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COORDINATION COORDINATION
AND ELLIPSIS AND ELLIPSIS
There are three coordinators: There are three coordinators: and and, , but but and and or or. .
Clausal coordinators are restricted to initial Clausal coordinators are restricted to initial
position. position.
Clause beginning with a coordinator cannot be Clause beginning with a coordinator cannot be
moved in front of the preceding clause together moved in front of the preceding clause together
with coordinator, e.g. with coordinator, e.g. They live in England They live in England but but they they
are spending a vacation here. are spending a vacation here.
-- * *But But they are spending a vacation here they are spending a vacation here.... ....
Coordinators allow ellipsis of the subject in the Coordinators allow ellipsis of the subject in the
clause they introduce if the subject is co clause they introduce if the subject is co--
referential with the preceding linked clause, e.g. referential with the preceding linked clause, e.g.
Peter Peter ate a sandwich and [Peter] drank a glass of beer. ate a sandwich and [Peter] drank a glass of beer.
Identical subjects of coordinated clauses are Identical subjects of coordinated clauses are
omitted. omitted.
If the subject and the auxiliary are identical, If the subject and the auxiliary are identical,
ellipsis of both is normal, e.g. ellipsis of both is normal, e.g.
Mary has washed the dishes, [Mary has] dried them, Mary has washed the dishes, [Mary has] dried them,
and [Mary has] put them in the cupboard. and [Mary has] put them in the cupboard.
Ellipsis of auxiliary only: Ellipsis of auxiliary only:
if the subjects of coordinated clauses are if the subjects of coordinated clauses are
different and their auxiliaries identical, there different and their auxiliaries identical, there
may be ellipsis of an identical auxiliary, e.g. may be ellipsis of an identical auxiliary, e.g.
-- John should clean the shed and Peter [should] water the John should clean the shed and Peter [should] water the
plants. plants.
Ellipsis of predicate and predication: Ellipsis of predicate and predication:
verb phrase or lexical verb only, e.g. verb phrase or lexical verb only, e.g.
Yesterday John was given a railway set and Sue [was Yesterday John was given a railway set and Sue [was
given] a doll. given] a doll.
verb phrase + subject complement, e.g. verb phrase + subject complement, e.g.
Jane was the winner in 2000 and Kim [was the winner] Jane was the winner in 2000 and Kim [was the winner]
in 2005. in 2005.
verb phrase/lexical verb + direct object, e.g. verb phrase/lexical verb + direct object, e.g. Sue Sue
is preparing a project for her company and Mary [is is preparing a project for her company and Mary [is
preparing a project] for her club. preparing a project] for her club.
Sometimes there can be ambiguity as to whether Sometimes there can be ambiguity as to whether
the subject and verb are omitted or the verb and the subject and verb are omitted or the verb and
object are omitted, e.g. object are omitted, e.g.
Bob will phone some friends in the morning and Peter in Bob will phone some friends in the morning and Peter in
the afternoon. the afternoon.
the elliptical form of the auxiliary or lexical verb the elliptical form of the auxiliary or lexical verb
sometimes varies from the realized form when sometimes varies from the realized form when
one is 3rd person sg. present and the other is not: one is 3rd person sg. present and the other is not:
e.g. e.g.
I work in a factory and my brother [works] on a farm I work in a factory and my brother [works] on a farm..
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Major exception is that an elliptical passive does Major exception is that an elliptical passive does
not co not co--occur with any other forms, e.g. occur with any other forms, e.g.
They invited Mary but Jane *[wasn’t invited] to the They invited Mary but Jane *[wasn’t invited] to the
party. party.
Ellipsis of Direct Object and Subject Ellipsis of Direct Object and Subject
Complement Complement
If a direct object alone is omitted, the realized items If a direct object alone is omitted, the realized items
must be in the last clause, e.g. must be in the last clause, e.g. John likes [Mary] and Peter John likes [Mary] and Peter
hates Mary. hates Mary.
If a subject complement alone is omitted and the verb If a subject complement alone is omitted and the verb
in the last clause is other than in the last clause is other than be be, the realized items , the realized items
must be in the last clause, e.g. must be in the last clause, e.g. George was [angry] and Bob George was [angry] and Bob
only seemed angry. only seemed angry.
