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Dr. Yahya Sarraj
Dr. Essam Almasri
Fricker J., D. and hitford, R. !., Fundamentals of "rans#ortation En$ineerin$, %&&'.
(aefiner, ). E., Introduction to "rans#ortation Systems, *+,- # %./
0a1uette, R. J., Ashford, ri$ht, "rans#ortation En$ieerin$, *+/%, #.'.
(oronjeff, R., 0lannin$ and Desi$n of Air#orts, *+-%
1 Introduction
"he air a$e 2e$an on Decem2er */, *+&3 at !itty (a4k
2each in 5orth 6arolina, 7SA. 8n that day il2ur and
8r9ille ri$ht :ri$ht ;rothers< tried their first hea9ier
than=air craft.
Air trans#ortation, the most recent mode in modern
technolo$y, has 9astly chan$ed 4orld tra9el, #resentin$ the
2usiness and recreational communities 4ith si$nificantly
im#ro9ed o##ortunities to reach distant #laces in minimum
tra9el time.
Air Transportation and Airports
;asic re1uirements
Forecast future traffic for airports
Capacity of an airport
Delay for operations
Winds and runway orientation
Runway length
Allowable takeoff weight
Landside components including the terminal,
parking and curbside
2 Airport Demand
After makin$ forecasts of annual air #assen$ers, this fi$ure
must 2e con9erted to a #eak hour flo4. "he follo4in$
em#irical e1uations can 2e used:
A9era$e monthly
> &.&,'*/ ? annual
#assen$er flo4
A9era$e daily
> &.&3%%- ? a9era$e
monthly flo4
0eak=day flo4 > *.%- ? a9era$e daily
0eak=hour flo4 > &.&+*/ ? 0eak=day flo4
0eak hour #assen$er flo4 can 2e used to estimate #eak
hourly aircraft mo9ements, usin$ estimates of a9era$e
#assen$er load@aircraft
Aviation is growing fast
n the !"A#
Revenue %assenger &iles
)*+, --,./ 0illion
)*1- )-+.) 0illion
)*** 223.- 0illion
After )) "eptember had a ma4or impact on the growth
of aviation in the !.". 5owever it is gradually returning
to previous levels.
3 Selection of Airport Site
"his is the most im#ortant as#ect of the #lannin$ and desi$n
of air#orts.
I. Desk study o t!e area
*. re9ie4 of e?istin$ land=use #lans
%. analysis of 4ind data :run4ay orientation<
3. study of national sur9ey, road ma#s
'. study of land costs
II. P!ysica" inspection
Site 9isits for #otential sites for the air#ort
III. #$a"uation and reco%%endations
Factors that should 2e considered 4hen analyBin$ #otential
air#ort sites:
*. con9enience to users
%. a9aila2ility of land and land costs
3. desi$n and layout of the air#ort
'. airs#ace o2structions
.. en$ineerin$ factors :le9el, to#o$ra#hy, soil ..<
-. social and en9ironmental factors :noise, C<
/. a9aila2ility of utilities
,. atmos#heric conditions
+. haBards due to 2irds
*&. coordination 4ith other air#orts
4 Runway Orientation
Run4ays are oriented in the direction of #re9ailin$ 4inds.
6ross4ind is not 9ery safe for the o#eration of aircraft.
)imits for cross4ind is *% m#h D *. m#h.
Run4ays should 2e oriented so that aircraft may 2e landed at
least +.E of the time 4ithout e?ceedin$ the allo4a2le
&ind Rose 'et!od:
A $ra#hical #rocedure utiliBin$ a 4ind rose is used to
determine the 2est run4ay orientation.
*& years of 4ind o2ser9ations are re1uired.
ind data are arran$ed accordin$ to 9elocity, direction and
fre1uency as sho4n in "a2le *-=* #a$e ..' :0a1uette<
"he ta2le indicates the E of time 4ind 9elocity can 2e
"y#ical ind Data
0ercenta$e of inds
'=*. m#h *.=3* m#h 3*='/ m#h "otal
5 '., *.3 &.* -.%
55E 3./ &., '..
