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Week 8 Notes

Lecture 1: Research in Sociology
 Equality in jobs for women and men
 The systematic study of the relationships among people and organizations
 “Group”, unit analysis is always the group
 Baby Boomers are starting to collect Social Security
 Sociology of Aging
 Sociologists don’t want biological overlaps
 Sociology of Knowledge: how social world helps shape what we take for granted
 Patterns of human interaction
 Always study the “group”
Formal Institutions
 Government
 Church
 Family
Informal Institutions
 Gangs
 Social Networks
 Support Groups
2 ways to do research
 Macro Sociology: how groups relate to each other—overall arrangements in society
 Micro Sociology: everyday patterns—how individuals relate within the group
-Schutz’ model
Research Methods
Experiment (rare)~
 Explain causes, difficult in sociology
Content Analysis~
 Analysis of texts, documents, articles, letters
 Making inferences
 Content of interviews analyzed
 Coding of newspapers
Participant Observation~
 Problem of deception- going in to group without saying you’re a researcher
 Open-ended interviews, unstructured
 Interviewer seeks in-depth information
 Intensive Interview: relies on open-ended questions following by probing questions in a
flexible format
-First, introduce yourself then ask some non-offensive background questions to relax
the person, simple back and forth helps to establish rapport
-Then ask a question that gets at the heart of your topic in a broad sense
-Some people don’t like to talk—you may have to probe to get answers
-EX: Michael Moore intensive interview with James Nichols: back and forth rapport then
in-depth talk, reluctant to answer at first but then gets to heart of topic by probing
 90% of data for Sociological Research is from surveys
Sociology’s Major Postulates *
1. Human actions are determined by the environment
2. Humans cannot survive in social isolation (GROUP)
3. Authority always appears in a large group setting (sometimes to restrain conflict)
Sociology’s Moral Message (Max Weber)
 Inform society (through research) about social problems and encourage government to
solve the problems and improve society
Lecture 2: Big Three in Sociology
 Organizing Principles in Society
 August Comte not in here
Karl Marx
 Society organized by economic class
 Position by economic class depending on money
 Socioeconomic status
 “What distinguishes the various economic types of society from one another…is nothing
other than the way in which surplus labor is extorted from the actual producer, from the
 Demassing money for its own sake
 Karl Marx did lithographs in prison
 Revolution was inevitable, protest inevitable (INCORRECT! Capitalism reformed itself)

Max Weber
 Agreed with Marx
 But status defines who and what we are in relation to others
 Not only economic class, but how others view us= PRESTIGE
 Jobs that pay high, are kind of low in prestige
 Scientists and doctors, professors not paid the highest but have the highest prestige
-Same with fire fighters, teachers
 Highest paid public paid university employees- 4,000,000 a year
-Football coaches: paid so much!
 Social Status: determined by status, pursuit of wealth associated with only passions,
character of sport (hobby to accumulate money or competition)
 Individual shapes society
Emile Durkheim
 Lost child
 Social Integration (and its opposite “anomie”)
 “To love society is to love something beyond us and something in ourselves”
 Society shapes individual
 Organizing Principle: how integrated we are into the society
 Society is unit itself
 Society able to guide us with norms and guidelines and culture
 Societies rules help us integrate when not to strict
 Not failure of the individual
 Can’t reduce society to individuals
 Social Integration Theory: the whole is greater than the sum of its parts
 Group interactions produce and maintain moral values and beliefs= predictability and
 Suicide—a weak collective conscience
 Anomie: societal normlessness that breeds crime and suicide
 Up to society to encompass individual not individual
 Consensus Theory: suicide
-Van Gough
-Ernest Hemingway
-Jim Morrison
-Kurt Cobain
-Weren’t incorporated into the society

Lecture 3: Sociology and Crime
 Deviance
 Types of Crimes
 Criminal Justice
 Punishment
Routine Activities Theory
 Crime can only occur if:
1. Suitable Target- must have value ($?)
2. Absence of Capable Guardian (alone?)
3. Motivated Offender (reason?)
 Neighborhood Watch
-Neighbors watch out for each other (Capable Guardian, alarm system)
Amendment Police Department