With such examples you can use pro With such examples you can use pro--form with form with so, so, e.g. e.g.
George was angry and Bob only seemed so. George was angry and Bob only seemed so.
Ellipsis of the Head of the Noun Phrase and the Ellipsis of the Head of the Noun Phrase and the
Object of preposition: Object of preposition:
Head of a Noun phrase can be omitted if there Head of a Noun phrase can be omitted if there
is a modifier to «keep the phrase», e.g. is a modifier to «keep the phrase», e.g. We wanted We wanted
fried fish and they gave us boiled [fish]. fried fish and they gave us boiled [fish].
The Object of preposition can be omitted with The Object of preposition can be omitted with
the realized complement in the second the realized complement in the second
clause,e.g. clause,e.g. Bob is interested in [music], but Peter adores Bob is interested in [music], but Peter adores
music. music.
Phrasal Coordination Phrasal Coordination
And And and and or or are the main coordinators for phrasal are the main coordinators for phrasal
coordination. coordination.
But But is used only to link adjective phrases and is used only to link adjective phrases and
adverb phrases, adverb phrases,
e.g. e.g. Mary is a very kind Mary is a very kind but but boring person. boring person.
We can coordinate elements that are syntactically We can coordinate elements that are syntactically
equal, making coordination of the same rank. equal, making coordination of the same rank.
Coordinated sentences must have the same Coordinated sentences must have the same
structural form (sameness of structure), e.g. structural form (sameness of structure), e.g.
They are young and in love They are young and in love, , not not
* *They are in love and in the park. They are in love and in the park.
There are also semantic requirements, i.e. sameness There are also semantic requirements, i.e. sameness
of meaning, of meaning,
e.g. e.g. John and Mary are married John and Mary are married, , not not
* *John and the government are married John and the government are married..
And And as a coordinator can have several as a coordinator can have several
functions: functions:
-- it can indicate some kind of contrast, e.g. it can indicate some kind of contrast, e.g.
She washed the dishes She washed the dishes and and he dried them. he dried them.
-- it can be emphasizing it can be emphasizing and and, e.g. , e.g.
She washed the dishes She washed the dishes and and dried them. dried them.
-- it can comment the first sentence, e.g. it can comment the first sentence, e.g.
She washed the dishes She washed the dishes and and that is not surprising. that is not surprising.
(sentential relative clause substitute) (sentential relative clause substitute)
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Sentence coordination Sentence coordination
Compound sentence: two independent Compound sentence: two independent
sentences/clauses. sentences/clauses.
Complex Complex--compound sentence: at least two compound sentence: at least two
independent sentences and at least one independent sentences and at least one
dependent sentence. dependent sentence.
Textual predication Textual predication: two or more independent : two or more independent
sentences (+ clauses). sentences (+ clauses).
Syntactical mark: TP (in the analysis) Syntactical mark: TP (in the analysis)
Ellipsis Ellipsis - - exercise exercise
Lacy can do something about the problem, but I don’t Lacy can do something about the problem, but I don’t
know what know what..
She can help with the housework She can help with the housework,, Nancy can help too. Nancy can help too.
John can speak seven languages, but Ron can speak John can speak seven languages, but Ron can speak
only two. only two.
His refusal to cooperate with the court and name the His refusal to cooperate with the court and name the
source resulted in a contempt citation. source resulted in a contempt citation.
She was thinking of taking some holiday next week but She was thinking of taking some holiday next week but
now she can't take any now she can't take any..
Jane works harder than her sister. Jane works harder than her sister.
Some of the tea is Some of the tea is Chinese Chinese and some and some Indian. Indian.
Music is as important to Cora as literature to her Music is as important to Cora as literature to her
brother. brother.
Coordination Coordination - - exercise: exercise:
1. 1. He was approaching, but they ignored him. He was approaching, but they ignored him.
2. 2. Stern pushed a button and a giant TV screen Stern pushed a button and a giant TV screen
emerged behind a portrait. emerged behind a portrait.
3. 3. She is a great professional but she is also a nice She is a great professional but she is also a nice
and caring person. and caring person.
4. 4. Peter pulled his car into the ruined laneway, Peter pulled his car into the ruined laneway,
turned off the ignition, and waited. turned off the ignition, and waited.