5E *.. &.* *.-
E5E %.3 &.3 %.-
E %.' &.' %.,
ESE ..& *.* -.*
SE -.' 3.% &.* +./
SSE /.3 /./ &.3 *..3
S '.' %.% &.* -./
SS %.- &.+ 3..
S *.- &.* *./
S 3.* &.' 3..
*.+ &.3 %.%
5 .., %.- &.% ,.-
5 '., %.' &.% /.'
55 /., '.+ &.3 *3.&
6alms & D' m#h '.-
"otal *&&.&E
"hese data are #lotted on the 4ind rose 2y #lacin$ the
#ercenta$es in the a##ro#riate se$ments of the $ra#h.
On t!e (rap!:
6ircles re#resent 4ind 9elocity
Radial lines indicate 4ind direction
)teps to determine the 2est run4ay orientation and to
determine the #ercenta$e of time that orientation conforms to
the cross=4ind standards:
*. 0lace the tem#late on the 4ind rose so that the middle line
#asses throu$h the center of the 4ind rose.
%. Rotate the tem#late to $et the ma?imum sum of
#ercenta$es 2et4een the outside lines of the tem#late.
3. Read the 2earin$ of run4ay on the outer scale of the 4ind
rose, 2eneath the centerline of the tem#late.
'. 6heck cross=4ind
5 Objects affectin na!iable airspace
"he re1uired s#ace around the air#ort 4ith controlled
2uildin$ hei$hts. "his is im#ortant for safety durin$ landin$s
and takeoffs of aircrafts.
" Runway #apacity
Run4ay ca#acity is the determinin$ element of air#ort
Run4ay ca#acity refers to the a2ility of a run4ay system to
accommodate aircraft o#erations :landin$s and takeoffs<. It is
e?#ressed in o#erations #er unit time.
i.e. o#eration #er hour or #er year.
U"ti%ate or saturation capacity:
It is 2ased on the assum#tion of a continuous 2acklo$ of
aircraft 4aitin$ to take off and land.
7ltimate or saturation ca#acity is the ma?imum num2er of
aircraft o#erations that can 2e handled durin$ a $i9en #eriod
under conditions of continuous demand.
*actors t!at aect capacity:
= minimum safe allo4a2le se#aration 2et4een aircraft
durin$ landin$ and takeoff
= siBe of aircraft
= 4eather conditions
= o9er all layout and desi$n of air#ort.
$ Runway confiuration
= sin$le
= non=intersectin$ di9er$ent run4ay
= #arallel run4ay
= offset #arallel
= intersectin$ run4ay
% &umber of ates
"he re1uired num2er of $ates at an air#ort can 2e determined
usin$ the follo4in$ e1uation:
n >
9 t
n > num2er of $ates re1uired
9 > desi$n hour flo4 for de#artures or arri9als :aircraft @
t > mean stand occu#ancy :hour<
u > utiliBation factor &.- D &.,
Determine the num2er of $ates re1uired at an air#ort 4hich
has 3& arri9al aircraft @ hour. "he mean time for stand
occu#ancy is '. minutes. Assume that the air#ort has a
utiliBation factor of &.,.
n >
3& ?
7se %+ $ates.
A"ternati$e"y the follo4in$ e1uation may 2e used:
n > m1t
n > num2er of $ates re1uired
m > desi$n hour 9olume for de#artures and arri9als :aircraft @
1> #ro#ortion of arri9als o the total mo9ement
t > mean stand occu#ancy :hour<
Determine the num2er of $ates re1uired at an air#ort. "he
desi$n hour 9olume at the air#ort is .& aircraft @ hour. "he
mean time for stand occu#ancy is '. minutes. Assume that
the #ro#ortion of arri9als to the total mo9ement is &.-.
n > m1t
> .& ? &.- ? &./.
> %%..
7se %3 $ates.