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over electronic systems such as the Internet and other computer networks. The amount of trade conducted electronically has grown extraordinarily with widespread Internet usage. The use of commerce is conducted in this way, spurring and drawing on innovations in electronic funds transfer, supply chain management, Internet marketing, online transaction processing, electronic data interchange (EDI), inventory management systems, and automated data collection systems. Modern electronic commerce typically uses the World Wide Web at least at some point in the transaction's lifecycle, although it can encompass a wider range of technologies such as e-mail as well. A large percentage of electronic commerce is conducted entirely electronically for virtual items such as access to premium content on a website, but most electronic commerce involves the transportation of physical items in some way. Online retailers are sometimes known as e-tailers and online retail is sometimes known as e-tail. Almost all big retailers have electronic commerce presence on the World Wide Web. Electronic commerce that is conducted between businesses is referred to as business-tobusiness or B2B. B2B can be open to all interested parties (e.g. commodity exchange) or limited to specific, pre-qualified participants (private electronic market). Electronic commerce that is conducted between businesses and consumers, on the other hand, is referred to as business-to-consumer or B2C. This is the type of electronic commerce conducted by companies such as Amazon.com. Electronic commerce is generally considered to be the sales aspect of e-business. It also consists of the exchange of data to facilitate the financing and payment aspects of the business transactions.
eCommerce, which is short for electronic commerce, is the process used to distribute, buy, sell or market goods and services, and the transfer of funds online, through electronic communications or networks. Electronic commerce is commonly referred to as Online commerce, Web commerce, eBusiness, eRetail, eTailing, e-tailing, ecommerce, eCommerce, ecommerce, ecom or EC.
Network infrastructure is required for e-commerce to transport content. I-way is a highcapacity, interactive electronic pipeline used to transfer content in case of e-commerce. Iway can transfer any type of context like, text, graphics, audio, video. In other words, multimedia contents are easily transported through I-way. Components of I-way: - Consumer access equipment. - Local on-ramps,and - Global information distribution networks.
Consumer access equipment are devices used by consumers to access the multimedia interactive contents of e-commerce. In this segment, hardware and software vendors are also included. Local or access road, or on-ramps: This segment of I-way simplify linkages between businesses, universities, and homes to the communications backbone. There are four different types of provider of access ramps: - telecom-based - cable TV-based - wirelessbased and - computer-based online information services. These providers link users and e-commerce application providers. Global information distribution networks are the infrastructure that are connecting countries and continents. There are seven major issues to be discussed about I-way: cost, subsidies, allocation of scarce resources, regulation, universal access, privacy and social issues. Cost: Who will pay for constructing the I-way? Subsidies: Who are to be given subsidies? Allocation of scarce resources: Investment of the allocation of different scarce resources would be wasted or not. Regulation: Who will fund for the highway and who will write and enforce the rules to use the highway? Universal access: who can access and at what cost? Privacy: Is using online activities secure? Social and religious barriers: In cyberspace, everybody has right to write anything or publish.
IP Protocol Overview
IP is the Internet's most basic protocol. In order to function in a TCP/IP network, a network segment's only requirement is to forward IP packets. In fact, a TCP/IP network can be defined as a communication medium that can transport IP packets. Almost all other TCP/IP functions are constructed by layering atop IP. IP is documented in RFC 791, and IP broadcasting procedures are discussed in RFC 919. The Encyclopedia's Programmed Instruction Course includes an IP Section. IP is a datagram-oriented protocol, treating each packet independently. This means each packet must contain complete addressing information. Also, IP makes no attempt to determine if packets reach their destination or to take corrective action if they do not. Nor does IP checksum the contents of a packet, only the IP header. IP provides several services:
Addressing. IP headers contain 32-bit addresses which identify the sending and receiving hosts. These addresses are used by intermediate routers to select a path through the network for the packet. Fragmentation. IP packets may be split, or fragmented, into smaller packets. This permits a large packet to travel across a network which can only handle smaller packets. IP fragments and reassembles packets transparently.
