=
=
sin
d
1 cos
d
y
y
= +
= +
2
d 1 cos
d sin
2cos
2
2cos sin
2 2
cos
2
sin
2
cot (shown)
2
y
x
+
=
=
=
=
When = ,
d
0
d
y
x
= .
At P: gradient of tangent = 0. Hence, equation of tangent at P: y = .
Coordinates of is (0, ) A
At Q: When
2
= ,
d
1
d
y
x
=
Equation of tangent at Q:
sin 1 1 cos
2 2 2
2
y x
y x
 
= +

\
= +
Coordinates of
is 0,
2
B
 

\
area of triangle ABP
1
2
2 2
(exact)
2
 
=

\
=
2
2(i) When y = 0, x = 2:
0 8 2 6
1 (shown)
a
a
= +
=
Vertical asymptote: x = b = 1.
Using long division to obtain the other asymptote:
Equation of the other asymptote:
2
1
+ = x y
2(ii)
Axial intercepts: (2, 0), (1.5, 0), (0, 3)
Asymptotes: x = 1 and y = x + 0.5
Note: Question did not ask for coordinates.
3
3(i)
(ii)
sin , cos
sin , cos
x a t y a t
x y
t t
a a
= =
= =
2 2
2 2
sin cos 1
1
t t
x y
a a
+ =
   
+ =
 
\ \
Cartesian equation of
2 2 2
2
: C x y a + =
Note that there are 4 points of intersection between
1
C and
2
C when 1 a > .
2
2
1 .........(1)
4
y
x =
2 2 2
2 2 2
.......(2)
x y a
y a x
+ =
=
2 2
2
2 2 2
2 2
1
4
4 4
5 4 (shown)
a x
x
x a x
x a
(
=
(
+ =
= +
y
x
2 y x =
2 y x =
1
C
2
C
(1,0) (1,0) (a,0)
(0,a)
(0, a)
(a,0)
4
4(i)
2 2
4 2 x xy y k + =
Differentiating w.r.t x:
d d
2 4 4 0
d d
y y
x y x y
x x
 
+ + =

\
( )
d
4 4 4 2
d
d 4 2
d 4 4
2
2( )
y
y x y x
x
y y x
x y x
y x
y x
=
4(ii)
For 2, k =
2 2
4 2 2 (1) x xy y + =
For tangent parallel to the xaxis,
d
0
d
y
x
= :
2 0
2 (2)
y x
x y
=
=
Substitute (2) into (1),
2 2 2
2
4 8 2 2
1
y y y
y
+ =
=
1 or 1
2 or 2
y
x
=
=
Therefore the coordinates are ( 2, 1) and (2, 1) .
4
(iii)
For k > 0,
2 2
4 2 (3) x xy y k + =
Line parallel to yaxis: , (4) x a a =
Sub (4) into (3):
2 2
4 2 a ay y k + =
2 2
2 4 0 y ay a k + =
Discriminant:
2 2
( 4 ) 4(2)( ) a a k
2
8 8 a k = + 0 > since
2
0 and 0 a k > .
There are 2 distinct real solutions for y and thus 2 distinct points of intersection.
5
5(a)
(i)
(ii)
(b)
(i)
(ii)
( )
( )( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
1
1
1 2 2 4 5 2
1 5 2 3 4 2
OA OB
OP
+
=
+
= + + + +
= + + +
By Ratio Theorem:
i j k i j k
i j k (shown)
1 5 5
2 3
4 2 2
OP OC
=
   
 
+ =
 
 
\ \
for some
Solving,
2 1
16
5 5
= = , = , .
1
2
3
: 2 2 4 ,
: 2 3 4 1 ,
: 3 .
x y z
x y z
x y z
+ =
+ =
+ =
Line of intersection of
1
and
2
, l:
1 1
1 2 ,
0 2
   
 
= +
 
 
\ \
r .
For infinite points of intersection between 3 planes, l is on
3
.
1
2 3 0 4
2 1
   
