
shapes, with and without digital
technologies
Describe the features of three-
dimensional objects
Make models of three-
dimensional objects and
describe key features
Compare the areas of regular and
irregular shapes by informal means
Compare and describe two
dimensional shapes that result from
combining and splitting common
shapes, with and without the use of
digital technologies
Connect three-dimensional objects
with their nets and other two-
dimensional representations
Construct simple prisms and pyramids
Location and
transformation
Describe position and
movement
Give and follow
directions to familiar
locations
Interpret simple maps of familiar
locations and identify the relative
positions of key features
Investigate the efect of one-step
slides and fips with and without
digital technologies
Identify and describe half and quarter
turns
Create and interpret simple
grid maps to show position
and pathways
Identify symmetry in the
environment
Use simple scales, legends and
directions to interpret information
contained in basic maps
Create symmetrical patterns, pictures
and shapes with and without digital
technologies
Use a grid reference system to
describe locations. Describe routes
using landmarks and directional
language
Describe translations, refections and
rotations of two-dimensional shapes.
Identify line and rotational symmetries
Apply the enlargement transformation
to familiar two dimensional shapes and
explore the properties of the resulting
image compared with the original
Investigate combinations of translations,
refections and rotations, with and without the
use of digital technologies
Introduce the Cartesian coordinate system
using all four quadrants
Geometric
reasoning
This sequence starts at Year 3 Identify angles as measures
of turn and compare angle
sizes in everyday situations
Compare angles and classify them as
equal to, greater than or less than a
right angle
Estimate, measure and compare
angles using degrees. Construct
angles using a protractor
Investigate, with and without digital
technologies, angles on a straight line, angles
at a point and vertically opposite angles. Use
results to fnd unknown angles
Pythagoras and
trigonometry
This sequence starts at Year 9
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Using units of
measurement
Connect decimal representations
to the metric system
Convert between common metric
units of length, mass and capacity
Solve problems involving the
comparison of lengths and areas
using appropriate units
Connect volume and capacity and
their units of measurement
Interpret and use timetables
Establish the formulas for areas of
rectangles, triangles and parallelograms
and use these in problem solving
Calculate volumes of rectangular prisms
Choose appropriate units of measurement
for area and volume and convert from one
unit to another
Find perimeters and areas of parallelograms,
trapeziums, rhombuses and kites
Investigate the relationship between features
of circles such as circumference, area,
radius and diameter. Use formulas to solve
problems involving circumference and area
Develop the formulas for volumes of
rectangular and triangular prisms and prisms
in general. Use formulas to solve problems
involving volume
Solve problems involving duration, including
using 12- and 24-hour time within a single
time zone
Calculate the areas of composite shapes
Calculate the surface area and volume of
cylinders and solve related problems
Solve problems involving the surface area and
volume of right prisms
Investigate very small and very large time
scales and intervals
Solve problems involving surface area
and volume for a range of prisms,
cylinders and composite solids
Solve problems involving surface area
and volume of right pyramids, right cones,
spheres and related composite solids
Shape Construct simple prisms and
pyramids
Draw diferent views of prisms and solids
formed from combinations of prisms
This sequence ends at Year 7
Location and
transformation
Investigate combinations of
translations, refections and
rotations, with and without the use
of digital technologies
Introduce the Cartesian coordinate
system using all four quadrants
Describe translations, refections in an
axis, and rotations of multiples of 90° on
the Cartesian plane using coordinates.
Identify line and rotational symmetries
This sequence ends at Year 7
Geometric
reasoning
Investigate, with and without digital
technologies, angles on a straight
line, angles at a point and vertically
opposite angles. Use results to
fnd unknown angles
Identify corresponding, alternate and co-
interior angles when two straight lines are
crossed by a transversal
Investigate conditions for two lines to
be parallel and solve simple numerical
problems using reasoning
Classify triangles according to their
side and angle properties and describe
quadrilaterals
Demonstrate that the angle sum of a
triangle is 180° and use this to fnd the
angle sum of a quadrilateral
Defne congruence of plane shapes using
transformations
Develop the conditions for congruence of
triangles
Establish properties of quadrilaterals using
congruent triangles and angle properties,
and solve related numerical problems using
reasoning
Use the enlargement transformation to
explain similarity and develop the conditions
for triangles to be similar
Solve problems using ratio and scale factors
in similar fgures
Formulate proofs involving congruent
triangles and angle properties
Apply logical reasoning, including
the use of congruence and similarity,
to proofs and numerical exercises
involving plane shapes
Prove and apply angle and chord properties
of circles
Pythagoras and
trigonometry
This sequence starts at Year 9 Investigate Pythagoras’ Theorem and its
application to solving simple problems
involving right angled triangles
Use similarity to investigate the constancy
of the sine, cosine and tangent ratios for a
given angle in right-angled triangles
Apply trigonometry to solve right-angled
triangle problems
Solve right-angled triangle problems
including those involving direction
and angles of elevation and
depression
Establish the sine, cosine and area rules for
any triangle and solve related problems
Use the unit circle to defne trigonometric
functions, and graph them with and without
the use of digital technologies
Solve simple trigonometric equations
Apply Pythagoras’ theorem and trigonometry
to solving three-dimensional problems in right-
angled triangles
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Chance Identify outcomes of familiar
events involving chance and
describe them using everyday
language such as ‘will
happen’, ‘won’t happen’ or
‘might happen’
Identify practical activities and
everyday events that involve
chance. Describe outcomes
as ‘likely’ or ‘unlikely’ and
identify some events as
‘certain’ or ‘impossible’
Conduct chance experiments,
identify and describe possible
outcomes and recognise
variation in results
Describe possible everyday events and
order their chances of occurring
Identify everyday events where one
cannot happen if the other happens
Identify events where the chance of one
will not be afected by the occurrence
of the other
List outcomes of chance experiments
involving equally likely outcomes
and represent probabilities of those
outcomes using fractions
Recognise that probabilities range from
0 to 1
Describe probabilities using fractions,
decimals and percentages
Conduct chance experiments with both
small and large numbers of trials using
appropriate digital technologies
Compare observed frequencies across
experiments with expected frequencies
Data
representation
and interpretation
Answer yes/no questions
to collect information
Choose simple questions and
gather responses
Represent data with objects
and drawings where one
object or drawing represents
one data value. Describe the
displays
Identify a question of interest
based on one categorical
variable. Gather data relevant
to the question
Collect, check and classify
data
Create displays of data using
lists, table and picture graphs
and interpret them
Identify questions or issues for
categorical variables. Identify
data sources and plan methods
of data collection and recording
Collect data, organise into
categories and create displays
using lists, tables, picture graphs
and simple column graphs, with
and without the use of digital
technologies
Interpret and compare data
displays
Select and trial methods for data
collection, including survey questions
and recording sheets
Construct suitable data displays,
with and without the use of digital
technologies, from given or collected
data. Include tables, column graphs
and picture graphs where one picture
can represent many data values
Evaluate the efectiveness of diferent
displays in illustrating data features
including variability
Pose questions and collect categorical or
numerical data by observation or survey
Construct displays, including column
graphs, dot plots and tables, appropriate
for data type, with and without the use of
digital technologies
Describe and interpret diferent data sets
in context
Interpret and compare a range of data
displays, including side-by-side column
graphs for two categorical variables
Interpret secondary data presented in
digital media and elsewhere
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Chance Describe probabilities using
fractions, decimals and
percentages
Conduct chance experiments
with both small and large
numbers of trials using
appropriate digital technologies
Compare observed frequencies
across experiments with
expected frequencies
Construct sample spaces for single-
step experiments with equally likely
outcomes
Assign probabilities to the outcomes
of events and determine probabilities
for events
Identify complementary events and
use the sum of probabilities to solve
problems
Describe events using language of
‘at least’, exclusive‘or’ (A or B but not
both), inclusive‘or’ (A or B or both)
and ‘and’.
Represent events in two-way tables
and Venn diagrams and solve related
problems
List all outcomes for two-step chance experiments,
both with and without replacement using tree
diagrams or arrays. Assign probabilities to outcomes
and determine probabilities for events
Calculate relative frequencies from given or
collected data to estimate probabilities of events
involving‘and’ or ‘or’
Investigate reports of surveys in digital media
and elsewhere for information on how data were
obtained to estimate population means and
medians
Describe the results of two- and three-
step chance experiments, both with and
without replacements, assign probabilities
to outcomes and determine probabilities
of events. Investigate the concept of
independence
Use the language of ‘if ....then, ‘given’, ‘of’,
‘knowing that’ to investigate conditional
statements and identify common mistakes in
interpreting such language
Investigate reports of studies in digital
media and elsewhere for information on their
planning and implementation
Data
representation
and
interpretation
Interpret and compare a range
of data displays, including side-
by-side column graphs for two
categorical variables
Interpret secondary data
presented in digital media and
elsewhere
Identify and investigate issues involving
numerical data collected from primary
and secondary sources
Construct and compare a range of data
displays including stem-and-leaf plots
and dot plots
Calculate mean, median, mode and
range for sets of data. Interpret these
statistics in the context of data
Describe and interpret data displays
using median, mean and range
Explore the practicalities and
implications of obtaining data
through sampling using a variety of
investigative processes
Investigate the efect of individual
data values , including outliers, on
the mean and median
Explore the variation of means and
proportions in of random samples
drawn from the same population
Investigate techniques for collecting
data, including census ,sampling and
observation.
Identify everyday questions and issues involving
at least one numerical and at least one categorical
variable, and collect data directly from secondary
sources
Construct back-to-back stem-and-leaf plots and
histograms and describe data, using terms including
‘skewed’, ‘symmetric’ and ‘bi modal’
Compare data displays using mean, median and
range to describe and interpret numerical data sets
in terms of location (centre) and spread
Investigate techniques for collecting data, including
census, sampling and observation
Determine quartiles and interquartile range
Construct and interpret box plots and use
them to compare data sets
Compare shapes of box plots to
corresponding histograms and dot plots
Use scatter plots to investigate and comment
on relationships between two numerical
variables
Investigate and describe bivariate numerical
data where the independent variable is time
Evaluate statistical reports in the media and
other places by linking claims to displays,
statistics and representative data
Calculate and interpret the mean and
standard deviation of data and use these to
compare data sets
Use information technologies to investigate
bivariate numerical data sets. Where appropriate
use a straight line to describe the relationship
allowing for variation
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Rationale and Aims
Rationale
Science provides an empirical way of answering interesting and important questions about the biological, physical and
technological world. The knowledge it produces has proved to be a reliable basis for action in our personal, social and economic
lives. Science is a dynamic, collaborative and creative human endeavour arising from our desire to make sense of our world
through exploring the unknown, investigating universal mysteries, making predictions and solving problems. Science aims to
understand a large number of observations in terms of a much smaller number of broad principles. Science knowledge is
contestable and is revised, refined and extended as new evidence arises.
The Australian Curriculum: Science provides opportunities for students to develop an understanding of important science
concepts and processes, the practices used to develop scientific knowledge, of science’s contribution to our culture and society,
and its applications in our lives. The curriculum supports students to develop the scientific knowledge, understandings and skills
to make informed decisions about local, national and global issues and to participate, if they so wish, in science-related careers.
In addition to its practical applications, learning science is a valuable pursuit in its own right. Students can experience the joy of
scientific discovery and nurture their natural curiosity about the world around them. In doing this, they develop critical and
creative thinking skills and challenge themselves to identify questions and draw evidence-based conclusions using scientific
methods. The wider benefits of this “scientific literacy” are well established, including giving students the capability to investigate
the natural world and changes made to it through human activity.
The science curriculum promotes six overarching ideas that highlight certain common approaches to a scientific view of the
world and which can be applied to many of the areas of science understanding. These overarching ideas are patterns, order
and organisation; form and function; stability and change; systems; scale and measurement; and matter and energy.
Aims
The Australian Curriculum: Science aims to ensure that students develop:
an interest in science as a means of expanding their curiosity and willingness to explore, ask questions about and
speculate on the changing world in which they live
an understanding of the vision that science provides of the nature of living things, of the Earth and its place in the cosmos,
and of the physical and chemical processes that explain the behaviour of all material things
an understanding of the nature of scientific inquiry and the ability to use a range of scientific inquiry methods, including
questioning; planning and conducting experiments and investigations based on ethical principles; collecting and analysing
data; evaluating results; and drawing critical, evidence-based conclusions
an ability to communicate scientific understanding and findings to a range of audiences, to justify ideas on the basis of
evidence, and to evaluate and debate scientific arguments and claims
an ability to solve problems and make informed, evidence-based decisions about current and future applications of
science while taking into account ethical and social implications of decisions
an understanding of historical and cultural contributions to science as well as contemporary science issues and activities
and an understanding of the diversity of careers related to science
a solid foundation of knowledge of the biological, chemical, physical, Earth and space sciences, including being able to
select and integrate the scientific knowledge and methods needed to explain and predict phenomena, to apply that
understanding to new situations and events, and to appreciate the dynamic nature of science knowledge.
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Organisation
Content structure
The Australian Curriculum: Science has three interrelated strands: Science Understanding, Science as a Human Endeavour
and Science Inquiry Skills.
Together, the three strands of the science curriculum provide students with understanding, knowledge and skills through which
they can develop a scientific view of the world. Students are challenged to explore science, its concepts, nature and uses
through clearly described inquiry processes.
Science Understanding
Science understanding is evident when a person selects and integrates appropriate science knowledge to explain and predict
phenomena, and applies that knowledge to new situations. Science knowledge refers to facts, concepts, principles, laws,
theories and models that have been established by scientists over time.
The Science Understanding strand comprises four sub-strands. The content is described by year level.
Biological sciences
The biological sciences sub-strand is concerned with understanding living things. The key concepts developed within this sub-
strand are that: a diverse range of living things have evolved on Earth over hundreds of millions of years; living things are
interdependent and interact with each other and their environment; and the form and features of living things are related to the
functions that their body systems perform. Through this sub-strand, students investigate living things, including animals, plants,
and micro-organisms, and their interdependence and interactions within ecosystems. They explore their life cycles, body
systems, structural adaptations and behaviours, how these features aid survival, and how their characteristics are inherited from
one generation to the next. Students are introduced to the cell as the basic unit of life and the processes that are central to its
function.
Chemical sciences
The chemical sciences sub-strand is concerned with understanding the composition and behaviour of substances. The key
concepts developed within this sub-strand are that: the chemical and physical properties of substances are determined by their
structure at an atomic scale; and that substances change and new substances are produced by rearranging atoms through
atomic interactions and energy transfer. In this sub-strand, students classify substances based on their properties, such as
solids, liquids and gases, or their composition, such as elements, compounds and mixtures. They explore physical changes
such as changes of state and dissolving, and investigate how chemical reactions result in the production of new substances.
Students recognise that all substances consist of atoms which can combine to form molecules, and chemical reactions involve
atoms being rearranged and recombined to form new substances. They explore the relationship between the way in which
atoms are arranged and the properties of substances, and the effect of energy transfers on these arrangements.
Earth and space sciences
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Earth and space sciences
The Earth and space sciences sub-strand is concerned with Earth’s dynamic structure and its place in the cosmos. The key
concepts developed within this sub-strand are that: Earth is part of a solar system that is part of a larger universe; and Earth is
subject to change within and on its surface, over a range of timescales as a result of natural processes and human use of
resources. Through this sub-strand, students view Earth as part of a solar system, which is part of a galaxy, which is one of
many in the universe and explore the immense scales associated with space. They explore how changes on Earth, such as day
and night and the seasons relate to Earth’s rotation and its orbit around the sun. Students investigate the processes that result
in change to Earth’s surface, recognising that Earth has evolved over 4.5 billion years and that the effect of some of these
processes is only evident when viewed over extremely long timescales. They explore the ways in which humans use resources
from the Earth and appreciate the influence of human activity on the surface of the Earth and the atmosphere.
Physical sciences
The physical sciences sub-strand is concerned with understanding the nature of forces and motion, and matter and energy. The
two key concepts developed within this sub-strand are that: forces affect the behaviour of objects; and that energy can be
transferred and transformed from one form to another. Through this sub-strand students gain an understanding of how an
object’s motion (direction, speed and acceleration) is influenced by a range of contact and non-contact forces such as friction,
magnetism, gravity and electrostatic forces. They develop an understanding of the concept of energy and how energy transfer is
associated with phenomena involving motion, heat, sound, light and electricity. They appreciate that concepts of force, motion,
matter and energy apply to systems ranging in scale from atoms to the universe itself.
Science as a Human Endeavour
Through science, humans seek to improve their understanding and explanations of the natural world. Science involves the
construction of explanations based on evidence and science knowledge can be changed as new evidence becomes available.
Science influences society by posing, and responding to, social and ethical questions, and scientific research is itself influenced
by the needs and priorities of society. This strand highlights the development of science as a unique way of knowing and doing,
and the role of science in contemporary decision making and problem solving. It acknowledges that in making decisions about
science practices and applications, ethical and social implications must be taken into account. This strand also recognises that
science advances through the contributions of many different people from different cultures and that there are many rewarding
science-based career paths.
The content in the Science as a Human Endeavour strand is described in two-year bands. There are two sub-strands of
Science as a Human Endeavour. These are:
Nature and development of science: This sub-strand develops an appreciation of the unique nature of science and scientific
knowledge, including how current knowledge has developed over time through the actions of many people.
Use and influence of science: This sub-strand explores how science knowledge and applications affect peoples’ lives,
including their work, and how science is influenced by society and can be used to inform decisions and actions.
Science Inquiry Skills
Science inquiry involves identifying and posing questions; planning, conducting and reflecting on investigations; processing,
analysing and interpreting evidence; and communicating findings. This strand is concerned with evaluating claims, investigating
ideas, solving problems, drawing valid conclusions and developing evidence-based arguments.
Science investigations are activities in which ideas, predictions or hypotheses are tested and conclusions are drawn in response
to a question or problem. Investigations can involve a range of activities, including experimental testing, field work, locating and
using information sources, conducting surveys, and using modelling and simulations. The choice of the approach taken will
depend on the context and subject of the investigation.
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In science investigations, collection and analysis of data and evidence play a major role. This can involve collecting or extracting
information and reorganising data in the form of tables, graphs, flow charts, diagrams, prose, keys, spreadsheets and
databases.
The content in the Science Inquiry Skills strand is described in two-year bands. There are five sub-strands of Science Inquiry
Skills. These are:
Questioning and predicting: Identifying and constructing questions, proposing hypotheses and suggesting possible outcomes.
Planning and conducting: Making decisions regarding how to investigate or solve a problem and carrying out an investigation,
including the collection of data.
Processing and analysing data and information: Representing data in meaningful and useful ways; identifying trends,
patterns and relationships in data, and using this evidence to justify conclusions.
Evaluating: Considering the quality of available evidence and the merit or significance of a claim, proposition or conclusion with
reference to that evidence.
Communicating: Conveying information or ideas to others through appropriate representations, text types and modes.
Relationship between the strands
In the practice of science, the three strands of Science Understanding, Science as a Human Endeavour and Science
Inquiry Skills are closely integrated; the work of scientists reflects the nature and development of science, is built around
scientific inquiry and seeks to respond to and influence society’s needs. Students’ experiences of school science should mirror
and connect to this multifaceted view of science.
To achieve this, the three strands of the Australian Curriculum: Science should be taught in an integrated way. The content
descriptions of the three strands have been written so that at each year this integration is possible. In the earlier years, the
‘Nature and development of science’ sub-strand within the Science as a Human Endeavour strand focuses on scientific
inquiry. This enables students to make clear connections between the inquiry skills that they are learning and the work of
scientists. As students progress through the curriculum they investigate how science understanding has developed, including
considering some of the people and the stories behind these advances in science.
They will also recognise how this science understanding can be applied to their lives and the lives of others. As students
develop a more sophisticated understanding of the knowledge and skills of science they are increasingly able to appreciate the
role of science in society. The content of the Science Understanding strand will inform students’ understanding of
contemporary issues, such as climate change, use of resources, medical interventions, biodiversity and the origins of the
universe. The importance of these areas of science can be emphasised through the content of the Science as a Human
Endeavour strand, and students can be encouraged to view contemporary science critically through aspects of the Science
Inquiry Skills strand, for example by analysing, evaluating and communicating.
Year level descriptions
Year level descriptions have three functions. Firstly, they emphasise the interrelated nature of the three strands, and the
expectation that planning a science program will involve integration of content from across the strands. Secondly, they re-
emphasise the overarching ideas as appropriate for that stage of schooling. Thirdly, they provide an overview of the content for
the year level.
Content descriptions
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Content descriptions
The Australian Curriculum: Science includes content descriptions at each year level. These describe the knowledge, concepts,
skills and processes that teachers are expected to teach and students are expected to learn. However, they do not prescribe
approaches to teaching. While Science Understanding content is presented in year levels, when units of work are devised,
attention should be given to the coverage of content from Science Inquiry Skills and Science as a Human Endeavour over
the two-year band. The content descriptions ensure that learning is appropriately ordered and that unnecessary repetition is
avoided. However, a concept or skill introduced at one year level may be revisited, strengthened and extended at later year
levels as needed.
Content elaborations
Content elaborations are provided for Foundation to Year 10 to illustrate and exemplify content and assist teachers to develop a
common understanding of the content descriptions. They are not intended to be comprehensive content points that all students
need to be taught.
Glossary
A glossary is provided to support a common understanding of key terms in the content descriptions.
The Overarching Ideas
There are a number of overarching ideas that represent key aspects of a scientific view of the world and bridge knowledge and
understanding across the disciplines of science.
In the Australian Curriculum: Science, six overarching ideas support the coherence and developmental sequence of science
knowledge within and across year levels. The overarching ideas frame the development of concepts in the Science
Understanding strand, support key aspects of the Science Inquiry Skills strand and contribute to developing students’
appreciation of the nature of science.
The six overarching ideas that frame the Australian Curriculum: Science are:
Patterns, order and organisation
An important aspect of science is recognising patterns in the world around us, and ordering and organising phenomena at
different scales. As students progress from Foundation to Year 10, they build skills and understanding that will help them to
observe and describe patterns at different scales, and develop and use classifications to organise events and phenomena and
make predictions. Classifying objects and events into groups (such as solid/liquid/gas or living/non-living) and developing criteria
for those groupings relies on making observations and identifying patterns of similarity and difference. As students progress
through the primary years, they become more proficient in identifying and describing the relationships that underpin patterns,
including cause and effect. Students increasingly recognise that scale plays an important role in the observation of patterns;
some patterns may only be evident at certain time and spatial scales. For example, the pattern of day and night is not evident
over the time scale of an hour.
Form and function
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Many aspects of science are concerned with the relationships between form (the nature or make-up of an aspect of an object or
organism) and function (the use of that aspect). As students progress from Foundation to Year 10, they see that the functions of
both living and non-living objects rely on their forms. Their understanding of forms such as the features of living things or the
nature of a range of materials, and their related functions or uses, is initially based on observable behaviours and physical
properties. In later years, students recognise that function frequently relies on form and that this relationship can be examined at
many scales. They apply an understanding of microscopic and atomic structures, interactions of force and flows of energy and
matter to describe relationships between form and function.
Stability and change
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Stability and change
Many areas of science involve the recognition, description and prediction of stability and change. Early in their schooling,
students recognise that in their observations of the world around them, some properties and phenomena appear to remain
stable or constant over time, whereas others change. As they progress from Foundation to Year 10, they also recognise that
phenomena (such as properties of objects and relationships between living things) can appear to be stable at one spatial or time
scale, but at a larger or smaller scale may be seen to be changing. They begin to appreciate that stability can be the result of
competing, but balanced forces. Students become increasingly adept at quantifying change through measurement and looking
for patterns of change by representing and analysing data in tables or graphs.
Scale and measurement
Quantification of time and spatial scale is critical to the development of science understanding as it enables the comparison of
observations. Students often find it difficult to work with scales that are outside their everyday experience - these include the
huge distances in space, the incredibly small size of atoms and the slow processes that occur over geological time. As students
progress from Foundation to Year 10, their understanding of relative sizes and rates of change develops and they are able to
conceptualise events and phenomena at a wider range of scales. They progress from working with scales related to their
everyday experiences and comparing events and phenomena using relative language (such as 'bigger' or 'faster') and informal
measurement, to working with scales beyond human experience and quantifying magnitudes, rates of change and comparisons
using formal units of measurement.
Matter and energy
Many aspects of science involve identifying, describing and measuring transfers of energy and/or matter. As students progress
through Foundation to Year 10, they become increasingly able to explain phenomena in terms of the flow of matter and energy.
Initially, students focus on direct experience and observation of phenomena and materials. They are introduced to the ways in
which objects and living things change and begin to recognise the role of energy and matter in these changes. In later years,
they are introduced to more abstract notions of particles, forces and energy transfer and transformation. They use these
understandings to describe and model phenomena and processes involving matter and energy.
Systems
Science frequently involves thinking, modelling and analysing in terms of systems in order to understand, explain and predict
events and phenomena. As students progress through Foundation to Year 10, they explore, describe and analyse increasingly
complex systems.
Initially, students identify the observable components of a clearly identified ‘whole’ such as features of plants and animals and
parts of mixtures. Over Years 3 to 6 they learn to identify and describe relationships between components within simple
systems, and they begin to appreciate that components within living and non-living systems are interdependent. In Years 7 to 10
they are introduced to the processes and underlying phenomena that structure systems such as ecosystems, body systems and
the carbon cycle. They recognise that within systems, interactions between components can involve forces and changes acting
in opposing directions and that for a system to be in a steady state, these factors need to be in a state of balance or equilibrium.
They are increasingly aware that systems can exist as components within larger systems, and that one important part of
thinking about systems is identifying boundaries, inputs and outputs.
Science across Foundation to Year 12
Although the curriculum is described year by year, this document provides advice across four year groupings on the nature of
learners and the relevant curriculum:
Foundation – Year 2: typically students from 5 to 8 years of age
Years 3–6: typically students from 8 to 12 years of age
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Years 7–10: typically students from 12 to 15 years of age
Senior secondary years: typically students from 15 to 18 years of age.
Foundation – Year 2
Curriculum focus: awareness of self and the local world
Young children have an intrinsic curiosity about their immediate world. Asking questions leads to speculation and the testing of
ideas. Exploratory, purposeful play is a central feature of their investigations.
In this stage of schooling students’ explorations are precursors to more structured inquiry in later years. They use the senses to
observe and gather information, describing, making comparisons, sorting and classifying to create an order that is meaningful.
They observe and explore changes that vary in their rate and magnitude and begin to describe relationships in the world around
them. Students’ questions and ideas about the world become increasingly purposeful. They are encouraged to develop
explanatory ideas and test them through further exploration.
Years 3–6
Curriculum focus: recognising questions that can be investigated scientifically and investigating them
During these years students can develop ideas about science that relate to their lives, answer questions, and solve mysteries of
particular interest to their age group. In this stage of schooling students tend to use a trial-and-error approach to their science
investigations. As they progress, they begin to work in a more systematic way. The notion of a ‘fair test’ and the idea of
variables are developed, as well as other forms of science inquiry. Understanding the importance of measurement in quantifying
changes in systems is also fostered.
Through observation, students can detect similarities among objects, living things and events and these similarities can form
patterns. By identifying these patterns, students develop explanations about the reasons for them. Students’ understanding of
the complex natural or built world can be enhanced by considering aspects of the world as systems, and how components, or
parts, within systems relate to each other. From evidence derived from observation, explanations about phenomena can be
developed and tested. With new evidence, explanations may be refined or changed.
By examining living structures, Earth, changes of solids to liquids and features of light, students begin to recognise patterns in
the world. The observation of aspects of astronomy, living things, heat, light and electrical circuits helps students develop the
concept of a system and its interacting components, and understand the relationships, including the notion of cause and effect,
between variables.
Years 7–10
Curriculum focus: explaining phenomena involving science and its applications
During these years, students continue to develop their understanding of important science concepts across the major science
disciplines. It is important to include contemporary contexts in which a richer understanding of science can be enhanced.
Current science research and its human application motivates and engages students.
Within the outlined curriculum, students should undertake some open investigations that will help them refine their science
inquiry skills. The quantitative aspects of students’ inquiry skills are further developed to incorporate consideration of uncertainty
in measurement. In teaching the outlined curriculum, it is important to provide time to build the more abstract science ideas that
underpin understanding.
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Students further develop their understanding of systems and how the idea of equilibrium is important in dynamic systems. They
consider how a change in one of the components can affect all components of the system because of the interrelationships
between the parts. They consider the idea of form and function at a range of scales in both living and non-living systems.
Students move from an experiential appreciation of the effects of energy to a more abstract understanding of the nature of
energy.
As students investigate the science phenomena outlined in these years, they begin to learn about major theories that underpin
science, including the particle theory, atomic theory, the theory of evolution, plate tectonic theory and the Big Bang theory.
Senior secondary years
Curriculum focus: disciplines of science
The senior secondary courses for physics, chemistry, biology, and Earth and environmental science build on prior learning
across these areas in Foundation to Year 10.
Achievement standards
Across Foundation to Year 10, achievement standards indicate the quality of learning that students should typically demonstrate
by a particular point in their schooling. Achievement standards comprise a written description and student work samples.
An achievement standard describes the quality of learning (the extent of knowledge, the depth of understanding and the
sophistication of skills) that would indicate the student is well placed to commence the learning required at the next level of
achievement.
The sequence of achievement standards across Foundation to Year 10 describes progress in the learning area. This sequence
provides teachers with a framework of growth and development in the learning area.
Student work samples play a key role in communicating expectations described in the achievement standards. Each work
sample includes the relevant assessment task, the student’s response, and annotations identifying the quality of learning
evident in the student’s response in relation to relevant parts of the achievement standard.
Together, the description of the achievement standard and the accompanying set of annotated work samples help teachers to
make judgments about whether students have achieved the standard.
Student diversity
ACARA is committed to the development of a high-quality curriculum for all Australian students that promotes excellence and
equity in education.
All students are entitled to rigorous, relevant and engaging learning programs drawn from the Australian Curriculum: Science.
Teachers take account of the range of their students’ current levels of learning, strengths, goals and interests and make
adjustments where necessary. The three-dimensional design of the Australian Curriculum, comprising learning areas, general
capabilities and cross-curriculum priorities, provides teachers with flexibility to cater for the diverse needs of students across
Australia and to personalise their learning.
More detailed advice has been developed for schools and teachers on using the Australian Curriculum to meet diverse learning
needs and is available under Student Diversity on the Australian Curriculum website.
Students with disability
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The Disability Discrimination Act 1992 and the Disability Standards for Education 2009 require education and training service
providers to support the rights of students with disability to access the curriculum on the same basis as students without
disability.
Many students with disability are able to achieve educational standards commensurate with their peers, as long as the
necessary adjustments are made to the way in which they are taught and to the means through which they demonstrate their
learning.
In some cases curriculum adjustments are necessary to provide equitable opportunities for students to access age-equivalent
content in the Australian Curriculum: Science. Teachers can draw from content at different levels along the Foundation to Year
10 sequence. Teachers can also use the extended general capabilities learning continua in Literacy, Numeracy and Personal
and social capability to adjust the focus of learning according to individual student need.
Gifted and talented students
Teachers can use the Australian Curriculum: Science flexibly to meet the individual learning needs of gifted and talented
students.
Teachers can enrich student learning by providing students with opportunities to work with learning area content in more depth
or breadth; emphasising specific aspects of the general capabilities learning continua (for example, the higher order cognitive
skills of the Critical and creative thinking capability); and/or focusing on cross-curriculum priorities. Teachers can also accelerate
student learning by drawing on content from later levels in the Australian Curriculum: Science and/or from local state and
territory teaching and learning materials.
Teachers can also develop depth and breadth using the Australian Curriculum: Science overarching ideas as a frame. Learning
in science emphasises the ability to make connections between diverse concepts and across contexts. The overarching ideas
provide a valuable frame to support students to make these connections and to develop a scientific view of the world.
English as an additional language or dialect
Students for whom English is an additional language or dialect (EAL/D) enter Australian schools at different ages and at
different stages of English language learning and have various educational backgrounds in their first languages. Whilst many
EAL/D students bring already highly developed literacy (and numeracy) skills in their own language to their learning of Standard
Australian English, there is a significant number of students who are not literate in their first language, and have had little or no
formal schooling.
While the aims of the Australian Curriculum: Science are the same for all students, EAL/D students must achieve these aims