Packet timeouts. Each IP packet contains a Time To Live (TTL) field, which is decremented every time a router handles the packet. If TTL reaches zero, the packet is discarded, preventing packets from running in circles forever and flooding a network. Type of Service. IP supports traffic prioritization by allowing packets to be labeled with an abstract type of service. Options. IP provides several optional features, allowing a packet's sender to set requirements on the path it takes through the network (source routing), trace the route a packet takes (record route), and label packets with security features.
3. The TCP/IP Protocol Architecture
TCP/IP is most commonly associated with the Unix operating system. While developed separately, they have been historically tied, as mentioned above, since 4.2BSD Unix started bundling TCP/IP protocols with the operating system. Nevertheless, TCP/IP protocols are available for all widely-used operating systems today and native TCP/IP support is provided in OS/2, OS/400, and Windows 9x/NT/2000, as well as most Unix variants. Figure 2 shows the TCP/IP protocol architecture; this diagram is by no means exhaustive, but shows the major protocol and application components common to most commercial TCP/IP software packages and their relationship. HTTP FTP Telnet Finger SSH DNS Application POP3/IMAP SMTP Gopher Layer BGP Time/NTP Whois TACACS+ SSL Transport Layer Internet Layer TCP IP DNS SNMP RIP RADIUS Archie Traceroute tftp UDP
ICMP OSPF ARP
Ethernet/802.3 Token Ring (802.5) SNAP/802.2 X.25 FDDI ISDN Network Frame Relay SMDS ATM Wireless (WAP, CDPD, 802.11) Interface Fibre Channel DDS/DS0/T-carrier/E-carrier SONET/SDH Layer DWDM PPP HDLC SLIP/CSLIP xDSL Cable Modem (DOCSIS) FIGURE 2. Abbreviated TCP/IP protocol stack.
The sections below will provide a brief overview of each of the layers in the TCP/IP suite and the protocols that compose those layers. A large number of books and papers have been written that describe all aspects of TCP/IP as a protocol suite, including detailed information about use and implementation of the protocols. Some good TCP/IP references are:
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TCP/IP Illustrated, Volume I: The Protocols by W.R. Stevens (Addison-Wesley, 1994) Troubleshooting TCP/IP by Mark Miller (John Wiley & Sons, 1999) Guide to TCP/IP, 2/e by Laura A. Cappell and Ed Tittel (Thomson Course Technology, 2004) TCP/IP: Architecture, Protocols, and Implementation with IPv6 and IP Security by S. Feit (McGraw-Hill, 2000) Internetworking with TCP/IP, Vol. I: Principles, Protocols, and Architecture, 2/e, by D. Comer (Prentice-Hall, 1991) "TCP/IP Tutorial" by T.J. Socolofsky and C.J. Kale (RFC 1180, Jan. 1991) "TCP/IP and tcpdump Pocket Reference Guide", developed by the author for The SANS Institute
3.1. The Network Interface Layer
The TCP/IP protocols have been designed to operate over nearly any underlying local or wide area network technology. Although certain accommodations may need to be made, IP messages can be transported over all of the technologies shown in the figure, as well as numerous others. It is beyond the scope of this paper to describe most of these underlying protocols and technologies. Two of the underlying network interface protocols, however, are particularly relevant to TCP/IP. The Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP, RFC 1055) and Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP, RFC 1661), respectively, may be used to provide data link layer protocol services where no other underlying data link protocol may be in use, such as in leased line or dialup environments. Most commercial TCP/IP software packages for PC-class systems include these two protocols. With SLIP or PPP, a remote computer can attach directly to a host server and, therefore, connect to the Internet using IP rather than being limited to an asynchronous connection.
