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ZiIEK6fK'lOE, on6 T6v SE6<PPOOTa, TIi ZitoZiaxtl OTT') 61EU8uvaTJ Tf]c; IXaAt;c; TaU "uKEfau, IJETO T6 B6vOTa Tau zcOKOAOU. 4l0lVETOI lit nee OTO peoc TOU ckcvc EiXE ni lilKI') TOU axahl') OTT')v ·A8I')vo.

'H npOYIJOTEIo Tau neot "AplJavl«nc- ElvOI T6 oPxol6TEPO Kol T6 rno KOAOliIOTTlP'llJtvo eovo ncu f<pTOOE we; eucc. 'AVOOKEUO~El TIe; aecotec nilv Ftuecvccekev Kol OVTI va OTTJpIXBEl at j.l08nj.lOTlKOUC; una>'OYlOIJOUe; tK<PpO~EI, liuo Xl>'I6liEe; Xp6VlO npiv on6 T6v Mnox, Til 8EWpio IJIOe; ouy«eoocuevnc KAIIJOKoe;. 'EKT6e; cno Tie; 8EWpIEe; Tau axETlKO [..It rc dlin tVOPIl6vlOT]e;, XPWIJOTlKi'je; Kol ZiIOTaVlKiie; nou cnorexoov niv KOTOK>.Eflio TOU oPXo[ou IJOUOIKOU OUOTTlIlOTOC;, nEplypo<pEI Koi KOTOTOOOEI roue cuvcuccpcuc lilOOT'l[..laTWv ncu ernroenovrcr. TOUe; IJE>'lollaue;, KO[ lilOrunever Via npwTTl <papa ilia cuvxpoTTlIlEVIl 8EWpio Tf]e; PU81l1Kr;e;.

M€TO crto T6v 'Apl0T6~va T6v Tooovrtvo. 0'1 llaUOIKaypo<pal KOTOTOOOOVTOl OE rtuecvccetouc " 'APIOTO~VlKOUe;. nap' OAO o(no OIlW<;, TO K08opo llaUOIK6 OUOlTJIlO nOpOIJEVEI TO i61a: 'H 6oOT] TCU onaTE>'ELTOI on6 TO rsrccro. TO TETpoxap60. TCU ortotou 01 Ziuo tv610llEOOI ftxal ElvOI «rvnrot. 'H BtOT] TCUe;, noo lhEneTOI ono OUOTTlPOue; KOVaVEC;, Ko8opl~El TO eteoc. To TETPOxoplio urtcpcev va cuvauccrcuv KOLa ZilO<p6pcue; reoneue: No elver lilOXWPIOj.ltvO " tvwpevc xui 11' oUT6v T6v rpcnc unooouv vc OUYKEVTpwBauv [..IEXPI ntVTE T€Tp6XOpZio Kat vc zrunoupvnocuv TO "nAr;pEC; j.lEV6>.o cuornuc- (ElK. 13).

'H IlCUOlKn OKt~'l TooV 'E>.Al'lvwv tllELVE ~WVTovl'I [..I£XPI Til pWllo'iKI') tncXTi. Ol "OTIVOI oUYYPo<pEiC;, ernoc 6 Boenoc Kat 6 "AYloe; AUYCUOTivae;, OUVTa~OVE npoVIlOTEIEe; novw OTO rtocrurrc TWV ·E>.Al'lvwv npcKoT6Xwv

TCUe;. 'An6 TaV rptro otcvc Kof necc OPXi~El ft tncXTi TWv liOOK6.\wv Tf]e; 6pj.lOVlKr;e;· CUTE Kl OUTO[ i5t ypa<pcuVE <ptA.Ooa<pIKO fpyo 6>.A0 OUVTOOocuv tVXElpflilO vi« n; XPI')OT] TWV [..IOB'lTWV TCUe;. Ot yvwOT6TEPOI £IVOI 6 B6KXtCe;, 6 Gaudens Kof 6 'AAuntCe;. ~OIlWC;, napa niv &VZiEIO Tf]e; eurrveucnc. aUTO rc [..IIKPO &pyo ncccucrc(cuv IJEY6.\C tvlilQ(ptpav Via j.lOe;: ncooorousvc yuj rnv tKIJ081l0T] TWV 6aolKwv CTTOIXElwv n;e; llauOIKi'je; TtxV'le;, O<PlEPWVOUV eve Iltpce; OTT') yp0<Jl1'I Tr;e; j.lCUOIKr;e;, np6YIl0 nou litv onoaxa>.aUOE TCUe; 8EWPIlTlKOUe; me K>'OOlKlie; tnaxne;.