while simultaneously learning a new language and learning content and skills through that new language. These students may
require additional time and support, along with teaching that explicitly addresses their language needs. Students who have had
no formal schooling will need additional time and support in order to acquire skills for effective learning in formal settings.
A national English as an Additional Language or Dialect: Teacher Resource has been developed to support teachers in
making the Australian Curriculum: Foundation to Year 10 in each learning area accessible to EAL/D students.
General capabilities
In the Australian Curriculum, the general capabilities encompass the knowledge, skills, behaviours and dispositions that,
together with curriculum content in each learning area and the cross-curriculum priorities, will assist students to live and work
successfully in the twenty-first century.
There are seven general capabilities:
Literacy
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Numeracy
Information and communication technology (ICT) capability
Critical and creative thinking
Personal and social capability
Ethical understanding
Intercultural understanding.
In the Australian Curriculum: Science, general capabilities are identified wherever they are developed or applied in content
descriptions. They are also identified where they offer opportunities to add depth and richness to student learning through
content elaborations. Icons indicate where general capabilities have been identified in Science content. Teachers may find
further opportunities to incorporate explicit teaching of the capabilities depending on their choice of activities.
Literacy
Students become literate as they develop the knowledge, skills and dispositions to interpret and use language confidently for
learning and communicating in and out of school and for participating effectively in society. Literacy involves students in
listening to, reading, viewing, speaking, writing and creating oral, print, visual and digital texts, and using and modifying
language for different purposes in a range of contexts.
Students develop literacy capability as they learn how to construct an understanding of how scientific knowledge is produced; to
explore, analyse and communicate scientific information, concepts and ideas; and to plan, conduct and communicate
investigations. Scientific texts that students are required to comprehend and compose include those that provide information,
describe events and phenomena, recount experiments, present and evaluate data, give explanations and present opinions or
claims. Language structures are used to link information and ideas, give explanations, formulate hypotheses and construct
evidence-based arguments.
By learning the literacy of science students understand that language varies according to context and they increase their ability
to use language flexibly. Scientific vocabulary is often technical and includes specific terms for concepts and features of the
world, as well as terms that encapsulate an entire process in a single word, such as ‘photosynthesis’. Students learn to
understand that much scientific information is presented in the form of diagrams, flow charts, tables and graphs.
Numeracy
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Numeracy
Students become numerate as they develop the knowledge and skills to use mathematics confidently across all learning areas
at school and in their lives more broadly. Numeracy involves students in recognising and understanding the role of mathematics
in the world and having the dispositions and capacities to use mathematical knowledge and skills purposefully.
Many elements of numeracy are evident in the Science Curriculum, particularly in Science Inquiry Skills. These include
practical measurement and the collection, representation and interpretation of data from investigations.
Students are introduced to measurement, first using informal units then formal units. Later they consider issues of uncertainty
and reliability in measurement. As students progress, they collect both qualitative and quantitative data, which is analysed and
represented in graphical forms. Students learn data analysis skills, including identifying trends and patterns from numerical data
and graphs. In later years, numeracy demands include the statistical analysis of data, including issues relating to accuracy, and
linear mathematical relationships to calculate and predict values.
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) capability
Students develop ICT capability as they learn to use ICT effectively and appropriately to access, create and communicate
information and ideas, solve problems and work collaboratively in all learning areas at school, and in their lives beyond school.
ICT capability involves students in learning to make the most of the technologies available to them, adapting to new ways of
doing things as technologies evolve and limiting the risks to themselves and others in a digital environment.
Students develop ICT capability when they research science concepts and applications, investigate scientific phenomena, and
communicate their scientific understandings. In particular, they employ their ICT capability to access information; collect,
analyse and represent data; model and interpret concepts and relationships; and communicate science ideas, processes and
information.
Digital technology can be used to represent scientific phenomena in ways that improve students’ understanding of concepts,
ideas and information. Digital aids such as animations and simulations provide opportunities to view phenomena and test
predictions that cannot be investigated through practical experiments in the classroom and may enhance students’
understanding and engagement with science.
Critical and creative thinking
Students develop capability in critical and creative thinking as they learn to generate and evaluate knowledge, clarify concepts
and ideas, seek possibilities, consider alternatives and solve problems. Critical and creative thinking are integral to activities that
require students to think broadly and deeply using skills, behaviours and dispositions such as reason, logic, resourcefulness,
imagination and innovation in all learning areas at school and in their lives beyond school.
Students develop capability in critical and creative thinking as they learn to generate and evaluate knowledge, ideas and
possibilities, and use them when seeking new pathways or solutions. In the Science learning area, critical and creative thinking
are embedded in the skills of posing questions, making predictions, speculating, solving problems through investigation, making
evidence-based decisions, and analysing and evaluating evidence. Students develop understandings of concepts through active
inquiry that involves planning and selecting appropriate information, and evaluating sources of information to formulate
conclusions.
Creative thinking enables the development of ideas that are new to the individual, and this is intrinsic to the development of
scientific understanding. Scientific inquiry promotes critical and creative thinking by encouraging flexibility and open-mindedness
as students speculate about their observations of the world. Students’ conceptual understanding becomes more sophisticated
as they actively acquire an increasingly scientific view of their world.
Personal and social capability
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Personal and social capability
Students develop personal and social capability as they learn to understand themselves and others, and manage their
relationships, lives, work and learning more effectively. The personal and social capability involves students in a range of
practices including recognising and regulating emotions, developing empathy for and understanding of others, establishing
positive relationships, making responsible decisions, working effectively in teams and handling challenging situations
constructively.
Students develop personal and social capability as they engage in science inquiry, learn how scientific knowledge informs and
is applied in their daily lives, and explore how scientific debate provides a means of contributing to their communities. This
includes developing skills in communication, initiative taking, goal setting, interacting with others and decision making, and the
capacity to work independently and collaboratively.
The Science learning area enhances personal and social capability by expanding students’ capacity to question, solve
problems, explore and display curiosity. Students use their scientific knowledge to make informed choices about issues that
impact their lives such as health and nutrition and environmental change, and consider the application of science to meet a
range of personal and social needs.
Ethical understanding
Students develop ethical understanding as they identify and investigate the nature of ethical concepts, values, character traits
and principles, and understand how reasoning can assist ethical judgment. Ethical understanding involves students in building a
strong personal and socially oriented ethical outlook that helps them to manage context, conflict and uncertainty, and to develop
an awareness of the influence that their values and behaviour have on others.
Students develop the capacity to form and make ethical judgments in relation to experimental science, codes of practice, and
the use of scientific information and science applications. They explore what integrity means in science, and explore and apply
ethical guidelines in their investigations. They consider the implications of their investigations on others, the environment and
living organisms.
They use scientific information to evaluate claims and to inform ethical decisions about a range of social, environmental and
personal issues, for example, land use or the treatment of animals.
Intercultural understanding
Students develop intercultural understanding as they learn to value their own cultures, languages and beliefs, and those of
others. They come to understand how personal, group and national identities are shaped, and the variable and changing nature
of culture. The capability involves students in learning about and engaging with diverse cultures in ways that recognise
commonalities and differences, create connections with others and cultivate mutual respect.
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There are opportunities in the Science learning area to develop intercultural understanding. Students learn to appreciate the
contribution that diverse cultural perspectives have made to the development, breadth and diversity of science knowledge and
applications. Students become aware that the raising of some debates within culturally diverse groups requires cultural
sensitivity. They recognise that increasingly scientists work in culturally diverse teams and engage with culturally diverse
communities to address issues of international importance.
Cross-curriculum priorities
The Australian Curriculum is designed to meet the needs of students by delivering a relevant, contemporary and engaging
curriculum that builds on the educational goals of the Melbourne Declaration. The Melbourne Declaration identified three key
areas that need to be addressed for the benefit of both individuals and Australia as a whole. In the Australian Curriculum these
have become priorities that provide students with the tools and language to engage with and better understand their world at a
range of levels. The priorities provide dimensions which will enrich the curriculum through development of considered and
focused content that fits naturally within learning areas. They enable the delivery of learning area content at the same time as
developing knowledge, understanding and skills relating to:
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures
Asia and Australia’s engagement with Asia
sustainability.
Cross-curriculum priorities are addressed through learning areas and are identified wherever they are developed or applied in
content descriptions. They are also identified where they offer opportunities to add depth and richness to student learning in
content elaborations. They will have a strong but varying presence depending on their relevance to the learning area.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures
Across the Australian Curriculum, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures priority provides opportunities
for all learners to deepen their knowledge of Australia by engaging with the world’s oldest continuous living cultures. Students
will understand that contemporary Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Communities are strong, resilient, rich and diverse. The
knowledge and understanding gained through this priority will enhance the ability of all young people to participate positively in
the ongoing development of Australia.
The Australian Curriculum: Science values Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures. It acknowledges that
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples have longstanding scientific knowledge traditions.
Students will have opportunities to learn that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples have developed knowledge about the
world through observation, using all the senses; through prediction and hypothesis; through testing (trial and error); and through
making generalisations within specific contexts. These scientific methods have been practised and transmitted from one
generation to the next. Students will develop an understanding that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples have particular
ways of knowing the world and continue to be innovative in providing significant contributions to development in science. They
will investigate examples of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander science and the ways traditional knowledge and western
scientific knowledge can be complementary.
Asia and Australia’s engagement with Asia
Across the Australian curriculum, this priority will ensure that students learn about and recognise the diversity within and
between the countries of the Asia region. They will develop knowledge and understanding of Asian societies, cultures, beliefs
and environments, and the connections between the peoples of Asia, Australia, and the rest of the world. Asia literacy provides
students with the skills to communicate and engage with the peoples of Asia so they can effectively live, work and learn in the
region.
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In the Australian Curriculum: Science, the priority of Asia and Australia’s engagement with Asia provides rich and engaging
contexts for developing students’ science knowledge, understanding and skills.
The Australian Curriculum: Science provides opportunities for students to recognise that people from the Asia region have made
and continue to make significant contributions to the development of science understandings and their applications. It enables
students to recognise that the Asia region includes diverse environments and to appreciate that interaction between human
activity and these environments continues to influence the region, including Australia, and has significance for the rest of the
world.
In this learning area, students appreciate that the Asia region plays an important role in scientific research and development.
These can include research and development in areas such as medicine, natural resource management, nanotechnologies,
communication technologies and natural disaster prediction and management.
Sustainability
Across the Australian Curriculum, sustainability will allow all young Australians to develop the knowledge, skills, values and
world views necessary for them to act in ways that contribute to more sustainable patterns of living. It will enable individuals and
communities to reflect on ways of interpreting and engaging with the world. The Sustainability priority is futures-oriented,
focusing on protecting environments and creating a more ecologically and socially just world through informed action. Actions
that support more sustainable patterns of living require consideration of environmental, social, cultural and economic systems
and their interdependence.
In the Australian Curriculum: Science the priority of sustainability provides authentic contexts for exploring, investigating and
understanding chemical, biological, physical and Earth and space systems.
The Australian Curriculum: Science explores a wide range of systems that operate at different time and spatial scales. By
investigating the relationships between systems and system components and how systems respond to change, students
develop an appreciation for the interconnectedness of Earth’s biosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere.
Relationships including cycles and cause and effect are explored, and students develop observation and analysis skills to
examine these relationships in the world around them.
In this learning area, students appreciate that science provides the basis for decision making in many areas of society and that
these decisions can impact on the Earth system. They understand the importance of using science to predict possible effects of
human and other activity and to develop management plans or alternative technologies that minimise these effects.
Links to the other learning areas
Learning in science involves the use of knowledge and skills learnt in other areas, particularly in English, mathematics and
history.
English
There is strong support in schools across Australia for linking learning in science with learning literacy skills. The science
tradition places a high priority on accurate communication. The Australian Curriculum: Science is supported by and in turn
reinforces the learning of literacy skills. Students need to describe objects and events, interpret descriptions, read and give
instructions, explain ideas to others, write reports and procedural accounts, participate in group discussions and provide
expositions.
Mathematics
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The science curriculum closely complements that of mathematics. In science, students process data using simple tables, lists,
picture graphs, simple column graphs and line graphs. In the mathematics curriculum they will be developing these skills at
similar year levels. In mathematics, students' data analysis skills will develop to include scatter plots, linear graphs and the
gradient of graphs. This will enhance their ability to analyse patterns and trends in data as part of scientific investigations.
Students develop their use of metric units in both the mathematics and science curriculums. The ability to convert between
common metric units of length and mass and their use of decimal notation in mathematics will enable them to represent and
compare data in meaningful ways in science. In mathematics, students learn simple statistical methods and these skills will
enable students to apply quantitative analysis of data as required in science. The concept of outliers, learnt in mathematics, will
help them to identify inconsistencies in quantitative data in science.
When considering phenomena and systems at a vast range of scales in science, students use their mathematical knowledge of
timescales and intervals. They use scientific notation in the representation of these values as required. Students’ mathematical
ability to solve problems involving linear equations can be utilised in science when investigating quantitative relationships.
History
History provides another avenue to the understanding of how science works. Science and its discoveries are a source of
historical facts and artefacts. The strand Science as a Human Endeavour is an important link to historical developments. It is
important that students learn that science and technology have grown through the gradual accumulation of knowledge over
many centuries; that all sorts of people, including people like themselves, use and contribute to science. Historical studies of
science and technology in the early Egyptian, Greek, Chinese, Arabic and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultures
extending to modern times will help students understand the contributions of people from around the world.
The Australian Curriculum: Science takes account of what students have learnt in these areas so that their science learning is
supported and their learning in other areas enhanced.
Implications for teaching, assessment and reporting
The science curriculum emphasises inquiry-based teaching and learning. A balanced and engaging approach to teaching will
typically involve context, exploration, explanation and application. This requires a context or point of relevance through which
students can make sense of the ideas they are learning. Opportunities for student-led open inquiry should also be provided
within each phase of schooling.
Assessment encourages longer-term understanding and provides detailed diagnostic information. It shows what students know,
understand and can demonstrate. It also shows what they need to do to improve. In particular, Science Inquiry Skills and
Science as a Human Endeavour require a variety of assessment approaches.
Teachers use the Australian Curriculum content and achievement standards first to identify current levels of learning and
achievement and then to select the most appropriate content (possibly from across several year levels) to teach individual
students and/or groups of students. This takes into account that in each class there may be students with a range of prior
achievement (below, at and above the year level expectations) and that teachers plan to build on current learning.
Teachers also use the achievement standards, at the end of a period of teaching, to make on-balance judgments about the
quality of learning demonstrated by the students – that is, whether they have achieved below, at or above the standard. To
make these judgments, teachers draw on assessment data that they have collected as evidence during the course of the
teaching period. These judgments about the quality of learning are one source of feedback to students and their parents and
inform formal reporting processes.
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If a teacher judges that a student’s achievement is below the expected standard, this suggests that the teaching programs and
practice should be reviewed to better assist individual students in their learning in the future. It also suggests that additional
support and targeted teaching will be needed to ensure that the student does not fall behind.
Assessment of the Australian Curriculum takes place in different levels and for different purposes, including:
ongoing formative assessment within classrooms for the purposes of monitoring learning and providing feedback, to
teachers to inform their teaching and for students to inform their learning
summative assessment for the purposes of twice-yearly reporting by schools to parents and carers on the progress and
achievement of students
annual testing of Years 3, 5, 7 and 9 students’ levels of achievement in aspects of literacy and numeracy, conducted as
part of the National Assessment Program – Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN)
periodic sample testing of specific learning areas within the Australian Curriculum as part of the National Assessment
Program (NAP).
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Version 3.0
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Foundation Year Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6
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Biological
sciences
Living things have basic
needs, including food and
water
Living things have a
variety of external features
Living things live in
diferent places where their
needs are met
Living things grow, change
and have ofspring similar
to themselves
Living things can be
grouped on the basis of
observable features and
can be distinguished from
non-living things
Living things have life cycles
Living things, including plants
and animals, depend on each
other and the environment to
survive
Living things have structural
features and adaptations that
help them to survive in their
environment
The growth and survival of
living things are afected by
the physical conditions of their
environment
Chemical
sciences
Objects are made of
materials that have
observable properties
Everyday materials can be
physically changed in a
variety of ways
Diferent materials can be
combined, including by
mixing, for a particular
purpose
A change of state between
solid and liquid can be
caused by adding or
removing heat
Natural and processed
materials have a range of
physical properties; these
properties can infuence their
use
Solids, liquids and gases have
diferent observable properties
and behave in diferent ways
Changes to materials can be
reversible, such as melting,
freezing, evaporating; or
irreversible, such as burning
and rusting
Earth and
space
sciences
Daily and seasonal
changes in our
environment, including the
weather, afect everyday
life
Observable changes occur
in the sky and landscape
Earth’s resources,
including water, are used
in a variety of ways
Earth’s rotation on its axis
causes regular changes,
including night and day
Earth’s surface changes over
time as a result of natural
processes and human activity
The Earth is part of a system
of planets orbiting around a
star (the sun)
Sudden geological changes
or extreme weather conditions
can afect Earth’s surface
Physical
sciences
The way objects move
depends on a variety of
factors, including their size
and shape
Light and sound are
produced by a range
of sources and can be
sensed
A push or a pull afects
how an object moves or
changes shape
Heat can be produced in
many ways and can move
from one object to another
Forces can be exerted by one
object on another through
direct contact or from a
distance
Light from a source forms
shadows and can be
absorbed, refected and
refracted
Electrical circuits provide a
means of transferring and
transforming electricity
Energy from a variety of
sources can be used to
generate electricity
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Science Scope and Sequence: Year 5 to Year 10
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Biological
sciences
Living things have
structural features and
adaptations that help
them to survive in their
environment
The growth and survival of
living things are afected by
the physical conditions of
their environment
There are diferences within and
between groups of organisms;
classifcation helps organise this
diversity
Interactions between organisms
can be described in terms of
food chains and food webs;
human activity can afect these
interactions
Cells are the basic units of living
things and have specialised
structures and functions
Multi-cellular organisms contain
systems of organs that carry
out specialised functions that
enable them to survive and
reproduce
Multi-cellular organisms rely on
coordinated and interdependent
internal systems to respond to
changes to their environment
Ecosystems consist of
communities of interdependent
organisms and abiotic
components of the environment;
matter and energy fow through
these systems
The transmission of heritable
characteristics from one generation to the
next involves DNA and genes
The theory of e volution by natural
selection explains the diversity of living
things and is supported by a range of
scientifc evidence
Chemical
sciences
Solids, liquids and gases
have diferent observable
properties and behave in
diferent ways
Changes to materials can be
reversible, such as melting,
freezing, evaporating; or
irreversible, such as burning
and rusting
Mixtures, including solutions,
contain a combination of
pure substances that can be
separated using a range of
techniques
The properties of the diferent
states of matter can be
explained in terms of the motion
and arrangement of particles
Diferences between elements,
compounds and mixtures can
be described at a particle level
Chemical change involves
substances reacting to form
new substances
All matter is made of atoms
which are composed of protons,
neutrons and electrons; natural
radioactivity arises from the decay
of nuclei in atoms
Chemical reactions involve
rearranging atoms to form new
substances; during a chemical
reaction mass is not created or
destroyed
Chemical reactions, including
combustion and the reactions
of acids, are important in both
non-living and living systems and
involve energy transfer
The atomic structure and properties of
elements are used to organise them in the
Periodic Table
Diferent types of chemical reactions are
used to produce a range of products and
can occur at diferent rates
Earth and
space
sciences
The Earth is part of a
system of planets orbiting
around a star (the sun)
Sudden geological changes
or extreme weather conditions
can afect Earth’s surface
Predictable phenomena on Earth,
including seasons and eclipses,
are caused by the relative
positions of the sun, Earth and
the moon
Some of Earth’s resources are
renewable, but others are non-
renewable
Water is an important resource
that cycles through the
environment
Sedimentary, igneous and
metamorphic rocks contain
minerals and are formed
by processes that occur
within Earth over a variety of
timescales
The theory of plate tectonics
explains global patterns of
geological activity and continental
movement
The universe contains features including
galaxies, stars and solar systems and the
Big Bang theory can be used to explain the
origin of the universe
Global systems, including the carbon
cycle, rely on interactions involving the
biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and
atmosphere
Physical
sciences
Light from a source forms
shadows and can be
absorbed, refected and
refracted
Electrical circuits provide a
means of transferring and
transforming electricity
Energy from a variety of
sources can be used to
generate electricity
Change to an object’s motion
is caused by unbalanced forces
acting on the object
Earth’s gravity pulls objects
towards the centre of the Earth
Energy appears in diferent
forms including movement
(kinetic energy), heat and
potential energy, and causes
change within systems
Energy transfer through diferent
mediums can be explained using
wave and particle models
Energy conservation in a system can be
explained by describing energy transfers
and transformations
The motion of objects can be described
and predicted using the laws of physics
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Science Scope and Sequence: Foundation to Year 6
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Questioning
and predicting
Respond to questions
about familiar objects
and events
Respond to and pose questions, and make predictions
about familiar objects and events
With guidance, identify questions in familiar contexts that
can be investigated scientifcally and predict what might
happen based on prior knowledge
With guidance, pose questions to clarify practical problems or
inform a scientifc investigation, and predict what the fndings of
an investigation might be
Planning and
conducting
Explore and make
observations by using
the senses
Participate in diferent types of guided investigations to
explore and answer questions, such as manipulating
materials, testing ideas, and accessing information
sources
Use informal measurements in the collection and
recording of observations, with the assistance of digital
technologies as appropriate
Suggest ways to plan and conduct investigations to fnd
answers to questions
Safely use appropriate materials, tools or equipment to make
and record observations, using formal measurements and
digital technologies as appropriate
With guidance, plan appropriate investigation methods to
answer questions or solve problems
Decide which variable should be changed and measured in fair
tests and accurately observe, measure and record data, using
digital technologies as appropriate
Use equipment and materials safely, identifying potential risks
Processing and
analysing data
and information
Engage in discussions
about observations and
use methods such as
drawing to represent
ideas
Use a range of methods to sort information, including
drawings and provided tables
Through discussion, compare observations with
predictions
Use a range of methods including tables and simple column
graphs to represent data and to identify patterns and trends
Compare results with predictions, suggesting possible
reasons for fndings
Construct and use a range of representations, including tables
and graphs, to represent and describe observations, patterns or
relationships in data using digital technologies as appropriate
Compare data with predictions and use as evidence in
developing explanations
Evaluating Compare observations with those of others Refect on the investigation, including whether a test was fair
or not
Suggest improvements to the methods used to investigate a
question or solve a problem
Communicating Share observations and
ideas
Represent and communicate observations and ideas
in a variety of ways such as oral and written language,
drawing and role play
Represent and communicate ideas and fndings in a variety
of ways such as diagrams, physical representations and
simple reports
Communicate ideas, explanations and processes in a variety of
ways, including multi-modal texts
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Nature and
development
of science
Science involves
exploring and
observing the world
using the senses
Science involves asking questions about, and
describing changes in, objects and events
Science involves making predictions and describing patterns
and relationships
Science involves testing predictions by gathering data and using
evidence to develop explanations of events and phenomena
Important contributions to the advancement of science have
been made by people from a range of cultures
Use and
infuence of
science
People use science in their daily lives, including when
caring for their environment and living things
Science knowledge helps people to understand the efect of
their actions
Scientifc understandings, discoveries and inventions are used to
solve problems that directly afect peoples’ lives
Scientifc knowledge is used to inform personal and community
decisions
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Science Scope and Sequence: Year 5 to Year 10
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Questioning
and predicting
With guidance, pose questions to clarify practical problems
or inform a scientifc investigation, and predict what the
fndings of an investigation might be
Identify questions and problems that can be investigated
scientifcally and make predictions based on scientifc knowledge
Formulate questions or hypotheses that can be investigated scientifcally
Planning and
conducting
With guidance, select appropriate investigation methods to
answer questions or solve problems
Decide which variable should be changed and measured in
fair tests and accurately observe, measure and record data,
using digital technologies as appropriate
Use equipment and materials safely, identifying potential
risks
Collaboratively and individually plan and conduct a range of
investigation types, including feldwork and experiments, ensuring
safety and ethical guidelines are followed
In fair tests, measure and control variables, and select equipment
to collect data with accuracy appropriate to the task
Plan, select and use appropriate investigation methods, including feld work
and laboratory experimentation, to collect reliable data; assess risk and
address ethical issues associated with these methods
Select and use appropriate equipment, including digital technologies, to
systematically and accurately collect and record data
Processing and
analysing data
and information
Construct and use a range of representations, including
tables and graphs, to represent and describe observations,
patterns or relationships in data using digital technologies
as appropriate
Compare data with predictions and use as evidence in
developing explanations
Construct and use a range of representations, including graphs,
keys and models to represent and analyse patterns or relationships,
including using digital technologies as appropriate
Summarise data, from students’ own investigations and secondary
sources, and use scientifc understanding to identify relationships
and draw conclusions
Analyse patterns and trends in data, including describing relationships
between variables and identifying inconsistencies
Use knowledge of scientifc concepts to draw conclusions that are consistent
with evidence
Evaluating Suggest improvements to the methods used to investigate a
question or solve a problem
Refect on the method used to investigate a question or solve a
problem, including evaluating the quality of the data collected, and
identify improvements to the method
Use scientifc knowledge and fndings from investigations to
evaluate claims
Evaluate conclusions, including identifying sources of uncertainty and possible
alternative explanations, and describe specifc ways to improve the quality of
the data
Critically analyse the validity of information in secondary sources and evaluate
the approaches used to solve problems
Communicating Communicate ideas, explanations and processes in a
variety of ways, including multi-modal texts
Communicate ideas, fndings and solutions to problems using
scientifc language and representations using digital technologies
as appropriate
Communicate scientifc ideas and information for a particular purpose,
including constructing evidence-based arguments and using appropriate
scientifc language, conventions and representations
Year 5 Year 6 Year 7 Year 8 Year 9 Year 10
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Nature and
development
of science
Science involves testing predictions by gathering data
and using evidence to develop explanations of events and
phenomena
Important contributions to the advancement of science have
been made by people from a range of cultures
Scientifc knowledge changes as new evidence becomes available,
and some scientifc discoveries have signifcantly changed people’s
understanding of the world
Science knowledge can develop through collaboration and
connecting ideas across the disciplines of science
Scientifc understanding, including models and theories, are contestable and
are refned over time through a process of review by the scientifc community
Advances in scientifc understanding often rely on developments in technology
and technological advances are often linked to scientifc discoveries
Use and
infuence of
science
Scientifc understandings, discoveries and inventions are
used to solve problems that directly afect peoples’ lives
Scientifc knowledge is used to inform personal and
community decisions
Science and technology contribute to fnding solutions to a range
of contemporary issues; these solutions may impact on other areas
of society and involve ethical considerations
Science understanding infuences the development of practices in
areas of human activity such as industry, agriculture and marine
and terrestrial resource management
People use understanding and skills from across the disciplines of
science in their occupations
People can use scientifc knowledge to evaluate whether they should accept
claims, explanations or predictions
Advances in science and emerging sciences and technologies can signifcantly
afect people’s lives, including generating new career opportunities
The values and needs of contemporary society can infuence the focus of
scientifc research
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The Australian Curriculum
Technologies
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Rationale and Aims
Rationale
Technologies enrich and impact on the lives of people and societies globally. Australia needs enterprising individuals who can
make discerning decisions about the development and use of technologies and who can independently and collaboratively
develop solutions to complex challenges and contribute to sustainable patterns of living. Technologies can play an important
role in transforming, restoring and sustaining societies and natural, managed, and constructed environments.
The Australian Curriculum: Technologies describes two distinct but related subjects:
Design and Technologies, in which students use design thinking and technologies to generate and produce designed
solutions for authentic needs and opportunities.
Digital Technologies, in which students use computational thinking and information systems to define, design and
implement digital solutions.
The Australian Curriculum: Technologies will ensure that all students benefit from learning about and working with traditional,
contemporary and emerging technologies that shape the world in which we live. This learning area encourages students to
apply their knowledge and practical skills and processes when using technologies and other resources to create innovative
solutions, independently and collaboratively, that meet current and future needs.
The practical nature of the Technologies learning area engages students in critical and creative thinking, including
understanding interrelationships in systems when solving complex problems. A systematic approach to experimentation,
problem-solving, prototyping and evaluation instils in students the value of planning and reviewing processes to realise ideas.
All young Australians should develop capacity for action and a critical appreciation of the processes through which technologies
are developed and how technologies can contribute to societies. Students need opportunities to consider the use and impact of
technological solutions on equity, ethics, and personal and social values. In creating solutions, as well as responding to the
designed world, students consider desirable sustainable patterns of living, and contribute to preferred futures for themselves
and others.
This rationale is extended and complemented by specific rationales for each Technologies subject.
Aims
The Australian Curriculum: Technologies aims to develop the knowledge, understanding and skills to ensure that, individually
and collaboratively, students:
investigate, design, plan, manage, create and evaluate solutions
are creative, innovative and enterprising when using traditional, contemporary and emerging technologies, and
understand how technologies have developed over time
make informed and ethical decisions about the role, impact and use of technologies in the economy, environment and
society for a sustainable future
engage confidently with and responsibly select and manipulate appropriate technologies − materials, data, systems,
components, tools and equipment − when designing and creating solutions
critique, analyse and evaluate problems, needs or opportunities to identify and create solutions.
These aims are extended and complemented by specific aims for each Technologies subject.
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Organisation
The Australian Curriculum: Technologies Foundation –Year 10 comprises two subjects:
Design and Technologies
Digital Technologies
The Australian Curriculum: Technologies is written on the basis that all students will study the two subjects from Foundation to
the end of Year 8.
In Year 9 and 10, student access to technologies subjects will be determined by school authorities. These could include Design
and Technologies and/or Digital Technologies as outlined in the Australian Curriculum: Technologies and/or subjects relating to
specific technologies contexts, determined by state and territory school authorities or individual schools.
The curriculum for each of Design and Technologies and Digital Technologies describes the distinct knowledge, understanding
and skills of the subject and, where appropriate, highlights their similarities and complementary learning. This approach allows
students to develop a comprehensive understanding of traditional, contemporary and emerging technologies. It also provides
the flexibility – especially in the primary years of schooling – for developing integrated teaching programs that focus on both
Technologies subjects and other learning areas. Figure 1 shows the relationship between the overarching idea, key ideas and
subjects of the Technologies learning area.
Figure 1 : Relationship between key ideas and Technologies subjects
The curriculum for each Technologies subject is written in bands of year levels:
Foundation –Year 2
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Technologies
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Design and Technologies Digital Technologies
Knowledge and understanding Knowledge and understanding
Technologies and society
· the use, development and impact of technologies
in people’s lives
Technologies contexts
· technologies and design across a range of
technologies contexts
Digital systems
· the components of digital systems: hardware, software
and networks and their use
Representation of data
· how data are represented and structured symbolically
Processes and production skills Processes and production skills
Creating designed solutions by:
· investigating
· generating
· producing
· evaluating
· collaborating and managing
Collecting, managing and analysing data
Creating digital solutions by:
· defining
· designing
· implementing
· evaluating
· collaborating and managing