At frigate networks, we find it helpful to think of The Internet Protocols in layers. Our layers don't match the exactly match ISO model, but we find them very useful in practice:
Applications let people do something useful with the network. They can be very simple diagnostic programs such as "ping" or "traceroute". Or they can be more complex and sophisticated programs such as "telnet" or "ftp". They can be groups of programs. At frigate, for example, we use "httpd" and "tcl" to implement Web-based remote management. We also use "sendmail" and "popper" to implement an SNMP and POP3 mail server. Most of the applications that we know about talk to other stations on the Internet through "sockets".
The socket layer provides an application with a programming interface to the network that looks like a file. When an application writes to the socket, the socket layer sends data to an application on a remote host. When an application reads from a socket, the socket layer provides data received from a remote host. Types of sockets include: "raw", "UDP", and "TCP". The "ping" program uses a "raw" socket. The Routing Information Protocol (RIP), "traceroute", and most Domain Name Service (DNS) operations use UDP. Multicast Backbone ("mbone") applications such as "vat" use UDP. The vast majority of applications, including Web browsers (such as Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Explorer), ftp, and telnet, use TCP. Although the socket interface is protocol independent, authors of Internet applications are not blind to which protocol type of socket is being used. Neither UDP nor "raw" sockets provide as much capability as TCP. The author of an application that uses one of these types of sockets needs to make up for missing capabilities or decide that these missing capabilities are not needed. When data is written to a raw socket the host adds an IP header containing a destination address and source address. By default, the source address is the IP address assigned to the output interface. In addition to IP source and destination address, a UDP socket also adds an optional (but recommended) checksum and source and destination port numbers. These port numbers are used to distinguish which application and which process on the remote system will receive the data. TCP includes all the capabilities of UDP, and adds a window transmission protocol with acknowledgments, timeouts, and retransmissions. The checksum is mandatory and TCP guarantees reliable, in-sequence reception of data by the remote application. Modern TCP implementations automatically adjust to changes in speed, reliability, and congestion in the path through the Internet to a remote host. This ability to tolerate fluctuations in network performance has made TCP a very widely-used protocol.
The routing layer is where the decision is made to receive, forward, or discard a packet. This decision is based on the destination IP address. Encrypting routers may also use the
destination IP address to determine how to cipher a packet. "Firewall" routers may also look at source IP address and UDP or TCP source and destination ports when deciding whether to forward or discard a packet. By discarding packets based on source IP address and UDP or TCP ports, traffic from specific hosts or specific applications is selectively disabled. The relationship between the routing layer and Internet security is changing rapidly as people add increasingly sophisiticated filtering capabilities to routers. Ascend, cisco, and Digital have recently announced new products in this area.
The link layer provides a mechanism for sending an IP packet over a particular network or media. Examples of such networks include point-to-point links, frame relay, regular analog telephone (POTS), ISDN, Ethernet and Token Ring. Because the link layer software is responsible for encapsulating IP packets in a way that meets the requirement of a particular network, IP routing and the socket and application layers above IP routing are network and media independent. Anything that is done at the IP routing layer or above works over all media. This is one of the major advantages of using TCP/IP. Examples of link layer protocols are PPP HDLC, PPP Async Pseudo-HDLC, Frame Relay RFC 1490 (often called "IETF"), Ethernet, and SNAP.
