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Knowledge is Power

And if you look for it as for silver and search for
it as for hidden treasure, then you will
understand the fear of the LORD and find the
knowledge of God.
(Proverbs 2:4-5)

Kerberos Server Setup
on CentOS 5.8

Jeong Chul

Computer Science
ITC and RUPP in Cambodia

Kerberos Server Setup on CentOS 5.8
Part 1 Theory
 Step 1 Kerberos system
 Step 2 Kerberos Version 4, 5 overview
 Step 3 Kerberos Authentication
 Step 4 Using Kadmin & Ticket control
 Step 5 Kerberos Server Testing Environment
 Step 6 Configuration Prerequisite

Part 2 Practice
 Step 7 Packages Installation
 Step 8 KDC Configuration
 Step 9 Application Server Configuration
 Step 10 Kerberos Testing – SSH and Telnet server
 Step 11 Packet Capture using WireShark

Step 1 Kerberos System

a. Secure network authentication system developed by MIT in mid of 1990’s
 Based around credentials called tickets
 Tickets secured by secret key encryption
b. Three participants
 Key Distribution Center (KDC – AS &TGS)
 Application Servers (network services)
 Client users

a. A principal identifies each participant in a Kerberos authentication
 Users and network services
 Identified by primary, instance, and realm
Ex: root/admin@CHUL.COM
b. Each principal has a password
 Passwords are used as encryption keys
 Users memorize passwords
 Services store passwords in a keytab file
 KDC knows all passwords

Step 2. Kerberos 4 Overview
Step 2. Kerberos v5 Dialogue

Step 3 Kerberos Authentication

1. Initial Authentication
 User enters username and password
 Login program sends request for a TGT for that principal to KDC
 KDC sends the login program a TGT encrypted using the user's password
 If the login program can decrypt the TGT with the password provided by the
user, the user is authenticated

2. Ticket Authentication
 Client sends request for a service ticket to the KDC's ticket granting service
 KDC sends client two identical copies
 One encrypted with the TGT
 One encrypted with the service password
 Client sends the network service
 Ticket encrypted with service's password
 A timestamp encrypted with the ticket

Step 4 Using Kadmin and Ticket control
1.Kadmin , the tool to manage Kerberos principals
a. Can manage Kerberos principals
• addprinc, delprinc, modprinc, cpw
b. Can set and manage password policies
• Password aging, minimum length, history
• addpol, delpol, modpol, getpol, listpols
c. Can extract principals into keytab file
• ktadd, randomizes password

2.Kerberos Clients
a. Set up /etc/krb5.conf for the realm
b. Gets initial TGT
 kinit to get a new TGT
 klist lists available credentials
 kdestroy deletes all credentials
 ktutil can be used to view keytab files
c. Tickets stored in /tmp/krb5cc_UID

Step 5 Kerberos Server Testing Environment on CentOS 5.8
 Kerberos Server (KDC – AS and TGS)
 Client for testing – ‘linux’ on CentOS 5.8
 Application server - Telnet and SSH server
 Client for packet capture – ‘linux’

3. Kerberos Realm: CHUL.COM

Step 6 Configuration Prerequisite

1. Name Resolution
Hosts file on both servers
# cat /etc/hosts localhost.localdomain localhost server client

2. Time sync on both servers
# system-config-time
 Network time protocol ->Enable time protocol
 Time Zone -> Phnom_Penh

Step 7 Package Installation

1.Kerberos Packages checking
# rpm –qa | grep krb5
 krb5-workstation-1.6.1-70.el5
 krb5-server-1.6.1-70.el5
 krb5-libs-1.6.1-70.el5
 krb5-auth-dialog-0.7-1
 krb5-server-ldap-1.6.1-70.el5
 pam_krb5-2.2.14-22.el5

2. Packages Installation using yum
# yum install krb5-server krb5-workstation krb5-server-ldap
pam_krb5 krb5-auth-dailog krb5-libs