Years 3 and 4
Years 5 and 6
Years 7 and 8
Years 9 and 10.
Strands
Knowledge, understanding and skills in each subject are presented through two related strands:
Knowledge and understanding
Processes and production skills.
Table 1 outlines the focus of knowledge, understanding and skills across the Technologies learning area Foundation to Year 10.
Table 1: Design and Technologies and Digital Technologies content structure
Teachers can select technologies-specific content from the Knowledge and understanding strand and students can apply
skills from the Processes and production skills strand to that content.
The common strand structure provides an opportunity to highlight similarities across the two subjects that will facilitate
integrated approaches to teaching.
Key ideas in the Technologies curriculum
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Overarching idea: Creating preferred futures
The Technologies curriculum provides students with opportunities to consider how solutions that are created now will be used in
the future. Students will identify the possible benefits and risks of creating solutions. They will use critical and creative thinking
to weigh up possible short and long term impacts.
As students progress through the Technologies curriculum, they will begin to identify possible and probable futures, and their
preferences for the future. They develop solutions to meet needs considering impacts on liveability, economic prosperity and
environmental sustainability. Students will learn to recognise that views about the priority of the benefits and risks will vary and
that preferred futures are contested.

Project management
Students will develop skills to manage projects to successful completion through planning, organising and monitoring timelines,
activities and the use of resources. This includes considering resources and constraints to develop resource, finance, work and
time plans; assessing and managing risks; making decisions; controlling quality; evaluating processes and collaborating and
communicating with others at different stages of the process.
Students are taught to plan for sustainable use of resources when managing projects and take into account ethical, health and
safety considerations and personal and social beliefs and values.
Thinking in Technologies
Systems thinking
A system is an organised group of related objects or components that form a whole. Systems thinking is a holistic approach to
the identification and solving of problems where the focal points are treated as components of a system, and their interactions
and interrelationships are analysed individually to see how they influence the functioning of the entire system.
In Design and Technologies the success of designed solutions includes the generation of ideas and decisions made throughout
design processes. It requires students to understand systems and work with complexity, uncertainty and risk. Students
recognise the connectedness of and interactions between people, places and events in local and wider world contexts and
consider the impact their designs and actions have in a connected world.
Participating in and shaping the future of information and digital systems is an integral part of learning in Digital Technologies.
Understanding the complexity of systems and the interdependence of components is necessary to create timely solutions to
technical, economic and social problems. Implementation of digital solutions often has consequences for the people who use
and engage with the system, and may introduce unintended costs or benefits that impact the present or future society.
Design thinking
Design thinking involves the use of strategies for understanding design needs and opportunities, visualising and generating
creative and innovative ideas, planning, and analysing and evaluating those ideas that best meet the criteria for success.
Design thinking underpins learning in Design and Technologies. Design processes require students to identify and investigate a
need or opportunity; generate, plan and realise designed solutions; and evaluate products and processes. Consideration of
economic, environmental and social impacts that result from designed solutions are core to design thinking, design processes
and Design and Technologies.
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When developing solutions in Digital Technologies, students explore, analyse and develop ideas based on data, inputs and
human interactions. When students design a solution to a problem they consider how users will be presented with data, the
degree of interaction with that data and the various types of computational processing. For example, designing a maze; writing
precise and accurate sequences of instructions to move a robot through the maze or testing the program and modifying the
solution.
Computational thinking
Computational thinking is a problem-solving method that is applied to create solutions that can be implemented using digital
technologies. It involves integrating strategies, such as organising data logically, breaking down problems into parts, interpreting
patterns and models and designing and implementing algorithms.
Computational thinking is used when specifying and implementing algorithmic solutions to problems in Digital Technologies. For
a computer to be able to process data through a series of logical and ordered steps, students must be able to take an abstract
idea and break it down into defined, simple tasks that produce an outcome. This may include analysing trends in data,
responding to user input under certain preconditions or predicting the outcome of a simulation.
This type of thinking is used in Design and Technologies during different phases of a design process when computation is
needed to quantify data and solve problems. Examples include when calculating costs, testing materials and components,
comparing performance, or modelling trends.
Band descriptions
Band descriptions provide information about the learning contexts that apply to the content descriptions and achievement
standards in each Technologies subject in each band. They also emphasise the interrelated nature of the two strands and the
expectation that planning will involve integration of content from across the strands.
Content descriptions
Content descriptions at each band describe the knowledge, understanding and skills that teachers are expected to teach and
students are expected to learn. A concept or skill introduced in one band may be revisited, strengthened and extended in later
bands as needed. Content descriptions do not prescribe approaches to teaching.
Content descriptions in each subject across the bands focus on similar organising elements that present a developmental
sequence of concepts, skills and processes.
Content elaborations
Content elaborations are provided for each content description in Foundation to Year 10 to illustrate content. They are intended
to help teachers in developing a shared understanding of the content descriptions. They are not intended to be comprehensive
content points that all students need to be taught nor do they encompass every aspect of a content description.
Achievement standards
Across Foundation to Year 10, achievement standards indicate the quality of learning that students should typically demonstrate
by a particular point in their schooling. An achievement standard describes the quality of learning (the depth of conceptual
understanding and the sophistication of skills) that would indicate the student is well-placed to commence the learning required
at the next level of achievement.
The sequence of achievement standards in each Technologies subject describes progress in the subject, demonstrating a
broad sequence of expected learning by the end of the band. This sequence provides teachers with a framework for
development in each Technologies subject.
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Design and Technologies
Design and Technologies knowledge and understanding Design and Technologies processes and production
skills
Technologies and society
· the use, development and impact of technologies in
people’s lives
Technologies contexts
· technologies and design across a range of
technologies contexts
Creating designed solutions by:
· investigating
· generating
· producing
· evaluating
· collaborating and managing
The achievement standards for Technologies reflect the distinctive practices of each subject along with aspects of learning that
are common to the Technologies subjects. Subject-specific terms and organisation reflect the essential characteristics of
learning in each subject.
The achievement standards also reflect differences in the nature and scope of the learning in each subject, as well as the
relationship between the interrelated strands: Knowledge and understanding and Processes and production skills.
Achievement standards will be accompanied by portfolios of annotated student work samples that illustrate the expected
learning and help teachers to make judgments about whether students have achieved the standard.
Glossary
A glossary is provided to support a shared understanding of key terms used in the curriculum.
The Australian Curriculum: Design and Technologies (F–10) comprises two related strands:
Design and Technologies knowledge and understanding – the use, development and impact of technologies and design
ideas across a range of technologies contexts
Design and Technologies processes and production skills – the skills needed to create designed solutions.
In Design and Technologies, creating designed solutions is also expressed as ‘designing and producing’ or ‘design and
produce’ as a means of abbreviating the skills needed to create designed solutions by investigating, generating, producing,
evaluating, and collaborating and managing.
Table 2 outlines the focus of expected knowledge, understanding and skills in Design and Technologies F–10 and Figure 2
illustrates the relationship between the Design and Technologies strands.
Table 2: Design and Technologies content structure
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Figure 2: Relationship between the Design and Technologies strands
Relationship between the strands
Together, the two strands provide students with knowledge, understanding and skills through which they can safely and ethically
design, plan, manage, produce and evaluate products, services and environments. Teaching and learning programs should
balance and integrate both strands. Students learn about technologies and society through different technologies contexts
(knowledge and understanding) as they create designed solutions (processes and production skills).
Design and Technologies knowledge and understanding
This strand focuses on developing the underpinning knowledge and understanding of technologies (materials, systems,
components, tools and equipment) across technologies contexts and developing understanding of the relationship between
technologies and society.
Technologies and society
The Technologies and society content descriptions focus on how people use and develop technologies taking into account
social, economic, environmental, ethical, legal, aesthetic and functional factors and the impact of technologies on individuals;
families; local, regional and global communities; the economy; and the environment − now and into the future.
Technologies contexts
The Technologies contexts content descriptions provide a framework within which students can gain knowledge and
understanding about technologies and design across a range of technologies contexts. These content descriptions focus on the
characteristics and properties of technologies and how they can be used to create innovative designed solutions.
The technologies contexts provide a progression of learning from Foundation – Year 8 and optionally to Year 9–10 or lead to
more specialised Technologies subjects in Year 9 and 10. They also reflect national priorities including workforce needs, food
security and sustainable food and fibre production and health and wellbeing priorities.
The prescribed technologies contexts for Foundation – Year 8 are described below. The band descriptions show how many
times each technologies context is addressed in a band.
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Engineering principles and systems
Engineering principles and systems is focused on how forces can be used to create light, sound, heat, movement, control or
support in systems. Knowledge of these principles and systems enables the design and production of sustainable, engineered
solutions. Students need to understand how sustainable engineered products, services and environments can be designed and
produced as resources diminish. Students will progressively develop knowledge and understanding of how forces and the
properties of materials affect the behaviour and performance of designed engineering solutions.
Food and fibre production
Food and fibre are the human-produced or harvested resources used to directly sustain human life and are produced in
managed environments such as farms and plantations or harvested from wild stocks. Challenges for world food and fibre
production include an increasing world population, an uncertain climate and competition for resources such as land and water.
Students need to engage in these challenges by understanding the processes of food and fibre production and by investigating
innovative and sustainable ways of supplying agriculturally produced raw materials. Students will progressively develop
knowledge and understanding about the managed systems that produce food and fibre through creating designed solutions.
(Food and fibre production includes Food specialisations from F–4.) See also: Australian Curriculum connections − Food
and fibre production in the Australian Curriculum.
Food specialisations
Food specialisations includes the application of nutrition principles (as described in Health and Physical Education) and
knowledge about the characteristics and properties of food to food selection and preparation; and contemporary technology-
related food issues. There are increasing community concerns about food issues, including the nutritional quality of food and the
environmental impact of food manufacturing processes. Students need to understand the importance of a variety of foods,
sound nutrition principles and food preparation skills when making food decisions to help better prepare them for their future
lives. Students will progressively develop knowledge and understanding about the nature of food and food safety, and how to
make informed and appropriate food preparation choices when experimenting with and preparing food in a sustainable manner.
See also: Australian Curriculum connections – Food and nutrition in the Australian Curriculum.
Materials and technologies specialisations
Materials and technologies specialisations is focused on a broad range of traditional, contemporary and emerging materials and
specialist areas that typically involve extensive use of technologies. We live in and depend on the human-made environment for
communication, housing, employment, medicine, recreation and transport; however, we also face increasing concerns related to
sustainability. Students need to develop the confidence to make ethical and sustainable decisions about solutions and the
processes used to make them. They can do this by learning about and working with materials and production processes.
Students will progressively develop knowledge and understanding of the characteristics and properties of a range of materials
either discretely in the development of products or through producing designed solutions for a technologies specialisation, for
example architecture, electronics, graphics technologies or fashion.
Types of designed solutions
Across each band from Foundation – Year 8, students will have the opportunity to produce at least three types of designed
solutions (product, service and environment) through the technologies contexts identified for a band.
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These different designed solutions have been specified to give students opportunities to engage with a broad range of design
thinking and production skills. For example, in Year 5−6 students may design and produce an engineered product, a food and
fibre production environment, a food specialisations service and a materials or technologies specialisations product. Whereas in
another school students may design and produce an engineered environment, a food and fibre production service, a food
specialisations product and a materials and technologies specialisation product. The combination of contexts and types of
designed solutions is a school decision.
Figure 3 outlines the relationship between technologies contexts and types of designed solutions.
Figure 3: Relationship between technologies contexts and types of designed solutions
Design and Technologies processes and production skills
The Design and Technologies processes and production skills strand is based on the major aspects of design thinking, design
processes and production processes. The content descriptions in this strand reflect a design process and would typically be
addressed through a design brief.
The Design and Technologies processes and production skills strand focuses on creating designed solutions by:
investigating
generating
producing
evaluating
collaborating and managing.
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The processes and production skills that students will use throughout a design project are described below.
Investigating
Investigating involves students critiquing, exploring and investigating needs, opportunities and information. As creators and
consumers they will critically reflect on the intention, purpose and operation of technologies and designed solutions. Critiquing
encourages students to examine values, analyse, question and review processes and systems. Students reflect on how
decisions they make may have implications for the individual, society and the local and global environment, now and in the
future. Students explore and investigate technologies, systems, products, services and environments as they consider the
needs of society. They progressively develop effective investigation strategies and consider the contribution of technologies to
their lives and make judgments about them. Students may respond to design briefs or develop design briefs in response to
needs and opportunities.
Generating
Generating involves students in developing and communicating ideas for a range of audiences. Students create change, make
choices, weigh up options, consider alternatives and document various design ideas and possibilities. They use critical and
creative thinking strategies to generate, evaluate and document ideas to meet needs or opportunities that have been identified
by an individual, group or wider community. Generating creative and innovative ideas involves thinking differently; it entails
proposing new approaches to existing problems and identifying new design opportunities considering preferred futures.
Generating and developing ideas involves identifying various competing factors that may influence and dictate the focus of the
idea. Students will evaluate, justify and synthesise what they learn and discover. They will use graphical representation
techniques when they draw, sketch, model and create innovative ideas that focus on high-quality designed solutions.
Producing
Students learn and apply a variety of skills and techniques to make products, services or environments designed to meet
specific purposes and user needs. They apply knowledge about components, materials and their characteristics and properties
to ensure their suitability for use. They learn about the importance of adopting safe work practices. They develop accurate
production skills to achieve quality designed solutions. Students develop the capacity to select and use appropriate materials,
systems, components, tools and equipment; and use work practices that respect the need for sustainability. The use of
modelling and prototyping to accurately develop simple and complex physical models supports the production of successful
designed solutions.
Evaluating
Students evaluate and make judgments throughout a design process and about the quality and effectiveness of their designed
solutions and those of others. They identify criteria for success. In the early years the teacher may guide the development of
these criteria. Progressively students develop criteria which become increasingly more comprehensive. Students consider the
implications and consequences of actions and decision-making. They determine effective ways to test and judge their designed
solutions. They reflect on processes and transfer their learning to other design opportunities.
Collaborating and managing
Students learn to work collaboratively and to manage time and other resources to effectively create designed solutions.
Progressively, students develop the ability to communicate and share ideas throughout the process, negotiate roles and
responsibilities and make compromises to work effectively as a team.
Students work individually and in groups to plan, organise and monitor timelines, activities and the use of resources. Students
progress from planning steps in a project through to more complex project management activities that consider various factors
such as time, cost, risk and quality control.
The Australian Curriculum: Digital Technologies (F–10) comprises two related strands:
Digital Technologies knowledge and understanding – the information system components of data, and digital systems
(hardware, software and networks)
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Digital Technologies
Digital Technologies knowledge and understanding Digital Technologies processes and production skills
Digital systems
· the components of digital systems: hardware,
software and networks and their use
Representation of data
· how data are represented and structured
symbolically