The device driver layer refers to the software that manages the network interface hardware and sends and receives packets. Device drivers often have strict performance requirements and limited development tools available. Since they are accessing real hardware, they have the potential to cause a system failure. Standard driver interfaces such as FTP Software's "Packet Driver" and Microsofts NDIS, reduce the need for custom device drivers. For those customers who cannot take advantage of one of these standard interfaces, frigate networks offers consulting services to support development and maintainence of device drivers for BSD and various embedded operating systems
The Internetwork Protocol (IP)
The IP (Internet Protocol) is a protocol that uses datagrams to communicate over a packet-switched network. The IP protocol operates at the network layer protocol of the OSI reference model and is a part of a suite of protocols known as TCP/IP. Today, with over 1.5 billion users worldwide, the current Internet is a great success in terms of connecting people and communities. Even though the current Internet continues to work and is capable of fulfilling its current missions, it also suffers from a relative â€œossificationâ€, a condition where technological innovation meets natural resistance,
as exemplified by the current lack of wide deployment of technologies such as multicast or Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6). The Internetwork Protocol (IP) [RFC791] provides a best effort network layer service for connecting computers to form a computer network. Each computer is identified by one or more gloablly unique IP addresses. The network layer PDUs are known as either "packets" or "datagrams". Each packet carries the IP address of the sending computer and also the address of the intended recipient or recipients of the packet. Other management information is also carried. The IP network service transmits datagrams between intermediate nodes using IP routers. The routers themselves are simple, since no information is stored concerning the datagrams which are forwarded on a link. The most complex part of an IP router is concerned with determining the optimum link to use to reach each destination in a network. This process is known as "routing". Although this process is computationally intensive, it is only performed at periodic intervals. An IP network normally uses a dynamic routing protocol to find alternate routes whenever a link becomes unavailable. This provides considerable robustness from the failure of either links or routers, but does not guarentee reliable delivery. Some applications are happy with this basic service and use a simple transport protocol known as the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) to access this best effort service. Most Internet users need additional functions such as end-to-end error and sequence control to give a reliable service (equivalent to that provided by virtual circuits). This reliability is provided by the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) which is used end-toend across the Internet. In a LAN environment, the protocol is normally carried by Ethernet, but for long distance links, other link protocols using fibre optic links are usually used. Other protocols associated with the IP network layer are the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) and the Address Resolution Protocol (arp).
IP the Next Generation, IPv6
The IPv4 protocol although widely used, is slowly being superceded by IPv6 [RFC2460], a next-generation network-layer protocol. IPv6 is now widely implemented, and deployed in many networks. The gradual transition from IPv4 towards majority IPv6 deployment will take many years and IPv4 may never itself be phased out completely. In the meantime the two protocols can co-exist and be used together in various ways. IPv6 will ultimately succeed the current version, IPv4, to become the dominant version of IP used in the Internet. IPv6 changes many things, one of the most obvious from the Ethernet perspective is that it uses a different Ether-Types and uses the Neighbor-Discovery (ND) protocol in place of ARP.
Why name the next version after IPv4 as IPv6? The new protocol is IPv6. (The version number "5" had already been used for an experimental protocol, called ST-2, which has not stood the test of time. Why name the next version after IPv4 as IPv6? The new protocol is IPv6. (The version number "5" had already been used for an experimental protocol, called ST-2, which has not stood the test of time
What are the Benefits of eCommerce & eBusiness?
The processes involved with conducting business on the Internet and opening an eCommerce shop to sell from have several benefits to both merchants and the customers who buy from them. The biggest benefits of conducting business Online include a cheaper upfront cost to the merchant, it's easier to set up and open the store and it's faster to get an Online business up, running and making sales. Helps Create New Relationship Opportunities: Expanding or opening an eBusiness can create a world of opportunity and helps to establish new relationships with potential customers, potential business associates and new product manufacturers. Just by being in an easy to find location that is accessible to users all over the world, you will be available for others to find and approach you about new opportunities. Customers who don't know you exist will know about you, product suppliers will request you add their items and other businesses will approach you about partnership opportunities. Many of these opportunities would not present themselves without an Online presence or site for them to discover you on their own. Open for Business 24x7: An eCommerce site basically gives you the ability to have unlimited store hours, giving your customers 24 hours a day, 7 days a week access to shop and buy items from you. Some merchants choose to limit their hours to 5 days a week, but orders can still be made over the weekend and customers can still make contact 24/7 via email, phone or fax. In addition, the costs associated with having your store open 24/7 are much less than maintaining a physical storefront or phone operator with 247 operation capability. You can literally take orders and let customers shop while you sleep, take vacations or from remote