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KOIVWVIKO UXqIJOTO

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BI6Aloypmpia

R. BARTt1ES. Fraqments d'un olscours amoureux. Paris 1977.

A. 8AELICH. Paides e partrenor, Aoma 1969

P. BRUCKNER et A. FINKIELKRAUT, Le nouveau Msordre amoureux. Pari51977.

F. BUFFIERE, Eras adolescenl. La pMerastle dans re arece antique. Paris 1980

C. CALAME, Les cnceurs de jeunes lilies en arece ercnacoe. Roma 1977.

C. CALAME. L· amore in Grecia, Bari 1983. M. DELCOURT, Hermaphrodite. Mylhes et rites de la dise~ualile dans l" Anliquite casarque. Paris 1958.

M. DETIENNE, tes jardtns d·Aclanis. PariS 1972

M. DETIENNE, .Mariage (puissances du) .. dans Dtcncnnajre oee Mythologies. Paris 1981

G. DEVEREUX. "Greek Paeudo+icmcaexuality and the ··Greek Miracle·· -. Symbolae Osloenses43. 1968, pp. 69-92.

K. J. DOVER. Greek Homose~ualily. London 1978

S. FASCE. Eros. La ligure e il culto. Genova '977

E. FISCHER, Amor und Eros. Eine Untersuchung des womeioes -uece .. in Laleini" scnen und Griechismen, Hiklesheim 1973. R FLACELIERE. L' amour en Grece, Paris 1960

S. FREUD. Trois essats sur re mecde de la sexualite. Paris 1962 (4'1 t~o.: Wien 1924) B. GENTlLI, Poesia e oconee nella Greca antica, eer 1984

~~ ~~;~UO, Semialogie de ta sexoejte, sa-

F. LASSERRE. La ligured'Erosdansla poesie qrecqueLausannetsae

A. LESKY. Yom Eros der Hellenen. Goningen1976

H. liCHT. Sexual Lile in Ancient Greece. Lonclon1969(2nEKo.i.

C. MOSSE. La lemme dans la socete grecqueancisrme, Paris 1983

H. PATZER, Die gried1isd1e Knabenliebe wresbeoentaaz.

A ROSSI, Done. cccennetcre e Immorahta nel mondo grero e romano. no-na 1979

E. SAMTER. Familienleste oer Griechen und Romer. Berlin 1901

M. SCHIAVONE, ucrccieme dell" amore net mcnoo qreco. Milal1Q 1975

H. VON SCHUMANN. Sexualkunde uor sexualrnediztn in der l<lassischen Antike MGnchen 1975

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Sexual Love in Ancient Greece:

Social Schemes

Although our information on the subject is primarily literary, it suffices to clearly define the erotic relations of the ancient Greeks

I. From adolescence to maturity: In oroer to present a brief survey on sexual love in ancient Greece we will simply follow the various phases of sexual development of the adult, from adolescence to maturity, examining at me same time the conditions and rules justifying sexuality.

1. Adolescence: It is quite signlficant that the vocabulary of the ancient Greek language does not distinctly express the diHerentiation of the sexes during the infantile age. Thus, a unique word-term rrctc applies both to girls

and boys and only the article suggests the gender. Language, however, cannot be considered the only indicator of a social struciure. Indeed, both in archaic Sparta and in the hellenistic state, the boys are separaled from their families soon aner Iheir seventh birthday. The two basic means of education both in Sparta and classical Athens are the same: gymnastic education that aimed at the development of me student's mental and physical potential, and artistic education that aimed at imparting knowledge of and training in the arts 01 the Muses

Thus, the young Greek spent most of his time in Ihe gymnasium. This location provided Ihe background for the lirsl testimonies of his sexual lige. The numerous representations on pottery inform us on the age of the partners of these first erotic relations. The homosexual relation involves a mature man and an ephebos. In this institutional homosexual love the lover appears both as the tutor of the beloved and as the guarantor of the moral virtues and knowledge that the youth ought 10 obtain through this relation. In this way the homosexual and Ihe educational qualities are closely related. During adolescence girls were also educated via similar homosexual relations. If; however, more emphasis is given to the physical appearance of girls Ihan to their moral perfection. the reason is that beauty in a female unleashes the power that inspires love and calls the male to sexual intercourse.

2. Marriage: The prerequisites of maturity for a man in ancient Greece are citizent status and enrollment in the army. While for a woman the prerequisite is Ihe ritual of marriage 3. Beyond marriage: Since the homeric age the heroes are seen to settle concoooes in their homes. In theatrical plays and in the speeches of the athenian orators the COncubine seems to have equal rights with the legale wile as regards her children. However. apart from me sexual activity a man had in his home he was also entitled to retain relations with prostitutes. According to Demcsthenes "prostitutes were for sexual pleasure. concubines tor every-day care and wives for the creation of legal descendants and the guarding of the bouse». These manifold, delicate, social relations caused social crises that varied from disapproval to acceptance

II. The rule and the exception: As in every society, so in the Greek there isa dominanl sexual rule. For the Greek of the classical period his sexual activity is accompanied by love feelings only under certain circurnstances: marital relations, homosexual relations, relations with concubines or prostitutes. These relations are characterized by duration in lime and by an exchange based on friendship. Ihat is a mutual relation founded

The conclusion we draw is that Eros creates between males and females a network of relations that stands above simple sexual satisfaction: educational bcrncsexuauty, economic benefit from marriage and reproduction of me species through Ihe institution of marriage.