Collecting, managing and analysing data
Creating digital solutions by:
· defining
· designing
· implementing
· evaluating
· collaborating and managing
Digital Technologies processes and production skills – using digital systems to create ideas and information, and to
define, design and implement digital solutions, and evaluate these solutions and existing information systems against
specified criteria.
Table 3 outlines the focus of expected knowledge, understanding and skills in Digital Technologies F–10 and Figure 4 illustrates
the relationship between the Digital Technologies strands.
Table 3: Digital Technologies content structure
Figure 4: Relationship between the Digital Technologies strands
Relationship between the strands
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Together, the two strands provide students with knowledge, understanding and skills through which they can safely and ethically
exploit the capacity of information systems (people, data, processes, digital systems and their interactions) to systematically
transform data into solutions that respond to the needs of individuals, society, the economy and the environment. Teaching and
learning programs will typically integrate these, as content in processes and production skills frequently draws on understanding
of concepts in the knowledge and understanding strand. For more information see Learning in Digital Technologies.
The strands are based on key concepts that provide a framework for knowledge and practice in Digital Technologies. For more
information see Key concepts.
Digital Technologies knowledge and understanding
This strand focuses on developing the underpinning knowledge and understanding of information systems: digital systems and
representation of data.
Digital systems
The digital systems content descriptions focus on the components of digital systems: hardware, software and networks. In the
early years students learn about a range of hardware and software and progress to an understanding of how data are
transmitted between components within a system, and how the hardware and software interact to form networks.
Representation of data
The representation of data content descriptions focus on how data are represented and structured symbolically for use by digital
systems. Different types of data are studied in the bands including text, numeric, images (still and moving) and sound from
Foundation – Year 8 and then categorical and relational data in Year 9 and 10.
Digital Technologies processes and production skills
This strand focuses on developing skills to create digital solutions to problems and opportunities. The Digital Technologies
processes and production skills strand focuses on:
collecting, managing and analysing data, which involves the nature and properties of data, how they are collected and
interpreted using a range of digital systems and peripheral devices and interpreting data when creating information
defining problems and designing digital solutions (Foundation – Year 2), which develops into defining problems and
designing, implementing and evaluating solutions that have been developed by students, and evaluating how well existing
information systems meet different needs (Year 3 – 10)
communicating ideas and information (Foundation – Year 4), which develops into managing, creating and communicating
ideas and information (Year 5 – 6) through to independently and collaboratively managing projects to create interactive
solutions (Year 7 – 10). This involves creating and communicating information, especially online by creating websites, and
interacting safely using appropriate technical and social protocols.
These require skills in using digital systems; critical and creative thinking including systems, design and computational thinking.
Computational thinking
The curriculum is designed so that students will develop and use increasingly sophisticated computational thinking skills, and
processes, techniques and digital systems to create solutions to address specific problems, opportunities or needs.
Computational thinking is a process of recognising aspects of computation in the world and being able to think logically,
algorithmically, recursively and abstractly. Students will also apply procedural techniques and processing skills when creating,
communicating and sharing ideas and information, and managing projects.
Key concepts
A number of key concepts underpin the Digital Technologies curriculum. These establish a way of thinking about problems,
opportunities and information systems and provide a framework for knowledge and practice. The key concepts are:
Abstraction, which underpins all content, particularly the content descriptions relating to the concepts of data
representation and specification, algorithms and implementation
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Data collection (properties, sources and collection of data), data representation (symbolism and separation) and data
interpretation (patterns and contexts)
Specification (descriptions and techniques), algorithms (following and describing) and implementation (translating and
programming)
Digital systems (hardware, software, and networks and the internet)
Interactions (people and digital systems, data and processes) and impacts (sustainability and empowerment).
The concepts of abstraction, data collection, representation and interpretation, specification, algorithms and implementation
correspond to the key elements of computational thinking. Collectively these concepts span the key ideas about the
organisation, representation and automation of digital solutions and information. They can be explored in non-digital or digital
contexts and are likely to underpin future digital systems. They provide a language and perspective that students and teachers
can use when discussing digital technologies.
Abstraction
Abstraction involves hiding details of an idea, problem or solution that are not relevant, to focus on a manageable number of
aspects. Abstraction is a natural part of communication: people rarely communicate every detail, because many details are not
relevant in a given context. The idea of abstraction can be acquired from an early age. For example, when students are asked
how to make toast for breakfast, they do not mention all steps explicitly, assuming that the listener is an intelligent implementer
of the abstract instructions.
Central to managing the complexity of information systems is the ability to ‘temporarily ignore’ the internal details of the
subcomponents of larger specifications, algorithms, systems or interactions. In digital systems, everything must be broken down
into simple instructions.
Data collection, representation and interpretation
The concepts that are about data, focus on the properties of data, how they are collected and represented, and how they are
interpreted in context to produce information. These concepts in Digital Technologies build on a corresponding Statistics and
Probability strand in the Mathematics curriculum. The Digital Technologies curriculum provides a deeper understanding of the
nature of data and their representation, and computational skills for interpreting data. The data concepts provide rich
opportunities for authentic data exploration in other learning areas while developing data processing and visualisation skills.
Data collection describes the numerical, categorical and textual facts measured, collected or calculated as the basis for
creating information and its binary representation in digital systems. Data collection is addressed in the processes and
production skills strand. Data representation describes how data are represented and structured symbolically for storage and
communication, by people and in digital systems, and is addressed in the knowledge and understanding strand. Data
interpretation describes the processes of extracting meaning from data and is addressed in the processes and production
strand.
Specification, algorithms and implementation
The concepts specification, algorithms and implementation focus on the precise definition and communication of problems and
their solutions. This begins with the description of tasks and concludes in the accurate definition of computational problems and
their algorithmic solutions. This concept draws from logic, algebra and the language of mathematics, and can be related to the
scientific method of recording experiments in science.
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Specification describes the process of defining and communicating a problem precisely and clearly. For example, explaining
the need to direct a robot to move in a particular way. An algorithm is a precise description of the steps and decisions needed
to solve a problem. Algorithms will need to be tested before the final solution can be implemented. Anyone who has followed or
given instructions, or navigated using directions, has used an algorithm. These generic skills can be developed without
programming. For example, students can follow the steps within a recipe or describe directions to locate items. Implementation
describes the automation of an algorithm, typically by using appropriate software or writing a computer program. These
concepts are addressed in the processes and production skills strand.
Digital systems
The digital systems concept focuses on the components of digital systems: hardware and software (computer architecture and
the operating system), and networks and the internet (wireless, mobile and wired networks and protocols). This concept is
addressed in both strands. The broader definition of an information system that includes data, people, processes and digital
systems falls under the interactions and impacts concept below.
Interactions and impacts
The interactions and impacts concepts focus on all aspects of human interaction with and through information systems, and the
enormous potential for positive and negative economic, environmental and social impacts enabled by these systems.
Interactions and impacts are addressed in the processes and production skills strand.
Interactions refers to all human interactions with information systems, especially user interfaces and experiences, and human–
human interactions including communication and collaboration facilitated by digital systems. This concept also addresses
methods for protecting stored and communicated data and information.
Impacts describes analysing and predicting the extent to which personal, economic, environmental and social needs are met
through existing and emerging digital technologies; and appreciating the transformative potential of digital technologies in
people’s lives. It also involves consideration of the relationship between information systems and society and in particular the
ethical and legal obligations of individuals and organisations regarding ownership and privacy of data and information.
Types of digital solutions
Across each band students will create digital solutions that will use data, require interactions with users and within systems, and
will have impacts on people, the economy and environments. Solutions may be developed using combinations of readily
available hardware and software applications, and/or specific instructions provided through programming. Some examples of
solutions are instructions for a robot, an adventure game, products featuring interactive multimedia including digital stories,
animations and websites.
All young Australians are entitled to engage with the Australian Curriculum: Technologies to provide a balanced and substantial
foundation in the knowledge and skills of each subject.
Complementing the band descriptions of the curriculum, the following advice describes the nature of learners and the curriculum
across the following year-groupings:
Foundation – Year 2: typically students from 5 to 8 years of age
Year 3 – 6: typically students from 8 to 12 years of age
Year 7 – 10: typically students from 12 to 16 years of age.
Foundation – Year 2
Students bring to school diverse backgrounds and a range of experiences with technologies. The Technologies curriculum
builds on these as rich resources for further learning in each of the Technologies subjects.
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In Foundation – Year 2, the Technologies curriculum builds on the Early Years Learning Framework and its key learning
outcomes: children have a strong sense of identity; children are connected with, and contribute to, their world; children have a
strong sense of wellbeing; children are confident and involved learners; and children are effective communicators.
In the early years students are curious about their world and are interested in exploring it. In Technologies, students have
opportunities to learn through purposeful and directed play to develop attitudes of care about the places and resources they
use. Through these processes they identify relationships between imagined and virtual worlds and the real world, between
people and products, and between resources and environments (systems thinking). They explore materials, tools and
equipment and use drawing and modelling to communicate their design ideas. Students learn about and experience
connections between technologies and the designed world (design thinking). They begin to learn the importance of preparing
precise instructions when solving problems using digital systems (computational thinking), creating ideas and information and
sharing them online with known people.
In Design and Technologies and Digital Technologies children create imaginary situations in which they change the meaning of
objects and actions as they invent new ideas and engage in futures thinking (for them). They also explore real-world concepts,
rules and events as they role-play what is familiar and of interest to them.
Year 3 – 6
Through the primary years, students draw on their growing experience of family, school and the wider community to develop
their understanding of the world and their relationships with others. During these years of schooling, students’ thought
processes become more complex and consistent, and they gradually become more independent. Students also develop their
capacity to work in teams. They develop a sense of social, ethical and environmental responsibility and are interested in and
concerned about the future (systems thinking). Students may share changes in their own thinking and making, giving reasons
for their actions and explaining and demonstrating their organisation and sequence of ideas. They begin to recognise and
appreciate the different ways in which others think and respond to problems and situations, including those with a regional
perspective. They respond resourcefully to a range of design and computing problems and situations using creative and
innovative ideas to realise solutions. They communicate and record their ideas in diagrams and drawings using a range of
technologies. They explain the main functions of their solutions and the systems, materials, tools and equipment which could be
used.
In these years, learning in Technologies occurs through integrated curriculum and Technologies subject-specific approaches.
Students’ activities in the early years develop into an interest in learning technologies thinking, processes and production.
Students increasingly recognise the connections between Technologies and other learning areas.
Year 7 – 10
As students move into adolescence, they undergo a range of important physical, cognitive, emotional and social changes.
Students often begin to question established community conventions, practices and values. Their interests extend well beyond
their own communities and they develop their concerns about wider social, ethical and sustainability issues. Students in this age
range increasingly look for and value learning they perceive as relevant, consistent with personal goals, and leading to
important outcomes. Increasingly they analyse and work with more abstract concepts, consider the implications of individual and
community actions and are keen to examine evidence prior to developing ideas.
In the Technologies learning area, students use technologies knowledge and understanding; technologies processes and
production skills; and systems, design, and/or computational thinking to solve and produce creative solutions to problems,
needs or opportunities. They communicate and record their ideas using a range of media and technologies. These specialised
problem-solving activities will be sophisticated, acknowledge the complexities of contemporary life and may make connections
to related specialised occupations and further study.
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Students develop a global perspective; they have opportunities to understand the complex interdependencies involved in the
development of technologies and between the developer and user in their solutions, and how these can contribute to preferred
futures. Students develop an understanding of the interdependence of technologies development, values, beliefs and
environment (systems thinking). Through undertaking technologies processes students develop systems, design and
computational thinking; and organisational and project management skills.
In Design and Technologies students are actively engaged in the processes of creating designed solutions for personal,
domestic, commercial and global settings for sustainable and preferred futures. For younger children, this usually involves
personal and family settings where there is an immediate, direct and tangible outcome, and where playfulness and practical
exploration are a focus. Students work independently and collaboratively on projects as they critique, explore and investigate
needs and opportunities; generate, develop and evaluate ideas; and plan, produce and evaluate designed solutions. They use
criteria for success that are predetermined, negotiated with the class or developed by students.
Implementing the curriculum
Technologies contexts
Teaching and learning programs will typically integrate content from each strand. By the end of each band students will have
had the opportunity to create different types of designed solutions that address the technologies contexts: Engineering
principles and systems, Food and fibre production, Food specialisations and Materials and technologies specialisations. For
breadth of study, the curriculum has been developed to enable students to complete at least one product, one service and one
environment within each band. See Figure 3. The combination of technologies contexts and types of designed solutions is a
school decision. Students will work on design projects that develop processes and production skills in investigating; generating;
producing; evaluating; and collaborating and managing.
Content descriptions for technologies contexts provide the stimulus for teachers to develop teaching and learning programs.
Typically, a unit of learning in Design and Technologies would entail the integration of Design and Technologies knowledge and
understanding content descriptions (Technologies and society and at least one Technologies context) and the Design and
Technologies processes and production content descriptions. It may be possible to address multiple technologies contexts in a
unit. The unit would be centred on a technologies context and may include a design brief.
Design briefs
A design brief is a concise statement clarifying the project task and defining the need or opportunity to be resolved after some
analysis, investigation and research. It usually identifies the users, criteria for success, constraints, available resources,
timeframe for the project and may include possible consequences and impacts. A design brief is a tool for clarifying a problem
when self-generated, or a guideline for design when externally imposed. In earlier years of learning, design briefs may be fairly
prescriptive and teacher directed. As design skills and design thinking develop, students should have greater input into the
development of design briefs for specific identified needs or opportunities.
Factors influencing design decisions
In Design and Technologies students are encouraged to apply their knowledge and practical skills and processes when using
technologies and other resources to create innovative solutions that meet current and future needs. In doing so, they consider
economic, environmental and social sustainability. Students progress from considering environmental sustainability factors in
the early years to then also considering social sustainability factors in primary years and extending the approach to include
economic sustainability factors in later years. Students make ethical decisions about the use of design and technologies,
considering health and sustainability implications. They consider aesthetic and functional requirements. They also consider the
suitability of enterprise and marketing for the designed solution.
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Enterprise and marketing in the early years of school focuses on local audiences and promotion through displays and
presentations and sharing products and services from a personal perspective. In the later years enterprise and marketing
becomes more oriented to the perspectives of others, with the use of more sophisticated mechanisms for sharing services and
products. Students become more enterprising in developing and promoting designed solutions. Marketing increasingly draws on
social and sustainability considerations, recognising wider societal acknowledgement of ethics and futures thinking. The Design
and Technologies curriculum identifies work health and safety issues with increasing complexity in each band description to
reflect students' developing knowledge, understanding and skills in the use of a range of technologies. See also Implications for
teaching, assessment and reporting − Safety.
Progression of production skills
Students will spend a substantial amount of time engaged in developing processes and production skills. Through the practical
application of technologies, students develop dexterity, fine motor skills and coordination through experiential activities. The
quality of their solutions should improve as their production skills improve. Students produce designed solutions using
production processes involving natural and fabricated materials, components and digital technologies. The types of technologies
they use may become progressively more sophisticated. When students generate, develop and communicate their ideas to a
range of audiences and for design tasks in a range of technologies contexts, they develop graphical representation skills. They
also develop graphics skills when the focus of the design project is on producing a graphics product, service or environment.
Students progress from basic drawing and modelling to using technical terms and techniques and using digital technologies to
produce three-dimensional drawings and prototypes.
Managing projects and collaboration
In Design and Technologies, in the early years, students are actively involved in projects. They plan (with teacher support)
simple steps and follow directions to complete their own projects or manage their own role within team projects. As students
progress through primary school they take more responsibility for specific roles within a project with increasing levels of
collaboration and team work. In the early years of secondary school students begin to manage projects, with support from peers
and teachers. In the later years students use their increasing skills to fully manage projects and teams. They use digital tools to
support their project management. They coordinate teams and collaborate with others locally and globally.
In Digital Technologies students are actively engaged in the process of defining problems and opportunities, designing,
implementing and evaluating digital solutions, and creating and sharing information that meets a range of current and future
needs. These solutions and information are created through the application of computational and design thinking, and technical
skills. The key concepts are progressively developed through the bands as presented in the scope and sequence chart. The
sophistication of the key concepts and the technical skills progressively increase and are based on the foundational knowledge,
understanding and skills gained in earlier bands.
Implementing the curriculum
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Teaching and learning programs will typically integrate content from each strand and focus on a digital technologies application
in a unit of work. For example, interactive multimedia production, game development, robotic and automated systems,
interactive website development, data management systems, application development, artificial intelligence, simulation and
modelling, and networking systems. An application would not need to cover all content descriptions and therefore a range of
contexts may be included over a band. When planning teaching and learning programs teachers should also consider the
relationship between each of the curriculum components (band descriptions, content descriptions, elaborations and
achievement standards) and how they contribute to the development of coherent programs.
Integrating content from the strands
Content from the Processes and production skills strand frequently draws on understanding of concepts in the Knowledge and
understanding strand. For example, learning to acquire, interpret, manipulate, store and communicate data and information to
meet a range of purposes (processes and production skills) involves an understanding of the representation of data, the basis
for creating solutions (knowledge and understanding); learning to select and use the most appropriate digital systems for
specific tasks with consideration of users and interface (processes and production skills) draws on knowledge of the capabilities
and capacities of digital systems (knowledge and understanding).
These strands are also integrated when students undertake projects. For example, when defining, designing, implementing and
evaluating a game solution, students will need an understanding of how data are represented in digital systems, how data will
be input by the user and how they will be transmitted within the digital system. They draw on this knowledge when stating what
is required of the solution (defining), designing the game’s interface and instructions, implementing the solution using specific
software functions and items of hardware, where appropriate, and then evaluating it against the stated needs.
Creating digital solutions and problem-solving
Students use their knowledge and understanding of data and digital systems to apply processes and production skills as they
create digital solutions. Students apply the four-stage process of defining, designing, implementing and evaluating when
individually or collaboratively managing projects to create digital solutions. As problems become more complex, and solutions
more sophisticated, it becomes increasingly necessary to develop skills in abstraction. Solutions may be developed using
combinations of readily available hardware and software applications, and/or specific instructions provided through
programming.
Students will also engage in learning activities that do not require the full use of the process. For example, in the early years
students will experiment with different ways of using digital systems to capture and present data; they will explore alternative
sets of instructions through guided play when writing simple sequences of steps. This means there is greater flexibility about
when different content descriptions are introduced into the learning program. It may, for example, be appropriate to sequence
the content descriptions relating to data to complement student learning in Science and Mathematics.
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In the later years students could start developing a website by using an existing website template and adding some interactive
components or connection with data structures without engaging in the design stage (only implementation of the solution).
However, as project work is introduced it makes sense to incorporate all the content descriptions related to the four-stage
process, increasing the breadth or depth of coverage over the band period through different projects.
Factors influencing design decisions
When students are problem-solving and creating and communicating information, they will apply skills and protocols to meet
their legal, safety, cultural and ethical obligations and responsibilities. For example, protocols such as using acceptable
language, acknowledging different cultural practices, and using passwords and privacy settings on social media sites are
applied to increase the security of personal data and to respect participants in online environments. In Digital Technologies
students develop understanding of the characteristics of, and the relationship and interconnectedness between, the components
of information systems (people, data, processes and digital systems) in authentic situations. Students apply systems thinking
skills as they progress from identifying how information systems are used in familiar settings, to evaluating how well these
systems meet current and future sustainability needs, to suggesting innovative ways that information systems can be used to
transform lives and society.
Managing projects and collaboration
In Digital Technologies, students progress from managing the independent creation of ideas and information to managing
collaborative projects in online environments. Managing the independent creation of ideas and information involves activities
such as acquiring and checking data, considering and applying appropriate social and technical protocols, and selecting
appropriate hardware and software. Managing projects involves identifying and sequencing tasks, determining the required
resources (data and digital systems), considering economic, environmental and social factors and allocating the time to each
task so that the project is completed on time.
Collaborative projects are more complex as tasks need to be allocated to different team members, priorities set (what task is
dependent on the completion of another), strategies for monitoring progress determined and a file management system
established so that file types and versions are clearly identified. In the later years students also apply an iterative process for
managing projects by constantly reviewing and revisiting steps rather than following a lock-step project plan. Throughout
collaborative projects the team will manage the security and organisation of their data and information and regulate their social
behaviour.
ACARA is committed to the development of a high-quality curriculum for all Australian students that promotes excellence and
equity in education.
All students are entitled to rigorous, relevant and engaging learning programs drawn from the Australian Curriculum:
Technologies. Teachers take account of the range of their students’ current levels of learning, strengths, goals and interests and
make adjustments where necessary. The three-dimensional design of the Australian Curriculum, comprising learning areas,
general capabilities and cross-curriculum priorities, provides teachers with flexibility to cater for the diverse needs of students
across Australia and to personalise their learning.
More detailed advice has been developed for schools and teachers on using the Australian Curriculum to meet diverse learning
needs. It is available under Student Diversity on the Australian Curriculum website.
Students with disability
The Disability Discrimination Act 1992 and the Disability Standards for Education 2005 require education and training service
providers to support the rights of students with disability to access the curriculum on the same basis as students without
disability.
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Many students with disability are able to achieve educational standards commensurate with their peers, as long as the
necessary adjustments are made to the way in which they are taught and to the means through which they demonstrate their
learning.
In some cases, curriculum adjustments are necessary to provide equitable opportunities for students to access age-equivalent
content in the Australian Curriculum: Technologies. Teachers can draw from content at different levels along the Foundation –
Year 10 sequence. Teachers can also use the general capabilities learning continua in Literacy, Numeracy and Personal and
social capability to adjust the focus of learning according to individual student need.
Adjustments to the delivery of some practical aspects of lessons will be necessary to ensure some students with physical
disability can access, participate, and achieve on the same basis as their peers. This might involve students using modified
tools, materials or equipment to create solutions. Teachers may also need to consider adjustments to assessment of students
with disability to ensure student achievement and demonstration of learning is appropriately measured.
English as an additional language or dialect
Students for whom English is an additional language or dialect (EAL/D) enter Australian schools at different ages and at
different stages of English language learning and have various educational backgrounds in their first languages. While many
EAL/D students bring already highly developed literacy (and numeracy) skills in their own language to their learning of Standard
Australian English, there are a significant number of students who are not literate in their first language, and have had little or no
formal schooling.
While the aims of the Australian Curriculum: Technologies are the same for all students, EAL/D students must achieve these
aims while simultaneously learning a new language and learning content and skills through that new language. These students
may require additional time and support, along with teaching that explicitly addresses their language needs. Students who have
had no formal schooling will need additional time and support in order to acquire skills for effective learning in formal settings.
A national English as an Additional Language or Dialect: Teacher Resource has been developed to support teachers in making
the Australian Curriculum: Foundation – Year 10 in each learning area accessible to EAL/D students.
Gifted and talented students
Teachers can use the Australian Curriculum: Technologies flexibly to meet the individual learning needs of gifted and talented
students.
Teachers can enrich student learning by providing students with opportunities to work with learning area content in more depth
or breadth; emphasising specific aspects of the general capabilities learning continua (for example, the higher-order cognitive
skills of the Critical and creative thinking capability); and/or focusing on cross-curriculum priorities. Teachers can also accelerate
student learning by drawing on content from later band levels in the Australian Curriculum: Technologies and/or from local state
and territory teaching and learning materials. Technologies education pedagogy and project-based learning allows students to
take greater responsibility for their learning and allows them to make decisions based on findings from research,
experimentation and testing of design ideas.
In the Australian Curriculum, the general capabilities encompass the knowledge, skills, behaviours and dispositions that,
together with curriculum content in each learning area and the cross-curriculum priorities, will assist students to live and work
successfully in the twenty-first century.
There are seven general capabilities:
Literacy
Numeracy
Information and communication technology (ICT) capability
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Critical and creative thinking
Personal and social capability
Ethical understanding
Intercultural understanding.
In the Australian Curriculum: Technologies, general capabilities are identified wherever they are developed or applied in content
descriptions. They are also identified where they offer opportunities to add depth and richness to student learning through
content elaborations.
Icons indicate where general capabilities have been identified in Technologies content. Teachers may find further opportunities
to incorporate explicit teaching of the capabilities depending on their choice of activities. Students may also be encouraged to
develop capabilities through personally relevant initiatives of their own design.
The following descriptions provide an overview of how general capabilities are addressed in the Australian Curriculum:
Technologies. However, the emphasis on each general capability will vary from one Technologies subject to another. Detailed
general capabilities materials, including learning continua, can be found on the Australian Curriculum website.
Literacy
Across the Australian Curriculum, students become literate as they develop the knowledge, skills and dispositions to interpret
and use language confidently for learning and communicating in and out of school and for participating effectively in society.
Literacy involves students in listening to, reading, viewing, speaking, writing and creating oral, print, visual and digital texts, and
using and modifying language for different purposes in a range of contexts.
In Technologies, students develop literacy as they learn how to communicate ideas, concepts and detailed proposals to a
variety of audiences; read and interpret detailed written instructions for specific technologies, often including diagrams and
procedural writings such as software user manuals, design briefs, patterns and recipes; prepare accurate, annotated
engineering drawings, software instructions and coding; write project outlines, briefs, concept and project management
proposals, evaluations, engineering, life cycle and project analysis reports; and prepare detailed specifications for production.
By learning the literacy of technologies students understand that language varies according to context and they increase their
ability to use language flexibly. Technologies vocabulary is often technical and includes specific terms for concepts, processes
and production. Students learn to understand that much technological information is presented in the form of drawings,
diagrams, flow charts, models, tables and graphs. They also learn the importance of listening, talking and discussing in
technologies processes, especially in articulating, questioning and evaluating ideas.
Numeracy
Across the Australian Curriculum, students become numerate as they develop the knowledge and skills to use mathematics
confidently across other learning areas at school and in their lives more broadly. Numeracy involves students in recognising and
understanding the role of mathematics in the world and having the dispositions and capacities to use mathematical knowledge
and skills purposefully.
The Technologies curriculum gives students opportunities to interpret and use mathematical knowledge and skills in a range of
real-life situations. Students use number to calculate, measure and estimate; interpret and draw conclusions from statistics;
measure and record throughout the process of generating ideas; develop, refine and test concepts; and cost and sequence
when making products and managing projects. In using software, materials, tools and equipment, students work with the
concepts of number, geometry, scale, proportion, measurement and volume. They use three-dimensional models, create
accurate technical drawings, work with digital models and use computational thinking in decision-making processes when
designing and creating best-fit solutions.
Information and communication technology (ICT) capability
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Across the Australian Curriculum, students develop ICT capability as they learn to use ICT effectively and appropriately to
access, create and communicate information and ideas, solve problems and work collaboratively, and in their lives beyond
school. The capability involves students in learning to make the most of the digital technologies available to them. They adapt to
new ways of doing things as technologies evolve, and limit the risks to themselves and others in a digital environment.
All learning areas provide the content and contexts within which students develop and apply the knowledge, skills, behaviours
and dispositions that comprise ICT capability. However it is more explicit and foregrounded in the Digital Technologies subject.
In Digital Technologies, students develop an understanding of the characteristics of data, digital systems, audiences,
procedures and computational thinking. They apply this when they investigate, communicate and create digital solutions.
Students learn to formulate problems, logically organise and analyse data and represent them in abstract forms. They automate
solutions through algorithmic logic. Students decide the best combinations of data, procedures and human and physical
resources to generate efficient and effective digital solutions. They create digital solutions that consider economic,
environmental and social factors.
In Design and Technologies, key ICT concepts and skills are strengthened, complemented and extended. Students become
familiar with and gain skills using a range of software applications and digital hardware that enable them to realise their design
ideas. Students use ICT when they investigate and analyse information and evaluate design ideas and communicate and
collaborate online. They develop design ideas; generate plans and diagrams to communicate their designs and produce
solutions using digital technologies, for example creating simulations, drawings and models and manufacturing solutions (from
basic drawing programs to computer-aided design/manufacture and rapid prototyping).
Critical and creative thinking
Across the Australian Curriculum, students develop capability in critical and creative thinking as they learn to generate and
evaluate knowledge, clarify concepts and ideas, seek possibilities, consider alternatives and solve problems. Critical and
creative thinking are integral to activities that require students to think broadly and deeply using skills, behaviours and
dispositions such as reason, logic, resourcefulness, imagination and innovation in all learning areas at school and in their lives
beyond school.
Students develop capability in critical and creative thinking as they imagine, generate, develop and critically evaluate ideas.
They develop reasoning and the capacity for abstraction through challenging problems that do not have straightforward
solutions. Students analyse problems, refine concepts and reflect on the decision-making process by engaging in systems,
design and computational thinking. They identify, explore and clarify technologies information and use that knowledge in a
range of situations.
Students think critically and creatively about possible, probable and preferred futures. They consider how data, information,
systems, materials, tools and equipment (past and present) impact on our lives, and how these elements might be better
designed and managed. Experimenting, drawing, modelling, designing and working with digital tools, equipment and software
helps students to build their visual and spatial thinking and to create solutions, products, services and environments.
Personal and social capability
Across the Australian Curriculum, students develop personal and social capability as they learn to understand themselves and
others, and manage their relationships, lives, work and learning more effectively. The capability involves students in a range of
practices including recognising and regulating emotions, developing empathy for others and understanding relationships,
establishing and building positive relationships, making responsible decisions, working effectively in teams, handling challenging
situations constructively and developing leadership skills.
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Students develop personal and social capability as they engage in project management and development in a collaborative
workspace. They direct their own learning, plan and carry out investigations, and become independent learners who can apply
design thinking, technologies understanding and skills when making decisions. Students develop social and employability skills
through working cooperatively in teams, sharing resources and processes, making group decisions, resolving conflict and
showing leadership. Designing and innovation involve a degree of risk-taking and as students work with the uncertainty of
sharing new ideas they develop resilience.
The Technologies learning area enhances students’ personal and social capability by developing their social awareness.
Students develop understanding of diversity by researching and identifying user needs. They consider past and present impacts
of decisions on people, communities and environments and develop social responsibility through understanding of, empathy
with and respect for others.
Ethical understanding
Across the Australian Curriculum, students develop ethical understanding as they identify and investigate concepts, values,
character traits and principles, and understand how reasoning can help ethical judgment. Ethical understanding involves
students in building a strong personal and socially oriented, ethical outlook that helps them to manage context, conflict and
uncertainty, and to develop an awareness of the influence that their values and behaviour have on others.
Students develop the capacity to understand and apply ethical and socially responsible principles when collaborating with others
and creating, sharing and using technologies –materials, data, processes, tools and equipment. Using an ethical lens, they
investigate past, current and future local, national, regional and global technological priorities. When engaged in systems
thinking students evaluate their findings against the criteria of legality, environmental sustainability, economic viability, health,
social and emotional responsibility and social awareness. They explore complex issues associated with technologies and
consider possibilities. They are encouraged to develop informed values and attitudes.
Students learn about safe and ethical procedures for investigating and working with people, animals, data and materials. They
consider the rights of others and their responsibilities in using sustainable practices that protect the planet and its life forms.
They learn to appreciate and value the part they play in the social and natural systems in which they operate.
Students consider their own roles and responsibilities as discerning citizens, and learn to detect bias and inaccuracies.
Understanding the protection of data, intellectual property and individual privacy in the school environment helps students to be
ethical digital citizens.
Intercultural understanding
Across the Australian Curriculum, students develop intercultural understanding as they learn to value their own cultures,
languages and beliefs, and those of others. They come to understand how personal, group and national identities are shaped,
and the variable and changing nature of culture. The capability involves students in learning about and engaging with diverse
cultures in ways that recognise commonalities and differences, create connections with others and cultivate mutual respect.
Students consider how technologies are used in diverse communities at local, national, regional and global levels, including
their impact and potential to transform people’s lives. They explore ways in which past and present practices enable people to
use technologies to interact with one another across cultural boundaries. Students investigate how cultural identities and
traditions influence the function and form of solutions, products, services and environments designed to meet the needs of daily
life now and in the future.
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In their interactions with others in online communities, students consider the dynamic and complex nature of cultures, including
values, beliefs, practices and assumptions. They recognise and respond to the challenges of cultural diversity by applying
appropriate social protocols. Students learn about the interactions between technologies and society and take responsibility for
securing positive outcomes for members of all cultural groups including those faced with prejudice and misunderstanding.
There are three cross-curriculum priorities in the Australian Curriculum:
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures
Asia and Australia’s engagement with Asia
Sustainability.
The cross-curriculum priorities are embedded in the curriculum and will have a strong but varying presence depending on their
relevance to each of the learning areas.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures
In the Australian Curriculum: Technologies the priority of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures provides
creative, engaging and diverse learning contexts for students to value and appreciate the contribution by the world’s oldest
continuous living cultures to past, present and emerging technologies.
Students identify and explore the rich and diverse knowledge and understandings of technologies employed by Aboriginal and
Torres Strait Islander Peoples in past, present and future applications. They understand that the technologies of the world’s first
and most continuous culture often developed through intimate knowledge of Country/Place and Culture.
Students identify, explore, understand and analyse the interconnectedness between technologies and Identity, People, Culture
and Country/Place. They explore how this intrinsic link guides Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People in sustaining
environments, histories, cultures and identities. Students apply this knowledge and understanding within Design and
Technologies and Digital Technologies to create appropriate and sustainable products, services and environments to meet
personal, local, national, regional and global demands.
In the Technologies learning area, students explore how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples’ capacity for innovation is
evident through the incorporation and application of a range of traditional, contemporary and emerging technologies and
practices to purposefully build and/or maintain cultural, community and economic capacity. Students apply this knowledge and
understanding throughout the processes of observation, critical and creative thinking, action, experimentation and evaluation.
Asia and Australia’s engagement with Asia
In the Australian Curriculum: Technologies the priority of Asia and Australia’s engagement with Asia provides diverse and
authentic contexts to develop knowledge and understanding of technologies processes and production and related cultural,
social and ethical issues. It enables students to recognise that interaction between human activity and the diverse environments
of the Asia region continues to create the need for creative solutions and collaboration with others, including Australians, and
has significance for the rest of the world.
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The Australian Curriculum: Technologies gives students opportunities to explore traditional, contemporary and emerging
technological achievements in the countries of the Asia region. They investigate the contributions that Australia has made and is
making to create products and services that meet a range of needs in the Asia region. Students apply this knowledge and
understanding to create appropriate and sustainable products that reflect intercultural, creative and critical thinking. In the
Technologies learning area, students learn to appreciate the diversity of the Asia region. They examine contributions that the
peoples of the Asia region have made and continue to make to global technological advances. They consider the contributions
that Australia has made and is making to the Asia region. Students explore Australia’s rich and ongoing engagement with the
peoples and countries of Asia to create appropriate products and services to meet personal, community, national, regional and
global needs.
Sustainability
In the Australian Curriculum: Technologies the priority of sustainability provides authentic contexts for creating preferred futures.
When students identify and critique a problem, need or opportunity; generate ideas and concepts; and create solutions, they
give prime consideration to sustainability by anticipating and balancing economic, environmental and social impacts.
The Australian Curriculum: Technologies prepares students to take action to create more sustainable patterns of living. The
curriculum focuses on the knowledge, understanding and skills necessary to design for effective sustainability action taking into
account issues such as resource depletion and climate change. The curriculum reflects on human need and equity of access to
limited resources. It recognises that actions are both individual and collective endeavours shared across local, regional and
global communities and provides a basis for students to explore their own and competing viewpoints, values and interests.
Understanding systems enables students to work with complexity, uncertainty and risk; make connections between disparate
ideas and concepts; self-critique; and propose creative solutions that enhance sustainability.
In this learning area, students focus on the knowledge, understanding and skills necessary to choose technologies and systems
with regard to costs and benefits. They evaluate the extent to which the process and designed solutions embrace sustainability.
Students reflect on past and current practices, and assess new and emerging technologies from a sustainability perspective.
Learning in Technologies involves the use of knowledge, understanding and skills learned in other learning areas, particularly in
English, Mathematics, Science, History, Geography, The Arts, Health and Physical Education and Economics and Business.
English
In schools across Australia there is strong support for linking learning in Technologies with learning literacy skills. Learning in
Technologies places a high priority on accurate and unambiguous communication. The Australian Curriculum: Technologies is
supported by and in turn reinforces the learning of literacy skills. Students need to describe objects and events; interpret
descriptions; read and give instructions; generate and explore ideas with others; write design briefs and specifications,
marketing texts, evaluation and variation reports; and participate in group discussions.
Mathematics
The Technologies curriculum provides contexts within which Mathematics understanding, fluency, logical reasoning, analytical
thought and problem-solving skills can be applied and developed. Computational thinking particularly draws on mathematical
understanding and skills. In Technologies, students process data using tables, lists, picture graphs, column graphs and line
graphs. In Mathematics, students' data analysis skills will develop to include scatter plots, linear graphs and the gradient of
graphs. This will enhance their ability to analyse patterns and trends in data as part of technologies investigations. In
Mathematics, students learn statistical methods that may be applied to quantitative analysis of data in Technologies.
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Students develop their use of metric units in both the Mathematics and Technologies curriculums. The ability to convert between
common metric units of length and mass and their use of decimal notation in Mathematics will enable them to represent and
compare data in meaningful ways in Technologies. Students use spatial understandings developed in Mathematics to apply
knowledge of geometry, shapes and angles in Technologies. When considering systems at a vast range of scales in
Technologies, students use their mathematical knowledge of timescales and intervals.
Technologies provide tools for automating mathematical processes which reinforce concepts in Mathematics. Students’
mathematical ability to solve problems involving linear equations can be used in Technologies when investigating quantitative
relationships and designing algorithms.
Science
The Technologies curriculum complements the Science curriculum. Both Technologies and Science emphasise creating
preferred futures and the use of systems thinking. Science develops the overarching ideas of patterns, order and organisation,
stability and change, scale and measurement, matter and energy, and systems as key aspects of a scientific view of the world.
Students draw on these ideas when creating solutions and considering the role of technologies in society.
Design and Technologies draws on concepts from biological, chemical and physical sciences to solve problems and design
solutions to meet human needs and opportunities. Links with the Science curriculum allow for applications of scientific concepts
through critiquing and applying prior knowledge to designing real-world solutions that are meaningful to students. For example,
students apply scientific concepts when designing in an engineering context. Students apply knowledge of forces and
characteristics and properties of materials. They conduct appropriate scientific investigations of materials, processes and
prototypes.
The Digital Technologies curriculum provides many techniques and technologies for automating the collection, storage and
analysis of scientific data. The development of digital technologies such as data loggers, spreadsheets, databases, simulations
and imaging technologies have been central to advances in science. They are used to collect and organise a wide range of data
and to derive information by filtering, analysing and visualising large volumes of numerical, categorical and structured data.
Digital Technologies gives students the skills to represent data in ways that enable computational analysis. Scientists use digital
technologies to develop software for simulating, modelling and analysing biological, chemical and physical systems. Digital
technologies give students the skills to implement simulations and gain a deeper understanding of concepts and models in
Science by interacting with simulations.
History
History provides another avenue to understand how technologies develop and how their developments are a source of historical
facts and artefacts. The creation and development of technologies has had an impact on and influenced society and future
innovations. In the Knowledge and understanding strands students will develop increasingly sophisticated knowledge and
understanding, drawn from contemporary and historical sources. It is important that students learn that technologies have
developed through the gradual accumulation of knowledge over many centuries; that all sorts of people – including people like
themselves – use and contribute to the development of technologies. Historical studies of technologies in a range of societies
including the peoples and countries of Asia and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultures extending to modern times will
help students understand the contributions of people from around the world.
Geography
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Technologies knowledge, understanding and skills can be applied using a range of contexts from the Geography curriculum.
From the early years students sort information, find patterns and interact with digital systems as they develop spatial
understandings, particularly as they create, interpret and use maps. They use directional language, understand scale and
distance, and record data related to weather. They create products and systems that measure and further develop their
understanding of the influences of climate and weather conditions. They use digital tools to collect and sort information and data
and there is a significant emphasis on digital and spatial technologies.
Students strengthen their Technologies understanding and skills as they study the environmental characteristics of places,
processes and human significance. During their investigations they collect and convert data into useful forms using
spreadsheets, graphs and distribution maps. Students consolidate their understandings of sustainability as they investigate the
significance to humans of the biophysical environment and design and manage projects that enhance their understanding of the
fine balance between the environment and human endeavour. See also Australian Curriculum connections − Food and fibre
production in the Australian Curriculum.
Through Design and Technologies, concepts and learning that are addressed in Geography are contextualised through the
design and production of products, services and environments through specific targeted projects that relate to sustainability, the
environment and society. Students critique, design and produce solutions for managed and constructed environments. Learning
is further enhanced through authentic activities that focus on enterprising and innovative solutions to perceived needs.
The Arts
The Technologies curriculum complements The Arts curriculum, particularly in the application of the elements and principles of
design in Visual Arts and in the use of digital technologies in Media Arts. Through the Technologies curriculum, aspects of
aesthetics are incorporated into the design processes in Technologies learning activities. This occurs when students design
products and environments including those with a focus on graphics technologies. Knowledge of materials, tools and equipment
and the ways they can be used to create designed solutions provides links between Technologies and two and three-
dimensional design in Visual Arts. Skills developed in Visual Arts such as representing and exploring creative ideas through
sketching and drawing complement processes used in Design and Technologies to generate ideas to create solutions. See
also: Australian Curriculum connections − Design in the Australian Curriculum.
Students use multimedia in a range of learning areas in the Australian Curriculum to communicate evidence of their learning.
Explicit content descriptions describing knowledge, understanding and skills in multimedia are found in Digital Technologies and
Media Arts. Also in Design and Technologies students may produce designed solutions with a multimedia focus through the
technologies context, Materials and technologies specialisations, for example graphics technologies. See also: Australian
Curriculum connections − Multimedia in the Australian Curriculum.
Health and Physical Education
The Australian Curriculum: Technologies takes account of what students learn in Health and Physical Education (HPE). In the
movement and physical activity strand of HPE, students develop and practise small motor coordination skills which help them
develop and apply manipulative skills in Technologies In the personal, social and community health strand in HPE, students
learn about food and nutrition, which is then applied in Technologies to the selection and preparation of food when designing
healthy food solutions. See also: Australian Curriculum connections − Food and nutrition in the Australian Curriculum.
Some states and territories offer Home Economics as a subject, or home economics related subjects. Elements of learning in
home economics subjects will draw from content in both Health and Physical Education and Technologies in the Australian
Curriculum. See also: Australian Curriculum connections − Home economics in the Australian Curriculum.
Economics and Business
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In Economics and Business students develop enterprising behaviours and capabilities that can be applied in Technologies when
students are creating solutions for a range of audiences. In Technologies students will apply knowledge from Economics and
Business including resource allocation and making choices, consumer and financial literacy, and work and work futures. The
Economics and Business skills strand focuses on the skills of questioning and research; interpretation and analysis; economic
reasoning, decision-making and application; and communication and reflection. These skills can be applied in Technologies
when students create solutions and consider the suitability of enterprise and marketing for these solutions. Students also reflect
on how enterprise can contribute to the evolution and development of solutions.
In the Australian Curriculum: Technologies the two strands, Knowledge and understanding and Processes and production skills,
are interrelated and inform and support each other. When developing teaching and learning programs, teachers combine
aspects of the strands within a subject in different ways to provide students with learning experiences that meet their needs and
interests. There are also opportunities for integration of learning between the Technologies subjects and with other learning
areas.
While content descriptions do not repeat key skills across the bands, many aspects of Technologies curriculum are recursive,
and teachers need to provide opportunity for ongoing practice and consolidation of previously introduced knowledge and skills.
The content descriptions in the Australian Curriculum: Technologies enable teachers to develop a variety of learning
experiences that are relevant, rigorous and meaningful and allow for different rates of development, in particular for younger
students and for those who need extra support.
Teachers use the Australian Curriculum content and achievement standards first to identify current levels of learning and
achievement and then to select the most appropriate content (possibly from across several year levels) to teach individual
students and/or groups of students. This takes into account that in each class there may be students with a range of prior
achievement (below, at or above the year level expectations) and that teachers plan to build on current learning. Organisation of
the curriculum in band levels provides an extra level of flexibility that supports teachers to plan and implement learning
programs that are appropriate for all students and make best possible use of available resources.
Assessment of the Australian Curriculum: Technologies takes place at different levels and for different purposes, including:
ongoing formative assessment within classrooms for the purposes of monitoring, learning and providing feedback to
teachers to inform their teaching, and for students to inform their learning
summative assessment for the purposes of twice-yearly reporting by schools to parents and carers on the progress and
achievement of students.
Safety
Identifying and managing risk in Technologies learning addresses the safe use of technologies as well as risks that can impact
on project timelines. It covers all necessary aspects of health, safety and injury prevention and, in any technologies context, the
use of potentially dangerous materials, tools and equipment. It includes ergonomics, safety including cyber safety, data security,
and ethical and legal considerations when communicating and collaborating online.
Technologies learning experiences may involve the use of potentially hazardous substances and/or hazardous equipment. It is
the responsibility of the school to ensure that duty of care is exercised in relation to the health and safety of all students and that
school practices meet the requirements of the Work Health and Safety Act 2011, in addition to relevant state or territory health
and safety guidelines.
In implementing projects with a focus on food, care must be taken with regard to food safety and specific food allergies that may
result in anaphylactic reactions. The Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy has published guidelines for
prevention of anaphylaxis in schools, preschools and childcare. Some states and territories have their own specific guidelines
that should be followed.
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When state and territory curriculum authorities integrate the Australian Curriculum into local courses, they will include more
specific advice on safety.
For further information about relevant guidelines, contact your state or territory curriculum authority.
Animal ethics
Any teaching activities that involve caring, using, or interacting with animals must comply with the Australian code of practice for
the care and use of animals for scientific purposes in addition to relevant state or territory guidelines.
When state and territory curriculum authorities integrate the Australian Curriculum into local courses, they will include more
specific advice on the care and use of, or interaction with, animals.
For further information about relevant guidelines or to access your local animal ethics committee, contact your state or territory
curriculum authority.
The Technologies learning area has strong connections with a number of subjects across the Australian Curriculum. This
section expands on some items discussed in the Australian Curriculum: Technologies in Links to other learning areas.
Opportunities for integration are discussed below:
Design in the Australian Curriculum
In the Australian Curriculum, design thinking and design processes feature significantly in Design and Technologies, Digital
Technologies and The Arts. Design thinking and design processes are examples of critical and creative thinking. Critical and
creative thinking is developed in all learning areas and is described in the critical and creative thinking learning continuum,
which is a statement about learning opportunities in the Australian curriculum for students to develop their critical and creative
thinking capability.
The Design and Technologies processes and production skills strand develops design thinking and design processes.
Designing in Design and Technologies involves design thinking and the explicit use of design processes to develop and produce
designed solutions for an identified user and purpose (usually to fulfil some practical purpose in the wider world). It involves
developing designed solutions that take into consideration a range of factors − such as ethics, functionality, and sustainability −
related to the identified need, and that can be evaluated using identified criteria for success. It involves experimenting with
technologies through drawing, modelling and the manipulation of materials.
The Digital Technologies processes and production skills strand develops design thinking and design processes. Designing in
Digital Technologies involves design thinking and the explicit use of design processes to design solutions for a purpose (usually
to fulfil some practical purpose in the wider world). It involves identifying the steps and decisions that are needed to execute a
solution, for example using algorithms, and determining the functionality and aesthetics required by the users (user interfaces
and user experiences). Design ideas are documented using techniques such as mock-ups. Design thinking also involves taking
into consideration a range of economic, environmental and social factors that influence the sustainability of designs.
Food and fibre production in the Australian Curriculum
Food and fibre production provides a context and body of knowledge, understanding and skills in the Australian Curriculum:
Technologies. Students will also have opportunities across other learning areas from Foundation to Year 10 to learn about the
production of the food they eat, fibres they use and the environment in which they live. Learning will address key processes of
production, marketing, consumption, sustainable use of resources and waste recycling.
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ACARA will document how food and fibre production is addressed across the Australian Curriculum. This will provide a
framework − across learning areas and specifically within the Technologies learning area as a context for core learning in F–8 −
for all young Australians to understand and value food and fibre production. States and territories may offer extra learning
opportunities in Years 9–12.
Food and nutrition in the Australian Curriculum
Student attitudes and behaviour regarding healthy living can be influenced by providing students with opportunities to learn
about where their food comes from, how it is produced and how they can prepare it. In the Australian Curriculum students will
be taught about food and nutrition in Health and Physical Education (HPE) from Foundation to Year 10 and in the Technologies
learning area through Design and Technologies from Foundation to Year 8. In the HPE curriculum students develop knowledge
and understanding of nutrition principles to enable them to make healthy food choices and consider the range of influences on
these choices.
In Design and Technologies students learn how to apply knowledge of the characteristics and scientific and sensory principles
of food, along with nutrition principles (as described in HPE) to food selection and preparation through the design and
preparation of food for specific purposes and consumers. They will also develop understandings of contemporary technology-
related food issues such as ‘convenience’ foods, highly processed foods, food packaging and food transport. Beyond Year 8
students may choose to study a food-related subject offered by states and territories or they may have the opportunity in Design
and Technologies to design and produce solutions in a food specialisations context.
ACARA will document how food and nutrition are addressed across the Australian Curriculum. This will provide a framework
across learning areas and specifically within the Technologies learning area as a context for core learning from Foundation to
Year 8 − for all young Australians to understand and value food and nutrition. States and territories may offer extra learning
opportunities in Years 9 to 12.
Home economics in the Australian Curriculum
Home economics subjects support students to develop the capacity to make decisions, solve problems and develop critical and
creative responses to practical concerns of individuals, families and communities in the local and global context. Where Home
Economics is offered as a subject, or home economics related subject elements of learning will be drawn from content in both
Health and Physical Education (HPE) and Technologies in the Australian Curriculum.
Content to be drawn from the HPE curriculum is in relation to food and nutrition, growth and development, identity, and
connecting to others. Students develop the knowledge, understanding and skills to make healthy choices about food and
nutrition. They explore the range of influences on these choices and build the skills to access and assess nutritional information
that can support healthy choices. In HPE, students become increasingly aware of the stages of human growth and
development. They take increasing responsibility for their own growth and development by exploring, and learning how to
manage, the many different factors that influence their identities. Students also develop a practical understanding of how
connections to other people influence wellbeing. They learn positive ways to communicate, interact and relate to others in a
range of social and movement-based situations.
Information and communication technology in the Australian Curriculum
In the Australian Curriculum, there are opportunities in all learning areas to develop information and communication technology
(ICT) capability. These are described in the ICT general capability learning continuum, which is a statement about learning
opportunities in the Australian Curriculum for students to develop their ICT capability.
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In Digital Technologies the ICT capability is more explicit and foregrounded. Students develop explicit knowledge,
understanding and skills relating to operating and managing ICT and applying social and ethical protocols while investigating,
creating and communicating. The study of Digital Technologies will ensure that ICT capability is developed systematically. While
specific elements are likely to be addressed within Digital Technologies learning programs, key concepts and skills are
strengthened, complemented and extended across all subjects, including in Design and Technologies. This occurs as students
engage in a range of learning activities with digital technologies requirements.
The clear difference between the Digital Technologies curriculum and the ICT general capability is that the capability helps
students to become effective users of digital technologies while the Digital Technologies curriculum helps students to become
confident developers of digital solutions.
Multimedia in the Australian Curriculum
Students use multimedia in a range of learning areas in the Australian Curriculum to communicate evidence of their learning.
Explicit content descriptions detailing the knowledge, understanding and skills that students must acquire in relation to
multimedia are found in two subjects: Digital Technologies and Media Arts. Also, in Design and Technologies students may
produce designed solutions through the technologies context Materials and technologies specialisations; for example, graphics
technologies specialisation with a multimedia focus. In Digital Technologies the multimedia focus relates to the technical
aspects of digital multimedia solutions, and privacy and intellectual property. The technical aspects cover the digital
representation of multimedia and text as forms of structured data and the digital systems required to capture and display those
data. It also includes the algorithms required to create or manipulate them. An understanding of design elements and principles
and how people interact with solutions (user experience) and digital media is also addressed.
In Media Arts there is a focus on using standard software to produce images, animations, videos and audios, whereas the digital
representation of these media elements and the automated interaction with them are addressed in Digital Technologies. Digital
Technologies takes a technical and computational approach to digital solutions featuring multimedia such as computer games
and the design and development of web pages. Computer games, for example are almost always implemented by some form of
computer programming (including simple visual programming environments). Learning about web design in Digital Technologies
looks at the digital representation of a web page that includes digital media, the representation of a document (its structure), the
formatting (its appearance), and how web pages are transmitted. Security practices and ethical protocols related to online
communication when using blogs, messaging, information sharing and creation web sites and social networking are also
addressed in Digital Technologies.
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The Australian Curriculum
Technologies - Design and
Technologies
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Rationale and Aims
Rationale
This rationale complements and extends the rationale for the Technologies learning area.
In an increasingly technological and complex world, it is important to develop knowledge and confidence to critically analyse and
creatively respond to design challenges. Knowledge, understanding and skills involved in the design, development and use of
technologies are influenced by and can play a role in enriching and transforming societies and our natural, managed and
constructed environments.
The Australian Curriculum: Design and Technologies actively engages students in creating quality designed solutions for
identified needs and opportunities across a range of technologies contexts. Students consider the economic, environmental and
social impacts of technological change and how the choice and use of technologies contributes to a sustainable future.
Decision-making processes are informed by ethical, legal, aesthetic and functional factors.
Through Design and Technologies students manage projects independently and collaboratively from conception to realisation.
They apply design and systems thinking and design processes to investigate ideas, generate and refine ideas, plan, produce
and evaluate designed solutions. They develop a sense of pride, satisfaction and enjoyment from their ability to develop
innovative designed products, services and environments.
Through the practical application of technologies including digital technologies, students develop dexterity and coordination
through experiential activities. The subject motivates young people and engages them in a range of learning experiences that
are transferable to family and home, constructive leisure activities, community contribution and the world of work.
Aims
In addition to the overarching aims for the Australian Curriculum: Technologies, Design and Technologies more specifically aims
to develop the knowledge, understanding and skills to ensure that, individually and collaboratively, students:
develop confidence as critical users of technologies and designers and producers of designed solutions
investigate, generate and critique innovative and ethical designed solutions for sustainable futures
use design and systems thinking to generate design ideas and communicate these to a range of audiences
produce designed solutions suitable for a range of technologies contexts by selecting and manipulating a range of
materials, systems, components, tools and equipment creatively, competently and safely; and managing processes
evaluate processes and designed solutions and transfer knowledge and skills to new situations
understand the roles and responsibilities of people in design and technologies occupations and how they contribute to
society.
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Design and Technologies
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Foundation to Year 10 Australian Curriculum: Design and Technologies