locations. Increases Brand or Product Awareness: Having an Online business means that you can literally reach out to millions of consumers looking for what you sell anywhere in the world. By reaching out to new markets and displaying your site prominently in front of them, you will be able to help increase your company/domain brand name and also increase awareness about your product line. By giving users 24/7 access in an easy to find location, you will help to create more word of mouth buzz for your eBusiness, in turn helping to promote your brand name and products. Users who haven't heard of you will discover you exist and help spread the word about you. Helps Establish Customer Loyalty: An eCommerce storefront will help create an easier means for your customers to purchase the items you sell and offers a unique way to display and describe your products in a informative, visual and interactive way. The customers you have will become more loyal shoppers each time they visit, making eCommerce great for improved customer satisfaction and visitor loyalty. Now that you offer your products for sale
Online, consumers will be able to shop from your catalog more easily, get updates on new items or product discounts and can shop or buy anytime they wish. Potential to Increase Overall Business Sales: An eCommerce store that is an extension of a physical storefront is a great way to boost overall business sales and potentially increase company profits across the board. Companies who already do business from a physical location are typically unaware of how much more they could be making if only they were to expand into their Online marketplaces. Selling Online opens up many opportunities for businesses both new and old. It's a great way to increase sales, especially if you already have a physical store. Potential to Increase Company Profits: As mentioned above, opening an Online extension of your store or moving your business solely Online are great ways to boost sales and potentially profits. Remember, just because SALES increase it does not necessarily mean that company PROFITS will increase also. Online businesses do have a greater chance of increasing sales and profits by opening up an eCommerce store to sell the items they offer. Sales and profits are the lifeblood of any company, so it makes sense to increase them where ever possible and whenever possible throughout the existence of your company. More sales, more profits, bigger budgets, etc. Potential to Decrease Some Costs: In addition to potentially increasing sales and profits, eBusiness owners can also typically reduce the costs of running their business by moving it or expanding it into the Online world. eCommerce stores can run with less employees including sales staff, customer service reps, order fulfillment staff and others. eBusinesses also do not need a physical location in order to stay operational, which can reduce costs related to building leases, phone bills, utility costs and other costs associated with running a brick-and-mortar storefront. Expands Geographical or Customer Reach: As mentioned, owning an eCommerce business typically means no limits as to who and where you can sell your products. Some countries outside the United States have additional regulations, licensing requirements or currency differences, but generally you will not be limited on the customers you can reach out to. Physical storefronts are limited to the city in which they are located, Online businesses aren't limited unless you put geographical limits in place. At the very least, you should consider targeting U.S. buyers, but also consider, Canada, UK, Australia and others. Sell to anyone, anywhere, anytime! Allows for Smaller Market or Niche Targeting: Although your customer reach may expand beyond your local area, you may only wish to target smaller consumer markets and buyer niches for your eCommerce products. Owning an Online store gives the merchant much control over who they target and reach out to notify about the items for sale in their store. Currently, you can target women, men, a generation of users, a particular race and many more smaller niche markets. This is typically done by placing keywords that those niche markets use on a regular basis when shopping for the items you offer. Allows for Easier Delivery of Information: An Online store and Web brochure are great ways to deliver and display information about your company and the products you sell. With an Online presence your customers will have direct access to product information, company information, specials, promotions, real time data and much more information that they can easily find just by visiting your site day or night. Not only does it benefit your customers, but it's
also generally easier for merchants to update their site rather than break down an in store display and put up another for the next event. It saves both your customers and you precious time and can help you to plan more updates or better sales as it will be much easier for you to update and take down. limitations: • • • • • • • • Credit Card security is a serious issue if vulnerable Costs involved with bandwidth and other computer and server costs Extensive database and technical knowledge and experience required Customer apprehension about online Credit Card orders Constantly changing technology may leave slow businesses behind Some customers need instant gratification, and shipment times interrupt that Search utilities far surpasses the speed used to find products through catalogs Encourages competition between small and large online retailers
Resources for retailers considering selling products online. These e-commerce resources offer Internet retailers advice, tips and research for retailing online. Website design, hosting, online marketing and other e-commerce articles for retailers. A Beginners Guide to e-Commerce Software About's Guide to Online Business/Hosting, Ana Rincon, explains the differences between shopping carts, complete e-commerce solutions, service providers, and installed software. ABC's of Creating an Internet Marketing Strategy Feel overwhelmed by all of the online marketing vehicles available? Unsure of where to start with your Internet marketing plan? Your About Guide to Marketing can help! Laura Lake explains the many options of using the Internet to market your products.