Xwp(e; TCUe; rtoxunucuc rrrvcxec vpc<Jlr;e;, litv 80 prtcpouccae v6 anCKPUmOYP0<JlI'IOCUIlE Tie; tM'lVIKte; KO[ PWlloIKte; nOpTlTOUPEC; (ElK. 14). ~ETOI exenooue nwe; 01 nATJpa<JlOpIEe; ncu tXOUj.lE Via niv tM'lVIKI') IlCUOIKT') ypO<Jln elver ()~I[..lEe; ... rlcpoxc auTO OIlW<;, ~PCUIlE TlliX; TaV 50' at. Tl.X.

11. epo~a a~AWv no~ 8pt8'111oV CIT,. AIlAo (4Iwr. Van Kool""). 12

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12. TtOUEPEIC; oulal nou 8pt81l1«l'l an'l'l nalffillla, an'jv ahlio rou Calua Viblul. Ti!! tl;lllPETIIU!l oliTo 6pyo'l0, nou ulyaupa npoop~YTO'I '1'l1li lIanolO 8IpTau6l;a, Elval I«lTOOIICUOaptva ani!! Doilill lit au'liitulioUC; 6n6 xob6 110'1 T6 lIuplwc; oWjKJ 6m) .t1cqooYT6ii-oYTO (4II.>T. Cenlre JlBn 8erard. N!6na11l).

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18. nrvo~OC; ypoQ"lC; TO(l 'AA(lnIOU ot ~IOTOVI~O o:l~oc;. :ho OPIQ1"O:PO OUI'60AO Toil unO:P'OQ1"IOU au 19. npldYOC; nu6'~oC; Toil nm!IOpou. nA'''Troypo-

OTI'lI'OToc;, ~o:~o TO';; 6wp.IIOU (<bwT. Van Kooten). "''10'1 TOU A. Kirchner. Musurgia Universalls 1650 (4It.JT. Van Koolen)

6 nivliopo~ ectexve ere E;tvo TO Kei- IJ081l0Tl YIVOTOV IJE TO OUTl KOt !-It nl

IJ&VO KO! nl IJOUOIKI') otto TO rtcrnpc- IJVI')IJIl: KOt ot Moocec «opec Tf)c;

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pee rtou nAOUTi~ov mv rteouovuun 61- voccrt, ornoc cuuectver OTIC; IJtpec; BAl081')KTl ncvrcic, aTO cxcxeto. an; ucc IJt !lepIKOUe; ouvaerec Tf)<; T~O<.

lilliaoKoAia Tii<; IJOUOlKf)C; Mv XP'lOl- KOt TI') IJOUOlKI') rtou cuveeerov vc

uortoroeccv K080AOU TIi YPOqlri. Oi TI')V «orevccccv tnayyeAI-IOT!&<; IJOU-

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vc &[Kovi~oVTOl 01"0 cvveto rruoceo- rev CKOIJ'l 01"0 Meootrovc.

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ue EVOV KUAIVlipo cxooumouevo OTC'! vee. orto tlc oPXE<; i1lill TOO Sou cl.

YOVOTcl TOU<; lilaB6<ouv tva nOITlTlKO n.X.. xoncnuorrotnoov eoo OUO"t"I"'J!lOTO

«efuevo Kai 0Xl IJOUOlKtC; v6Te<;."H IJOUOlKTiC; voconc. T6 npdrro on' co-

TO t!ltpovi~eTOI 00 !l16 cetoc crrc OUIJBOAO rtou nave uno TETapTo TOYOU at reruoro TOVOU. "Evcv rtupopore mvosc ).1(1<; uereceoe 6 1l0UOlKOYPOtpO<; 'AplOTei(';i'lC; KoUtVTlA10VOC; (elK. lS). To oU!lBOAa aUTO nccecXOVTOI orto TO iWVIKO oAcpoB'lTO nou XPTJOll1onml')8TlKE KOt yu.'J. liuo KOTOntvc !lOUOlKO «etpevc. rlO TO oMo cuOTTllJa rrou onOTeAEiTOI cno cuxxcBtc: TA, TE, TH, TO, £xoul-le IJOPTUotec at IJE.P1KE::C; 6lJ.iI!le<; nccvucretec. Kai XP'lol)JElJ.ie 0"t"I"'J ypocpl'). n6vw oe tva enrvnroo. TOO crtotcu 8poOO!lO BpioK&TOI OTO Mouccto Tf)<; "exeuct-