Design and Technologies Foundation to Year 10 scope and sequence
Strand Foundation to Year 2 Years 3 and 4 Years 5 and 6 Years 7 and 8 Years 9 and 10 (Elective subject)
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Technologies
and society
2.1 Identify how people design
and produce familiar
products, services and
environments and consider
sustainability to meet personal
and local community needs
4.1 Recognise the role of
people in design and
technologies occupations and
explore factors, including
sustainability that impact on the
design of products, services
and environments to meet
community needs
6.1 Investigate how people in
design and technologies
occupations address
competing considerations
including sustainability in the
design of products, services,
and environments and for
current and future use
8.1 Examine and prioritise
competing factors, including
social, ethical and
sustainability considerations, in
the development of
technologies and designed
solutions to meet community
needs for preferred futures
10.1 Critically analyse factors,
including social, ethical and
sustainability considerations that
impact on designed solutions for
global preferred futures and the
complex design and production
processes involved
8.2 Investigate the ways in
which products, services and
environments evolve locally,
regionally and globally through
the creativity, innovation and
enterprise of individuals and
groups
10.2 Explain how products,
services and environments
evolve with consideration of
preferred futures and the impact
of emerging technologies on
design decisions
Technologies
contexts
By the end of Year 2 students will
have had the opportunity to create
designed solutions addressing the
three technologies contexts
below.
By the end of Year 4 students will
have had the opportunity to create
designed solutions addressing the
three technologies contexts below.
By the end of Year 6 students will
have had the opportunity to create
designed solutions addressing the
four technologies contexts below.
By the end of Year 8 students will
have had the opportunity to create
designed solutions addressing the
four technologies contexts below.
By the end of Year 10 students will
have had the opportunity to design
and create for one or more of the
technologies contexts below.
Engineering
principles and
systems
2.2 Explore how technologies
use forces to create
movement in products
4.2 Investigate how forces and
the properties of materials
affect the behaviour of a
product or system
6.2 Investigate how forces or
electrical energy can control
movement, sound or light in a
designed product or system
8.3 Analyse how motion, force
and energy, are used to
manipulate and control
electromechanical systems
when designing simple,
engineered solutions
10.3 Investigate and make judgments
on how the characteristics and
properties of materials are combined
with force, motion and energy to
create engineered solutions

10.4 Investigate and make judgments
on the ethical and sustainable
production and marketing of food and
fibre

10.5 Investigate and make judgments
on how the principles of food safety,
preservation, preparation,
presentation and sensory perceptions
influence the creation of food
solutions for healthy eating


Food and fibre
production
2.3 Explore how plants and
animals are grown for food,
clothing and shelter and how
food is selected and prepared
for healthy eating
4.3 Investigate food and fibre
production and food
technologies used in modern
and traditional societies
6.3 Investigate how and why
food and fibre are produced in
managed environments
8.4 Analyse how food and fibre
are produced when designing
managed environments and
how these can become more
sustainable
Food
specialisations
6.4 Investigate the role of food
preparation in maintaining
good health and the
importance of food safety and
hygiene
8.5 Analyse how
characteristics and properties
of food determine preparation
techniques and presentation
when designing solutions for
healthy eating

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Foundation to Year 10 Australian Curriculum: Design and Technologies




Materials and
technologies
specialisations
2.4 Explore the characteristics
and properties of materials
and components that are used
to produce designed solutions
4.4 Investigate the suitability of
materials, components,
systems, tools and equipment
for a range of purposes
6.5 Investigate characteristics
and properties of a range of
materials, systems,
components, tools and
equipment and evaluate the
impact of their use
8.6 Analyse ways to produce
designed solutions through
selecting and combining
materials, systems,
components, tools and
equipment
10.6 Investigate and make judgments
on how the characteristics and
properties of materials, systems,
components, tools and equipment
can be combined to create designed
solutions
10.7 Investigate and make
judgments, within a range of
technologies specialisations, on how
technologies can be combined to
create designed solutions
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Creating designed solutions by:
Investigating 2.5 Explore needs or
opportunities for designing
and the technologies needed
to realise designed solutions
4.5 Critique needs or
opportunities for designing and
explore and test a variety of
materials, components, tools
and equipment and the
techniques needed to produce
designed solutions
6.6 Critique needs or
opportunities for designing
and investigate materials,
components, tools, equipment
and processes to achieve
intended designed solutions
8.7 Critique needs or
opportunities for designing and
investigate, analyse and select
from a range of materials,
components, tools, equipment
and processes to develop
design ideas
10.8 Critique needs or
opportunities to develop design
briefs and investigate and select
an increasingly sophisticated
range of materials, systems,
components, tools and
equipment to develop design
ideas
Generating 2.6 Visualise, generate,
develop and communicate
design ideas through
describing, drawing and
modelling
4.6 Generate, develop, and
communicate design ideas and
decisions using technical terms
and graphical representation
techniques
6.7 Generate, develop and
communicate design ideas
and processes for audiences
using appropriate technical
terms and graphical
representation techniques
8.8 Generate, develop, test,
and communicate design
ideas, plans and processes for
various audiences using
appropriate technical terms
and technologies including
graphical representation
techniques
10.9 Apply design thinking,
creativity, innovation and
enterprise skills to develop,
modify and communicate design
ideas of increasing sophistication
Producing 2.7 Use materials,
components, tools, equipment
and techniques to safely make
designed solutions
4.7 Select and use materials,
components, tools and
equipment using safe work
practices to make designed
solutions
6.8 Apply safe procedures
when using a variety of
materials, components, tools,
equipment and techniques to
make designed solutions
8.9 Effectively and safely use a
broad range of materials,
components, tools, equipment
and techniques to make
designed solutions
10.10 Work flexibly to safely test,
select, justify and use
appropriate technologies and
processes to make designed
solutions
Evaluating 2.8 Use personal preferences
to evaluate the success of
design ideas, processes and
solutions including their care
for environment
4.8 Evaluate design ideas,
processes and solutions based
on criteria for success
developed with guidance and
including care for the
environment
6.9 Negotiate criteria for
success that include
consideration of sustainability
to evaluate design ideas,
processes and solutions
8.10 Independently develop
criteria for success to assess
design ideas, processes and
solutions and their
sustainability
10.11 Evaluate design ideas,
processes and solutions against
comprehensive criteria for
success recognising the need for
sustainability
Collaborating
and managing
2.9 Sequence steps for
making designed solutions
and working collaboratively
4.9 Plan a sequence of
production steps when making
designed solutions individually
and collaboratively
6.10 Develop project plans
that include consideration of
resources when making
designed solutions individually
and collaboratively
8.11 Use project management
processes individually and
collaboratively to coordinate
production of designed
solutions
10.12 Develop project plans
using digital technologies to plan
and manage projects individually
and collaboratively, taking into
consideration time, cost, risk and
production processes

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The Australian Curriculum
Technologies - Digital
Technologies
Page 212 of 252
Rationale and Aims
Rationale
This rationale complements and extends the rationale for the Technologies learning area.
In a world that is increasingly digitised and automated, it is critical to the wellbeing and sustainability of the economy, the
environment and society, that the benefits of information systems are exploited ethically. This requires deep knowledge and
understanding of digital systems (a component of an information system) and how to manage risks. Ubiquitous digital systems
such as mobile and desktop devices and networks are transforming learning, recreational activities, home life and work. Digital
systems support new ways of collaborating and communicating, and require new skills such as computational and systems
thinking. These technologies are an essential problem-solving toolset in our knowledge-based society.
The Australian Curriculum: Digital Technologies empowers students to shape change by influencing how contemporary and
emerging information systems and practices are applied to meet current and future needs. A deep knowledge and
understanding of information systems enables students to be creative and discerning decision-makers when they select, use
and manage data, information, processes and digital systems to meet needs and shape preferred futures.
Digital Technologies provides students with practical opportunities to use design thinking and to be innovative developers of
digital solutions and knowledge. The subject helps students to become innovative creators of digital solutions, effective users of
digital systems and critical consumers of information conveyed by digital systems.
Digital Technologies provides students with authentic learning challenges that foster curiosity, confidence, persistence,
innovation, creativity, respect and cooperation. These are all necessary when using and developing information systems to
make sense of complex ideas and relationships in all areas of learning. Digital Technologies helps students to be regional and
global citizens capable of actively and ethically communicating and collaborating.
Aims
In addition to the overarching aims for the Australian Curriculum: Technologies, Digital Technologies more specifically aims to
develop the knowledge, understanding and skills to ensure that, individually and collaboratively, students:
design, create, manage and evaluate sustainable and innovative digital solutions to meet and redefine current and future
needs
use computational thinking and the key concepts of abstraction; data collection, representation and interpretation;
specification, algorithms and implementation to create digital solutions
confidently use digital systems to efficiently and effectively automate the transformation of data into information and to
creatively communicate ideas in a range of settings
apply protocols and legal practices that support safe, ethical and respectful communications and collaboration with known
and unknown audiences
apply systems thinking to monitor, analyse, predict and shape the interactions within and between information systems
and the impact of these systems on individuals, societies, economies and environments.
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Foundation to Year 10 Australian Curriculum: Digital Technologies