Step 8 KDC Configuration (1)

1. Configuration on /etc/krb5.conf
# vi /etc/krb5.conf
default_realm = CHUL.COM
kdc =
admin_server =
[domain_realm] should read:
[domain_realm] = CHUL.COM = CHUL.COM

In [appdefaults], add the following line inside the curly braces for the PAM
block so that login program must validate the KDC
validate = true

Step 8 KDC Configuration (2)

2.Initialize Kerberos Database
[root@server]# kdb5_util create -r CHUL.COM –s
[root@server]# ls /var/kerberos/krb5kdc/principal

3. Edit the [realms] block to /var/kerberos/krb5kdc/kdc.conf
# vi /var/kerberos/krb5kdc/kdc.conf
master_key_type = des3-hmac-sha1
default_principal_flags = +preauth

4. Edit /var/kerberos/krb5kdc/kadm5.acl
 control which administrative privileges are available to which
 principal, permissions, target principal
 # vi /var/Kerberos/krb5kdc/kadm5.acl
*/admin@CHUL.COM *
//allow any principal with an instance of admin full access to the database

Step 8 KDC Configuration (3)

5. Add some user and admin principals to the database.
# kadmin.local
kadmin.local: addprinc root/admin //adding admin principal
kadmin.local: addprinc linux //adding user
kadmin.local: listprincs //list principals
kadmin.loal: getprinc linux //show information about principal

6. Create kadmind keytab file
kadmin.local:ktadd -k /var/kerberos/krb5kdc/kadm5.keytab kadmin/admin
kadmin.local:ktadd -k /var/kerberos/krb5kdc/kadm5.keytab kadmin/changepw

7. Create a host principal for KDC
kadmin.local: addprinc -randkey host/
kadmin.local: ktadd -k /etc/krb5.keytab host/

 Krb5.keytab file contains the host principal and password for the system

Step 8 KDC Configuration (4)
8. Start the KDC daemons
# service krb5kdc start; chkconfig krb5kdc on
# service kadmin start; chkconfig kadmin on
# ps -ef | grep krb
# ps -ef | grep kadmin
# netstat -nat | grep :88 //kdc
# netstat -nat | grep :749 //kadmin

9. Viewing keytab file
# ktutil
ktutil: rkt /var/kerberos/krb5kdc/kadm5.keytab
ktutil: list

10. Kerberos Log files
 default = /var/log/krb5libs.log
 kdc = /var/log/krb5kdc.log
 admin_server = /var/log/kadmind.log

Step 9 Application Sever Configuration

1. Default configuration
# rpm –qa | grep krb5-workstation
# scp /etc/krb5.conf

2. Run kadmin and create a host principal for
# kadmin -p root/admin
 kadmin: addprinc -randkey host/
 kadmin: ktadd -k /etc/krb5.keytab host/

3. On both computers
# system-config-authentication
On the Authentication tab
 select the Enable Kerberos Support check box
 keep the current Kerberos configuration

Step 10 Kerberos Testing - SSH Server

1 Edit /etc/ssh/ssh_config, on both hosts, and add the following line
to the bottom of the Host * section:
# vi /etc/ssh/ssh_config
GSSAPIAuthentication yes
GSSAPIDelegateCredentials yes
# service sshd restart

2. Access to SSH server using kerberos
On Server
$ klist; kinit
$ ssh linux@client

Step 10 Kerberos Testing -Telnet server

1. Activate kerberos telnet server on Client:
# chkconfig krb5-telnet on
# cat /etc/xinetd.d/krb5-telnet
service telnet
disable = no
flags = REUSE
socket_type = stream
[root@client]# service xinetd restart

2. Access to telnet server on Server:
$ klist ; kinit
$ telnet -Fxl linux

Step 11 Packet Capture using WireShark

1.On KDC

2. On Application server

3. Kerberos Packet analysis

Kerberos Setup on CentOS 5.8

Thank you & God bless you!!