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20. Tllijllo TOU npWTout5dq>lKOU UIIVOIl )(opoYl-'tvoarijvononopoaro5aTou 61'l00llpau TWV ·A9qvoiwv. ISIIIAooonolaro MOllo£io TWV Ad<pWv ('*'wT. Ph. ColleT. r.A.L).

vee. ~16e; OUVTO~I1e; ~eAwl510e; VIO ocxruvvc (et«. 16)

nOVTWe; at rue noxucorsuec tMTlvIKte; nconrcccec EIjlTOOOV we; t~oe; vocuuevec cuuqncvc ~t Mo oAAo ouO"TtiIlOTO. To rtoero crtc OUTO Atvercr "6PVOVlKO,, tvw T6 zecrepc «CPWVI111KO" Koi 6 8eWPTlllK6e; 'AAumoe; 6ivel nhr)pw; ruvcxec at cnotor rexeronomenxcv CTI"Ti 610pKei0 TaU 30u 01. n.X. Oi n(VOKee; en' TOUe; crtotcuc 6ivoulle t6w t.VO 6eiwo. noPOUOlO~OVlOl one TOV 'Ahumo Ilt TOUe; 6w6eKO rcortcuc. ¢IwVIlllKO KO[ OPVOVIKO OU~eOhO aVTlOlOIXOUV crnv KoBe V6TO, OUllcpwVO Ilt ro Keiuevo nco neplvpocpel Trl BtOll lWV oUIlS6>..wv (01l1leiwv) (elK. 17). "Onw<; eMnou~e. cure TO ~euTO-VPOIl\lOTO elver ouvxevrccpevc at Tpl06ee;, ue T6 YP0I-I\lO uercxxcooouevo 6n6 rerep-ro. OUI-I<pwva Ilt TO £160e;.

-ETOI OT661lKe 6uvaTrl f) l-IelOYPOqlf) «ceevoc ana OUTO TO OU~eOha at ouyxpovee; verse. Mt 6hha MYla. eva <:i16vpal-l~a OVOYVWOIle; erutoener crtc 6.pxo1ee; tMI1VlKt.e; nccnroccec vc ~OVO~wvlOvtl/JOUV.

IUVOhlKO yvwpi~ou~e ~IO rptcvrcorc. xwpi<:; StBOlO vd xovcorccouue Tie; rtxcctec. bnwe; OUTrlV roc lou nU61- KOU TOO ruvccoou nou KOTOOKeuoOTTlKe t~ 6hOKAitpou on6 TOV Kirchner yupw OTO 1650 (elK. 18). To i6tO oUj..lBoivel Kai YlO TOV, o~qlleohTle; VVTlOlOTIllOe;. OJ..lI1PlKO auvc an; lIr,urtrpc. j..lt TOO onotou rnv nptirm OTPOCPit OcrxohitBI1Ke. TO 1724 «ct 6 Benedetto Marcello.

To YVWOTOtepO 6n6 OUTo. 10 I-IOUOlKO O\lEVO 1-I0UOlKO OUIlBohO Koi OPXOlO'

«etuevo elver oi cue <:ieAcplKoi '"Y\lVOI haywv rtcu crtoscxorrrouv. (')UOlUXW<:

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Tal OTO oenreoo clove n.X. '0 ouvee- OAee; Tie; Ttxvee;, avec xlilpoe; 16v

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crnv rluecrco we; KIBapICJTI'je;. T6 <:iuo O).JOue; KOt TtAOe;. f) T61a ti etsovo Illae;

cure 1l0UOlKO K0I-IIlCH\O tKTeAEOlT]- «orvcvtcc Via mv cnotc it At~Tl 610-

xcv I-It xopw610 KOt I-It cuvooetc KI- oKt600Tl nTOV OUVWVU).lI1IlE couovtc.

60pOe; Koi cuxoc (eiK. 19).