Digital Technologies Foundation to Year 10 scope and sequence
Strand Foundation to Year 2 Years 3 and 4 Years 5 and 6 Years 7 and 8 Years 9 and 10 (Elective subject)
D
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t
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l

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n
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l
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g
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e
s


k
n
o
w
l
e
d
g
e

a
n
d

u
n
d
e
r
s
t
a
n
d
i
n
g


Digital systems 2.1 Identify and use digital
systems (hardware and software
components) for a purpose
4.1 Explore and use a range of
digital systems with peripheral
devices for different purposes,
and transmit different types of
data
6.1 Investigate the main
components of common digital
systems, their basic functions
and interactions and how such
digital systems may connect
together to form networks to
transmit data
8.1 Investigate how data are
transmitted and secured in
wired, wireless and mobile
networks, and how the
specifications of hardware
components impact on
network activities
10.1 Investigate the role of
hardware and software in
managing, controlling and
securing the movement of and
access to data in networked
digital systems
Representation
of data
2.2 Recognise and explore
patterns in data and represent
data as pictures, symbols and
diagrams
4.2 Recognise different types of
data and explore how the same
data can be represented in
different ways
6.2 Investigate how digital
systems use whole numbers as
a basis for representing all types
of data
8.2 Investigate how digital
systems represent text, image
and audio data in binary
10.2 Analyse simple
compression of data and how
content data are separated from
presentation
D
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g
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t
a
l

T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
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e
s

p
r
o
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e
s
s
e
s

a
n
d

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
o
n

s
k
i
l
l
s

Collecting ,
managing and
analysing data
2.3 Collect, explore and sort
data, and use digital systems to
present the data creatively



4.3 Collect, access and present
different types of data using
simple software to create
information and solve problems


6.3 Acquire, store and validate
different types of data, and use
a range of commonly available
software to interpret and
visualise data in context to
create information


8.3 Acquire data from a range
of digital sources and evaluate
its authenticity, accuracy and
timeliness
10.3 Develop techniques for
acquiring, storing and validating
quantitative and qualitative data
from a range of sources,
considering privacy and security
requirements
8.4 Analyse and visualise data
using a range of software to
create information; and use
structured data to model
objects or events
10.4 Analyse and visualise data
to create information and
address complex problems; and
model processes, entities and
their relationships using
structured data
Creating digital solutions by:
Defining







2.4 Follow, describe and
represent a sequence of steps
and decisions (algorithms)
needed to solve simple
problems


4.4 Define simple problems, and
describe and follow a sequence
of steps and decisions
(algorithms) needed to solve
them
6.4 Define problems in terms of
data and functional
requirements, and identify
features similar to previously
solved problems
8.5 Define and decompose
real-world problems taking
into account functional
requirements and economic,
environmental, social,
technical and usability
constraints
10.5 Precisely define and
decompose real-world
problems, taking into account
functional and non-functional
requirements and including
interviewing stakeholders to
identify needs



Page 214 of 252
Foundation to Year 10 Australian Curriculum: Digital Technologies





Designing










Implementing




Evaluating
6.5 Design a user interface for a
digital system, generating and
considering alternative designs

8.6 Design the user
experience of a digital system,
generating, evaluating and
communicating alternative
designs
10.6 Design the user experience
of a digital system, evaluating
alternative designs against
criteria including functionality,
accessibility, usability, and
aesthetics
6.6 Design, modify and follow
simple algorithms represented
diagrammatically and in English
involving sequences of steps,
branching, and iteration
(repetition)
8.7 Design algorithms
represented diagrammatically
and in English; and trace
algorithms to predict output for
a given input and to identify
errors
10.7 Design algorithms
represented diagrammatically
and in structured English and
validate algorithms and
programs through tracing and
test cases
4.5 Implement digital solutions
as simple visual programs with
algorithms involving branching
(decisions), and user input
6.7 Implement digital solutions
as simple visual programs
involving branching, iteration
(repetition), and user input

8.8 Implement and modify
programs with user interfaces
involving branching, iteration
and functions in a general-
purpose programming
language
10.8 Implement modular
programs, applying selected
algorithms and data structures
including using an object-
oriented programming language
2.5 Explore how people safely
use common information
systems to meet information,
communication and recreation
needs
4.6 Explain how developed
solutions and existing
information systems meet
common personal, school or
community needs; and envisage
new ways of using them
6.8 Explain how developed
solutions and existing
information systems are
sustainable and meet local
community needs, considering
opportunities and consequences
for future applications
8.9 Evaluate how well
developed solutions and
existing information systems
meet needs, are innovative,
and take account of future
risks and sustainability
10.9 Critically evaluate how well
developed solutions and
existing information systems
and policies, take account of
future risks and sustainability
and provide opportunities for
innovation and enterprise
Collaborating
and managing
2.6 Work with others to create
and organise ideas and
information using information
systems, and share these in
safe online environments
4.7 Work with others to plan the
creation and communication of
ideas and information safely,
applying agreed ethical and
social protocols
6.9 Manage the creation and
communication of ideas and
information including online
collaborative projects, applying
agreed ethical, social and
technical protocols
8.10 Create and communicate
interactive ideas and
information collaboratively
online, taking into account
social contexts
10.10 Create interactive
solutions for sharing ideas and
information online, taking into
account social contexts and
legal responsibilities
8.11 Plan and manage
projects, including tasks, time
and other resources required,
considering safety and
sustainability
10.11 Plan and manage projects
using an iterative and
collaborative approach,
identifying risks and considering
safety and sustainability

Page 215 of 252
The Australian Curriculum
The Arts
Page 216 of 252
Rationale and Aims
The Australian Curriculum: The Arts aims to develop students‘:
creativity, critical thinking, aesthetic knowledge and understanding about arts practices, through making and responding to
artworks with increasing self-confidence
arts knowledge and skills to communicate ideas; they value and share their arts and life experiences by representing,
expressing and communicating ideas, imagination and observations about their individual and collective worlds to others
in meaningful ways
use of innovative arts practices with available and emerging technologies, to express and represent ideas, while
displaying empathy for multiple viewpoints
understanding of Australia’s histories and traditions through the Arts, engaging with the artworks and practices, both
traditional and contemporary, of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples
understanding of local, regional and global cultures, and their Arts histories and traditions, through engaging with the
worlds of artists, artworks, audiences and arts professions.
These aims are extended and complemented by specific aims for each Arts subject.
The Arts have the capacity to engage, inspire and enrich all students, exciting the imagination and encouraging them to reach
their creative and expressive potential. The five Arts subjects in the Australian Curriculum are Dance, Drama, Media Arts,
Music, and Visual Arts. Together they provide opportunities for students to learn how to create, design, represent, communicate
and share their imagined and conceptual ideas, emotions, observations and experiences.
Rich in tradition, the Arts play a major role in the development and expression of cultures and communities, locally, nationally
and globally. Students communicate ideas in current, traditional and emerging forms and use arts knowledge and understanding
to make sense of their world. The Australian Curriculum: The Arts values, respects and explores the significant contributions of
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples to Australia’s arts heritage and contemporary arts practices through their
distinctive ways of representing and communicating knowledge, traditions and experience. In the Arts, students learn as artists
and audience through the intellectual, emotional and sensory experiences of the Arts. They acquire knowledge, skills and
understanding specific to the Arts subjects and develop critical understanding that informs decision making and aesthetic
choices. Through the Arts, students learn to express their ideas, thoughts and opinions as they discover and interpret the world.
They learn that designing, producing and resolving their work is as essential to learning in the Arts as is creating a finished
artwork. Students develop their Arts knowledge and aesthetic understanding through a growing comprehension of the distinct
and related languages, symbols, techniques, processes and skills of the Arts subjects. Arts learning provides students with
opportunities to engage with creative industries and arts professionals.
The Arts entertain, challenge, provoke responses and enrich our knowledge of self, communities, world cultures and histories.
The Arts contribute to the development of confident and creative individuals, nurturing and challenging active and informed
citizens. Learning in the Arts is based on cognitive, affective and sensory/kinaesthetic response to arts practices as students
revisit increasingly complex content, skills and processes with developing confidence and sophistication across their years of
learning.
This rationale is extended and complemented by specific rationales for each Arts subject.
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Organisation
In the Australian Curriculum, the Arts is a learning area that draws together related but distinct art forms. While these art forms
have close relationships and are often used in interrelated ways, each involves different approaches to arts practices and critical
and creative thinking that reflect distinct bodies of knowledge, understanding and skills. The curriculum examines past, current
and emerging arts practices in each art form across a range of cultures and places.
The Australian Curriculum: The Arts Foundation to Year 10 comprises five subjects:
Dance
Drama
Media Arts
Music
Visual Arts
Each subject focuses on its own practices, terminology and unique ways of looking at the world.
In Dance, students use the body to communicate and express meaning through purposeful movement. Dance practice
integrates choreography, performance, and appreciation of and responses to dance and dance making.
In Drama, students explore and depict real and fictional worlds through use of body language, gesture and space to make
meaning as performers and audience. They create, rehearse, perform and respond to drama.
In Media Arts, students use communications technologies to creatively explore, make and interpret stories about people, ideas
and the world around them. They engage their senses, imagination and intellect through media artworks that respond to diverse
cultural, social and organisational influences on communications practices today.
In Music, students listen to, compose and perform music from a diverse range of styles, traditions and contexts. They create,
shape and share sounds in time and space and critically analyse music. Music practice is aurally based and focuses on
acquiring and using knowledge, understanding and skills about music and musicians.
In Visual Arts, students experience and explore the concepts of artists, artworks, world and audience. Students learn in, through
and about visual arts practices, including the fields of art, craft and design. Students develop practical skills and critical thinking
which inform their work as artists and audience.
The Australian Curriculum: The Arts Foundation to Year 10 enables exploration of the dynamic relationships between Arts
subjects. This can involve students making and responding to artworks in traditional, contemporary and emerging forms, using
materials, techniques and technologies from one Arts subject to support learning in another. In this twenty-first century Arts
curriculum, students explore innovative and hybrid art forms which extend and challenge art making and combine practices of
two or more art forms.
Within all Arts subjects, design facilitates the creative and practical realisation of ideas. Design thinking is a fundamental
strategy in the experimentation, refinement and resolution of an artwork and takes into account logical, critical and aesthetic
considerations. Many different words describe design within the Arts such as choreographing, narrating, devising, constructing,
composing and sculpting. Design connects the different art forms so that they inform each other, providing possibilities for
students to create innovative and hybrid forms of art.
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The Australian Curriculum: The Arts covers each of the five Arts subjects – Dance, Drama, Media Arts, Music, and Visual Arts –
across bands of year levels:
Foundation to Year 2
Years 3 and 4
Years 5 and 6
Years 7 and 8
Years 9 and 10.
The curriculum is based on the assumption that all students will study the five Arts subjects from Foundation to the end of
primary school. Schools will be best placed to determine how this will occur. From the first year of secondary school (Year 7 or
8) students will have the opportunity to experience one or more Arts subjects in depth. In Years 9 and 10, students will be able
to specialise in one or more Arts subjects. Subjects offered will be determined by state and territory school authorities or
individual schools.
The curriculum for each Arts subject includes:
a rationale and aims
an introduction to learning in the subject
band descriptions
content descriptions
content elaborations
achievement standards.
Strands
Content descriptions in each Arts subject reflect the interrelated strands of Making and Responding.
Making includes learning about and using knowledge, skills, techniques, processes, materials and technologies to
explore arts practices and make artworks that communicate ideas and intentions.
Responding includes exploring, responding to, analysing and interpreting artworks.
Making
Making in each Arts subject engages students’ cognition, imagination, senses and emotions in conceptual and practical ways
and involves them thinking kinaesthetically, critically and creatively. They develop knowledge, understanding and skills to
design, produce, present and perform artworks. To make an artwork, students work from an idea, an intention, particular
resources, an expressive or imaginative impulse, or an external stimulus.
Students learn, develop and refine skills as the artist and as audience for their own work, and as audience for the works of
others. Making involves practical actions informed by critical thought to design and produce artworks. Students independently
and collaboratively experiment, conceptualise, reflect, refine, present, perform, communicate and evaluate. They learn to
explore possibilities across diverse art forms, solve problems, experiment with techniques, materials and technologies, and ask
probing questions when making decisions and interpreting meaning.
Part of Making involves students considering their artworks from a range of viewpoints, including that of the audience. Students
consider their own responses as artists to interpretations of the artwork as it is developed or in its completed form.
Responding
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Responding
Responding in each Arts subject involves students, as both artists and audiences, exploring, responding to, analysing,
interpreting and critically evaluating artworks they experience. Students learn to understand, appreciate and critique the arts
through the critical and contextual study of artworks and by making their own artworks. Learning through making is interrelated
with and dependent upon responding. Students learn by reflecting on their making and critically responding to the making of
others.
When Responding, students learn to critically evaluate the presentation, production and/or performance of artworks through an
exploration of the practices involved in making an artwork and the relationship between artist, audience and artwork. Students
learn that meanings can be interpreted and represented according to different viewpoints, and that the viewpoints they and
others hold shift according to different experiences.
Students consider the artist’s relationship with an audience. They reflect on their own experiences as audience members and
begin to understand how artworks represent ideas through expression, symbolic communication and cultural traditions and
rituals. Students think about how audiences consume, debate and interpret the meanings of artworks. They recognise that in
communities many people are interested in looking at, interpreting, explaining, experiencing and talking about the arts.
Relationships between the strands
Making and Responding are intrinsically connected. Together they provide students with knowledge, understanding and skills
as artists, performers and audience and develop students’ skills in critical and creative thinking. As students make artworks they
actively respond to their developing artwork and the artworks of others; as students respond to artworks they draw on the
knowledge, understanding and skills acquired through their experiences in making artworks.
Viewpoints
In both making and responding to artworks, students consider a range of viewpoints or perspectives through which artworks can
be explored and interpreted. These include the contexts in which the artworks are made by artists and experienced by
audiences. The world can be interpreted through different contexts, including social, cultural and historical contexts. Based on
this curriculum, key questions are provided as a framework for developing students’ knowledge, understanding and inquiry
skills.
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Examples of viewpoints and questions through which artworks can be explored and interpreted
Examples of
viewpoints
As the artist:
Sample questions students might consider
when making artworks (as artists, performers,
musicians etc.)
As the audience:
Sample questions students might consider
as an audience (including critic, historian)
when responding to artworks
Contexts, including
but not limited to:
societal
cultural
historical

What does this artwork tell us about the
cultural context in which it was made?
How does this artwork relate to my culture?
What social or historical forces and influences
have shaped my artwork?
What ideas am I expressing about the future?

How does the artwork relate to its social
context?
How would different audiences respond to
this artwork?
What is the cultural context in which it was
developed, or in which it is viewed, and
what does this context signify?
What historical forces and influences are
evident in the artwork?
What are the implications of this work for
future artworks?
Knowledge
elements
materials
skills, techniques,
processes
forms and styles
content

How is the work structured/
organised/arranged?
How have materials been used to make the
work?
How have skills and processes been selected
and used?
What forms and styles are being used and
why?

Why did the artist select particular content?
Evaluations
(judgments)

How effective is the artwork in meeting the
artist’s intentions?
How are concepts and contexts interpreted by
the artist?


How does the artwork communicate
meaning to an audience?
What interpretations will audiences have?
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Evaluations
philosophical and
ideological
theoretical
institutional
psychological
scientific

What philosophical, ideological and/or political
perspectives does the artwork represent?
How do philosophies, ideologies and/or
scientific knowledge impact on artworks?
What important theories does this artwork
explore?
How have established behaviours or
conventions influenced its creation?