See more links below...
Email Marketing OnlineEasy, Affordable & Effective Online Marketing Tool. Try it Free. www.ConstantContact.com Increase Search RankingDrive more traffic to your website Get a free website audit today www.a2acatalyst.com Blog AdvertisingGet bloggers to write about you. Create branding, increase traffic. smorty.com Content and E-commerce HTML Guide, Jennifer Kyrnin, shows us how to use the same tricks that the big e-commerce sites use to keep people on your site and buying. How Do Companies Fare at Online Selling and eCRM? eMarketer's Online Selling and eCRM report looks at how retailers are using the Internet to sell products and serve their customers online, while also examining what consumers think of various online sales and customer service initiatives. Measuring The ROI Of Selling Online According to a report from Forrester Research, retailers will find that their investments in online technology will pay off if they take a disciplined approach to site investments and ROI analysis. Promoting Your Store Online How to use the Internet to promote your brick and mortar retail store.
Putting Your Craft Business Online Getting started in selling your crafts online with this article from William T Lasley, your Guide to Arts/Crafts Business. Search Engine Optimization Techniques You Can Do Yourself To get traffic, your business website must be found in the search engines. In order for search engines to find your site, search engine optimization (SEO) techniques can make a huge difference in where your website ranks in search results. Randy Duermyer, our Guide to Home Business explains how to improve rankings and web site traffic with these do-it-yourself SEO tips. Selling on eBay: Quick Tips at a Glance Aron Hsiao gives us the quick and dirty tips on how to sell most effectively on eBay. What to do, what not to do, and links to more information.
Internet Marketing Research benefits:
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help you realize and recognize customers needs and requirements in a cost effective manner help you develop products and services according to customers' needs which will in turn increase sales and profits help you develop more effective marketing plans and help decision making such as whether to initiate a new line of business or not enable you to stay ahead of your competition by helping you fulfill your target market’s needs -grab them and retain them help you increase customer base improve business performance
AWPI Internet Marketing Research Services
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business case/research report preparation/business proposal desk research/secondary research competitive intelligence reports personalized guidance on how to do internet market research according to your business needs
Using ecommerce advertising on your site allows you to maximize your profits, capturing those visitors not interested in your main product. Ecommerce advertising allows you to place adverts for other companies and services on your site in the form of banners or, perhaps text adverts using a contextual advertising program such as Google Adsense. The two most popular forms of advertising are cost per impression and cost per click. Each has its own benefits: Ecommerce advertising using the cost per impression model
If you use a cost per impression ecommerce advertising solution, you are making use of the simplest type of ad revenue generation. This is the best system as you will be paid a certain amount of money for a certain amount of ads being displayed on your website. Advertisers will vary with how much they will pay, but a good example is $1.00 CPM. If they had the ad campaign set at 500 views, you would get $1.00 for every 500 ads that are displayed on your website. You don’t have to do a selling job on potential customers of these advertiser’s online businesses in order to benefit from this type of ecommerce advertising. Your job is just to display the advert to your visitors. You may not get rich using this type of advertising but it is hands off and it may just pay for your hosting costs every month. Ecommerce advertising using the cost per click model In addition to displaying the adverts in the cost per impression model above, cost per click ecommerce advertising demands that your visitors click on the advert to visit the advertiser’s site before you get paid. As you only get paid if a visitor clicks through to the advertisers site why should you consider using the cost per click model? Simply because you stand to gain more money using this model, particularly in the more competitive niches where advertising budgets are larger and businesses spend more to bring in customers. You may be able to earn anything from a nickel up to even $70 per click this