"AMo evruruoorcxc eccnucrc: it ernAll ron IelKihou rtoo aVOKaAUql61lKe cttc TpOhAele; Kai cptpel ertrruueic tmvpa<prl KO( j.J.eAw6lo YPOJ.lj.J.tVIl j.J.E tpWVIlT1KO cuueoxc Kol tvoeiE:ele; pU61-1IKne;. AU1TJ rl 60Uj.J.OOlO cmxn. rtou cnueoc tpuMyeTol OTO Moucero Tfte; KonevxoYTle;. cnorsxet TO 010 eucvcvvcxrrc lE:KllrlPIO nco (')la8ETOUj.J.E: (etK. 200. 6 Koi 21).

lIuOTuXwe; OAO 10 tAA'lVIKO IlOUOIKO «etuevc ecpTaoav we; lie; uepec uoc oe nOhu KaKrl KOlOOTaOTl (eiK. 220, 6). AUTO {crxuel Yla TOUe; lIeAcpIKOUe; ""YIlVOUC; rtou EXOUV noAAo KE:V6. «nt OKO\lTl ncconcve Via roue rtortucooc rtou j.J.oe; uerceeoove 0IlWe; lleplKEe; OTPOlPtC; rou Euptnl61l (tva OlOOlIlO lfte; 'lqHYEvelOe; tv AuAi6l KI eva oroOIj.J.O TOO 'OptOTTl). Ka6we; Kai ueooco uexortomuevc nomucrc TOO Msooj.J.TJOIl cnc rnv KPTJTll, 1l0UOLKOO nee e~IlOe crnv OUArl TOO OUTOKPOTOPO 'A(')PIOVOO (117-138 j.J..x.). ·OPIOj.J.EVO cnoortooucrc Mv £Xouv rcvnceet. tvw eMo crtcrexccv oOKr)oele; yu:i 1l0UOLKO ccvovc olxwe; npaVIlOTIKo j.J.OUOLKO tv6locptpov.

noaa OIlWe; tKTLj.J.clle cnueoc TrlI-lOUOIKTJ ouTil noc cvvoet TIe; ouvxop6iee; Koi 10 OPXIlOTPIKO OUVOAa Koi xopi~E:I. oUj.J.cpwva Ilt 6Aee; lie; 6Pxoiee; uccruotec. ).l10 aUOTTlPr) lleAwblKrl ypaj.J.j.J.it rtou OTTlpi~eTOI 6n6 l-IeplKte; ouvozetec 6PV6vwv: "Evcc 6ioKOC; ncu cuvxevrpevet TO cuvcxo oorev rev KOl-IllOnWV (au8evTlKwv xnl Ilr)) €xel rlxoypaLpll8el. Mnp6e; OTr'J AITO'mro ot 1J0UOlKO( oev uncceccv OI-lWe; vc OVTLOTo600v OlOV rteroccuc eunxounoucu TOUe; «no «poucrc Koi OUVXOpol£e;.

nptm:L xootov vc 6\lOAoyr)aOUj.J.e nwe; rj opxaio tAAIlVlKrj 1l0UOIKf) nOpOI-IEV£1 un06eOTl 1l0UOlKOMvwv Ka! tMIlVIOlWV nov 610Bo~ouv set tpIJIlVeuOUV MOKoAee; rrccvuoretec. rtonuooxovev rtou «omctouv 610B6.(ovrcc xoupextcouevooc ncrtcccuc cnosporrrovocccvrcc j.J.epiKO E:exo-

The Sources of Ancient Greek

Music

A.S Bells

Music in ancient Greece apart from beIng present In all the expressions of everyday life - marriages. funerals. banquets. seennces. religious processions and prevai· ling in public entertainments - compettnons or demonstrations - was also a topic of serious thinking in the schools of phrlosophy. As a matter of philosophic concern it attracted tne philosophers' mmcs for centuries and got involved even the Church Fathers.

Greeks never disputed either Ihe impressive effect of music on human soul· a unique quality that distinguishes music from other arts - or its close relation to the supreme laws of the universe. The passion Greeks had lor music was materialized in a multitude of treatises on Harmany and Rhythmics that we have tnbertted through written tradition. On the other hand the representations of music scenes on pottery and reliefs exhibit the music Instruments played by VIrtuOSOS and amateurs and help us to understand their technique. Needless to say tnat ar· chaeological excavations enriched our knowledge on the subject. since they have brought In light a considerable number of flutes and more seldom of lyres. in fragments.

The wonder. however, of Greek music IS that it Included iyncs as can be proved by the few such texts that have survived parts of a tragedy on a fragmentary papyrus. two hymns dedicated to Apollo. Ihe epitaph of a music lover inscribed on a stele. Therefore. we must admit that the study of ancient Greek music requires the ettcrts 01 more than one disciplines musicologists. in the first place: phltofogists tor the interpretation of complex treatises: papyrologists for the dectphering of music symbols on tattered papyri; and finally archaeologists who discover. unfortunately quite seldom. parts of music inscriptions or instruments. so badly destroyed that they cannot produce even a single mUSIC note. Music, however. in ancient Greece was a field in which both pbuosophrcat through and mathematic calculations participated

15