What philosophical, ideological and/or
political perspectives evident in the artwork
affect the audience’s interpretation of it?
How do philosophies, ideologies and/or
scientific knowledge impact on artworks?
What important theories does this artwork
explore?
How have established behaviours or
conventions influenced its creation?
What processes of the mind and emotions
are involved in interpreting the artwork?
Band descriptions
Band descriptions provide information about the learning contexts that apply to the content descriptions and achievement
standards in each Arts subject. Band descriptions in the Australian Curriculum: The Arts also emphasise the interrelated nature
of the two strands, Making and Responding.
Content descriptions
Content descriptions at each band in each subject describe the knowledge, understanding and skills that teachers are expected
to teach and students are expected to learn. A concept or skill introduced in a content description in one band may be revisited,
strengthened and extended in later bands as needed. Examples of knowledge and skills appropriate for students at each band
accompany content descriptions.
Content descriptions in each Arts subject focus on similar concepts and skills that, across the bands, present a developmental
sequence of knowledge, understanding and skills. The focus of each content description in Foundation to Year 6 expands into
more specific content descriptions for Years 7 to 10 as presented in the table below.
Content
description
Foundation to Year 6 Content
description
Years 7 to 10
1st Exploring ideas and improvising with ways
to represent ideas
1st Exploring ideas and improvising with ways to
represent ideas
2nd Manipulating and applying the
elements/concepts with intent
2nd Developing understanding of practices 3rd Developing and refining understanding of
skills and techniques
4th Structuring and organising ideas into form
3rd Sharing artworks through performance,
presentation or display
5th Sharing artworks through performance,
presentation or display
4th Responding to and interpreting artworks 6th Analysing and reflecting upon intentions
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7th Examining and connecting artworks in
context
Content elaborations
Content elaborations are provided for each content description in Foundation to Year 10 as support material to illustrate content.
They are intended to assist teachers in developing a common understanding of how the content descriptions might be
interpreted in the classroom. They are not intended to be comprehensive content points that all students need to be taught.
Achievement standards
Across Foundation to Year 10, achievement standards indicate the quality of learning that students should typically demonstrate
by a particular point in their schooling.
An achievement standard describes the quality of learning (the depth of conceptual understanding and the sophistication of
skills) that would indicate the student is well placed to commence the learning required at the next level of achievement.
The sequence of achievement standards in each Arts subject describes progress in the subject, demonstrating a broad
sequence of expected learning by the end of the band. This sequence provides teachers with a framework of development in
the Arts subject.
The achievement standards for the Arts reflect the distinctive practices of each subject along with aspects of learning that are
common to all Arts subjects. Subject-specific terminology and organisation reflect the essential characteristics of learning in
each subject. The achievement standards also reflect differences in the nature and scope of the learning in each Arts subject,
as well as the relationship between the interrelated strands, Making and Responding.
Achievement standards will be accompanied by portfolios of annotated student work samples that illustrate the expected
learning and help teachers to make judgments about whether students have achieved the standard.
Glossary
A glossary is provided to support a shared understanding of terminology used in particular ways in the Australian Curriculum:
The Arts. Subject-specific definitions are provided where terms are used in more than one Arts subject and have differing
definitions. Terms in everyday usage or used universally in an art form are not included in this glossary.
The Australian Curriculum: The Arts is based on the principle that all young Australians are entitled to engage fully in all the
major art forms and to be given a balanced and substantial foundation in the special knowledge and skills base of each.
Complementing the band descriptions of the curriculum, the following advice describes the nature of learners and the curriculum
across the following year groupings:
Foundation to Year 2: typically students from 5 to 8 years of age
Years 3 to 6: typically students from 8 to 12 years of age
Years 7 to 10: typically students from 12 to 15 years of age.
Foundation to Year 2
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Foundation to Year 2
Students bring to school diverse backgrounds and a range of experiences in the arts. They are curious about their personal
world and are interested in exploring it. In Foundation to Year 2, the Australian Curriculum: The Arts builds on the Early Years
Learning Framework and its key learning outcomes, namely: children have a strong sense of identity; children are connected
with, and contribute to, their world; children have a strong sense of wellbeing; children are confident and involved learners; and
children are effective communicators. The Arts in Foundation to Year 2 builds on these as rich resources for further learning
about each of the art forms.
In the early years, play is important in how children learn; it provides engagement, then purpose and form. In the Arts, students
have opportunities to learn through purposeful play and to develop their sensory, cognitive and affective appreciation of the
world around them through exploratory, imaginative and creative learning. Purposeful play engages students in structured
activities that can be repeated and extended. This repetition is a form of practising and supports the sequential development of
skills in the Arts. Students will learn about and experience connections between the art forms.
The arts in the local community includes the arts of all the cultural groups represented in that community and is the initial focus
for learning in the Arts at school. Students are also aware of and interested in arts from more distant locations and the
curriculum provides opportunities to build on this curiosity. Students learn that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples
have a strong identity, in which respect for Country and Place continues to grow. They learn that Aboriginal and Torres Strait
Islander storytelling is history which can be oral or told through paintings, dance or music. Students have opportunities to
participate in a variety of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander art forms that are publicly available for broader participation in
their community. Students may also extend their cultural expression with appropriate community consultation and endorsement.
Years 3 to 6
Through the primary years, students draw on their growing experience of family, school and the wider community to develop
their understanding of the world and their relationships with others. In Years 3 to 6, learning in the Arts occurs both through
integrated curriculum and The Arts subject-specific approaches. Some of the instinct to play evident in the early years becomes
formalised into both experimentation and artistic practice. Students in these years increasingly recognise the connections
between the Arts and other learning areas.
While arts in the local community continues to be the initial focus for learning in the Arts, students are also aware of and
interested in arts from more distant locations and the curriculum provides opportunities to build on this curiosity. Students learn
that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples tell history through combinations of art forms. They learn that particular
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories have been recorded and will explore the meanings of stories and styles in which
they are told. Students have opportunities to participate in a variety of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander art forms that are
publicly available for broader participation in their community. Students may also extend their cultural expression with
appropriate community consultation and endorsement.
Students also study artworks which represent Australia’s connections with other places, the effects of these interconnections
and the factors that affect people’s knowledge and opinions of other places.
During these years of schooling, students’ thought processes become more logical and consistent, and they gradually become
more independent as learners. Students talk about changes in their own thinking, performance or making, giving reasons for
their actions and explaining and demonstrating their organisation of ideas. They begin to recognise, appreciate and value the
different ways in which others think, act and respond to artworks and consider how practices in the Arts may be enacted and
sustained.
Years 7 to 10
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Years 7 to 10
As students move into adolescence, they undergo a range of important physical, cognitive, emotional and social changes.
Students often begin to question established conventions, practices and values. Their interests extend well beyond their own
communities and they begin to develop concerns about wider issues. Students in this age range increasingly look for and value
learning that is perceived to be relevant, is consistent with personal goals, and/or leads to important outcomes. Increasingly they
are able to work with more abstract concepts and consider increasingly complex ideas. They are keen to explore the nature of
evidence and the contestability of ideas, debating alternative answers and interpretations.
In these years, learning in the Arts enables students to explore and question their own immediate experience and their
understanding of the wider world. Learning through and about the Arts enables students to build on their own experiences and
dispositions. Students explore and engage with artworks made by others. They make their own artworks drawing on their
developing knowledge, understanding and skills.
Students’ understanding of sustainability is progressively developed. They explore how the Arts are used to communicate about
sustainability and also learn about sustainability of practices in the Arts.
Students learn that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples have converted oral records to other technologies. As they
explore forms, students learn that over time there has been development of different traditional and contemporary styles.
Students explore Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander art forms that are publicly available for broader participation in their
community. Students may also extend their cultural expression with appropriate community consultation and endorsement.They
identify and explore the social relationships that have developed between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples and
other cultures in Australia, reflected in developments of forms and styles in the Arts.
Through the Australian Curriculum: The Arts, students in Years 7 to 10 pursue broad questions such as: What meaning is
intended in an artwork? What does the audience understand from this artwork? What is the cultural context of the artwork and of
the audience engaging with it? What key beliefs and values are reflected in artworks and how did artists influence societies of
their time? How do audiences perceive and understand artworks? What does the advancement of technology mean to the
presentation of, and audience engagement with, different artworks? This curriculum also provides opportunities to engage
students through contexts that are meaningful and relevant to them and through exploration of past and present debates.
ACARA is committed to the development of a high-quality curriculum for all Australian students that promotes excellence and
equity in education.
All students are entitled to rigorous, relevant and engaging learning programs drawn from the Australian Curriculum: The Arts.
Teachers take account of the range of their students’ current levels of learning, strengths, goals and interests and make
adjustments where necessary. The three-dimensional design of the Australian Curriculum, comprising learning areas, general
capabilities and cross-curriculum priorities, provides teachers with flexibility to cater for the diverse needs of students across
Australia and to personalise their learning.
More detailed advice has been developed for schools and teachers on using the Australian Curriculum to meet diverse learning
needs and is available under Student Diversity on the Australian Curriculum website.
Students with disability
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Students with disability
The Disability Discrimination Act 1992 and the Disability Standards for Education 2005 require education and training service
providers to support the rights of students with disability to access the curriculum on the same basis as students without
disability.
Many students with disability are able to achieve educational standards commensurate with their peers, as long as the
necessary adjustments are made to the way in which they are taught and to the means through which they demonstrate their
learning.
In some cases, curriculum adjustments are necessary to provide equitable opportunities for students to access age-equivalent
content in the Australian Curriculum: The Arts. Teachers can draw from content at different levels across the Foundation to Year
10 sequence. Teachers can also use the extended general capabilities learning continua in Literacy, Numeracy and Personal
and social capability to adjust the focus of learning according to individual student need.
Students with gifts and talents
Teachers can use the Australian Curriculum: The Arts flexibly to meet the individual learning needs of gifted and talented
students.
Teachers can enrich student learning by providing students with opportunities to work with learning area content in more depth
or breadth; emphasising specific aspects of the general capabilities learning continua (for example, the higher order cognitive
skills of the Critical and creative thinking capability); and/or focusing on cross-curriculum priorities. Teachers can also accelerate
student learning by drawing on content from later levels in the Australian Curriculum: The Arts and/or from local state and
territory teaching and learning materials.
English as an additional language or dialect
Students for whom English is an additional language or dialect (EAL/D) enter Australian schools at different ages and at
different stages of English language learning and have various educational backgrounds in their first languages. While many
EAL/D students bring already highly developed literacy (and numeracy) skills in their own language to their learning of Standard
Australian English, there are a significant number of students who are not literate in their first language, and have had little or no
formal schooling.
While the aims of the Australian Curriculum: The Arts are ultimately the same for all students, EAL/D students must achieve
these aims while simultaneously learning a new language and learning content and skills through that new language. These
students may require additional time and support, along with teaching that explicitly addresses their language needs. Students
who have had no formal schooling will need additional time and support in order to acquire skills for effective learning in formal
settings.
A national English as an Additional Language or Dialect: Teacher Resource has been developed to support teachers in
making the Australian Curriculum: Foundation to Year 10 in each learning area accessible to EAL/D students.
In the Australian Curriculum, the general capabilities encompass the knowledge, skills, behaviours and dispositions that,
together with curriculum content in each learning area and the cross-curriculum priorities, will assist students to live and work
successfully in the twenty-first century.
There are seven general capabilities:
Literacy
Numeracy
Information and communication technology (ICT) capability
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Critical and creative thinking
Personal and social capability
Ethical understanding
Intercultural understanding.
In the Australian Curriculum: The Arts, general capabilities are identified wherever they are developed or applied in content
descriptions. They are also identified where they offer opportunities to add depth and richness to student learning through
content elaborations. Icons or abbreviations indicate where general capabilities have been identified in The Arts content
descriptions and elaborations.
The following descriptions provide an overview of how general capabilities are addressed in the Australian Curriculum: The Arts;
however the emphasis on each general capability will vary from one Arts subject to another. Detailed general capabilities
materials, including learning continua, can be found here.
Literacy
Students become literate as they develop the knowledge, skills and dispositions to interpret and use language confidently, for
learning and communicating in and out of school, and for participating effectively in society. Students use literacy when listening
to, reading, viewing, speaking, writing and creating oral, print, visual and digital texts. Literacy involves students using and
modifying language for different purposes in a range of contexts.
In the Arts, students use literacy along with the kinetic, symbolic, verbal and visual languages of the five Arts subjects. This
enables students to develop, apply and communicate their knowledge and skills as artists and as audiences. Through making
and responding, students enhance and extend their literacy skills as they create, compose, design, analyse, comprehend,
discuss, interpret and evaluate their own and others’ artworks.
Each Arts subject requires students to learn and use specific terminology of increasing complexity as they move through the
curriculum. Students understand that the terminologies of the Arts vary according to context and they develop their ability to use
language dynamically and flexibly. They use their literacy skills to access knowledge, make meaning, express thoughts,
emotions and ideas, and interact with and challenge others.
Opportunities to use literacy might occur when students:
share and explain ideas, discuss concepts, work collaboratively, participate in class discussions, write/talk about their
work or other people’s work, and present or introduce work
use words and images/objects as stimulus
research the context of an artwork
ask questions about an artwork.
Numeracy
Students become numerate as they develop the knowledge and skills to use mathematics confidently across all learning areas
at school and in their lives more broadly. Numeracy involves students recognising and understanding the role of mathematics in
the world and having the dispositions and capacities to use mathematical knowledge and skills purposefully.
In the Arts, students select and use relevant numeracy knowledge and skills to plan, design, make, interpret, analyse and
evaluate artworks. Across the Arts subjects, students can recognise and use: number to calculate and estimate; spatial
reasoning to solve problems involving space, patterns, symmetry, 2D and 3D shapes; scale and proportion to show and
describe positions, pathways and movements; and measurement to explore length, area, volume, capacity, time, mass and
angles.
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Through making and responding across the Arts, students use numeracy skills to choreograph and perform dance; build,
rehearse, sequence and time plays; plan, direct and edit media texts; compose, produce and record music; and design,
construct and display art. Students work with a range of numerical concepts to organise, analyse and create representations of
data relevant to their own or others’ artworks, such as diagrams, charts, tables, graphs and motion capture.
Opportunities to use numeracy might occur when students:
combine dance movements to create sequences or sequences to create sections
decide where to place actors in a performance space
analyse audience responses to a media artwork
compose a film score or music to accompany dance or drama
explore concepts such as space, proportion and repetition in visual arts.
Information and communication technology (ICT) capability
Students develop ICT capability as they learn to use ICT effectively and appropriately to access, create and communicate
information and ideas, solve problems, and work collaboratively in all learning areas at school, and in their lives beyond school.
The capability involves students learning to make the most of the digital technologies available to them, adapting to new ways of
doing things as technologies evolve and limiting the risks to themselves and others in a digital environment.
In the Arts, ICT capability enables students to engage with digital and virtual technologies when making and responding to
artworks. Students can, for example, use interactive multimedia platforms, communication and editing software, and virtual tools
and environments, to design, create and share their artworks. They can enhance their ICT capability as they generate ideas and
explore concepts and possibilities by exploiting available technologies.
Students learn to apply social and ethical protocols and practices in a digital environment, particularly in relation to the
appropriate acknowledgment of intellectual property and the safeguarding of personal security when using ICT. They use digital
technologies to locate, access, select and evaluate information, work collaboratively, share and exchange information, and
communicate with a variety of audiences.
Opportunities to use their ICT capability might occur when students:
use a mobile device to document movement ideas for a dance work
use a mindmap to describe a character or situation when devising drama
use a digital tool or app to make a comic or stop-motion animation
compose and record a backing track to accompany a song
upload images or ideas for a collaborative artwork to a class blog or virtual gallery.
Critical and creative thinking
Students develop capability in critical and creative thinking as they learn to generate and evaluate knowledge, clarify concepts
and ideas, seek possibilities, consider alternatives and solve problems. Critical and creative thinking is integral to activities that
require students to think broadly and deeply. Students will use skills, behaviours and dispositions such as reason, logic,
resourcefulness, imagination and innovation in all learning areas at school and in their lives beyond school.
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In the Arts, critical and creative thinking is integral to making and responding to artworks. In creating artworks, students draw on
their curiosity, imagination and thinking skills to pose questions and explore ideas, spaces, materials and technologies. They
generate, design and analyse art forms, consider possibilities and processes, and make choices that assist them to take risks
and express their ideas, concepts, thoughts and feelings creatively. In responding to the Arts, students learn to analyse
traditional and contemporary artworks and identify possible meanings and connections with self and community. They consider
and analyse artists’ motivations and intentions and possible influencing factors and biases. They reflect critically and creatively,
both individually and collectively, on the thinking and design processes that underpin arts making. They offer and receive
effective feedback about past and present artworks and performances, and communicate and share their thinking, visualisation
and innovations to a variety of audiences.
Opportunities to use their critical and creative thinking might occur when students:
express their understanding of an idea or concept through dance
ask ‘what if’ questions to create a scene in drama
synthesise ideas to communicate a message in a media artwork
explore the effect of different choices about tempo, dynamics or articulations
analyse the meaning of an image or object and brainstorm collective responses as an audience.
Personal and social capability
Students develop personal and social capability as they learn to understand themselves and others, and manage their
relationships, lives, work and learning more effectively. The capability involves students in a range of practices including:
recognising and regulating emotions, developing empathy for others and understanding relationships, establishing and building
positive relationships, making responsible decisions, working effectively in teams, handling challenging situations constructively
and developing leadership skills.
In the Arts, personal and social capability assists students to work, both individually and collaboratively, to make and respond to
artworks. Arts learning provides students with regular opportunities to recognise, name and express their emotions while
developing art form-specific skills and techniques. As they think about ideas and concepts in their own and others’ artworks,
students identify and assess personal strengths, interests and challenges. As art makers, performers and audience, students
develop and apply personal skills and dispositions such as self-discipline, goal setting and working independently, and show
initiative, confidence, resilience and adaptability. They learn to empathise with the emotions, needs and situations of others, to
appreciate diverse perspectives, and to understand and negotiate different types of relationships. When working with others,
students develop and practise social skills that assist them to communicate effectively, work collaboratively, make considered
group decisions and show leadership.
Opportunities to develop and apply personal and social capability might occur when students:
discuss options and make decisions collaboratively when deciding on pathways in a dance
show adaptability when participating in a group improvisation exercise in drama
share personal responses to media artworks such as ‘I felt …’
set personal goals to build vocal or instrumental skills, for example, controlling breathing to sustain a long note or vary
dynamics
describe their immediate response to a visual artwork and empathise with others’ opinions about the artwork.
Ethical understanding
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Ethical understanding
Students develop ethical understanding as they identify and investigate the nature of ethical concepts, values and character
traits, and understand how reasoning can assist ethical judgment. Ethical understanding involves students in building a strong
personal and socially-oriented ethical outlook that helps them to manage context, conflict and uncertainty, and to develop an
awareness of the influence that their values and behaviour have on others.
In the Arts, students develop and apply ethical understanding when they encounter or create artworks that require ethical
consideration, such as work that is controversial, involves a moral dilemma or presents a biased point of view. They explore
how ethical principles affect the behaviour and judgment of artists involved in issues and events. Students apply the skills of
reasoning, empathy and imagination, and consider and make judgments about actions and motives. They speculate on how life
experiences affect and influence people’s decision making and whether various positions held are reasonable.
Students develop their understanding of values and ethical principles as they use an increasing range of critical thinking skills to
explore ideas, concepts, beliefs and practices. When interpreting and evaluating artworks and their meaning, students consider
the intellectual, moral and property rights of others. In particular, students learn about ethical and cultural protocols when
engaging with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples and their histories, cultures and artistic practices.
Opportunities to develop and apply ethical understanding might occur when students:
value diverse responses to their work
consider different attitudes when responding to a prompt in process drama
acknowledge sources of images, text and sound that they appropriate
perform a music work in the way the class has agreed
demonstrate sustainable practices and respect for the environment by using recycled materials.
Intercultural understanding
Students develop intercultural understanding as they learn to value their own cultures, languages and beliefs, and those of
others. They come to understand how personal, group and national identities are shaped, and the variable and changing nature
of culture. The capability involves students learning about and engaging with diverse cultures in ways that recognise
commonalities and differences, create connections with others and cultivate mutual respect.
In the Arts, intercultural understanding assists students to move beyond known worlds to explore new ideas, media and
practices from diverse local, national, regional and global cultural contexts. Intercultural understanding enables students to
explore the influence and impact of cultural identities and traditions on the practices and thinking of artists and audiences.
Students might explore forms and structures, use of materials, technologies, techniques and processes, or treatment of
concepts, ideas, themes and characters. They develop and act with intercultural understanding in making artworks that explore
their own cultural identities and those of others, interpreting and comparing their experiences and worlds, and seeking to
represent increasingly complex relationships.
Students are encouraged to demonstrate empathy for others and open-mindedness to perspectives that differ from their own
and to appreciate the diversity of cultures and contexts in which artists and audiences live. Through engaging with artworks from
diverse cultural sources, students are challenged to consider accepted roles, images, objects, sounds, beliefs and practices in
new ways.
Opportunities to develop and apply ICU capability might occur when students:
research dances from different cultures that tell similar stories
describe the role of drama in different cultures
explore cultural issues represented in media
learn and share music using practices from different cultural traditions
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explore the meaning of visual symbols from different cultures. Cross-curriculum priorities
The Australian Curriculum gives special attention to three cross-curriculum priorities:
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures
Asia and Australia’s engagement with Asia
Sustainability.
In the Australian Curriculum: The Arts, these priorities will have a strong but varying presence, depending on the subject. Icons
or abbreviations indicate where cross-curriculum priorities have been identified in The Arts content descriptions and
elaborations. Teachers may find further opportunities to incorporate explicit teaching of the priorities, depending on their choice
of activities.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures
In the Australian Curriculum: The Arts, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures priority enriches
understanding of the diversity of art-making practices in Australia and develops appreciation of the need to respond to artworks
in ways that are culturally sensitive and responsible. The Arts explores the intrinsic value of the artworks and artists’ practices of
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people as well as their place and value within broader social, cultural, historical and
political contexts.
The Australian Curriculum: The Arts enables the exploration of art forms produced by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
people. The Arts explores the way the relationships between People, Culture and Country/Place for Aboriginal and Torres Strait
Islander Peoples can be conveyed through a combination of art forms and their expression in living communities, and the way
these build Identity. It develops understanding of the way Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander arts practices can involve
combining art forms for both practical and cultural reasons. It recognises the way that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
artists work through and within communities in diverse contemporary, mediated and culturally endorsed ways, enabling artists to
affirm connection with Country/Place, People and Culture.
In the Arts, students learn that the oral histories and belief systems of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples are
contained in and communicated through cultural expression in story, movement, song and visual traditions. They have
opportunities to participate in a variety of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander art forms that are publicly available for broader
participation. Students may also extend their cultural expression with appropriate community consultation and endorsement.
Asia and Australia’s engagement with Asia
In the Australian Curriculum: The Arts, the Asia and Australia’s engagement with Asia priority provides rich, engaging and
diverse contexts in which students make and respond to artworks and explore their related cultural and social significance. This
priority enables investigation of the role of the Arts in developing, maintaining and transforming cultural beliefs and practices and
communicating an understanding of the rich cultural diversity of the Asia region.
The Australian Curriculum: The Arts examines art forms that have arisen from the rich and diverse belief systems and traditions
of the Asia region. Students will consider the aesthetic qualities of these art forms as well as their local, regional and global
influence. The Arts provides opportunities to explore how artistic collaboration takes place within and across countries of the
Asia region, including Australia.
In The Australian Curriculum: The Arts, students engage with a variety of art forms, media, instruments and technologies of the
Asia region. In doing so, they reflect on the intrinsic value of these artworks and artists’ practices as well as their place and
value within broader social, cultural, historical and political contexts.
Sustainability
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In the Australian Curriculum: The Arts, the Sustainability priority provides engaging and thought-provoking contexts in which to
explore the nature of art making and responding.
The Sustainability priority enables the exploration of the role of the Arts in maintaining and transforming cultural practices, social
systems and the relationships of people to their environment. Through making and responding in the Arts, students consider
issues of sustainability in relation to the resource use and traditions in each of the Arts subjects. The Arts provides opportunities
for students to express and develop world views, and to appreciate the need for collaboration within and between communities
to implement more sustainable patterns of living.
In this learning area, students use the exploratory and creative platform of the Arts to advocate effective action for sustainability.
This action is informed by a range of world views, and the need for social justice and ecosystem health. Students choose
suitable art forms to communicate their developing understanding of the concept of sustainability and to persuade others to take
action for sustainable futures.
Learning in and through the Arts involves the development of understanding and knowledge of informed and effective
participation not only in the Arts but also in other learning areas. The most obvious learning area connections occur with
English, History and Geography because the Arts embody some of the most significant and recognisable works, products and
records of all cultures. The Arts can also provide a range of pedagogies for use across learning areas in the curriculum.
Some Arts subjects have direct relationships with other learning areas within the Australian Curriculum and are described
below. Relationships with other subjects in the Australian Curriculum will be added as they are published.
English
The Arts and English complement each other and strengthen student learning in many ways. Skills developed in English and
the Arts include exploring, interpreting and responding to texts and artworks, and creating texts/works using a variety of media
and forms. Through the study of the Arts, students learn how to engage with artworks with critical discernment and how to
create their own artworks as ways of understanding and communicating about the world. In their studies of both English and the
Arts, they encounter representations of the past, the present and the future that demonstrate the power of language and
symbol, and they learn to extend the range of their own expression. These skills are developed across a range of forms,
including art, dance, photography, film, music, media artworks and playwriting.
Drama and Media Arts have a strong focus on language, texts and narrative, and aspects of these two Arts subjects are taught
as part of English. With the convergence of different textual forms and the growing importance for students to be able to create
and critique new concepts, Media Arts and Visual Arts help students to create multimodal artworks and understand the codes
and conventions that are used to communicate meaning.
Geography
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Geography
Students are curious about their personal world and are interested in exploring it. Through the Arts, as in Geography, students
explore their immediate experience and their own sense of place, space and environment. Learning about their own place, and
building a connection with it, also contributes to their sense of identity and belonging. The Australian Curriculum: The Arts
supports the approach of Geography using local place as the initial focus for learning, while recognising that young students are
also aware of and interested in more distant places. The curriculum provides opportunities to build on this curiosity. As they
engage with the Arts, students find out about the ways they are connected to places throughout the world by exploring artworks
from other places and cultural groups in their community, investigating the origin of familiar products and analysing world
events.
History
The skills taught in The Arts include communicating with others about, comprehending and researching artworks from the past,
reinforcing learning in History. Studying artworks from a range of historical, social and cultural contexts helps students
understand the perspectives and contributions of people from the past. Students undertake research, read texts with critical
discernment and create artworks and texts that present the results of historical understanding.
Mathematics
In the Arts and Mathematics, students build their understanding of relationships between time and space, rhythm and line
through engagement with a variety of art forms and mathematical ideas. Art making requires the use and understanding of
measurement in the manipulation of space, time and form. Creating patterns in the Arts involves counting, measurement and
design in different ways across the various art forms.
In both Visual Arts and Mathematics, students learn about size, scale, shape, pattern, proportion and orientation. These
concepts are also explored in Dance, Drama and Media Arts through design concepts and the design process in these art
forms. Links between Music and Mathematics initially focus on time and rhythm.
Science
There is a strong relationship between the development of observational skills, imaginative speculation and encouragement of
curiosity and questioning within the scientific and artistic explorations of real and imagined worlds. Design may be employed
when developing new products or solutions to problems. The Arts provides opportunities for students to explore and
communicate scientific ideas and to develop and practise techniques. These include making artworks that present an
understanding of how systems in plants and animals work together or using the materials, techniques and processes of
photography to investigate light and the properties of colour, illusion, and matter. Music, Drama and Dance may be utilised to
challenge thinking about scientific issues which affect society.
In the Australian Curriculum: The Arts, the two strands of Making and Responding are interrelated and inform and support each
other. When developing teaching and learning programs, teachers combine aspects of the strands in different ways to provide
students with learning experiences that meet their needs and interests. The content descriptions may be approached in any
order which is suitable to the particular teaching and learning application. The curriculum provides many opportunities for
integration of learning between Arts subjects and with other learning areas.
Engaging learning programs will provide opportunities for students to:
develop skills and dispositions such as curiosity, imagination, creativity and evaluation
engage all aspects of perception: sensory, emotional, cognitive, physical and spiritual
work individually and collaboratively.
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Although Dance, Drama, Media Arts, Music, and Visual Arts are described individually in The Arts, students require
opportunities to study and make artworks that feature fusion of traditional art forms and practices to create hybrid artworks. This
learning involves exploration of traditional and contemporary arts practices from different cultures, including works from
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultures as suitable to community and cultural protocols. Such works might:
combine performance, audio and/or visual aspects
combine processes typical of the different Arts subjects
involve other learning areas
exist in physical, digital or virtual spaces
combine traditional, contemporary and emerging media and materials
be created individually or collaboratively.
Teachers in schools are the key to providing students with rich, sustained, rigorous learning in each of the subjects in the Arts.
The arts industry complements the provision of the Arts curriculum in schools through programs and partnerships. The industry
increasingly provides specialist services for schools, as appropriate, through experiences such as visiting performances,
demonstrations and exhibitions, artists in residence, teacher professional development and access for students and teachers to
specialised facilities in galleries, concert halls, theatres and other arts venues.
While content descriptions do not repeat key skills across the bands, it should be noted that many aspects of The Arts
curriculum are recurring, and teachers need to provide ample opportunity for revision and consolidation of previously introduced
knowledge and skills.
Students learn at different rates and in different stages. Depending on each student’s rate of learning or the prior experience
they bring to the classroom, not all of the content descriptions for a particular band may be relevant to a student in those year
levels.
Some students may have already learned a concept or skill, in which case it will not have to be explicitly taught to them in the
band stipulated. Other students may need to be taught concepts or skills stipulated for earlier bands. The content descriptions in
the Australian Curriculum: The Arts enable teachers to develop a variety of learning experiences that are relevant, rigorous and
meaningful and allow for different rates of development, in particular for younger students and for those who require additional
support.
Some students will require additional support to develop their skills in specific Arts subjects. It is expected that appropriate
adjustments will be made for some students to enable them to access and participate in meaningful learning, and demonstrate
their knowledge, understanding and skills across the five Arts subjects. To provide the required flexibility, teachers need to
consider the abilities of each student and adopt options for curriculum implementation that allow all students to participate.
This might involve students using modified tools, materials, technologies or instruments to create or perform works. Teachers
might consider varying the form in which students respond to a work: moving or drawing, for example, rather than writing or
speaking, or working collaboratively rather than individually.
Teachers use the Australian Curriculum content descriptions and achievement standards firstly to identify current levels of
learning and achievement, and then to select the most appropriate content (possibly from across several year levels) to teach
individual students and/or groups of students. These take into account that in each class there may be students with a range of
prior achievement (below, at or above the year level expectations) and that teachers plan to build on current learning.
Organisation of the curriculum in bands provides an additional level of flexibility that supports teachers to plan and implement
learning programs that are appropriate for all students and make best possible use of available resources.
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Teachers also use the achievement standards at the end of a period of teaching to make on-balance judgments about the
quality of learning demonstrated by the students – that is, whether they have achieved below, at or above the standard. To
make these judgments, teachers draw on assessment data that they have collected as evidence during the course of the
teaching period. These judgments about the quality of learning are one source of feedback to students and their parents and
inform formal reporting processes.
If a teacher judges that a student’s achievement is below the expected standard, this suggests that the teaching programs
should be reviewed to better assist individual students in their learning in the future. It also suggests that additional support and
targeted teaching will be needed to ensure that students are appropriately prepared for future studies in specific Arts subjects.
Assessment of the Australian Curriculum: The Arts takes place at different levels and for different purposes, including:
ongoing formative assessment within classrooms for the purposes of monitoring learning and providing feedback to
teachers to inform their teaching, and for students to inform their learning
summative assessment for the purposes of twice-yearly reporting by schools to parents and carers on the progress and
achievement of students.
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The Australian Curriculum
The Arts - Dance
Page 236 of 252
Rationale and Aims
This rationale complements and extends the rationale for The Arts learning area.
Dance is expressive movement with purpose and form. Through Dance, students represent, question and celebrate human
experience, using the body as the instrument and movement as the medium for personal, social, emotional, spiritual and
physical communication. Like all art forms, dance has the capacity to engage, inspire and enrich all students, exciting the
imagination and encouraging students to reach their creative and expressive potential.
Dance enables students to develop a movement vocabulary with which to explore and refine imaginative ways of moving both
individually and collaboratively. They choreograph, rehearse, perform and respond as they engage with dance practice and
practitioners in their own and others’ cultures and communities.
Students use the elements of dance to explore choreography and performance and to practise choreographic, technical and
expressive skills. Students respond to their own and others’ dances using physical and verbal communication.
Active participation as dancers, choreographers and audiences promotes wellbeing and social inclusion. Learning in and
through Dance enhances students’ knowledge and understanding of diverse cultures and contexts and develops their personal,
social and cultural identity.
In addition to the overarching aims of the Australian Curriculum: The Arts, Dance knowledge, understanding and skills ensure
that, individually and collaboratively, students develop:
body awareness and technical and expressive skills to communicate through movement confidently, creatively and
intelligently
choreographic and performance skills and appreciation of their own and others’ dances
aesthetic, artistic and cultural understanding of dance in past and contemporary contexts as choreographers, performers
and audiences
respect for and knowledge of the diverse purposes, traditions, histories and cultures of dance by making and responding
as active participants and informed audiences.
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The Australian Curriculum
The Arts - Drama
Page 238 of 252
Rationale and Aims
This rationale complements and extends the rationale for The Arts learning area.
Drama is the expression and exploration of personal, cultural and social worlds through role and situation that engages,
entertains and challenges. Students create meaning as drama makers, performers and audiences as they enjoy and analyse
their own and others’ stories and points of view. Like all art forms, drama has the capacity to engage, inspire and enrich all
students, excite the imagination and encourage students to reach their creative and expressive potential.
Drama enables students to imagine and participate in exploration of their worlds, individually and collaboratively. Students
actively use body, gesture, movement, voice and language, taking on roles to explore and depict real and imagined worlds.
They create, rehearse, perform and respond using the elements and conventions of drama and emerging and existing
technologies available to them.
Students learn to think, move, speak and act with confidence. In making and staging drama they learn how to be focused,
innovative and resourceful, and collaborate and take on responsibilities for drama presentations. They are excited by exploring
their imagination and taking risks in storytelling through role and dramatic action.
Students develop a sense of inquiry and empathy by exploring the diversity of drama in the contemporary world and in other
times, traditions, places and cultures.
In addition to the overarching aims of the Australian Curriculum: The Arts, Drama knowledge, understanding and skills ensure
that, individually and collaboratively, students develop:
confidence and self-esteem to explore, depict and celebrate human experience, take risks and challenge their own
creativity through drama
knowledge and understanding in controlling, applying and analysing the elements, skills, processes, forms, styles and
techniques of drama to engage audiences and create meaning
a sense of curiosity, aesthetic knowledge, enjoyment and achievement through exploring and playing roles, and imagining
situations, actions and ideas as drama makers and audiences
knowledge and understanding of traditional and contemporary drama as critical and active participants and audiences.
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The Australian Curriculum
The Arts - Media Arts
Page 240 of 252
Rationale and Aims
This rationale complements and extends the rationale for The Arts learning area.
Media Arts involves creating representations of the world and telling stories through communications technologies such as
television, film, video, newspapers, radio, video games, the internet and mobile media. Media Arts connects audiences,
purposes and ideas, exploring concepts and viewpoints through the creative use of materials and technologies. Like all art
forms, media arts has the capacity to engage, inspire and enrich all students, exciting the imagination and encouraging students
to reach their creative and expressive potential.
Media Arts enables students to create and communicate representations of diverse worlds and investigate the impact and
influence of media artworks on those worlds, both individually and collaboratively. As an art form evolving in the twenty-first
century, Media Arts enables students to use existing and emerging technologies as they explore imagery, text and sound and
create meaning as they participate in, experiment with and interpret diverse cultures and communications practices.
Students learn to be critically aware of ways that the media are culturally used and negotiated, and are dynamic and central to
the way they make sense of the world and of themselves. They learn to interpret, analyse and develop media practices through
their media arts making experiences. They are inspired to imagine, collaborate and take on responsibilities in planning,
designing and producing media artworks.
Students explore and interpret diverse and dynamic cultural, social, historical and institutional factors that shape contemporary
communication through media technologies and globally networked communications.
In addition to the overarching aims for the Australian Curriculum: The Arts, Media Arts knowledge, understanding and skills
ensure that, individually and collaboratively, students develop:
enjoyment and confidence to participate in, experiment with and interpret the media-rich culture and communications
practices that surround them
creative and critical thinking, and exploring perspectives in media as producers and consumers
aesthetic knowledge and a sense of curiosity and discovery as they explore imagery, text and sound to express ideas,
concepts and stories for different audiences
knowledge and understanding of their active participation in existing and evolving local and global media cultures.
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The Australian Curriculum
The Arts - Music
Page 242 of 252
Rationale and Aims
This rationale complements and extends the rationale for The Arts learning area.
Music is uniquely an aural art form. The essential nature of music is abstract. Music encompasses existing sounds that are
selected and shaped, new sounds created by composers and performers, and the placement of sounds in time and space.
Composers, performers and listeners perceive and define these sounds as music.
Music exists distinctively in every culture and is a basic expression of human experience. Students’ active participation in music
fosters understanding of other times, places, cultures and contexts. Through continuous and sequential music learning, students
listen to, compose and perform with increasing depth and complexity. Through performing, composing and listening with intent
to music, students have access to knowledge, skills and understanding which can be gained in no other way. Learning in Music
is aurally based and can be understood without any recourse to notation. Learning to read and write music in traditional and
graphic forms enables students to access a wide range of music as independent learners.
Music has the capacity to engage, inspire and enrich all students, exciting the imagination and encouraging students to reach
their creative and expressive potential. Skills and techniques developed through participation in music learning allow students to
manipulate, express and share sound as listeners, composers and performers. Music learning has a significant impact on the
cognitive, affective, motor, social and personal competencies of students.
As independent learners, students integrate listening, performing and composing activities. These activities, developed
sequentially, enhance their capacity to perceive and understand music. As students’ progress through studying Music, they
learn to value and appreciate the power of music to transform the heart, soul, mind and spirit of the individual. In this way
students develop an aesthetic appreciation and enjoyment of music.
In addition to the overarching aims of the Australian Curriculum: The Arts, Music knowledge, understanding and skills ensure
that, individually and collaboratively, students develop:
the confidence to be creative, innovative, thoughtful, skilful and informed musicians
skills to compose, perform, improvise, respond and listen with intent and purpose
aesthetic knowledge and respect for music and music practices across global communities, cultures and musical
traditions
an understanding of music as an aural art form as they acquire skills to become independent music learners.
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The Australian Curriculum
The Arts - Visual Arts
Page 244 of 252
Rationale and Aims
This rationale complements and extends the rationale for The Arts learning area.
Visual Arts includes the fields of art, craft and design. Learning in and through these fields, students create visual
representations that communicate, challenge and express their own and others’ ideas as artist and audience. They develop
perceptual and conceptual understanding, critical reasoning and practical skills through exploring and expanding their
understanding of their world, and other worlds. They learn about the role of the artist, craftsperson and designer, their
contribution to society, and the significance of the creative industries. Similarly with the other art forms, the visual arts has the
capacity to engage, inspire and enrich the lives of students, encouraging them to reach their creative and intellectual potential
by igniting informed, imaginative and innovative thinking.
Through Visual Arts, students make and respond using visual arts knowledge, understanding and skills to represent meaning
associated with personal and global views, and intrinsic and extrinsic worlds. Visual Arts engages students in a journey of
discovery, experimentation and problem-solving relevant to visual perception and visual language. Students undertake this
journey by utilising visual techniques, technologies, practices and processes. Learning in the Visual Arts, students become
increasingly confident and proficient in achieving their personal visual aesthetic, and appreciate and value that of others.
Visual Arts supports students to view the world through various lenses and contexts. They recognise the significance of visual
arts histories, theories and practices, exploring and responding to artists, craftspeople and designers and their artworks. They
apply visual arts knowledge in order to make critical judgments about their own importance as artists and audiences. Learning in
the Visual Arts helps students to develop understanding of world culture and their responsibilities as global citizens.
In addition to the overarching aims of the Australian Curriculum: The Arts, Visual Arts knowledge, understanding and skills
ensure that, individually and collaboratively, students develop:
conceptual and perceptual ideas and representations through design and inquiry processes
visual arts techniques, materials, processes and technologies
critical and creative thinking, using visual arts languages, theories and practices to apply aesthetic judgment
respect for and acknowledgement of the diverse roles, innovations, traditions, histories and cultures of artists,
craftspeople and designers; visual arts as social and cultural practices; and industry as artists and audiences
confidence, curiosity, imagination and enjoyment and develop a personal aesthetic through engagement with visual arts
making and ways of representing and communicating.
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Page 245 of 252





