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PART5

- Engineering Code of Ethics
- Refrigeration
- Reaction Turbine
- Reaction Turbine (2)
- Heat Transfer Lab - Experiment 7 - Heat Transfer from a Fin
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- Level Measurement
- Level Measurement Experiment
- Level Measurement
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- Steam Plant 2 Result
- Heat Exchanger
- Reaction Turbines-_Francis and Kaplan.pdf

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A reaction turbine, therefore, is one that is constructed of rows of fixed and rows of

moving blades. The fixed blades act as nozzles. The moving blades move as a result of the

impulse of steam received (caused by change in momentum) and also as a result of expansion

and acceleration of the steam relative to them. In other words, they also act as nozzles. The

enthalpy drop per stage of one row fixed and one row moving blades is divided among them,

often equally. Thus a blade with a 50 percent degree of reaction, or a 50 percent reaction stage, is

one in which half the enthalpy drop of the stage occurs in the fixed blades and half in the moving

blades. The pressure drops will not be equal, however. They are greater for the fixed blades and

greater for the high-pressure than the low-pressure stages.

The moving blades of a reaction turbine are easily distinguishable from those of an

impulse turbine in that they are not symmetrical and, because they act partly as nozzles, have a

shape similar to that of the fixed blades, although curved in the opposite direction. The schematic

pressure line (Fig. 2.5) shows that pressure continuously drops through all rows of blades, fixed

and moving. The absolute steam velocity changes within each stage as shown and repeats from

stage to stage. Figure 2.6 shows a typical velocity diagram for the reaction stage.

Figure 2.5 Three stages of reaction turbine indicating pressure and velocity distribution

Pressure and enthalpy drop both in the fixed blade or stator and in the moving blade or Rotor

Degree of Reaction =

or,

A very widely used design has half degree of reaction or 50% reaction and this is known as

Parson's Turbine. This consists of symmetrical stator and rotor blades.

Figure 2.7 The velocity diagram of reaction blading

The velocity triangles are symmetrical and we have

Energy input per stage (unit mass flow per second)

From the inlet velocity triangle we have,

Work done (for unit mass flow per second)

Therefore, the Blade efficiency

Reaction Turbine, Continued

Put then

For the maximum efficiency and we get

from which finally it yields

Figure 2.8 Velocity diagram for maximum efficiency

Absolute velocity of the outlet at this stage is axial (see figure 2.8). In this case, the

energy transfer

can be found out by putting the value of in the expression for

blade efficiency

is greater in reaction turbine. Energy input per stage is less, so there are more number

of stages.

Stage Efficiency and Reheat factor

The Thermodynamic effect on the turbine efficiency can be best understood by

considering a number of stages between two stages 1 and 2 as shown in Figure 25.2

Figure 2.9 Different stage of a steam turbine

The total expansion is divided into four stages of the same efficiency and pressure ratio.

The overall efficiency of expansion is . The actual work during the expansion from 1 to 2 is

Reheat factor (R.F.)=

Problems

Qn. 1 In a De Laval turbine steam issues from the nozzle with a velocity of 1200 m/s. The

nozzle angle is 200, the mean blade velocity is 400 m/s, and the inlet and outlet angles of blades

are equal. The mass of steam flowing through the turbine per hour is 1000 kg.

Calculate:

(i) Blade angles.

(ii) Relative velocity of steam entering the blades.

(iii) Tangential force on the blades.

(iv) Power developed.

(v) Blade efficiency.

Take blade velocity co-efficient as 0.8.

Solution. Absolute velocity of steam entering the blade, C

1

= 1200 m/s

o

Mean blade velocity, C

bl

= 400 m/s

Blade velocity co-efficient, K = 0.8

Mass of steam flowing through the turbine, m

s

= 1000 kg/h.

Ref. Procedure of drawing the inlet and outlet triangles (LMS and LMN respectively is

as follows:)

Select a suitable scale and draw line LM to represent C

bl

(= 400 m/s)

At point L make angle of 20

o

1

= (1200

m/s). Join MS produces M to meet the perpendicular drawn from S at P. Thus inlet triangle is

completed.