 
= =
 
 
\ \
i
1
1 3 7
0 1
   
 
= =
 
 
\ \
i
6
6(i)
1
1 4
: 1 1 ,
2 1
l
   
 
= +
 
 
\ \
r
5 1 4
2 1
1 2
+    
 
=
 
 
+
\ \
component: 5 1 4 1
component: 2 1 1
component: 1 2 1
x
y
z
= + =
= =
= + =
Since the value of is consistent / 1 = satisfies all three equations, point A lies on the line
1
l .
6(ii)
Since B lies on the line
1
l ,
1 4
1 , for some
2
OB
+  

=


+
\
.
Since B lies on the plane p,
1 4 1
1 1 3
2 1
+    
 
=
 
 
+
\ \
.
1 4 1 2 3 + + + + =
6 3 =
1
2
=
1
1 4
1 2
1 1
1
2 2
1 5
2
2 2
OB
   
 
+
 

\




= =





 +

\
\
The coordinates of point B is
1 5
1, ,
2 2
 

\
.
6
(iii)
Let N be the foot of perpendicular from A to p.
Equation of the line AN:
5 1
2 1 ,
1 1
   
 
= +
 
 
\ \
r
Since N lies on the line AN,
7
5
2 , for some
1
ON
+  

=


+
\
Since N lies on the plane p,
5 1
2 1 3
1 1
+    
 
=
 
 
+
\ \
5 2 1 3 + + + + =
3 9 =
3 =
5 3 2
2 3 1
1 3 4
ON
+    
 
= =
 
 
+
\ \
Alternatively:
Let N be the foot of perpendicular from A to p.
AB OB OA
=
1
5
1
2
2
1
5
2
 

 



=




\

\
4
3
1
2
1
 

=


\
AN AB
 
=

\
n n
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2 2 2
4 1 1
3
1 1 1
2
1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1
       
   
   
  

\ \ \
= 

+ + + +



\
1
1 9
1
3 3
1
 
 

=


\

\
3
3
3
 

=


\
3
3
3
ON OA
 

=


\
3 5 2
3 2 1
3 1 4
ON
     
  
= + =
  
  
\ \ \
8
6(iv)
Let ' A be the point of reflection of Ain the plane p. Hence, the point ' A is a point on the line
2
l .
By midpoint theorem,
1
'
2
ON OA OA
 
= +

\
' 2 OA ON OA
=
2 5 1
' 2 1 2 4
4 1 7
OA
     
  
= =
  
  
\ \ \
' ' BA OA OB
= =
1
1
1
4
2
7
5
2
 

 







\

\
0
9
1
2
1
 

=


\
Equation of the line
2
l :
1
0
1
1 ,
2
1
5
2
 

 



= +




\

\
r
OR
1 0
4 1 ,
7 1
   
 
= +
 
 
\ \
r
9
7(a)
( )
( )
( )
2 2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
36 36 4 27
36 4 27
1
36 9 4 27
2
9 2 1 4 36
2 1
1
4 9
1
1 (shown)
2 9
y y x
y y x
y x
y x
y x
x
y
=
=
 
=

\
=
=
 
=

\
(i)
Method 1:
( )
2
2
2 1
1
4 9
y x
=
(1): Translation along yaxis by 1 unit;
(2): Scaling parallel to the yaxis by a scale factor of 1/2.
Method 2:
2
2
1
2
2
1
4 9
y
x
(  

(
\
=
(1): Scaling parallel to the yaxis by a scale factor of 1/2;
(2): Translation along yaxis by 1/2 unit.
(ii)
2
2
1
1
2 9
x
y
 
=

\
O
y
x
10
7(b)
(i)
Question asks for: Coordinates of turning points and axial intercepts
(ii)
Question asks for: Coordinates of turning points and axial intercepts
( )
1
f
y
x
=
2 y =
( , 0) a
, 1
2
a  

\
1 x a =
O
x
y
x
y
1
2
y =
x a =
( 1, 0)
,1
2
a  

\
O
( ) f y x a =
0 x =
(0, 0)