The Arts F–10 scope and sequence by band

The Arts: Foundation to Year 2


DANCE DRAMA MEDIA ARTS MUSIC VISUAL ARTS
Exploring ideas and improvising with ways to represent ideas
2.1 Explore, improvise and organise ideas to make
dance sequences using the elements of dance
General capabilities: Lit, Num, ICT, CCT, PSC,
Cross-curriculumpriorities: ATSIHC, AAEA,
SUST
2.1 Explore role and dramatic action in dramatic play,
improvisation and process drama
General capabilities: Lit, ICT, CCT, PSC, EU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: SUST
2.1 Explore ideas, characters and settings in the
community through stories in images, sounds and
text
General capabilities: Lit, Num, ICT, CCT, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities:
ATSIHC, SUST, AAEA
2.1 Develop aural skills by exploring and imitating
sounds, pitch and rhythmpatterns using voice,
movement and body percussion
General capabilities: Lit, Num, CCT, ICT
Cross-curriculumpriorities: NA
2.1 Explore ideas, experiences, observations and
imagination to create visual artworks and design,
including considering ideas in artworks by Aboriginal
and Torres Strait Islander artists
General capabilities: Lit, Num, ICT, CCT, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: ATSIHC, AAEA,
SUST
Developing understanding of practices
2.2 Use fundamental movement skills to develop
technical skills when practising dance sequences
General capabilities: Lit, Num, CCT, PSC, EU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: NA

2.2 Use voice, facial expression, movement and space
to imagine and establish role and situation
General capabilities: Lit, Num, CCT, PSC
Cross-curriculumpriorities: SUST
2.2 Use media technology to capture and edit
images, sounds and text for a purpose
General capabilities: Lit, ICT, CCT
Cross-curriculumpriorities: SUST
2.2 Sing and play instruments to improvise, practise
a repertoire of chants, songs and rhymes, including
songs used by cultural groups in the community
General capabilities: Lit, ICT, CCT, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities:
ATSIHC, AAEA, SUST
2.2 Use and experiment with different materials,
techniques, technologies and processes to make
artworks
General capabilities: Lit, Num, ICT, CCT, PSC
Cross-curriculumpriorities: AAEA, SUST
Sharing artworks through performance, presentation or display
2.3 Present dance that communicate ideas to an
audience, including dance used by cultural groups in
the community
General capabilities: Lit, Num, ICT ,PSC CCT,
ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities:
ATSIHC, AAEA, SUST

2.3 Present drama that communicates ideas, including
stories fromtheir community, to an audience
General capabilities: Lit, ICT, CCT, PSC, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: ATSIHC, AAEA, SUST
2.3 Create and present media artworks that
communicate ideas and stories to an audience
General capabilities: Lit, Num, ICT, CCT, PSC,
EU, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: AAEA, SUST
2.3 Create compositions and performmusic to
communicate ideas to an audience
General capabilities: Lit, Num, ICT, CCT, PSC
Cross-curriculumpriorities: NA
2.3 Create and display artworks to communicate
ideas to an audience
General capabilities: Lit, CCT, , PSC
Cross-curriculumpriorities: ATSIHC, AAEA
Responding to and interpreting artworks
2.4 Respond to dance and consider where and why
people dance, starting with dances fromAustralia
including dances of Aboriginal and Torres Strait
Islander Peoples
General capabilities: Lit, Num, CCT, PSC, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities:
ATSIHC, AAEA, SUST

2.4 Respond to drama and consider where and why
people make drama, starting with Australian drama,
including drama of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
Peoples
General capabilities: Lit, ICT, CCT, PSC, EU, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities:
ATSIHC, AAEA, SUST
2.4 Respond to media artworks and consider where
and why people make media artworks, starting with
media fromAustralia, including media artworks of
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples
General capabilities: Lit, Num, ICT, CCT, PSC,
EU, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: ATSIHC, AAEA,
SUST
2.4 Respond to music and consider where and why
people make music, starting with Australian music,
including music of Aboriginal and Torres Strait
Islander Peoples
General capabilities: Lit, Num, CCT, PSC, EU,
ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: ATSIHC, AAEA,
SUST
2.4 Respond to visual artworks and consider where
and why people make visual artworks, starting with
visual artworks fromAustralia, including visual
artworks of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
Peoples
General capabilities: Lit, CCT, PSC, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: ATSIHC, AAEA,
SUST
Page 246 of 252




The Arts: Years 3 and 4


DANCE DRAMA MEDIA ARTS MUSIC VISUAL ARTS
Exploring ideas and improvising with ways to represent ideas
4.1 Improvise and structure movement ideas for
dance sequences using the elements of dance and
choreographic devices
General capabilities: Lit, Num, , CCT, PSC, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: AAEA, SUST

4.1 Explore ideas and narrative structures through
roles and situations and use empathy in their own
improvisations and devised drama
General capabilities: Lit, CCT, PSC, EU, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: SUST
4.1 Investigate and devise representations of people
in their community, including themselves, through
settings, ideas and story structure in images, sounds
and text
General capabilities: Lit, Num, ICT, CCT, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: ATSIHC, AAEA
4.1 Develop aural skills by exploring, imitating and
recognising elements of music including dynamics,
pitch and rhythmpatterns
General capabilities: Lit, Num, CCT
Cross-curriculumpriorities: SUST
4.1 Explore ideas and artworks fromdifferent cultures
and times, including artwork by Aboriginal and Torres
Strait Islander artists, to use as inspiration for their own
representations
General capabilities: Lit, Num, CCT, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: ATSIHC, AAEA, SUST
Developing understanding of practices
4.2 Practise technical skills safely in fundamental
movements
General capabilities: Lit, Num,CCT, PSC
Cross-curriculumpriorities: NA
4.2 Use voice, body, movement and language to
sustain role and relationships and create dramatic
action with a sense of time and place
General capabilities: Lit, Num, CCT, PSC, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: SUST, AAEA
4.2 Use media technologies to create time and space
through the manipulation of images, sounds and text
to tell stories
General capabilities: Lit, Num, ICT, CCT
Cross-curriculumpriorities: SUST
4.2 Practise singing, playing instruments and
improvising music, using elements of music including
rhythm, pitch, dynamics and formin a range of pieces,
including in music fromthe local community
General capabilities: Lit, Num, ICT, CCT, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: ATSIHC, AAEA, SUST
4.2 Use materials, techniques and processes to
explore visual conventions when making artworks
General capabilities: Lit, ICT, CCT, , ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: SUST
Sharing artworks through performance, presentation or display
4.3 Performdances using expressive skills to
communicate ideas, including telling cultural or
community stories
General capabilities: Lit, Num, ICT,CCT, PSC,
ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities:
ATSIHC, AAEA, SUST

4.3 Shape and performdramatic action using
narrative structures and tension in devised and
scripted drama, including exploration of Aboriginal
and Torres Strait Islander drama
General capabilities: Lit, Num, ICT, CCT, PSC,
ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: ATSIHC, AAEA,
SUST
4.3 Plan, create and present media artworks for
specific purposes with awareness of responsible
media practice
General capabilities: Lit, Num, ICT, CCT,
Cross-curriculumpriorities: ATSIHC, SUST, AAEA
4.3 Create, performand record compositions by
selecting and organising sounds, silence, tempo and
volume
General capabilities: Lit, Num, ICT, CCT,
Cross-curriculumpriorities: SUST
4.3 Present artworks and describe howthey have used
visual conventions to represent their ideas
General capabilities: Lit, ICT, CCT, PCS, EU
Cross-curriculumpriorities SUST

Responding to and interpreting artworks
4.4 Identify howthe elements of dance and
production elements express ideas in dance they
make, performand experience as audience,
including exploration of Aboriginal and Torres Strait
Islander dance
General capabilities: Lit, ICT, CCT, PSC, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: ATSIHC, AAEA,
SUST

4.4 Identify intended purposes and meaning of
drama, starting with Australian drama, including
drama of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
Peoples, using the elements of drama to make
comparisons
General capabilities: Lit, CCT, PSC, EU, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities:
ATSIHC, AAEA, SUST
4.4 Identify intended purposes and meanings of
media artworks using media arts key concepts,
starting with media artworks in Australia, including
media artworks of Aboriginal and Torres Strait
Islander Peoples
General capabilities: Lit, ICT, CCT, PSC, EU, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: ATSIHC, AAEA
4.4 Identify intended purposes and meanings as they
listen to music, using the elements of music to make
comparisons, starting with Australian music, including
music of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples
General capabilities: Lit, CCT, PSC, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: ATSIHC, AAEA, SUST
4.4 Identify purposes and meanings of artworks using
visual arts terminology to compare artworks, starting
with visual artworks fromAustralia, including visual
artworks of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
Peoples
General capabilities: Lit, CCT, PSC, EU, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: ATSIHC, AAEA, SUST
Page 247 of 252




The Arts: Years 5 and 6

DANCE DRAMA MEDIA ARTS MUSIC VISUAL ARTS
Exploring ideas and improvising with ways to represent ideas
6.1 Explore movement and choreographic devices,
using the elements of dance to choreograph dances
that communicate meaning
General capabilities: Lit, Num, CCT, PSC,
Cross-curriculumpriorities: NA

6.1 Explore dramatic action, empathy and space in
improvisations, playbuilding and scripted drama to
develop characters and situations
General capabilities: Lit, Num, ICT, CCT, PSC, EU,
ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: ATSIHC, AAEA
6.1 Explore representations, characterisations and points
of viewof people in their community, including
themselves, using settings, ideas, story principles and
genre conventions in images, sounds and text
General capabilities: Lit, ICT, CCT, PSC, EU, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: ATSIHC, AAEA, SUST
6.1 Explore dynamics and expression, using
aural skills to identify and performrhythmand
pitch patterns
General capabilities: Lit, Num, CCT
Cross-curriculumpriorities: AAEA, SUST
6.1 Explore ideas and practices used by artists,
including practices of Aboriginal and Torres Strait
Islander artists, to represent different views,
beliefs and opinions
General capabilities: Lit, CCT, PSC, EU, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: SUST, ATSIHC,
AAEA
Developing understanding of practices
6.2 Develop technical and expressive skills in
fundamental movements including body control,
accuracy, alignment, strength, balance and
coordination
General capabilities: Lit, Num, CCT, PSC
Cross-curriculumpriorities: SUST

6.2 Develop skills and techniques of voice and movement
to create character, mood and atmosphere, and focus
dramatic action
General capabilities: Lit, Num, CCT, PSC
Cross-curriculumpriorities: NA
6.2 Develop skills with media technologies to shape
space, time, movement and lighting within images, sounds
and text
General capabilities: Lit, Num, ICT, CCT, PSC
Cross-curriculumpriorities: NA
6.2 Develop technical and expressive skills in
singing and playing instruments with
understanding of rhythm, pitch and formin a
range of pieces, including in music fromthe
community
General capabilities: Lit, Num, ICT, CCT,
Cross-curriculumpriorities: ATSIHC, AAEA,
SUST
6.2 Develop and apply techniques and processes
when making their artworks
General capabilities: Lit, CCT, ICT, PSC, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: SUST
Sharing artworks through performance, presentation or display
6.3 Performdance using expressive skills to
communicate a choreographer’s ideas, including
performing dances of cultural groups in the community
General capabilities: Lit, Num, ICT, PSC, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities:
ATSIHC, AAEA, SUST

6.3 Rehearse and performdevised and scripted drama
that develops narrative, drives dramatic tension, and uses
dramatic symbol, performance styles and design
elements to share community and cultural stories and
engage an audience
General capabilities: Lit, Num, ICT, CCT, PSC, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: ATSIHC, AAEA, SUST
6.3 Plan, produce and present media artworks for specific
audiences and purposes, using responsible media
practice
General capabilities: Lit, Num, ICT, CCT, PSC
Cross-curriculumpriorities: AAEA, SUST
6.3 Rehearse and performmusic, including
music they have composed, by improvising,
sourcing and arranging ideas and making
decisions to engage an audience
General capabilities: Lit, Num, ICT, CCT,
PSC
Cross-curriculumpriorities: SUST
6.3 Plan the display of artworks to enhance their
meaning for an audience
General capabilities: Lit, ICT, CCT, PSC,EU,
ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: ATSIHC, AAEA,
SUST
Responding to and interpreting artworks
6.4 Explain howthe elements of dance and production
elements communicate meaning by comparing dances
fromdifferent social, cultural and historical contexts,
including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander dance
General capabilities: Lit, ICT, CCT, PSC, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities:
ATSIHC, AAEA, SUST

6.4 Explain howthe elements of drama and production
elements communicate meaning by comparing drama
fromdifferent social, cultural and historical contexts,
including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander drama
General capabilities: Lit, CCT, PSC, EU, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: ATSIHC, AAEA, SUST
6.4 Explain howthe elements of media arts and story
principles communicate meaning by comparing media
artworks fromdifferent social, cultural and historical
contexts, including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
media artworks
General capabilities: Lit, ICT, CCT, PSC, EU, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities:
ATSIHC, AAEA, SUST
6.4 Explain howthe elements of music
communicate meaning by comparing music
fromdifferent social, cultural and historical
contexts, including Aboriginal and Torres Strait
Islander music
General capabilities: Lit, CCT, PSC, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities:
ATSIHC, AAEA, SUST
6.4 Explain howvisual arts conventions
communicate meaning by comparing artworks
fromdifferent social, cultural and historical
contexts, including Aboriginal and Torres Strait
Islander artworks
General capabilities: Lit, CCT, PSC, EU, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: ATSIHC, AAEA,
SUST

Page 248 of 252




The Arts: Years 7 and 8
DANCE DRAMA MEDIA ARTS MUSIC VISUAL ARTS
Exploring ideas and improvising with ways to represent ideas
8.1 Combine elements of dance and improvise by
making literal movements into abstract movements
General capabilities: Lit, CCT, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: AAEA, SUST

8.1 Combine the elements of drama in devised and
scripted drama to explore and develop issues, ideas
and themes
General capabilities: Lit, CCT
Cross-curriculumpriorities: SUST
8.1 Experiment with the organisation of ideas to
structure stories through media conventions and
genres to create points of viewin images, sounds and
text
General capabilities: Lit, ICT, CCT, EU, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: SUST
8.1 Experiment with texture and timbre in sound
sources using aural skills
General capabilities: Lit, Num, ICT, CCT
Cross-curriculumpriorities: SUST
8.1 Experiment with visual arts conventions and
techniques, including exploration of techniques used
by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander artists, to
represent a theme, concept or idea in their artwork
General capabilities: Lit, ICT, CCT,PSC, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: ATSIHC, SUST
Manipulating and applying the elements/concepts with intent
8.2 Develop their choreographic intent by applying the
elements of dance to select and organise movement
General capabilities: Lit, CCT, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities:
SUST

8.2 Develop roles and characters consistent with
situation, dramatic forms and performance styles to
convey status, relationships and intentions
General capabilities: Lit, PSC, CCT, EU, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: SUST
8.2 Develop media representations to show familiar or
shared social and cultural values and beliefs, including
those of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples
General capabilities: Lit, ICT, PSC, CCT, EU, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: ATSIHC, AAEA, SUST
8.2 Develop musical ideas, such as mood, by
improvising, combining and manipulating the
elements of music
General capabilities: Lit, ICT, CCT, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: AAEA, SUST
8.2 Develop ways to enhance their intentions as
artists through exploration of howartists use
materials, techniques, technologies and processes
General capabilities: Lit, CCT, ICT, EU, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: ATSIHC, AAEA, SUST
Developing and refining understanding of skills and techniques
8.3 Practise and refine technical skills in style-specific
techniques

General capabilities: Lit, Num, PSC, CCT, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: NA

8.3 Plan, structure and rehearse drama, exploring ways
to communicate and refine dramatic meaning for
theatrical effect
General capabilities: Lit, ICT, CCT, PSC
Cross-curriculumpriorities: NA
8.3 Develop and refine media production skills to
shape the technical and symbolic elements of images,
sounds and text for a specific purpose and meaning
General capabilities: Lit, ICT, CCT
Cross-curriculumpriorities: SUST
8.3 Practise and rehearse a variety of music,
including Australian music, to develop technical
and expressive skills
General capabilities: Lit, ICT, CCT, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: ATSIHC, AAEA,
SUST
8.3 Develop planning skills for art-making by exploring
techniques and processes used by different artists
General capabilities Lit, Num, ICT, PSC, CCT
Cross-curriculumpriorities: ATSIHC, AAEA, SUST
Structuring and organising ideas into form
8.4 Structure dances using choreographic devices and
form
General capabilities: Lit, Num, ICT, PSC, CCT
Cross-curriculumpriorities: SUST

8.4 Develop and refine expressive skills in voice and
movement to communicate ideas and dramatic action in
different performance styles and conventions, including
contemporary Australian drama styles developed by
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander dramatists
General capabilities: Lit, Num, CCT, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities:
ATSIHC, AAEA, SUST
8.4 Plan, structure and design media artworks that
engage audiences
General capabilities: ICT, PSC, CCT, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: SUST
8.4 Structure compositions by combining and
manipulating the elements of music using notation
General capabilities: Lit, PSC, CCT, ICT
Cross-curriculumpriorities: AAEA, SUST
8.4 Practise techniques and processes to enhance
representation of ideas in their art-making
General capabilities : Lit, Num, ICT, PSC, CCT
Cross-curriculumpriorities: AAEA, SUST
Sharing artworks through performance, presentation or display
8.5 Rehearse and perform focussing on expressive
skills appropriate to style and/or choreographic intent
General capabilities: Lit, Num, CCT, PSCICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: ATSIHC

8.5 Performdevised and scripted drama maintaining
commitment to role
General capabilities: Lit, CCT, PSC
Cross-curriculumpriorities: NA
8.5 Present media artworks for different community
and institutional contexts with consideration of ethical
and regulatory issues
General capabilities: Lit, ICT, CCT, EU, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: ATSIHC, AAEA, SUST
8.5 Performand present a range of music, using
techniques and expression appropriate to style
General capabilities: Lit, Num, PSC, CCT
Cross-curriculumpriorities: AAEA, SUST
8.5 Present artwork demonstrating consideration of
howthe artwork is displayed to enhance the artist’s
intention to an audience
General capabilities: Lit, ICT, PSC, CCT, EU, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: ATSIHC, AAEA, SUST
Analysing and reflecting upon intentions
8.6 Analyse howchoreographers use elements of
dance and production elements to communicate intent
General capabilities: Lit, Num, ICT, CCT
Cross-curriculumpriorities: SUST

8.6 Analyse howthe elements of drama have been
combined in devised and scripted drama to convey
different forms, performance styles and dramatic
meaning
General capabilities: Lit, ICT, CCT, PSC, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: SUST
8.6 Analyse howtechnical and symbolic elements are
used in media artworks to create representations
influenced by story, genre, values and points of view
of particular audiences
General capabilities: Lit, ICT, CCT, EU, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities:
ATSIHC, AAEA


8.6 Analyse composers’ use of the elements of
music and stylistic features when listening to and
interpreting music
General capabilities: Lit, CCT, , ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: SUST
8.6 Analyse howartists use visual conventions in
artworks
General capabilities: Lit, CCT, PSC, EU
Cross-curriculum: SUST
Responding to and interpreting artworks
Page 249 of 252






8.7 Identify and connect specific features and
purposes of dance fromcontemporary and past times
to explore viewpoints and enrich their dance-making,
starting with dance in Australia and including dance of
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples
General capabilities: Lit, CCT, EU, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities:
ATSIHC, SUST

8.7 Identify and connect specific features and purposes
of drama fromcontemporary and past times to explore
viewpoints and enrich their drama making, starting with
drama in Australia and including drama of Aboriginal
and Torres Strait Islander Peoples
General capabilities: Lit, CCT,EU, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: ATSIHC, AAEA, SUST
8.7 Identify specific features and purposes of media
artworks fromcontemporary and past times to explore
viewpoints and enrich their media arts making, starting
with Australian media artworks, including Aboriginal
and Torres Strait Islander media artworks
General capabilities: Lit, ICT, PSC, CCT, EU, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities:
ATSIHC, AAEA, SUST
8.7 Identify and connect specific features and
purposes of music fromdifferent eras to explore
viewpoints and enrich their music-making, starting
with Australian music, including music of
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples
General capabilities: Lit, PSC, CCT, EU, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: ATSIHC, AAEA,
SUST
8.7 Identify and connect specific features and
purposes of visual artworks fromcontemporary and
past times to explore viewpoints and enrich their art-
making, starting with Australian artworks, including
those of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples
General capabilities: Lit, ICT, CCT, PSC, EU, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: ATSIHC, AAEA, SUST
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The Arts: Years 9 and 10
DANCE DRAMA MEDIA ARTS MUSIC VISUAL ARTS
Exploring ideas and improvising with ways to represent ideas
10.1 Improvise to find newmovement possibilities and
explore personal style by combining elements of dance
General capabilities: Lit, PSC, CCT, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: AAEA

10.1 Improvise with the elements of drama and
narrative structure to develop ideas, and explore
subtext to shape devised and scripted drama
General capabilities: Lit, CCT
Cross-curriculumpriorities: NA
10.1 Experiment with ideas and stories that manipulate
media conventions and genres to construct newand
alternative points of viewthrough images, sounds and
text
General capabilities: Lit, ICT, CCT, EU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: SUST
10.1 Improvise and arrange music, using aural
recognition of texture, dynamics and expression, to
manipulate the elements of music to explore
personal style in composition and performance
General capabilities: Lit, Num, , CCT, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: AAEA
10.1 Conceptualise and develop representations of
themes, concepts or subject matter to experiment
with their developing personal style, reflecting on the
styles of artists, including Aboriginal and Torres Strait
Islander artists
General capabilities: Lit, ICT, PSC, CCT, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: ATSIHC, SUST,
AAEA
Manipulating and applying the elements/concepts with intent
10.2 Manipulate combinations of the elements of dance
and choreographic devices to communicate their
choreographic intent
General capabilities: Lit, PSC, CCT
Cross-curriculumpriorities: SUST
10.2 Manipulate combinations of the elements of
drama to develop and convey the physical and
psychological aspects of roles and characters
consistent with intentions in dramatic forms and
performance styles
General capabilities: Lit, CCT
Cross-curriculumpriorities: SUST
10.2 Manipulate media representations to identify and
examine social and cultural values and beliefs,
including those of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
Peoples
General capabilities: Lit, ICT, CCT, PSC, EU, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: ATSIHC, AAEA
10.2 Manipulate combinations of the elements of
music in a range of styles, using technology and
notation
General capabilities: Lit, ICT, CCT
Cross-curriculumpriorities: NA
10.2 Manipulate materials, techniques, technologies
and processes to develop and represent their own
artistic intentions
General capabilities: Lit, ICT, PSC, CCT, EU, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: ATSIHC, AAEA,
SUST
Developing and refining understanding of skills and techniques
10.3 Practise and refine technical skills to develop
proficiency in genre- and style-specific techniques
General capabilities: Lit, PSC, CCT
Cross-curriculumpriorities: AAEA

10.3 Practise and refine the expressive capacity of
voice and movement to communicate ideas and
dramatic action in a range of forms, styles and
performance spaces, including exploration of those
developed by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
dramatists
General capabilities: Lit, ICT, CCT, PSC, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities:
ATSIHC
10.3 Develop and refine media production skills to
integrate and shape the technical and symbolic
elements in images, sounds and text for a specific
purpose, meaning and style
General capabilities: Lit, ICT, PSC, CCT
Cross-curriculumpriorities: SUST
10.3 Practise and rehearse to refine a variety of
performance repertoire with increasing technical
and interpretative skill
General capabilities: Lit, ICT, PSC, CCT
Cross-curriculumpriorities: SUST
10.3 Develop and refine techniques and processes
to represent ideas and subject matter
General capabilities: Lit, ICT, PSC, CCT
Cross-curriculumpriorities: ATSIHC, AAEA,
SUST
Structuring and organising ideas to form
10.4 Structure dances using movement motifs,
choreographic devices and form
General capabilities: Lit, Num, PSC, CCT
Cross-curriculumpriorities: SUST
10.4 Structure drama to engage an audience
through manipulation of dramatic action, forms and
performance styles, and by using design elements

General capabilities: Lit, Num, ICT, CCT
Cross-curriculumpriorities: SUST
10.4 Plan and design media artworks for a range of
purposes that challenge the expectations of specific
audiences by particular use of production processes
General capabilities: Lit, ICT, CCT, EU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: SUST
10.4 Plan and organise compositions with an
understanding of style and convention, including
drawing upon Australian music by Aboriginal and
Torres Strait Islander artists
General capabilities: Lit, Num, ICT, CCT,PSC,
ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities:
ATSIHC
10.4 Plan and design artworks that represent artistic
intention
General capabilities: ICT, PSC, CCT
Cross-curriculumpriorities: AAEA, SUST
Sharing artworks through performance, presentation or display
10.5 Performdances using genre and style-specific
techniques, and expressive skills to communicate a
choreographer’s intent
General capabilities: Lit, PSC, CCT, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: ATSIHC
10.5 Performdevised and scripted drama, making
deliberate artistic choices and shaping design
elements to unify dramatic meaning for an audience
General capabilities: Lit, ICT, PSC, CCT
Cross-curriculumpriorities: SUST
10.5 Produce and distribute media artworks for a range
of community and institutional contexts, and consider
social, ethical and regulatory issues
General capabilities: Num, ICT, CCT, EU,
Cross-curriculumpriorities: ATSIHC, AAEA, SUST
10.5 Performmusic applying techniques and
expression to interpret the composer’s use of
elements of music
General capabilities: Lit, CCT, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: SUST
10.5 Present ideas for displaying artworks and
evaluate displays of artworks
General capabilities: Lit, ICT, CCT, EU, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: ATSIHC, AAEA
Analysing and reflecting upon intentions
10.6 Evaluate their own choreography and
performance, and that of others, to informand refine
future work
General capabilities: Lit, PSC, CCT
Cross-curriculumpriorities: SUST
10.6 Evaluate howthe elements of drama, forms and
performance styles in devised and scripted drama
convey meaning and aesthetic effect
General capabilities: Lit, CCT, PSC
Cross-curriculumpriorities: AAEA, SUST
10.6 Evaluate howtechnical and symbolic elements are
manipulated in media artworks to create and challenge
representations framed by media conventions, social
beliefs and values for a range of audiences
General capabilities: Lit, ICT, CCT, EU, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: ATSIHC, AAEA, SUST
10.6 Evaluate a range of music and compositions to
informand refine their own compositions and
performances
General capabilities: Lit, CCT, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: AAEA, SUST
10.6 Evaluate howrepresentations communicate
artistic intentions in artworks they make and viewto
informtheir future art making
General capabilities: Lit, PSC, CCT, EU, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: ATSIHC, AAEA,
SUST
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Responding to and interpreting artworks
10.7 Analyse a range of dance fromcontemporary
and past times to explore differing viewpoints and
enrich their dance-making, starting with dance from
Australia and including dance of Aboriginal and
Torres Strait Islander Peoples, and consider dance
in international contexts
General capabilities: Lit, ICT, CCT, PSC, EU, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities:
ATSIHC, AAEA, SUST
10.7 Analyse a range of drama fromcontemporary
and past times to explore differing viewpoints and
enrich their drama-making, starting with drama from
Australia, including drama of Aboriginal and Torres
Strait Islander Peoples, and consider drama in
international contexts
General capabilities: Lit, CCT, PSC, EU, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: ATSIHC, AAEA,
SUST
10.7 Analyse a range of media artworks from
contemporary and past times to explore differing
viewpoints and enrich their media arts making, starting
with Australian media artworks, including media
artworks of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
Peoples, and international media artworks
General capabilities: Lit, ICT, CCT, PSC, EU, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities:
ATSIHC, AAEA, SUST
10.7 Analyse a range of music fromcontemporary
and past times to explore differing viewpoints and
enrich their music-making, starting with Australian
music, including music of Aboriginal and Torres
Strait Islander Peoples, and consider music in
international contexts
General capabilities: Lit, ICT, CCT, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: ATSIHC, AAEA,
SUST
10.7 Analyse a range of visual artworks from
contemporary and past times to explore differing
viewpoints and enrich their visual art-making, starting
with Australian artworks, including those of Aboriginal
and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, and consider
international artworks
General capabilities: Lit, PSC, CCT, EU, ICU
Cross-curriculumpriorities: ATSIHC, AAEA,
SUST
Page 252 of 252