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BIBAloypatpla

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STATHIS GREGORIOS' I. Srsternt aueeeuc: discrittursmLJsicaleperscriverelamusica byzanlinanelperiodo1790-18.'iO,UvOTuno cne nivKi\HPONOMIAT,4TeuX, B'1972 LTA8HZ rPHrOPIO!: To XElp6ypml'0 Bu(ovnvl'j<; J,iouoIKii<;. T. A'1975,T B' 1976 LTASHZ rPHrOPIOl: 'H 6eKartEVTooull~o60<; ulJvoypa'l'lo tv Tfi 6u(ovTlvn (.le~o' neue. 'A6r,vOl 1977.

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HUNGER HERBERT: Die hcchsprachtlche profane Literatur der Byzentiner, T. S' ~E'" 8, una Christian Hannick. ('H lJuo..,poon TWV onocrnOOIJOTW~ TOU K&llJtVOU o(!l&IMTOI OTOV «cvccex. 'APXIIJ. K. M1xol\lI!TOI' 1(0. npWToauYYEllo I.M. AUClTploo::;

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Byza~tlne MuSiC L. Angelopoulos

Byzantine Is called the music chanted in the Orthodox East Chruch from the time 54

of the Byzantine empire until today, Three extensive periods mark the historic evolution of music and hymnology. The first covers the period between the early Christian years and the foundation of Constantinople and Is characterized by the oral transmission of hymns. The second reaches the 12th century and presents an Important peak in the 7th and 8th centuries. During this period the kentakion and the canon are created that bring In the torescene ecclesiastic poets like Aomanos the Melodos (6th century), Andreas of Crete (7th century), 51. John Damasklnos and Kosmas the Melodos (7th-8th century), Sophronios, Patriarch of Jerusalem and many others. Furthermore, B variety of other kinds of hymns appears in this phase, like the stlchercn, automelon. apolytikion, etc. The system of the octave is organized and the Octoechos is coded by 51. John Damasklnos. The third period commences in the 12th century and terminates to the fall of Constantinople. It is the golden period of Byzantine music and exhibits a great number of famous hymncloqlats like

loannis Koukouzelis. Nikephoros Elhikos. loannis Glykis. Xenos of Koroni, toennrs Kladas. etc. The chanters/musicians chanting in Ihe metropole of Constantinople are mentioned by names significant of their role In the chorus: dornestlkos. lambadarios, protopsaltis, monophonarios. anagnostis. vastaktrs. chlrcncmos The cturcnomos (= a gesticulating canlor) was leading the choristers to the proper way of chanting. From the Fall of the Byzantine capital a new phase starts that lasts until today, The years of Turkish rule and these that have followed up to the 19th century have fully been studied, from the historic point of view. by Manolis Hatziyakoumis in his book "X£lp6ypo!.po tKK}..T]O'lCm:IKf)t; IJOUOIKf)t;, 1453-1820» t= Manuscripts of Ecclesiastic Music, 1453- 1B20".

Byzantine music is monophonic and melodic and its signs Signal the departure of voice from the original vocal called base of sound; they possess energy that is transmitted through Ihevocal practice, is Interpreting the written music and Is a prerequisite of performing melody. Byzantine music is, in addition, purely vocal and needs no musical instruments

The early music texts exhibit only a few signs. By the 12th century a complete system is developed that Is valid until today with certain alterations. These same signs record the music texts In books that have various names depending on the sort of hymns they contain, The reading interpretation of signs is as follows: the starting vocal is defined and the voice moves according to the indications of the signs up or down. Other signs signify the alterations, changes that is, from one sound to another. The so-called ~KPQn;IJQTQ» are free compositions in which meaningless syllables like te-n-rem. to-re-ro. etc .. are used instead of verses. Thus, the composer having no obligation to a certain ted advances to the composition of pure

music

The reformation of three major music masters (Chrysanthos, Gregorios and Chourmouzios) in the early 19th century simplifies the writing and defines in detail the division of time. All chanted hymns, old and contemporary, are adapted to and re-written in the new systeml scheme, while in 1832 the book of Ohrysantttos reveals the theoretical foundations of this system.

One and a half century later. in 19B2, the monumental work "eeWPllTlK6" I= On Theory) written by Simon Karas is published. It completes through a detailed and exemplary classification the examination of the Greek music system; it corrects errors and refers thoroughly to the rhythm, the musical expression, the intervals. the «attractions»; furthermore, it dears with the popular folk music and its instruments, so that the Greek music is approached and studied theoretically as an entity.while at the same time Ihisentity is fully documented with facts.

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