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Islam (/slm/;

[note 1]
Arabic: , al-Islm IPA: [lslm] ( listen)
[note 2]
) is
a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion articulated by the Qur'an, a book considered by its
adherents to be the verbatim word of God
[1]
(Arabic: Allh) and by the teachings and
normative example (called the Sunnah and composed of hadith) of Muhammad (c. 570
CE c. 8 June 632 CE), considered by them to be the last prophet of God. An adherent
of Islam is called a Muslim.
Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable
[2]
and the purpose of existence is to
worship God.
[3]
Muslims also believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of
a primordial faith that was revealed before many times throughout the world, including
notably throughAdam, Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus, whom they
consider prophets.
[4]
They maintain that the previous messages and revelations have
been partially misinterpreted or altered over time,
[5]
but consider the Arabic Qur'an to be
both the unaltered and the final revelation of God.
[6]
Religious concepts and practices
include the five pillars of Islam, which are basic concepts and obligatory acts of worship,
and following Islamic law, which touches on virtually every aspect of life and society,
providing guidance on multifarious topics from banking andwelfare, to warfare and
the environment.
[7][8]

Most Muslims are of two denominations: Sunni (7590%)
[9]
or Shia (1020%).
[10]
About
13% of Muslims live in Indonesia,
[11]
the largest Muslim-majority country, 25% in South
Asia,
[11]
20% in the Middle East,
[12]
and 15% in Sub-saharan Africa.
[13]
Sizable minorities
are also found in Europe, China, Russia, and the Americas. Converts and immigrant
communities are found in almost every part of the world (seeIslam by country). With
about 1.6 billion followers or 23% of earth's population,
[14][15]
Islam is the second-largest
religion and the fastest-growing major religion in the world.
[16][17][18][19]

Contents
[hide]
1 Etymology and meaning
2 Articles of faith
o 2.1 God
o 2.2 Angels
o 2.3 Revelations
o 2.4 Prophets
o 2.5 Resurrection and judgment
o 2.6 Predestination
3 Five pillars
o 3.1 Testimony
o 3.2 Prayer
o 3.3 Alms-giving
o 3.4 Fasting
o 3.5 Pilgrimage
4 Law and jurisprudence
o 4.1 Jurists
o 4.2 Etiquette and diet
o 4.3 Family life
o 4.4 Economy
o 4.5 Government
o 4.6 Jihad
5 History
o 5.1 Muhammad (610632)
o 5.2 Caliphate and civil war (632750)
o 5.3 Abbasid era (7501258)
o 5.4 Fall of Abbasids to end of caliphate (12581924)
o 5.5 Modern times (1924present)
6 Denominations
o 6.1 Sunni
o 6.2 Shia
o 6.3 Sufism
o 6.4 Other denominations
7 Demographics
8 Culture
o 8.1 Architecture
o 8.2 Art
o 8.3 Calendar
9 Criticism
10 See also
11 References
o 11.1 Notes
o 11.2 Citations
o 11.3 Books and journals
11.3.1 Encyclopedias
12 Further reading
13 External links
Etymology and meaning
Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root s-l-m which forms a large class of
words mostly relating to concepts of wholeness, safeness and peace.
[20]
In a religious
context it means "voluntary submission to God".
[21][22]
Muslim, the word for an adherent of
Islam, is the active participle of the same verb of which Islm is the infinitive. Believers
demonstrate submission to God by serving God, following his commands, and
rejecting polytheism. The word sometimes has distinct connotations in its various
occurrences in theQur'an. In some verses, there is stress on the quality of Islam as an
internal conviction: "Whomsoever God desires to guide, He opens his heart to Islam."
[23]

Other verses connect Islm and dn (usually translated as "religion"): "Today, I have
perfected your religion (dn) for you; I have completed My blessing upon you; I have
approved Islam for your religion."
[24]
Still others describe Islam as an action of returning
to Godmore than just a verbal affirmation of faith.
[25]
In the Hadith of Gabriel, islm is
presented as one part of a triad that includes imn (faith), and ihsn (excellence),
where islm is defined theologically as Tawhid, historically by asserting that Muhammad
is messenger of God, and doctrinally by mandating five basic and fundamental pillars of
practice.
[26][27]