By measurement:

1

o

r

30 , C 830 m/ s u = =

o

30 u = | =

Now,

2 1

r r

C KC 0.8 830 664 m/ s = = =

At point M make an angle of 30

o

cut the length MN to represent

( )

0

r

C 664m/ s . Join LN. Produce L to meet the perpendicular drawn from N at Q. Thus outlet

triangle is completed.

o

30 u=| =

(ii) Relative velocity of steam entering the blade,

1

r

C

1

r

C MS 830 m/ s = =

(iii) Tangential force on the blades:

Tangential force

( )

( )

1 0

s w w

1000

m C C 1310 363.8 N

60 60

= + = =

(iv) Power developed, P:

( )

1 2

s w w bl

1000 1310 400

P m C C C kW 145.5 kW

60 60 1000

= + = =

(v) Blade efficiency,

bl

q

( )

1 2

bl w w

bl

2 2

1

2C C C

2 400 1310

72.8%

C 1200

+

q = = =

Qn. 2 A stage of a turbine with Parsons blading delivers dry saturated steam at 2.7 bar from the

fixed blades at 90 m/s. The mean blade height is 40 mm, and the moving blade exit angle is 200.

The axial velocity of steam is of the blade velocity at the mean radius. Steam is supplied to the

stage at the rate of 9000 kg/h. The effect of the blade tip thickness on the annulus area can be

neglected. Calculate:

(i) The wheel speed in r.p.m.;

(ii) The diagram power;

(iii) The diagram efficiency;

(iv) The enthalpy drop of the steam in this stage.

Solution. The velocity diagram is shown in Fig. 19.47 () and the blade wheel annulus is

represented in Fig. 19.47 (b).

Pressure = 2.7 bar, x = 1, C

1

= 90 m/s, h = 40 mm = 0.04 m.

1 0

o

f f bl

20 , C C 3/ 4C o = | = = = = 9000 kg/h

Rate of steam supply

(i) Wheel speed, N:

o o

f bt 1

C 3/ 4 C C sin20 90sin20 30.78 m/ s = = = =

bl

C 30.78 4/ 3 41.04 m/ s = =

The mass flow of steam is given by :

f

2

C A

m

u

=

(where A is the annulus area, and u is the specific volume of the steam)

In this case,

g

u u = at 2.7 bar = 0.6686 m

3

/kg

s

9000 30.78

m

3600 0.6686

= = or

2

9000 0.6686

A 0.054 m

3600 30.78

= =

(where D is the mean diameter, and h is the mean blade height)

0.054 D 0.04 = t or

0.054

D 0.43 m

0.04

= =

t

Also,

bl

DN

C

60

t

= or

0.43 N

41.04

60

t

=

41.04 60

N 1823 r.p.m.

0.43

= =

t

(ii) The diagram power:

Diagram power

s bl

m C C

e

=

Now,

1 bl

C 2C cos C

e

= o

o

2 90 cos 20 41.04 128.1 m/ s = =

Diagram power =

9000 128.1 41.04

13.14 kW

3600 1000

=

(iii) The diagram efficiency:

Rate of doing work per kg/s =

bl

C C 128.1 41.04Nm/ s

e

=

Also, energy input to the moving blades per statge

0 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2

2 2 2

r r 1 r r

2 1 1 1

1

C C C C C

C C C

C

2 2 2 2 2 2

= + = + + =

( )

0

r 1

C C =

Referring to ... we have

1

2 2 2

r 1 bl 1 bl

C C C 2C C cos = + o

2 2 o

90 41.04 2 90 41.04 cos 20 = +

8100 1684.28 6941.69 = +

1

r

C 53.3 m/ s =

Energy input =

2

2

53.3

90 6679.5 Nm per kg / s

2

=

Diagram efficiency =

128.1 41.04

0.787 or 78.7%

6679.5

=

(iv) Enthalpy drop in the stage:

Enthalpy drop in the moving blades

0 1

2 2

2 2

r r

C C

90 53.3

2.63 kJ / kg

2 2 1000

= = =

( )

0 1

r r

C C =

Total enthalpy drop per stage = 2 2.63 = 5.26 kJ/kg

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